Frederick, Maryland: Wikis


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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

City of Frederick
—  City  —
Council Street and City Hall in downtown Frederick

Location in Maryland
Coordinates: 39°25′35″N 77°25′13″W / 39.42639°N 77.42028°W / 39.42639; -77.42028
Country United States
State Maryland
County Frederick
Founded 1745
 - Mayor Randy McClement (R)
 - Chief of Police Kim C. Dine
 - Total 20.4 sq mi (52.9 km2)
 - Land 20.4 sq mi (52.9 km2)
 - Water 0 sq mi (0 km2)
Elevation 302 ft (92 m)
Population (2007)
 - Total 59,220
 Density 2,584.4/sq mi (997.7/km2)
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-6)
Area code(s) 301, 240
FIPS code 24-30325
GNIS feature ID 0584497

Frederick is a city in west-central Maryland, United States. It is the county seat of Frederick County, the largest county by area in the state of Maryland. Frederick is an outlying community of the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is part of a greater Washington-Baltimore-Northern Virginia, DC-MD-VA-WV Combined Statistical Area. As of the 2008 U.S. Census Bureau estimates, the city has a total population of 59,213, making it the third-largest incorporated area in Maryland, behind Baltimore and Rockville.[1]

Frederick is home to Frederick Municipal Airport (FDK), which primarily accommodates general aviation traffic, and to the U.S. Army's Fort Detrick, the largest employer in the county. Frederick is also home to BP Solar, which is the second-largest employer in the county.




Colonial era

“Frederick Town” was laid out by Daniel Dulany (a land speculator) in 1745,[2] and settled by a German immigrant party led by a young German Reformed schoolmaster from the Rhineland Palatinate named Johann Thomas Schley (d. 1790), who came to the Maryland colony with his wife, Maria Winz. They built the first house of the new town which into the 20th century stood at the northwest corner of Middle Alley and East Patrick Street. The settlement was founded upon a tract of land granted by Daniel Dulany on the banks of Carroll Creek. Within three years the settlement had become the county seat of Frederick County. It is uncertain which Frederick the town was named for, but the likeliest candidates are Frederick Calvert, 6th Baron Baltimore and one of the proprietors of Maryland,[3] Frederick Lewis, Prince of Wales,[4] and Frederick "The Great" of Prussia. Most sources agree it was named for Frederick Calvert.

Schley's first task as leader of the settlement party was the foundation of a German Reformed Church (today the church is known as Evangelical Reformed Church, UCC), which also served immediately as a public school, in keeping with the German Reformed tradition of sponsoring universal public education. Many of the Pennsylvania Dutch settled in Frederick as they migrated westward in the late 18th century. Frederick was a stop along the German migration route that led down through the "Great Valley" (Shenandoah Valley, etc.) all the way to the western Piedmont in North Carolina.

The city served as a major crossroads from colonial times. British General Braddock marched west through Frederick on the way to the fateful ambush near Fort Duquesne during the French and Indian War. To control this crossroads during the American Revolution, the British garrisoned a Hessian regiment in the town during the war (the barracks still stand). The Schleys were activists for the American Revolution and had been a military family in Germany, with one ancestor holding high rank at the Battle of Parma in 1714.[5] One of Johann Thomas Schley's sons, Col. George Jacob Schley, served in the Maryland Line of the Continental Army.[6] Afterward, with no way to return to their homeland, the men of the Hessian regiment stayed on and married into the families of the town, strengthening its German identity.[citation needed] Later, when President Thomas Jefferson commissioned the building of the National Road from Baltimore to St. Louis, the "National Pike" ran through Frederick along Patrick Street.

Early 19th century

From these beginnings, Frederick grew to an important market town, but by the first third of the 19th century, the town had also become one of the leading mining counties of the United States, producing gold, copper, limestone, marble, iron and other minerals. As early as the American Revolution, Catoctin Furnace near Thurmont had been a significant site for iron production.[7] In 1831 the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) completed its Frederick Branch line from Baltimore to Frederick.[8]

When the first wave of Irish refugees from the potato famine settled in the city in 1846, one of the leading members of the Schley family married into the Wilson family from Ireland. Consequently, many of the Schleys converted to Catholicism, and residents of Frederick began to speak English for the first time in the town's history — up until then, the language had been German.[citation needed] Frederick was known during the nineteenth century for its religious pluralism, with one of its main thoroughfares, Church Street, hosting half a dozen major churches. The main Catholic church, St. John's, was built in 1800, then rebuilt in 1837 (across the street) one block north of Church Street on East Second Street, where it still stands.[9] Together, these churches dominated the town, set against the backdrop of the first ridge of the Appalachians, Catoctin Mountain. The abolitionist poet John Greenleaf Whittier immortalized this view of Frederick in his poem to Barbara Fritchie: "The clustered spires of Frederick stand — greenwalled in the hills of Maryland."[10]

Civil War

Frederick's status as a major crossroads put the town at the center of the Maryland campaigns of the Civil War, during which both Union and Confederate troops marched through the city. General Stonewall Jackson led his light infantry division through Frederick on his way to the battles of Crampton's, Fox's and Turner's Gaps and Antietam in September 1862, leading to an incident with Pennsylvania Dutch resident Barbara Fritchie commemorated in the poem of the same name by John Greenleaf Whittier. Major General Jesse L. Reno's IX Corps followed Jackson's men through the city a few days later on the way to the Battle of South Mountain, where Reno was killed.

The family also possessed a deep streak of military nationalism, probably from its German heritage. Thus, during the Civil War, Major Henry Schley, brother of Colonel Edward Schley (d. 1857), at the age of 72 fought for the Union as the aide de camp to General Lew Wallace, one of Grant's key adjutants at the Battle of Shiloh (1862), along with Generals William Tecumseh Sherman and Don Carlos Buell. General Wallace also fought Confederate General Jubal Early outside of Frederick at the Battle of Monocacy in 1864 (below).

Late 19th century

Major Henry Schley's son, Dr. Fairfax Schley, became a prominent civic leader after the war and was instrumental in setting up the Frederick County Agricultural Society and the Great Frederick Fair.[11] A cousin, Admiral Winfield Scott Schley served in the United States Navy from 1860 through the Spanish–American War, where he led the American fleet to victory over the Spanish at Santiago Bay in 1898.[12] Gilmer Schley served as Mayor from 1919-1922, and the Schleys remained one of the town's leading families into the late twentieth century. Nathaniel Wilson Schley, son of Gilmer Schley, became a prominent banker at the Farmers and Mechanics Citizens' National Bank. His wife, Mary Margaret Schley, was a Daughter of the American Revolution, a perennial leader of the Garden Society and a life member of the Frederick County Agricultural Society (FCAS), sponsor and organizer of the annual Great Frederick Fair, one of the two largest agricultural fairs in the State (with the annual State Fair at Timonium, Maryland). Their son, Donald Gilmer Schley, along with John T. Best, Gordon Smith, Frank Stauffer, Emmons C. Sanner and other FCAS board members worked in the late 1960s to shift the nightly entertainment at the then declining Fair from a New York stage-show and Borscht-belt comedian venue to a country western venue. At first they brought stars such as Barbara and Louise Mandrell, and over the later years Reba McEntire, Lee Greenwood, LeAnn Rimes, Loretta Lynn, Sawyer Brown, Toby Keith, Kenny Chesney, Randy Travis, George Jones and many other outstanding country-western stars to the annual September event, making the Fair the site of a major annual country-western festival.[13] Schley Avenue commemorates the family's role in the city's heritage.

In 1872 the Pennsylvania Railroad completed its Frederick Secondary branch line, which ran from Frederick to York, Pennsylvania and Columbia, Pennsylvania.[14]

Frederick had Jewish residents as early as the 1740s, when pioneers Henry Lazarus and Levy Cohan settled there as merchants. An organized Jewish community, composed mainly of German Jewish immigrants, took shape in the mid-19th century, and the Frederick Hebrew Congregation was organized in 1858. Later the congregation lapsed, but was reorganized in 1917 as a cooperative effort between the older settlers and more recently arrived Eastern European Jews under the name Beth Sholom Congregation.

In 1905, Rev. E.B. Hatcher started the First Baptist Church of Frederick.

In 1921, the first high school for African-Americans was founded at 170 West All Saints Street. Later it moved to 250 Madison Street, where it eventually became South Frederick Elementary. The building still stands and presently houses the Lincoln Elementary School.

Sites of historical interest

1896 print illustrating the legend of Barbara Fritchie.

Several historic Civil War landmarks are located in and around Frederick. Frederick was the site of a Civil War speech given by President Abraham Lincoln, which took place at what was then a train depot at the current intersection of South and Market Streets. A plaque commemorates the speech. At the Prospect Hall mansion on what is now Butterfly Lane, in the early morning hours of June 28, 1863, a messenger from President Abraham Lincoln arrived to inform General George Meade that he would be replacing General Joseph Hooker after the latter's disaster at Chancellorsville the previous May. The Army of the Potomac, which camped at Prospect Hall for weeks prior to Gettysburg, went on from there to fight several major battles. The National Museum of Civil War Medicine is located downtown.

Due west along Alternate US 40, and west of Burkittsville, lie the sites of the three episodes in the Battle of South Mountain: the battles of Crampton's (September 14, 1862), Fox's, and Turner's gaps, where Confederate troops under Jackson and Walker unsuccessfully attempted to halt the Federal army's advance into the Cumberland Valley. The war correspondents' memorial can be found at Gathland State Park at Crampton's Gap, just west of Burkittsville. The memorial to the slain Union General Jesse Reno lies on the south side of Alternate US 40, west of Middletown, just below the summit of Fox's Gap.

21 miles (34 km) southwest of Frederick lies historic Harper's Ferry, West Virginia, which dominates the confluence of the Shenandoah and Potomac rivers. Here stood a key Federal arsenal. In 1859, Kansas abolitionist John Brown seized these works, only to be surrounded and captured by a Federal force under Robert E. Lee. Early on September 17, 1862, Confederate General A. P. Hill raided the arsenal at Harper's Ferry to re-equip his own division. When a rider arrived at 1 pm that afternoon informing Hill of Lee's desperate situation at Sharpsburg, Hill ordered his 6000 men to form ranks and march at double-time to Lee's aid at Antietam (Sharpsburg). Hill drove his division to cover the 17 miles (27 km) between Harper's Ferry and the battlefield in just three hours, losing 2/3 of his battle strength due to heat exhaustion and sunstroke along the way, but arriving "in the nick of time" to turn back Burnside's men, who were just forcing the bridge across Antietam Creek. Collectors still find Civil War artifacts in the vicinity of Harper's Ferry, especially on Maryland Heights above the town on the Maryland side of the Potomac.

The Monocacy Battlefield lies just outside the city limits, while Antietam and Gettysburg lie approximately 35 miles (56 km) to the west and north, respectively.

The home of Barbara Fritchie, who according to legend waved the Stars and Stripes in defiance of Confederate commander Stonewall Jackson and his troops as they marched through downtown Frederick in 1862, stands as another key historical site. Though the legend has been generally discredited, it was widely believed during the Civil War and was the subject of an 1864 poem by John Greenleaf Whittier, a poem that remained popular for decades. Barbara Fritchie, a significant figure in Maryland history in her own right, is buried in Frederick's Mt. Olivet cemetery next to Governor Thomas Johnson and Francis Scott Key (below).

Other notable Fredericktonians include John Hanson, the first President of Congress under the Articles of Confederation, and Supreme Court Chief Justice Roger Brooke Taney, who authored the controversial Dred Scott Decision on the eve of the Civil War. Taney Avenue memorializes him. Mt. Olivet Cemetery in Frederick is the resting place of Francis Scott Key, the author of the national anthem of the United States, "The Star-Spangled Banner". Buried in the All Saints' Parish Cemetery is Thomas Sim Lee (1745–1819), who served two terms as Governor of Maryland. Lee was influential in the enactment of statehood for Maryland and played an important role in completing the formation of the union in 1781.

23 miles south of Frederick and across the Potomac River at Point of Rocks, Maryland one can find at Waterford, Virginia (founded 1733), the annual colonial fair hosted by the Waterford Foundation during the first weekend of October. The Waterford Fair is the oldest juried crafts fair in Virginia[15] and with Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, site of unparalleled year-round crafts and antique shops, forms one of the area's great historical attractions. The Waterford Fair opens historic colonial homes for tour, and hosts 155 juried heritage craftsmen and women (many nationally known[16] who provide hands-on demonstrations. Traditional music and dance is offered for entertainment, and Colonial and Civil War militia encampments provide informative demonstrations of early American history.

Notable houses

Possibly the oldest house in the city of Frederick is Schifferstadt, built in 1756 by German settler Joseph Brunner. It is now the Schifferstadt Architectural Museum.

In 1814, eminent ophthalmologist Dr. John Tyler built the famed Tyler Spite House at 112 W. Church Street in Frederick to spite the City of Frederick by preventing the city from extending Record Street south through Tyler's land to meet West Patrick Street (now also named Maryland Route 144).[17] The Tyler Spite House now serves as the office of The Design Method Group.[18]


Carroll Creek running through Baker Park

Frederick is located in Frederick County in the western part of the state of Maryland. The city has served as a major crossroads since colonial times. Today it is located at the junction of Interstate 70, Interstate 270, U.S. Route 340, U.S. Route 40, U.S. Route 40 Alternate and U.S. Route 15 (which runs north-south). In relation to nearby cities, Frederick lies 48 miles (77 km) northwest of Washington, D.C., 49 miles (79 km) west of Baltimore, 24 miles (39 km) southeast of Hagerstown, Maryland, and 71 miles (114 km) southwest of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The city's coordinates 39°25'35" North, 77°25'13" West (39.426294, -77.420403).[19]

According to a 2004 report by the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 20.4 square miles (53 km2). The city's area is predominantly land, with the only water being the Monocacy River, which runs to the east of the city, Carroll Creek (which runs through the city and causes periodic floods, such as that during the summer of 1972), and Culler Lake, a man-made small body in the downtown area.


As of the census[20] of 2000, there are 52,767 people, 20,891 households, and 12,787 families residing in the city. The population density is 2,584.4 people per square mile (997.7/km²).[citation needed] There are 22,106 housing units at an average density of 1,082.7/sq mi (418.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city is 79.1% White, 16.0% Black or African American, 0.8% Native American, 3.8% Asian American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.9% from other races, and 2.5% from two or more races. 4.80% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.[21]

For those 20,891 households, 32.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.4% are married couples living together, 12.8% have a female householder with no husband present, and 38.8% are non-families. 30.0% of all households are made up of individuals and 8.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.42 and the average family size was 3.05.

In the city, the population has 25.1% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 35.2% from 25 to 44, 19.0% from 45 to 64, and 11.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age is 34.7 years. For every 100 females there are 90.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 87.4 males.[22]

According to sample data from 1999, the median income for a household in the city is $47,700, and the median income for a family is $56,778. Males have a median income of $38,399 versus $27,732 for females. The per capita income for the city is $23,053. 7.4% of the population and 4.8% of families are below the poverty line. 6.8% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.[23]


City executive

The current Mayor of Frederick is Randy McClement. Previous mayors include:

  • Lawrence Brengle (1817)
  • Hy Kuhn (1818–1820)
  • George Baer, Jr. (1820–1823)
  • John L. Harding (1823–1826)
  • George Kolb (1826–1829)
  • Thomas Carlton (1829–1835)
  • Daniel Kolb (1835–1838)
  • Michael Baltzell (1838–1841)
  • George Hoskins (1841–1847)
  • M. E. Bartgis (1847–1849)
  • James Bartgis (1849–1856)
  • Lewis Brunner (1856–1859)
  • W. G. Cole (1859–1865)
  • J. Engelbrecht (1865–1868)
  • Valerius Ebert (1868–1871)
  • Thomas M. Holbruner (1871–1874)
  • Lewis M. Moberly (1874–1883)
  • Hiram Bartgis (1883–1889)
  • Lewis H. Doll (1889–1890)
  • Lewis Brunner (1890–1892)
  • John E. Fleming (1892–1895)
  • Aquilla R. Yeakle (1895–1898)
  • William F. Chilton (1898–1901)
  • George Edward Smith (1901–1910)
  • John Edward Schell (1910–1913)
  • Lewis H. Fraley (1913–1919)
  • Gilmer Schley (1919–1922)
  • Lloyd C. Culler (1922–1931)
  • Elmer F. Munshower (1931–1934)
  • Lloyd C. Culler (1934–1943)
  • Hugh V. Gittinger (1943–1946)
  • Lloyd C. Culler (1946–1950)
  • Elmer F. Munshower (1950–1951)
  • Donald B. Rice (1951–1954)
  • John A. Derr (1954–1958)
  • Jacob R. Ramsburg (1958–1962)
  • E. Paul Magaha (1962–1966)
  • John A. Derr (1966–1970)
  • E. Paul Magaha (1970–1974)
  • Ronald N. Young (1974–1990)
  • Paul P. Gordon (1990–1994)
  • James S. Grimes (1994–2002)
  • Jennifer Dougherty (2002–2006)
  • W. Jeff Holtzinger (2006-2009)
City Hall in Frederick

Representative body

Frederick has a Board of Aldermen of six members (one of whom is the Mayor) which serves as its legislative body. Elections are held every 4 years. The current board was elected November 3, 2009, and consists of Shelley Aloi, Carol Krimm, Michael O'Connor, Kelly Russell, and Karen Young.



A panorama of downtown Frederick along North Court Street.
The Community Bridge mural.

Frederick is well-known for the "Clustered Spires" skyline of its historic downtown buildings. These spires are depicted on the city's seal and many other city-affiliated logos and insignia.

Frederick has a bridge covered with a mural called the "Community Bridge." The artist, William Cochran, has been acclaimed for the realism of the painting. Thousands of people sent ideas representing community that appear throughout the stonework of the bridge. To the people of Frederick, it is called "the mural", "painted bridge", or more commonly known to the people as the "mural bridge".


The Frederick Arts Council is the designated arts organization for Frederick County. The organization is charged with promoting, supporting, and advocating the arts, a thriving community in the city. There are over ten art galleries in downtown Frederick, and three theaters are located within 50 feet of each other (Cultural Arts Center, Weinberg Center for the Arts, and the Maryland Ensemble Theatre). Frederick is the home of the Maryland Shakespeare Festival.

In August 2007, the streets of Frederick were adorned with 30 life-size fiberglass keys as part of a major public art project entitled "The Keys to Frederick".

In October 2007, artist William Cochran created a large-scale glass project titled "The Dreaming". The project is on the east face of the Francis Scott Key Apartments in downtown Frederick.


Frederick is home to The Maryland Ensemble Theatre (MET), a professional theater company, which resides on the lower level of the Francis Scott Key Hotel. The MET first produced mainstage theatre in 1997, but the group first performed together with the creation of The Comedy Pigs sketch comedy/improv troupe in April 1993.[citation needed]

Frederick also has its own community orchestra, The Frederick Symphony Orchestra, that performs five concerts per year consisting of classical masterpieces. Other musical organizations in Frederick include the Frederick Chorale, the Choral Arts Society of Frederick, the Frederick Regional Youth Orchestra, and the Frederick Symphonic Band.

Frederick is home to The Frederick Children's Chorus, which has been raising young voices in song since 1985. It is a five-tier chorus with approximately 150 members ranging in age from 5 to 18.

A weekly carillon recital is played on the Joseph Dill Baker Carillon each Sunday at noon for half an hour. The carillon can be heard from anywhere in Baker Park, and the City Carillonneur can be viewed playing in the tower, which is open each week at that time.

Frederick is home to the Frederick School of Classical Ballet, the official school for Maryland Regional Ballet. Approximately 30 dance studios are located around the city. Each year, these studios have an opportunity to perform at the annual DanceFest event.

Cultural organizations

Frederick is home to several liberal organizations including the Peace Resource Center of Frederick County, an installation of Women in Black, and the Frederick Progressive Action Coalition or FredPac.

The most noticeable Cultural organization in the recent years is the UNESCO Center for Peace. The UNESCO Center for Peace has been working since 2004 in the City and around the State to promote the ideals of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). UNESCO Center for Peace is partner to County's Public Schools, Hood College, Frederick Community College, Maryland School for The Deaf (MSD), Frederick County Public Libraries, on a variety of community projects that include various after school programs, Ambassador Speaker Series, Regional Model United Nations, International Model United Nations, Celebrations and Commemorations of major United Nations International Days, the Frederick Stamp Festival, National and International Exchange Programs for High School and College level students and schools.


There are numerous religious organizations in Fredrick.

Beth Sholom Congregation, an unaffiliated synagogue, has been in Frederick since 1917. Congregation Kol Ami, a Reform synagogue, was founded in 2003.



Frederick is licensed one Maryland Public Television station affiliate: WFPT 62 (PBS/MPT).


The city is home to WFMD (930AM - News/Talk/Sports), WFRE (99.9FM - Country Music), and WAFY (103.1FM - Adult Contemporary) radio stations. The following box details all of the radio stations in the local market.


Frederick's newspaper of record is the The Frederick News-Post.


  • Frederick Keys, a "high-A" minor league baseball affiliate of the Baltimore Orioles. The Keys are named after Francis Scott Key, who was a resident of Frederick, and play in Harry Grove Stadium.
  • "Frederick Flying Dogs", an adult amateur baseball team in the Mid-Maryland Semi-Pro Baseball League. The Flying Dogs are named after their primary sponsor, the Flying Dog Brewery, a local craft brewer.
  • "Frederick Rugby", a group of local rugby teams in the Mid-Atlantic Rugby Football Union. The group consists of a Men's team which originated in 1990, and was subsequently followed by an Old Boy's Team (Over 35), a Women's team, and an Under-17 Youth Program. The Men's team has had some national success, finishing 2nd in the Division 2 National Play-Offs in 1998, and returning to the Sweet 16 the following 2 years, finishing 5th in 1999 and 6th in 2000. The club's all welcome both experienced and new players to their programs.


C. Burr Artz Public Library

Public schools

Frederick County Public Schools (FCPS) operates area public schools.

High schools serving Frederick City students:

Other high schools in Frederick County:

Other public schools: Adult Education, Career and Technology Center, Heather Ridge School, Outdoor School, Rock Creek School, and The Earth and Space Science Laboratory. Frederick County was long-time home to a highly innovative outdoor school for all sixth graders in Frederick County.[24] This school was located at Camp Greentop, near the presidential retreat at Camp David and Cunningham Falls State Park.[25]

Private high schools

  • Saint John's Catholic Prep (at Prospect Hall)
  • New Life Christian School
  • Frederick Christian Academy
  • The Banner School

K-12 schools

Colleges and universities


From 1896 to 1961, Frederick was served by the Hagerstown & Frederick Railway, an interurban trolley service that was among the last surviving systems of its kind in the United States.

Currently, the city is served by MARC commuter rail service, which operates several trains daily on the old B&O line to Washington, D.C.; Express bus route 991, which operates to the Shady Grove Metrorail Station, and a series of buses operated by TransIT services of Frederick, Maryland.

Frederick has an airport with a mile-long runway and a second 3600' runway. It is the home airport of the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association due to its proximity to Washington and ability to handle small twin engine jets.[citation needed]

Notable residents and natives


  1. ^ "Table 4: Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places in Maryland, Listed Alphabetically: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2009-07-01. 
  2. ^ See for example the Overall history of Frederick, pp 2-6.
  3. ^ "Fort Frederick State Park History". Maryland Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved 2007-10-07. 
  4. ^ "Frederick, Maryland". Maryland Municipal League. Retrieved 2007-10-09. 
  5. ^ Calvin E. Schildknecht, Draft Genealogy (and supporting documents): Thomas and Margaret Schley and Some of Their Descendants. August, 1991: 135 Doubleday Avenue, Gettysburg, PA, 17325. Including the files of the late Jacob Mehrling Holdcraft and the files of the late Judge Edward S. Delaplaine, compiled with the assistance of Mary Ann Frank; p. 5
  6. ^ Schildknecht, above, p. 5.
  7. ^ J. Thomas Scharf, History of Western Maryland, Vol. I, Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts, 1882, p. 629.
  8. ^ Dilts, James D. (1996). The Great Road: The Building of the Baltimore and Ohio, The Nation's First Railroad, 1828-1853. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press. p. 146. ISBN 978-0804726290. 
  9. ^ "St. John the Evangelist, Roman Catholic Church – Frederick, Maryland". Retrieved 2007-12-16. 
  10. ^ Dana, Charles Anderson, ed. (1879). The Household Book of Poetry. D. Appleton. pp. 381–382. 
  11. ^ J. Thomas Scharf, History of Western Maryland, Vol. I, Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts, 1882, pp. 418-19
  12. ^ George Edward Graham, Schley and Santiago, Chicago: W. B. Conkey, 1902.
  13. ^ For example, cf. the Fair's website and its calendar of past events:
  14. ^ Wilson, William B. (1895). History of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. Philadelphia: Henry T. Coates. p. 193. 
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^ Williams, N. (April 29, 1990) Los Angeles Times This Maryland House was built just for spite. Section: travel; Page 14. Location: Tyler Spite House, 112 W Church St, Frederick, MD 21701.
  18. ^ A Matter of Spite
  19. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2000 and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2005-05-03. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  20. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  21. ^ "DP-1. Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000
    Data Set: Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data
    Geographic Area: Frederick city, Maryland"
    . Census 2000 Gateway. Retrieved 2008-01-06.
  22. ^ "QT-P1. Age Groups: 2000
    Data Set: Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data
    Geographic Area: Frederick city, Maryland"
    . Census 2000 Gateway. Retrieved 2008-01-06.
  23. ^ "DP-3. Profile of Selected Economic Characteristics: 2000
    Data Set: Census 2000 Summary File 4 (SF 4) - Sample Data
    Geographic Area: Frederick city, Maryland"
    . Census 2000 Gateway. Retrieved 2008-01-06.
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^ Nassour, Ellis, Honky Tonk Angel: The Intimate Story Of Patsy Cline. St. Martin's, 1994. Pp. 35, 118.


External links

Coordinates: 39°25′35″N 77°25′13″W / 39.426294°N 77.420403°W / 39.426294; -77.420403

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

FREDERICK, a city and the county-seat of Frederick county, Maryland,U. S.A., on Carroll's Creek, a tributary of the Monocacy, 61 m. by rail W. by N. from Baltimore and 45 m. N.W. from Washington. Pop. (1890) 8193; (1900) 9296, of whom 1535 were negroes; (estimated 1906) 9956. It is served by the Baltimore & Ohio and the Northern Central railways, and by two interurban electric lines. Immediately surrounding it is the rich farming land of the Monocacy valley, but from a distance it appears to be completely shut in by picturesque hills and mountains; to the E., the Linga ore Hills; to the W., Catoctin Mountain; and to the S., Sugar Loaf Mountain. It is built for the most part of brick and stone. Frederick is the seat of the Maryland school for the deaf and dumb and of the Woman's College of Frederick (1893; formerly the Frederick Female Seminary, opened in 1843), which in 1907-1908 had 212 students, 121 of whom were in the Conservatory of Music. Francis Scott Key and Roger Brooke Taney were buried here, and a beautiful monument erected to the memory of Key stands at the entrance to Mount Olivet cemetery. Frederick has a considerable agricultural trade and is an important manufacturing centre, its industries including the canning of fruits and vegetables, and the manufacture of flour, bricks, brushes, leather goods and hosiery. The total value of the factory product in 1905 was $ 1 ,937,9 21, being 34.7% more than in 1900. The municipality owns and operates its water-works and electric-lighting plant. Frederick, so named in honour of Frederick Calvert, son and afterward successor of Charles, Lord Baltimore, was settled by Germans in 1733, and was laid out as a town in 1745, but was not incorporated until 1817. Here in 1755 General Braddock prepared for his disastrous expedition against the French at Fort Duquesne (Pittsburg). During the Civil War the city was occupied on different occasions by Unionists and Confederates, and was made famous by Whittier's poem "Barbara Frietchie."

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