The Full Wiki

Francisco Largo Caballero: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Francisco Largo Caballero, circa 1936.

Francisco Largo Caballero (15 October 1869 – 23 March 1946) was a Spanish politician and trade unionist. He was one of the historic leaders of the Socialist Party (PSOE) and of the Workers' General Union (UGT). During 1936 and 1937, Largo Caballero served as the Prime Minister of the Spanish Republic.

Contents

Biography

Advertisements

Early years

Born in Madrid, as a young man he made his living stuccoing walls. He participated in a construction workers strike in 1890 and joined the Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE) in 1894. Upon the death in 1925 of party founder Pablo Iglesias, he succeeded him as head of the party and of the UGT.[1]

Political career

Moderate in his positions at the beginning of his political life, he advocated maintaining a degree of UGT cooperation with the dictatorial government of General Miguel Primo de Rivera, which permitted the union to continue functioning under his military dictatorship (that lasted from 1923 to 1930).[2] This was the start of his political conflict with Indalecio Prieto, who opposed all collaboration with the dictatorial regime.

He was Minister of Labor Relations between 1931 and 1933, in the first governments of the Second Spanish Republic, headed by Niceto Alcalá-Zamora, and in that of his successor Manuel Azaña.[3] He enjoyed great popularity among the masses of workers, who saw their own austere existences reflected in his way of life.[4]

In the elections of 19 November 1933, the right-wing Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right (CEDA) won power in Spain. The government nominally led by the centrist Radical Alejandro Lerroux was dependent on CEDA's parliamentary support. Responding to this reversal of fortune, Largo abandoned his moderate positions, began to talk of "socialist revolution", and became the leader of the left (Marxist and revolutionary) wing of the UGT and the PSOE.[5] In early October 1934, after three CEDA ministers entered the government, he was one of the leaders of the failed armed rising of workers (mainly in Asturias) which was forcefully put down by the CEDA-dominated government.[6]

He defended the pact of alliance with the other workers' political parties and trade unions, such as the Communist Party of Spain (PCE) and the anarchist trade union, the Confederacion Nacional del Trabajo (CNT). Once again, this placed him at odds with Prieto.

After the Popular Front won the elections in February 1936, president Manuel Azaña proposed that Prieto join the government, but Largo blocked these attempts at collaboration between PSOE and the Republican government.[7] Largo dismissed fears of a military coup, and predicted that, were it to happen, a general strike would defeat it, opening the door to the workers' revolution.

In the event, the coup attempt by the colonial army and the right came on 17 July 1936. While not immediately successful, further actions by rebellious army units sparked the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), in which the republic was ultimately defeated and destroyed.

Prime Minister of Spain

Largo Caballero.jpeg

On 4 September 1936, a few months into the civil war, he was designated the 134th Prime Minister and Minister of War.[8] His particular focus, besides the obvious matter of the conducting the war itself, was to maintain military discipline and governmental authority within the Republican zone. Nonetheless, the May 3–8, 1937 revolt in Barcelona by the oppositional communist Workers' Party of Marxist Unification (POUM) and the anarchist CNT following an attempt to seize the telephone exchange by the PCE at the behest of Prieto led to a governmental crisis,[9] forcing Caballero's resignation on 17 May leading to the Popular Front government of doctor Juan Negrín, also a member of the PSOE.[10]

Exile, death, and legacy

Upon the defeat of the Republic in 1939, he fled to France. Arrested during the German occupation of France, he spent most of World War II imprisoned in a Nazi concentration camp, until the liberation of the camps at the end of the war.[11]

He died in exile in Paris in 1946;[12] his remains were returned to Madrid in 1978.

His son, Francisco Largo Calvo, was imprisoned by the Francoists at the start of the Spanish Civil War and spent the entire war behind bars under the threat of execution.[citation needed] Largo Calvo fled Spain to Mexico in 1949 where he resided until his death in 2001.[citation needed]

References

  • Beevor, Antony. The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939. London. Penguin Books. 2006
  • Graham, Helen. The Spanish Civil War. A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. 2005. ISBN 978-0-19-280377-1
  • Preston, Paul. The Spanish Civil War. Reaction, revolution & revenge. Harper Perennial. 2006. London.
  • Thomas, Hugh. The Spanish Civil War. Penguin Books. 2003. London.

Footnotes

  1. ^ Thomas, Hugh. The Spanish Civil War. Penguin Books. 2003. London. p.39
  2. ^ Beevor, Antony. The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939. London: Penguin Books, 2006; p.17
  3. ^ Beevor, Antony. The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939. London: Penguin Books, 2006; p.21
  4. ^ Thomas, Hugh. The Spanish Civil War. Penguin Books. 2003. London. p.39
  5. ^ Beevor, Antony. The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939.. Penguin Books. London. 2006. p.28
  6. ^ Beevor, Antony. The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939.. Penguin Books. London. 2006. pp.29-32
  7. ^ Preston, Paul. The Spanish Civil War. Reaction, revolution & revenge. Harper Perennial. 2006. London. p.84
  8. ^ Thomas, Hugh. The Spanish Civil War. Penguin Books. London. 2003. pp.392-394.
  9. ^ Preston, Paul. The Spanish Civil War. Reaction, revolution & revenge. Harper Perennial. 2006. London. p.256-258
  10. ^ Graham, Helen. The Spanish Civil War. A very short introduction. Oxford University Press. Oxford. 2005. p.162
  11. ^ Anthony Beevor, The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939. London: Penguin Books, 2006; pg. 413.
  12. ^ Thomas, Hugh. The Spanish Civil War. Penguin Books. 2003. London. p.39
Preceded by
José Giral
Prime Minister of Spain
1936-1937
Succeeded by
Juan Negrín

Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message