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Frederick Marquis, 1st Earl of Woolton: Wikis

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The Right Honourable
 The Earl of Woolton 
CH PC

Born 23 August 1883(1883-08-23)
Salford, Greater Manchester, England
Died 14 December 1964 (aged 81)
Arundel, Sussex, England
Birth name Frederick James Marquis
Nationality English
Political party None, Conservatives
Occupation Businessman, politician

Frederick James Marquis, 1st Earl of Woolton CH, PC (23 August 1883 – 14 December 1964) was an English businessman and politician.

Woolton was born in Salford, Greater Manchester in 1883 to Thomas Robert Marquis (d. 1944) and his wife, Margaret Ormerod). Educated at Manchester Grammar School and the University of Manchester (where he was a Research Fellow), Woolton was an active member of the Unitarian Church.

In the 1930s he built up the department store Lewis's (not to be confused with the John Lewis department stores), of which he became Managing Director. He was knighted in 1935 and was awarded a peerage in 1939 for his contribution to British industry. Despite his wishes, he was informed that it was not possible to be Baron Marquis (because 'Marquis' is another grade of the nobility of England) and so he took the title Baron Woolton. He subsequently served on a number of government committees (including the Cadman committee). He refused to affiliate himself with any political party. Geoffrey Dawson described him as "a cheerful cove".

In April 1940 he was appointed as Minister of Food by Neville Chamberlain, one of a number of ministerial appointments from outside politics. Woolton retained this position when Winston Churchill became Prime Minister the following month and was faced with the task of overseeing rationing due to wartime shortages. He took the view that it was insufficient to impose restrictions but that a programme of advertising to support it was undertaken. There were many new recipes made out of the restricted supplies, including the "Woolton pie" named after the minister which consisted of carrots, parsnips, potatoes and turnips in oatmeal, with a pastry or potato crust and served with brown gravy. It was Woolton's business skills that managed to make the Ministry of Food's difficult job a success and he engendered a strong personal popularity despite the shortages.

He joined the Privy Council in 1940 and became a Companion of Honour in 1942. In 1943 Woolton entered the War Cabinet as Minister of Reconstruction, taking charge of the difficult task of planning for post-war Britain and in this role he appeared on the cover of Time on the issue of 26 March 1945.

In May 1945 he was included in Churchill's "Caretaker" government as Lord President of the Council, but in July the government fell when Churchill lost the 1945 general election. The very next day Woolton joined the Conservative Party and was soon appointed Party Chairman, with the job of improving the party's organisation in the country and revitalising it for future elections. Under Woolton many sweeping reforms were carried out and when the Conservatives returned to government in 1951, Woolton served in the Cabinet for the next four years. In the 1953 coronation honours he became Viscount Woolton and he became Earl of Woolton in the 1955 new year's honours list.

He died in 1964 at his home, Walberton House, in Arundel. His titles passed to his son, Roger. He is buried at St Mary's Church, Walberton.[1]

References

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Notes

  1. ^ Delorme 1987, p. 54.

Bibliography

Political offices
Preceded by
William Shepherd Morrison
Minister of Food
1940–1943
Succeeded by
John Llewellin
New office Minister of Reconstruction
1943–1945
Office abolished
Preceded by
Clement Attlee
Lord President of the Council
1945
Succeeded by
Herbert Stanley Morrison
Preceded by
The Viscount Addison
Lord President of the Council
1951–1952
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Salisbury
Preceded by
The Viscount Swinton
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
1952–1955
Succeeded by
The Earl of Selkirk
Preceded by
Sir Arthur Salter
Minister of Materials
1953–1954
Office abolished
Party political offices
Preceded by
Ralph Assheton
Chairman of the Conservative Party
1946–1955
Succeeded by
Oliver Poole
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Earl of Woolton
1956–1964
Succeeded by
Roger Marquis
New creation Viscount Woolton
1953–1964
New creation Baron Woolton
1939–1964

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