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Frederick Russell Burnham
May 11, 1861(1861-05-11) – September 1, 1947 (aged 86)
Major frederick russell burnham dso 1904.jpg
Nickname The King of Scouts;[1] He-who-sees-in-the-dark;[2] Fred
Place of birth Tivoli, Minnesota (Sioux Indian territory; near Mankato, MN)
Place of death Santa Barbara, California, buried at Three Rivers, California
Allegiance Scout for the British Army in Southern Africa; U.S. citizen.
Years of service 1893–1897, 1900–1901
Rank Major
Commands held Chief of Scouts under Lord Roberts
Battles/wars Pleasant Valley War
Indian Wars:
Apache Wars
Cheyenne War
Geronimo campaign
First Matabele War:
Shangani Patrol
Second Matabele War:
— Assassination of Mlimo
Second Boer War:
Battle of Paardeberg
— Driefontein (March 10, 1900)
— Johannesburg (May 31, 1900)
— March on Pretoria (June 2–5, 1900)
Awards Distinguished Service Order
Queen's South Africa Medal
British South Africa Company Medal
Victoria Cross (declined)
Boy Scouts Silver Buffalo Award
Mount Burnham (California).
Other work messenger, Indian tracker, gold miner, wealthy oil man, American spy. Father of the international Scouting movement and a close friend of Robert Baden-Powell.

Frederick Russell Burnham, DSO (May 11, 1861 – September 1, 1947) was an American scout and world traveling adventurer known for his service to the British Army in colonial Africa and for teaching woodcraft to Robert Baden-Powell, thus becoming one of the inspirations for the founding of the international Scouting Movement.

Burnham had little formal education, attending high school but never graduating. He began his career at 14 in the American Southwest as a scout and tracker. Burnham then went to Africa where this background proved useful. He soon became an officer in the British Army, serving in several battles there. During this time, Burnham became friends with Baden-Powell, and passed on to him both his outdoor skills and his spirit for what would later become known as Scouting.

Burnham eventually moved on to become involved in espionage, oil, conservation, writing and business. His descendants are still active in Scouting.

Contents

Early life

Burnham was born to a missionary family on an Indian Reservation in Tivoli, Minnesota. As a toddler, he witnessed the burning of New Ulm, Minnesota, by Taoyateduta (Little Crow) and his Sioux warriors in the Dakota War of 1862. During the uprising, his mother, Rebecca (Elizabeth) Russell Burnham, hid the not quite two-year-old boy in a basket of green corn husks and fled for her life. Once the Sioux had been driven away the mother returned to find the house burned down. Her young son was safe, fast asleep in the basket and protected only by the corn husks.[1][3]

The young Burnham attended schools in Iowa and there he met Blanche Blick, who would later become his wife. His family moved to Los Angeles, California, in 1870. Two years later his father, the Rev. Edwin Otway Burnham of Kentucky, himself a long time pioneer and missionary along the border of the Ho Chunk (Winnebago) Indian reservation in Minnesota, died when Burnham was only 12. While his mother and his then 3 year old baby brother Howard Burnham returned to Iowa, the young Burnham stayed in California to make his own way.[4]

For the next three years, Burnham worked as a mounted messenger for the Western Union Telegraph Company in California and Arizona. On one occasion his horse was stolen from him by Tiburcio Vasquez, a famous Californio bandit.[5] At 14, he began his life as a scout and Indian tracker in the Apache Wars. He traveled in northern Mexico and the American Southwest, including Texas and Oklahoma, earning a living as a buffalo hunter, cowboy, and prospector, and he continued working as a scout while tracking Indians in the Cheyenne War. The young Burnham eventually went on to attend high school in California but never graduated.[4]

In 1882, Burnham returned to Arizona and was appointed Deputy Sheriff of Pinal County, but he soon went back to cattle and mining interests. He joined the losing side of the Tonto Basin Feud before mass killing started, and only narrowly escaped death in Arizona.[3][6] He returned to Prescott, Iowa, to visit his childhood sweetheart, Blanche, and the two were married on February 6, 1884.[4] That same year, he and Blanche settled down to tend to an orange grove in Pasadena, California, but within a year he was back prospecting and scouting.

In the 1880s the American press had been popularizing the notion that the West had been won and there was nothing left to conquer in the United States. This idea changed Burnham's life. Ever the soldier of fortune, he began to look elsewhere for the next undeveloped frontier. When he heard of the work of Cecil Rhodes and his pioneers in building the Cape to Cairo railway in Africa, Burnham sold what little he owned and, in 1893, set sail to Cape Town, South Africa, with his wife and young son. He soon joined the British South Africa Company as a scout and headed north. Burnham became well known in Africa for his ability to track, even at night, and the Africans dubbed him He-who-sees-in-the-dark.[2]

Burnham is the brother of Mather Howard Burnham, a mining engineer and spy, and second cousin of Lt. Howard Mather Burnham, killed in the American Civil War.

Military career

Burnham in Africa (middle) holding his Remington Model 1875 No. 3 Army in .44WCF rifle
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First Matabele War

Burnham’s first major test in Africa came in 1893 when the British South Africa Company went to war with the Matabele King Lobengula. Leander Starr Jameson had hoped to defeat the Matabele quickly by capturing Lobengula at his royal city of Bulawayo. Burnham and a small group of scouts were sent ahead to report on the situation in Bulawayo. While on the outskirts of town they watched as the Matabele burned down and destroyed everything in sight. By the time the white troops had arrived in force, Lobengula and his warriors had fled and there was little left of old Bulawayo.[7]

Shangani Patrol

After he found that Bulawayo had been abandoned, Jameson dispatched a column of soldiers to locate and capture Lobengula. The column, led by Maj. Patrick Forbes, camped on the south bank of the Shangani River about 25 miles (40 km) north-east of the village of Lupane on the evening of December 3, 1893. The next day, late in the afternoon, a dozen men under the command of Maj. Allan Wilson were sent across the river to patrol the area. The Wilson Patrol came across a group of Matabele women and children who claimed to know Lobengula’s whereabouts. Burnham, who served as the lead scout of the Wilson patrol, sensed a trap and advised Wilson to withdraw, but Wilson ordered his patrol to advance.[8]

Soon afterwards, the patrol found the king and Wilson sent a message back to the laager requesting reinforcements. Forbes, however, was unwilling to set off across the river in the dark, so he sent only 20 more men, under the command of Henry Borrow, to reinforce Wilson’s patrol. Forbes intended to send the main body of troops and artillery across the river the following morning; however, the main column was ambushed by Matabele warriors and delayed. Wilson’s patrol too came under attack, but the Shangani River had swollen and there was now no possibility of retreat. In desperation, Wilson sent Burnham and two other scouts, Pearl “Pete” Ingram (a Montana cowboy) and George Gooding (an Australian), to cross the Shangani River, find Forbes, and bring reinforcements. In spite of a shower of bullets and spears, the three made it to Forbes, but the battle raging there was just as intense as the one they had left, and there was no hope of anyone reaching Wilson in time. As Burnham loaded his rifle to beat back the Matabele warriors, he quietly said to Forbes, "I think I may say that we are the sole survivors of that party." Wilson, Borrow, and their men were indeed surrounded by hundreds of Matabele warriors; escape was impossible, and all were killed.[8][9]

Rhodesian colonial histories called this the Shangani Patrol, and hailed Wilson and Borrow as national heroes.[10] For his service in the war, Burnham was presented the British South Africa Company Medal, a gold watch, and a share of a 300 acre (120 ha) tract of land in Matabeleland. It was here that Burnham uncovered many artifacts in the huge granite ruins of the ancient civilization of Great Zimbabwe.[1]

Northern Rhodesia Exploration

In 1895, Burnham went on to oversee and lead the massive Northern Territories (BSA) Exploration Co. expedition which first established for the British South Africa Company that major copper deposits existed in North-Eastern Rhodesia.[11][12][13] Along the Kafue River in then North-Eastern Rhodesia, Burnham saw many similarities to copper deposits he had worked in the United States, and he encountered native peoples wearing copper bracelets.[3] His expeditions in Rhodesia were so important that the Royal Geographical Society elected him a Fellow.[14] Later, the British South Africa Company built the mining towns of the Copperbelt and a railroad to transport the copper through Mozambique.[15]

Second Matabele War

Burnham & Armstrong after the assassination of Mlimo. Matabele warriors in hot pursuit.

In March 1896, the Matabele again revolted against the authority of the British South Africa Company in what is now celebrated in Zimbabwe as the First War of Independence. Mlimo, the Matabele spiritual leader, is credited with fomenting much of the anger that led to this confrontation. Matabeleland defenses were in disarray due to the ill-fated Jameson Raid, and the first few months of the war alone hundreds of white settlers were killed. With few troops to support them, the settlers quickly built a laager in the centre of Bulawayo on their own and mounted patrols under such figures as Burnham, Baden-Powell, and Selous. An estimated 50,000 Matabele retreated into their stronghold of the Matobo Hills near Bulawayo, a region that became the scene of the fiercest fighting against the white settler patrols.[16]

Assassination of Mlimo

The turning point in the war came when Burnham and a young scout named Bonar Armstrong found their way through Matobo Hills to the sacred cave where Mlimo had been hiding. Not far from the cave was a village of about 100 huts filled with many warriors. The two scouts tethered their horses to a thicket and crawled on their bellies, screening their slow, cautious movements by means of branches held before them. Once inside the cave, they waited until Mlimo entered.[17] Mlimo was said to be about 60 years old, with very dark skin, sharp-featured; American news reports of the time described him as having a cruel, crafty look. Burnham and Armstrong waited until Mlimo entered the cave and started his dance of immunity, at which point Burnham shot Mlimo just below the heart.[17]

Burnham is the finest scout who ever scouted in Africa. He was my Chief of Scouts in '96 in Matabeleland and he was the the eyes and ears of my force.

Gen. Carrington, British Army commander during the Second Matabele War.[18]

The two scouts then leapt over the dead Mlimo and ran down a trail toward their horses. Hundreds of warriors, encamped nearby, picked up their arms and searched for the attackers. To distract the Matabele, Burnham set fire to the village. The two men got on their horses and rode back to Bulawayo. Shortly after learning of the assassination of Mlimo, Cecil Rhodes boldly walked unarmed into the Ndebele stronghold in Matobo Hills and persuaded the impi to lay down their arms, thus ending the Second Matabele War.[19][20]

Klondike Gold Rush

With the Matabele war over, Burnham decided it was time to leave Africa and move on to other adventures. The family returned to California where Burnham left his wife and young son Bruce with his mother. Soon after, he and his eldest son Roderick, then 12 years old, traveled to Alaska and the Yukon to prospect in the Klondike Gold Rush.[3] Upon hearing of the Spanish-American War, Burnham rushed home to volunteer his services, but before he could get to the fighting the war was already over. Burnham then returned to the Klondike. Colonel Theodore Roosevelt regretted this as much as Burnham and paid him a great tribute in his book.[4]

Second Boer War

Burnham 1902

In January 1900, while prospecting in Skagway, Alaska, Burnham received the following telegram: Lord Roberts appoints you on his personal staff as Chief of Scouts. If you accept, come at once the quickest way possible. Although Cape Town is at the opposite end of the globe from the Klondike, he left within the hour.[21] He would arrive at the front just before the Battle of Paardeberg. During the war, Burnham spent much time behind the Boer lines gathering information and blowing up railway bridges and tracks. He was twice captured and twice escaped, but he was also disabled for a time by his near-fatal wounds.

In a step that was unusual for a foreigner, Burnham was given a commission by Lord Roberts and the rank of captain.[21] Burnham was first captured while trying to warn a British column approaching Thaba' Nchu.[22][23] He came upon a group of Boers hiding on the banks of the river, toward which the British were even then advancing. Cut off from his own side, Burnham chose to signal the approaching soldiers even though it would expose him to capture. With a red kerchief, Burnham signaled the soldiers to turn back, but the column paid no attention and plodded steadily on into the ambush, while Burnham was at once taken prisoner. In the fight that followed, Burnham pretended to receive a wound in the knee. Limping heavily and groaning with pain, he was placed in a wagon with the officers who really were wounded, and who, in consequence, were not closely guarded. Later that evening, Burnham slipped over the driver's seat, dropped between the two wheels of the wagon, lowered himself and fell between the legs of the oxen on his back in the road. In an instant the wagon had passed over him safely, and while the dust still hung above the trail he rolled rapidly over into the ditch at the side of the road and lay motionless. It was four days before he was able to re-enter the British lines, during which time he had been lying in the open veldt. He had subsisted on one biscuit and two handfuls of "mealies" (i.e., maize).[3][24]

I take this opportunity of thanking you for the valuable services you have rendered since you joined my headquarters at Paardeberg last February. I doubt if any other man in the force could have successfully carried out the thrilling enterprises in demanding as they did the training of a lifetime, combined with exceptional courage, caution, and powers of endurance.

Lord Roberts, Commander of all British troops fighting in the Second Boer War (1900).[25]

On June 2, 1900, while trying by night to blow up the bridge on the Pretoria-Delagoa Bay railway line at Bronkhorstspruit, 20 miles (32 km) east of Pretoria and a vital link to the sea, Burnham was surrounded by a party of Boers and could save himself only by instant flight. He had all but gotten away when a bullet caught his horse; it crashed to the ground dead, crushing Burnham beneath it and knocking him senseless. He continued in a dazed state for nearly a day and when he came to his senses he found that both friends and foes had departed. Although still suffering the most acute agony, Burnham heroically crept back to the railroad, placed his charges, and blew up the line in two places. Knowing the explosion would soon bring the Boers, he crept on his hands and knees to an empty kraal and lay there for two days and nights insensible. Upon hearing the sound of distant firing, Burnham crawled toward the fighting. By then he was indifferent as to whether the gunshots were coming from the enemy or from his own people, but, as it chanced, he was picked up by a friendly patrol and carried to Pretoria. The surgeons discovered that in his fall Burnham had torn apart the muscles of the stomach and burst a blood-vessel. His survival, the doctors assured him, was due only to the fact that he had been without food for three days.

Burnham and a young Churchill returning from the Boer War on the Dunottar Castle, July 1900.[26]

Burnham's injuries were so serious that he was ordered to England by Lord Roberts. Two days before leaving for London, he was promoted to the rank of major.[3][27][28] On his arrival in England, Burnham was commanded to dine with Queen Victoria and to spend the night at Osborne House.[29] A few months later, after the Queen's death, King Edward VII personally presented Burnham with the Queen's South Africa Medal with four bars for the battles at Driefontein (Mar 10, 1900), Johannesburg (May 31, 1900), Paardeberg (February 17–26, 1900), and Cape Colony (October 11, 1899 – May 31, 1902), in addition to the cross of the Distinguished Service Order,[28][30] the second highest decoration in the British Army, for his heroism during the "victorious" March to Pretoria (2–5 June 1900). Burnham had been selected for the Victoria Cross, Britain’s highest military award, but he declined rather than forfeit his American citizenship – a requirement at the time. Nevertheless, Burnham received the highest awards of any American who served in the Second Boer War.[21]

Burnham's most accomplished soldiers during the Second Boer War were Lovat Scouts, a Scottish Highland regiment, whom he described as "half wolf and half jackrabbit."[31] These scouts were well practiced in the arts of marksmanship, field craft, and tactics. After the war, this regiment went on to become the British army's first sniper unit.[31]

"Father of Scouting"

Burnham (standing) & Baden-Powell (right) at a Boy Scout event, ca. 1910

Burnham was already a celebrated scout when he first befriended Baden-Powell during the Second Matabele War. Himself a brilliant outdoorsman, Baden-Powell was a distinguished cavalry officer, and reportedly the finest pig sticker in India — meaning he was adept at killing a sprinting wild boar with one lance thrust from the back of a galloping horse. During the siege of Bulawayo, the two men rode many times into the Matobo Hills on patrol, and it was in these African hills that Burnham first introduced Baden-Powell to the ways and methods of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, and taught him woodcraft (better known today as scoutcraft).[32] So impressed was Baden-Powell by Burnham's Scouting spirit that he fondly told people he "sucked him dry" of all he could possibly tell.[33] It was here that Baden-Powell began to wear his signature Stetson campaign hat and kerchief for the first time.[34] Both men recognized that wars were changing markedly and the British Army needed to adapt; so during their joint scouting missions, Baden-Powell and Burnham discussed the concept of a broad training program in woodcraft for young men, rich in exploration, tracking, field craft, and self-reliance. In Africa, no scout embodied these traits more than Burnham.[35] While Baden-Powell went on to refine the concept of Scouting and become the founder of the international Scouting movement, Burnham has been called the movement's father.[36]

Frederick Russell Burnham: Explorer, discoverer, cowboy, and Scout. Native American, he served as chief of scouts in the Boer War, an intimate friend of Lord Baden-Powell. It was on some of his exploits demanding great courage, alertness, skill in surmounting the perils of the out-of-doors, that the founder of Scouting based some of the activities of the Boy Scout program. As an honorary Scout of the Boy Scouts of America, he has served as an inspiration to the youth of the Nation and is the embodiment of the qualities of the ideal Scout.

— 27th Annual Report of the Boy Scouts of America (1936).[37]

Burnham later became close friends with others involved in the Scouting movement in the United States, such as Theodore Roosevelt, the Chief Scout Citizen, and Gifford Pinchot, the Chief Scout Forester.[38] The Boy Scouts of America (BSA) made Burnham an Honorary Scout in 1927,[39] and for his noteworthy and extraordinary service to the Scouting movement, Burnham was bestowed the highest commendation given by the Boy Scouts of America, the Silver Buffalo Award, in 1936.[40] Throughout his life he remained active in Scouting at both the regional and the national level in the United States and he corresponded regularly with Baden-Powell on Scouting topics.

Park service trail connecting Mt. Burnham to Mt. Baden-Powell

The low-key Burnham and Baden-Powell remained close friends for their long lives. The seal on the Burnham - Baden-Powell letters at Yale and Stanford expired in 2000 and the true depth of their friendship and love of Scouting has again been revealed.[41] In 1931, Burnham read the speech dedicating Mount Baden-Powell in California,[42][43] to his old Scouting friend.[44] Their friendship, and equal status in the world of Scouting and conservation, is honored with the dedication of the adjoining peak, Mount Burnham,[45][46] in his honor.

Burnham's descendants followed in his footsteps and are active in Scouting and in the military. His son Roderick enlisted in the U.S. Army and fought in World War I France. His grandson, Frederick Russell Burnham II, was a leader in the BSA and a Vietnam war veteran. His great-grandson, Russell Adam Burnham is an Eagle Scout and was United States Army's Soldier of the Year in 2003.[47][48]

Later in life

Fred and Rod Burnham ca. 1930

Post war

After recovering from his wounds, Burnham served as the London office manager for the Wa Syndicate. In 1901, while still employed by the Wa Syndicate, he left London to lead an expedition through Ghana and Upper Volta to look for minerals and ways to improve river navigation in the region.[49] From 1902–1904, Burnham was employed by the East Africa Syndicate. He led a mineral prospecting expedition which traveled extensively in the area around Lake Rudolph (now Lake Turkana), and he discovered a lake of carbonate of soda in Tanzania.[29][50]

Yaqui

The Esperanza Stone. Found by Major Frederick Russell Burnham in Mexico (1910)

Burnham returned to North America and for the next few years became associated with the Yaqui River irrigation project in Mexico. While investigating the Yaqui valley for mineral and agricultural resources, Burnham reasoned that a dam could provide year-round water to rich alluvial soil in the valley; turning the region into one of the garden spots of the world and generate much needed electricity. He purchased water rights and some 300 acres (1.2 km2) of land in this region and contacted an old friend from Africa, John Hays Hammond, who conducted his own studies and then purchased an additional 900,000 acres (3,600 km2) of this land—an area the size of Rhode Island. Burnham together with Charles Frederick Holder, in 1908, made important archeological discoveries of Mayan civilization in this region, including the Esperanza Stone.[51][52] He became a close business associate of Hammond and led a team of 500 men in guarding mining properties owned by Hammond, J.P. Morgan, and the Guggenheimsin the Mexican state of Sonora.[53] Just as the irrigation and mining projects were nearing completion in 1912, a long series of Mexican revolutions began. The final blow to these efforts came in 1917 when Mexico passed laws prohibiting the sale of land to foreigners. Burnham and Hammond carried their properties until 1930 and then sold them to the Mexican government.[54]

Espionage

To my friendly enemy, Major Frederick Russell Burnham, the greatest scout of the world, whose eyes were that of an Empire. I once craved the honour of killing him, but failing that, I extend my heartiest admiration.

Fritz Joubert Duquesne, 1933, One warrior to another.[43]

During World War I, Burnham was living in California and was active in counterespionage for Britain.[55] Much of it involved a famous Boer spy, Capt. Fritz Joubert Duquesne, who became a German spy in both World Wars and claimed to have killed Field Marshal Kitchener while en route to meet with the Russians.[56] During the Second Boer War, Burnham and Duquesne were each under orders to assassinate the other, but it was not until 1910 that the two men first met while both were in Washington, D.C., separately lobbying Congress to pass a bill in favor of the importation of African game animals into the United States (H.R. 23621).[43] Duquesne was twice arrested by the FBI and in 1942 he, along with the 32 other Nazi agents who made up the Duquesne Spy Ring, was sent to prison for espionage in the largest spy ring conviction in U.S. history.[57]

I know Burnham. He is a scout and a hunter of courage and ability, a man totally without fear, a sure shot, and a fighter. He is the ideal scout, and when enlisted in the military service of any country he is bound to be of the greatest benefit.

President Theodore Roosevelt, 1901. [1]

During this period, Burnham was one of the eighteen officers selected by former U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt to raise a volunteer infantry division for service in France in 1917 shortly after the United States entered the war.[58] A plan to raise volunteer soldiers from the Western U.S. came out of a meeting of the New York based Rocky Mountain Club and Burnham was put in charge of both the general organization and recruitment from the Southwest.[59] Congress gave Roosevelt the authority to raise up to four divisions similar to the Rough Riders of 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry Regiment and to the British Army 25th (Frontiersmen) Battalion, Royal Fusiliers; however, as Commander-in-chief, President Woodrow Wilson refused to make use of Roosevelt's volunteers and the unit disbanded.[60][61]

Oil wealth

Although Burnham had lived all over the world, he never had a great deal of wealth to show for his efforts. It was not until he returned to California, the place of his youth, that he struck it rich. In 1923, Burnham struck oil at Dominguez Hill, California. In the first 10 years of operation, the Burnham Exploration Company paid out $10.2 million in dividends.[54]

Conservation

An avid conservationist and hunter, Burnham supported the early conservation programs of his friends Theodore Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot. He and his associate John Hayes Hammond led novel game expeditions to Africa with the goal of finding large animals such as Giant Eland, hippopotamus, zebra, and various bird species that might be bred in the United States and become game for future American sportsmen. Burnham, Hammond, and Duquesne appeared several times before the Committee on Agriculture to ask for help in importing large African animals.[62][63] In 1914, he helped establish the Wild Life Protective League of American, Department of Southern California, and served as its first Secretary.[64]

In his later years, Burnham filled various public offices and also served as a member of the Boone and Crockett Club of New York,[65][66] and as a founding member of the American Committee for International Wildlife Protection (now a committee of the World Conservation Union).[67] He was a founding member of the Save-the-Redwoods League, he helped lobby for and create the Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge and the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge for Desert Bighorn Sheep in Arizona, and he campaigned for state parks in California.[68][69] He was one of the original members of the first California State Parks Commission, serving from 1927 to 1934,[70] and late in his life he was president of the Southwest Museum of Los Angeles from 1938 until 1940.[71]

Personal life

Appearance

At 5 ft 4 in (1.62 m), Burnham was slight, but he was also muscular and bronzed, with a finely formed square jaw. He had a boyish appearance which he used to his advantage on numerous occasions. His most noticeable feature was his steady, grey-blue eyes. Contemporary reports had it that Burnham's gaze appeared to never leave those of the person he was looking at, and yet somehow could simultaneously monitor all the details of the physical surroundings. It was also said that Burnham's eyes possessed a far-away look such as those acquired by people whose occupation has caused them to watch continually at sea or on great plains.[1][3][72]

Mannerisms

Burnham would not smoke and seldom drank alcohol, fearing these habits would injure the acuteness of his sense of smell. He found ways to train himself in mental patience, took power naps instead of indulging in periods of long sleep, and drank very little liquid. He trained himself to accept these abstinences in order to endure the most appalling fatigues, hunger, thirst, and wounds, so that when scouting or traveling where there was no water, he might still be able to exist. On more than one occasion he survived in environments where others would have died, or were in fact dying, of exhaustion. To him scouting was as exact a study as is the piano, and it was said that he could read the face of nature as easily as most could read their morning newspaper. He was quiet-mannered and courteous, according to contemporaries. Their reports describe a man who was neither shy nor self-conscious, who was extremely modest, and who seldom spoke of his many adventures.[1][3][72]

Family

Blanche Blick Burnham in Bulawayo, Rhodesia, 1896

Burnham's wife of 55 years, Blanche Blick Burnham (February 25, 1862 - December 22, 1939) of Nevada, Iowa, accompanied him in very primitive conditions through many travels in both the Southwest United States and Southern Africa. They had three children together, but only one survived into adulthood. In the early years, she watched over the children and the pack animals, always careful to keep a rifle within arms length. In the dark of night, she used her rifle many times against lions and hyena and, during the Siege of Bulawayo, against Ndebele warriors. Several members of the Blick family joined the Burnhams in Rhodesia, moved with them to England, and returned to the United States with the Burnhams to live near Three Rivers, California. When Burnham Exploration Company struck it rich in 1923, the Burnhams moved to a mansion in a new housing development then known as Hollywoodland (a name later shortened to "Hollywood") and took many trips around the world in high style. In 1939, Blanche suffered a stroke. She died a month later and was buried in the Three Rivers Cemetery.[73][74]

Rod Burnham, 1921

Burnham's first son, Roderick (August 22, 1886 – July 2, 1976), was born in Pasadena, California, but accompanied the family to Africa and learned the Northern Ndebele language.[75] He went to Skagway, Alaska with his father, and then to a military school in France in 1900. In 1904, he attended the University of California, Berkeley, joined the football team, but left Berkeley after a dispute with his coach. From 1905-08, he went to the University of Arizona, joined the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity, played the position of running back, and became the captain of the football team. He attended the Michigan School of Mines (now Michigan Technological University) in 1910, became a geologist, and worked for Union Oil as Manager of Lands and Foreign Exploration helping to develop the first wells in Mexico and Venezuela.[76] He took time off from his job to serve in the U.S. Army in World War I and fought in France.[74] He and his father became minority owners of the Burnham Exploration Company, incorporated in 1919 by Harris Hays Hammond (the son of John Hays Hammond, Sr). In 1930, he and Paramount Pictures founder W. W. Hodkinson started the Central American Aviation Corporation, the first airline in Guatemala.[77][78]

Dedication

To the Memory of the Child: Nada Burnham, who "bound all to her" and, while her father cut his way through the hordes of the Ingobo Regiment, perished of the hardships of war at Buluwayo on 19 May 1896, I dedicate these tales—and more particularly the last, that of a Faith which triumphed over savagery and death.

H. Rider Haggard, from his book: The Wizard (1896)[79]

Nada (May 1894 - May 19, 1896), Burnham’s daughter who was the first white child born in Bulawayo, died of fever and starvation during the Siege of Bulawayo. She was buried three days later in the Pioneer Cemetery, plot #144, in Bulawayo, now Zimbabwe. Nada is the Zulu word for lily and she was named after the heroine in Sir H. Rider Haggard’s Zulu tale, Nada the Lily (1892). Three of Haggard's books are dedicated to Burnham's daughter, Nada: The Wizard (1896), Elissa: The Doom of Zimbabwe (1899), and Black Heart and White Heart: A Zulu Idyll (1900).[72][80]

Burnham’s youngest son, Bruce B. Burnham (1897–1902), was staying with family in London when he accidentally drowned in the River Thames.[81]

Howard Burnham, brother

His brother Howard (1870–1918), born shortly before the family moved to Los Angeles, lost one leg at the age of 14 and suffered from tuburculosis. As a teen he lived with Fred in California and learned from his brother the art of Scoutcraft, how to shoot, and how to ride the range, all in spite of his wooden leg.[43] Howard went to Africa and became a mining engineer in the gold mines of Johannesburg, South Africa and later wrote a text book on Modern Mine Valuation.[82] He traveled the world and for a time teamed up with Fred on Yaqui River irregation project in Mexico.[54] During World War I, Howard worked as a spy for the French government, operating behind enemy lines in southwest Germany.[43] Throughout the war he used his wooden leg to conceal tools he needed for spying.[43] From his death bed, Howard returned to France via Switzerland and shared his vital data and secrets with the French government: the Germans were not opening a new front in the Alps and there was no need to move allied troops away from the Western Front.[43] Howard was buried at Cannes, France, leaving behind his wife and four children.[43] He had been named after his second cousin, Lt. Howard Mather Burnham who was killed in action in the American Civil War[3].

In 1943, at 83 years of age, Burnham married his young typist, Ilo K. Willetts Burnham (1914–1958). The couple sold their mansion and moved to Santa Barbara in 1946.[74][83]

Burnham was a descendant of Thomas Burnham (1617–1688) of Hartford, Connecticut, the first American ancestor of a large number of Burnhams.[73] The descendants of Thomas Burnham have been noted in every American war, including the French and Indian war.[4]

Death

Burnham died at 86 on September 1, 1947 of heart failure at his home in Santa Barbara, California. At a private ceremony he was buried at Three Rivers, California, near his old cattle ranch, La Cuesta. His memorial stone was designed by his only surviving child, Roderick. Also buried at Three Rivers cemetery is his first wife, Blanche Blick Burnham, several members of the Blick family who had also pioneered in 19th century Rhodesia with Burnham for a time, his son Roderick, his granddaughter Martha Burnham Burleigh, and the Montana cowboy “Pete” Ingram who survived the Shangani Patrol massacre along with Burnham.[84]

Legacy

Ernest Hemingway acquired the rights to produce a film version of Scouting on Two Continents in late 1958. CBS immediately contracted Hemingway to produce the film for television, with Gary Cooper expressing an interest in playing the part of Burnham. Hemingway was already behind schedule in his other commitments and never started on the film when he committed suicide in July 1961.[85]

Burnham was portrayed by Will Hutchins in Shangani Patrol (1970), a feature film by David Millin.[86] Filmed on location in Bulawayo, Rhodesia by RPM Film Studios, 35 mm copies of the film are now preserved by the National Film, Video and Sound Archives, Pretoria, South Africa.

In 1933, the newly discovered Serbelodon burnhami (now Amebelodon burnhami), an extinct gomphothere (Shovel-Tusker elephant) from North America, was officially named after Burnham.[87]

Union Oil was the official sponsor of the Major Burnham Bowling Trophy, an annual bowling event supported by the Boy Scouts of America and held in California.[88][89]

On My Honor, an epic film conceived and begun by Cecil B. DeMille, was to document the founding of the Scouting movement but was left unfinished because of the legendary producer's untimely death in January 1959. In the screenplay started by Jesse Lasky, Jr., the film would have focused on Baden-Powell and the Scouting pioneers who were a major influence on Baden-Powell, including Burnham. Even after DeMille's death, associate producer Henry Wilcoxon continued to invest substantial work on the film until 1962, and Sydney Box was hired to assist with the script. Starting in 2001, producers Jerry Molen and Robert Starling began work to finish DeMille's project, including an updated screenplay by Starling based on the earlier work of Lasky and Box.[90][91]

Allan Quatermain and Indiana Jones

"Burnham in real life is more interesting than any of my heroes of romance!"

Rider Haggard's fictional Allan Quatermain character was heavily influenced by his close friendship Burnham. Quatermain and Burnham were both small and wiry Victorian adventurers in colonial Africa, both sought and discovered ancient treasures and civilizations, both battled large wild animals and native peoples, both were renowned for their ability to track, even at night, and both men had strikingly similar nicknames: Quatermain, "Watcher-by-Night"; Burnham, "He-who-sees-in-the-dark". But Burnham’s influence on fictional adventurers wasn’t to end there. In the 1970s, a young movie director, George Lucas, decided to write the ultimate adventure film. The template for his hero, Indiana Jones, was the hero of the H. Rider Haggard books, Allan Quatermain.[14]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f Davis, Richard Harding (1906). Real Soldiers of Fortune. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0873642392. 
  2. ^ a b West, James E.; Peter O. Lamb; illustrated by Lord Baden-Powell (1932). He-who-sees-in-the-dark; the boys' story of Frederick Burnham, the American scout. Brewer, Warren and Putnam. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Burnham, Frederick Russell (1926). Scouting on Two Continents. Doubleday, Page & company. pp. 2; Chapters 3 & 4. OCLC 407686. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Press Reference Library: Notables of the West. International News Service. 1915. 
  5. ^ Carr, Harry (September 6 1931). "They knew the old California bandits". Los Angeles Times: K10. 
  6. ^ R. R. Money (April 1962). "Tonto Basin Feud". Blackwood's Magazine 291. ISSN 0006-436X. 
  7. ^ Donovan, Charles Henry Wynne (1894). With Wilson in Matabeleland, Or, Sport and War in Zambesia. London: Henry. p. 271. 
  8. ^ a b Forbes, Archibald; Arthur Griffiths, George Alfred Henty, and E. F. Knight (1896). Battles of the Nineteenth Century. London, Paris, Melbourne: Castle. pp. 110–119. 
  9. ^ Hensman, Howard (1900) (PDF). A history of Rhodesia, compiled from official sources. Edinburgh and London: W. Blackwood and sons. http://www.rhodesia.nl/hensman.pdf. 
  10. ^ Wills, W.A.; L.T Collingridge (with contributions by Frederick C Selous and H. Rider Haggard) (1894). The Downfall of Lobengula. The African Review. pp. 153–172. 
  11. ^ Burnham, Frederick Russell (1899). "Northern Rhodesia". in Wills, Walter H.. Bulawayo Up-to-date; Being a General Sketch of Rhodesia. Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent & Co.. pp. 177–180. 
  12. ^ Baxter, T.W.; E.E. Burke (1970). Guide to the Historical Manuscripts in the National Archives of Rhodesia. p. 67. 
  13. ^ "Railway And Other Companies: Northern Territories (B.S.A.) Exploring Company Limited". The Times (35824): 3. May 9 1899. 
  14. ^ a b Hough, Harold (January 2010). "The Arizona Miner and Indiana Jones". Miner News. http://www.minersnews.com/Dec09Jan10/AZMiner.html. 
  15. ^ Juang, Richard M. (2008). Africa and the Americas: culture, politics, and history : a multidisciplinary encyclopedia, Volume 2 Transatlantic relations series. ABC-CLIO. p. 1157. ISBN 1851094415. 
  16. ^ Selous, Frederick Courteney (1896). Sunshine and Storm in Rhodesia. London: R. Ward. http://books.google.com/books?id=GjNfildy5fsC&pg=PA1&dq=Sunshine+and+Storm+in+Rhodesia. 
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  19. ^ Farwell, Byron (2001). The Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Land Warfare: An Illustrated World View. W. W. Norton. p. 539. ISBN 0393047709. 
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  51. ^ Charles Holder (1910). "The Esperanza Stone". Scientific American (Scientific American, Inc): 196. ISSN 0036-8733. 
  52. ^ Fort, Charles; Horace Liveright (1919). The Book of the Damned. Horace Liveright. chapter XI. http://www.sacred-texts.com/fort/damned/damn11.htm. 
  53. ^ "Guarding Morgan Mines: Burnham's Force also at Guggenheim Properties is report". New York Times. April 23, 1912. ISSN 0362-4331. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=940CE3D81231E233A25750C2A9629C946396D6CF. Retrieved 2007-09-28. 
  54. ^ a b c John Hays Hammond (1935). The Autobiography of John Hays Hammond. Farrar & Rinehart. p. 565. ISBN 0-40505-913-2. 
  55. ^ Lott, J. "Jack" P. (March 1977). "Major F. R. Burnham, D.S.O.". Rhodesiana Magazine 36. ISSN 0556-9605. 
  56. ^ Wood, Clement (1932). The man who killed Kitchener: The life of Fritz Joubert Duquesne. New York: W. Faro. OCLC 1071583. 
  57. ^ "FBI History: Famous Cases". Federal Bureau of Investigation. http://www.fbi.gov/libref/historic/famcases/spyring/spyring.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-05. 
  58. ^ "Burnham, FR". Anglo Boer War. http://angloboerwar.com/DSO/b/burnham_fr.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-13. 
  59. ^ "Enroll Westerners for Service in War; Movement to Register Men of That Region Begun at the Rocky Mountain Club. Headed by Major Burnham. John Hays Hammond and Others of Prominence Reported to be Supporting Plan". New York Times. March 13, 1917. ISSN 0362-4331. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9D05E1DA123BEE3ABC4B52DFB566838C609EDE&oref=slogin. 
  60. ^ Roosevelt, Theodore (1917). The Foes of Our Own Household. New York: George H. Doran. p. 347. LCCN 17025965. 
  61. ^ "Roosevelt's Army has not lost hope; Colonel's Aids from all over the country meet and leave the future in his hands.". New York Times. May 20, 1917. ISSN 0362-4331. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9F02E3DA123AE433A25753C2A9639C946696D6CF. 
  62. ^ "May import African animals to solve meat problem". New York Times. April 17, 1910. ISSN 0362-4331. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9B02E6D71539E433A25754C1A9629C946196D6CF. Retrieved 2007-09-28. 
  63. ^ "Animals from Africa: Maj Burnham will import wild beasts for Western plains". Washington Post (reprint from New York Herald). March 3, 1911. ISSN 0148-2076. 
  64. ^ Bryant, H. C. (April 1915). "Organizations Defending Wild Life". California Fish and Game: 123. ISSN 0008-1078. 
  65. ^ "The Fauna of the British Empire". Science 71: 308. March 21, 1930. doi:10.1126/science.71.1838.308. 
  66. ^ "Maj. Burnham and family depart for Africa: Angelenos to tour world". Los Angeles Times. May 14, 1929. ISSN 0458-3035. 
  67. ^ "Scientific Notes and News". Science 71: 536. May 23, 1930. ISSN 0036-8075. 
  68. ^ Arizona Department of Transportation (1941). "Arizona National Wildlife Refuges". Arizona Highways (magazine) 17. ISSN 0004-1521. 
  69. ^ Coates, Peter A. (2007). American Perceptions of Immigrant and Invasive Species: Strangers on the Land. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0520249305. 
  70. ^ Colby, William E.; Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr (April 1933). "Borrego Desert Park". Sierra Club Bulletin XVIII: 144. http://www.sandiegohistory.org/journal/73fall/anza.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-29. 
  71. ^ Dan L. Thrapp (1991). Encyclopedia of frontier biography. University of Nebraska Press. p. 195. ISBN 0-80329-418-2. 
  72. ^ a b c Haggard, H. Rider (1926). The Days of My Life Volume II. http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks03/0300141.txt. Retrieved 2006-12-17. 
  73. ^ a b Bradford, Mary E; Richard H Bradford (1993). An American family on the African frontier: the Burnham family letters, 1893–1896. Niwot, Colorado: Roberts Rinehart. ISBN 1879373661. 
  74. ^ a b c van Wyke, Peter (2003). Burnham: Chief of Scouts. Victoria, Canada: Trafford Publishing. ISBN 1879373661. 
  75. ^ "A Young South African". Los Angeles Times. June 6, 1896. ISSN 0458-3035. 
  76. ^ "Californians Develop Venezuela Oil Fields". Los Angeles Times. June 19, 1927. ISSN 0458-3035. 
  77. ^ "Plane line saves weeks: American Air Service in Guatemala carries odd passenger list over hard country". New York Times. January 17, 1932. ISSN 0362-4331. 
  78. ^ Cubé, Caroline. "Finding Aid for the W.W. Hodkinson Papers, 1881-1971". Manuscript guide. University of California Los Angeles, Special Collections, Young Research Library. http://content.cdlib.org/view?docId=kt429020hc&doc.view=entire_text&brand=oac. Retrieved 2007-10-15. 
  79. ^ Haggard, H. Rider (1896). The Wizard. New York, London: Longmans, Green. 
  80. ^ "Rider Haggard's Tribute". Atlanta Constitution. November 21, 1896. ISSN 0093-1179. 
  81. ^ Montgomery, Ruth (1967). A Search for the Truth. New York: Fawcett Crest. ISBN 0449210855. 
  82. ^ Burnham, M. Howard (1912). Modern Mine Valuation. London, C. Griffin and Company, limited. ISBN 1151746312. 
  83. ^ Weideman, Christine. "Guide to the Frederick Russell Burnham Papers". Manuscript guide. Yale University Library. http://mssa.library.yale.edu/findaids/stream.php?xmlfile=mssa.ms.0115.xml. Retrieved 2007-09-11. 
  84. ^ Elliott, John (2004). "King of Scouts honored at gravesite". The Kaweah Commonwealth Online. http://www.kaweahcommonwealth.com/8-27-04features.htm. Retrieved 2004-08-27. 
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  87. ^ Osborn, Henry Fairfield (June 29 1933). "Serbelodon Burnhami, a new Shovel-Tusker from California" (PDF). American Museum Novitates (639): 1–5. http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/dspace/bitstream/2246/2061/1/N0639.pdf. Retrieved 2007-11-01. 
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  89. ^ Ehrenclou, V. L. (May-June 1925). "Major Burnham - The Scout". Union Oil Bulletin: 1–11, 19. OCLC 12064434. 
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Bibliography

Works

Burnham's Scouting on Two Continents. (1934 edition). Cover sketch of Burnham by Baden-Powell
  • Burnham, Frederick Russell (1926). Scouting on Two Continents. Doubleday, Page. ISBN 1879356317. 
  • Burnham, Frederick Russell (1944). Taking Chances. Haynes. ISBN 1-879356-32-5. 
  • Bradford, Mary E; Richard H Bradford (1993). An American family on the African frontier: the Burnham family letters, 1893–1896. Niwot, Colorado: Roberts Rinehart. ISBN 1879373661. 
  • Burnham, Frederick R. (1927). "The remarks of Major Frederick R. Burnham". Historical Society of Southern California 13 (4): 334–352. 

Biographies

  • Davis, Richard Harding (1906). Real Soldiers of Fortune. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0873642392. ; Real Soldiers of Fortune at Project Gutenberg
  • West, James E.; Peter O. Lamb, illustrated by Lord Baden-Powell (1932). He-who-sees-in-the-dark; the boys' story of Frederick Burnham, the American scout. Brewer, Warren and Putnam. OCLC 1710834. 
  • van Wyk, Peter (2003). "Burnham: King of Scouts". Trafford Publishing. http://www.burnhamkingofscouts.com/. Retrieved 2007-03-30. 
  • Wilson, James Grant; John Fiske (1900). Appleton's Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: Gale Research. p. 249. ISBN 1855069571. 
  • Homans, James Edward (1918). The Cyclopaedia of American Biography. New Enlarged Edition of Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography. Volume VIII.. New York: The Press Association Compilers, inc. pp. 249–251. OCLC 81277904. 
  • Hammond, John Hays (January-June 1921). "South African Memories: Rhodes - Barnato - Burnham". Scribner's Magazine LXIX: 257–277. 
  • Britt, Albert (1923). The Boys' Own Book of Adventurers. New York: The Macmillan company. p. A chapter on Burnham, the Last of the Scouts. OCLC 4585632. 
  • Ehrenclou, V. L. (May-June 1925). "Major Burnham - The Scout". Union Oil Bulletin: 1–11, 19. OCLC 12064434. 
  • Haggard, H. Rider (1926). The Days of My Life Volume II. London, New York: Longmans, Green and Co. Chapter XVII is on Major Burnham; Letters in chapter XIII dedicated to Burnham's daughter, Nada. OCLC 476006. http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks03/0300141.txt. 
  • Banning, William; George Hugh Banning (1930). Six Horses. New York: Century. Foreword by Frederick Russell Burnham. OCLC 1744707. 
  • Shippey, Lee; A. L. Ewing (1930). Folks Ushud Know; Interspersed with Songs of Courage. Sierra Madre, Calif: Sierra Madre Press. p. 23; Chapter on Major Burnham. OCLC 2846678. 
  • Grant, Madison; Charles Stewart Davison (1930). The alien in our midst; or, "Selling our birthright for a mess of pottage"; the written views of a number of Americans (present and former) on immigration and its results. New York: Galton Pub. Co.. Essay by Major Burnham titled, The howl for cheap Mexican labor, pp. 44–48. OCLC 3040493. 
  • West, James E. (1931). The Boy Scout's Book of True Adventure: their own story of famous exploits and adventures told by honorary scouts. New York: Putman. Essay by Major Burnham titled Scouting Against the Apache; foreword by Theodore Roosevelt. OCLC 8484128. 
  • Grinnell, George Bird Grinnell; Kermit Roosevelt, W. Redmond Cross, and Prentiss N. Gray (editors) (1933). Hunting trails on three continents; a book of the Boone and Crockett Club. New York: The Derrydale Press. Essay by Major Burnham titled, Taps for the Great Selous. OCLC 1624738. 
  • "In my fathers house are many mansions". Sunset Club Yearbook. May-June 1951. EPH.061.9494.11. 
  • American Council of Learned Societies (1928-58). Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Scribner. OCLC 4171403. 
  • Money, R. R. (January 1962). "Greatest Scout". Blackwood's Magazine v291: 42–52. ISSN 0006-436X. 
  • Lott, J.P. "Jack" (September 1976). "Major Burnham of the Shangani Patrol". Rhodesiana Magazine. ISSN 0006-436X. 
  • Bradford, Richard H. (1984). "Frederick Russell Burnham, the British Empire's American Scout". Paper presented at the American Historical Society Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C.. 

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Major Frederick Russell Burnham (11 May 18611 September 1947) was an American scout and world traveling adventurer known for his service to the British Army in colonial Africa and for teaching woodcraft to Robert Baden-Powell, thus becoming one of the inspirations for the founding of the international Scouting Movement.

Sourced

  • There is nothing that sharpens a man's senses so acutely as to know that bitter and determined enemies are in pursuit of him night and day.
    • Scouting on Two Continents (1926)
  • Under the administration of Rhodes, there were the fewest laws, the widest freedom, the least crime, and the turest justice, that I have ever seen in any part of the world.
    • Scouting on Two Continents (1926)
  • As far as we can look back into history, the downfall of any nation can be traced from the moment that nation became timid about spending its best blood.
    • Taking Chances (1944)
  • I am more afraid of an army of a hundred sheep led by a lion than an army of a hundred lions led by a sheep.
    • Taking Chances (1944)

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Simple English

Frederick Russell Burnham
May 11, 1861(1861-05-11) – September 01, 1947 (aged 86)
Nickname The King of Scouts;[1] He-who-sees-in-the-dark;[2] Fred
Place of birth Tivoli, Minnesota (Sioux Indian territory; near Mankato, MN)
Place of death Santa Barbara, California, buried at Three Rivers, California
Allegiance Scout for the British Army in Southern Africa; U.S. citizen.
Years of service 1893–1897, 1900–1901
Rank Major
Commands held Chief of Scouts under Lord Roberts
Battles/wars Pleasant Valley War
Indian Wars:
— Apache Wars
— Cheyenne War
Geronimo campaign
First Matabele War:
— Shangani Patrol
Second Matabele War:
— Assassination of Mlimo
Second Boer War:
— Battle of Paardeberg
— Driefontein (March 10, 1900)
— Johannesburg (May 31, 1900)
— March on Pretoria (June 2–5, 1900)
Awards Distinguished Service Order
Queen's South Africa Medal
British South Africa Company Medal
Victoria Cross (declined)
Boy Scouts Silver Buffalo Award
Mount Burnham (California).
Other work messenger, Indian tracker, gold miner, wealthy oil man, American spy. Father of the international Scouting movement and a close friend of Robert Baden-Powell.

Frederick Russell Burnham, DSO (May 11, 1861 – September 1, 1947) was an American scout and world traveling adventurer known for his service to the British Army in colonial Africa and for teaching woodcraft to Robert Baden-Powell.

Burnham attended high school but never graduated. When he was 14 he began his working as a scout and tracker for the U.S. Army. As an adult Burnham went to Africa where this background proved useful. He soon became an officer in the British Army and fought in several battles there. It was during this time this Burnham became friends with Baden-Powell and taught him both his outdoor skills and his spirit for what became known as Scouting.

Burnham eventually moved on to become involved in espionage, oil, conservation, writing and business. His descendants are still active in Scouting.

Contents

Early life

Burnham was born to a missionary family on an Indian Reservation in Tivoli, Minnesota. As a baby, he witnessed the burning of New Ulm, Minnesota, by Taoyateduta (Little Crow) and his Sioux warriors in the Dakota War of 1862. During the uprising, his mother, Rebecca (Elizabeth) Russell Burnham, hid the not quite two-year-old boy in a basket of green corn husks and fled for her life. Once the Sioux had been driven away the mother returned to find the house burned down. Her young son was safe, fast asleep in the basket and protected only by the corn husks.[1][3]

The young Burnham attended schools in Iowa and there he met Blanche Blick, who would later become his wife. His family moved to Los Angeles, California, in 1870. Two years later his father, the Rev. Edwin Otway Burnham of Kentucky, himself a long time pioneer and missionary along the border of the Ho Chunk (Winnebago) Indian reservation in Minnesota, died when Burnham was only 12. While his mother and his then 3 year old baby brother Howard Burnham returned to Iowa, the young Burnham stayed in California to make his own way.[4]

For the next three years, Burnham worked for the Western Union Telegraph Company in California and Arizona. At 14, he began his life as a scout and Indian tracker in the Apache Wars. He traveled in northern Mexico and the American Southwest, including Texas and Oklahoma, earning a living as a buffalo hunter, cowboy, and prospector, and he continued working as a scout.[4]

In 1882, Burnham returned to Arizona and was appointed Deputy Sheriff of Pinal County, but he soon went back to cattle and mining. He fought in the Tonto Basin Feud and almost died in Arizona.[3][5] He returned to Prescott, Iowa, to visit his former girlfriend, Blanche, and the two were married on February 6, 1884.[4] He and Blanche settled down to tend to an orange grove in Pasadena, California, but soon he was back prospecting and scouting.

Burnham began to look at Africa as a land of opportunity and adventure. He sold what little he owned and, in 1893, left by ship to Cape Town, South Africa with his wife and young son. He joined the British South Africa Company as a scout and headed north. Burnham became well known in Africa for his ability to track, even at night, and the Africans named him He-who-sees-in-the-dark.[2]

Military career

First Matabele War

In 1893 the British South Africa Company went to war with the Matabele King Lobengula. Leander Starr Jameson wanted to defeat the Matabele quickly by capturing Lobengula at Bulawayo. Burnham was sent to report on the situation in Bulawayo. He watched as the Matabele burned down and destroyed everything. Lobengula and his warriors then fled and there was little left of old Bulawayo.[6]

Shangani Patrol

Jameson then dispatched several soldiers to locate and capture Lobengula. Led by Major Patrick Forbes, the soldiers camped on the Shangani River about 25 miles (40 km) north-east of the village of Lupane on the evening of December 3, 1893. The next day, late in the afternoon, a dozen men under the command of Maj. Allan Wilson acrossed the river to scout the area. The soldiers found a group of Matabele women and children who said they knew where Lobengula’s was located. The lead scout, Burnham, sensed a trap, but Wilson ordered his soldiers to advance.[7]

Later the patrol found the king and Wilson asked for reinforcements. But Major Forbes did not want to send his soldiers across the river in the dark, so he sent only 20 more men, under the command of Henry Borrow, to help Wilson. Forbes wanted to send the rest of his soldiers and artillery across the river the following morning. But he and his soldiers were attacked by Matabele warriors. Wilson’s soldiers were also attacked, but the Shangani River was flooded by the rains and there was no way to cross. IWilson sent Burnham and two other scouts, Pearl “Pete” Ingram (a Montana cowboy) and George Gooding (an Australian), to cross the Shangani River, find Forbes, and bring reinforcements. In spite of a shower of bullets and spears, the three made it to Forbes, but there was no hope of returning to Wilson in time. Wilson, Borrow, and the other soldiers were all killed by the Matabele warriors.[7][8]

Northern Rhodesia Exploration

In 1895, Burnham went to Northern Rhodesia and found major copper deposits.[9][10][11] For his excellent work, Burnham was elected a follow of the Royal Geographical Society.[12]

Second Matabele War

In March 1896, the Matabele again fought the British South Africa Company in what is now celebrated in Zimbabwe as the First War of Independence. Mlimo was the Matabele spiritual leader and started the fighting. With few troops to support them, the settlers quickly built defenses in Bulawayo sent their best warriors, Burnham, Baden-Powell, and Selous and others to fight. About 50,000 Matabele retreated to the Matobo Hills near Bulawayo, to fight the British soldiers.[13]

Assassination of Mlimo

Close to a Matabele village, Burnham and Bonar Armstrong found the cave in Matobo Hills where Mlimo had been hiding. Once inside the cave they waited until Mlimo entered.[14] Burnham and Armstrong waited until Mlimo entered the cave and Burnham shot Mlimo just below the heart.[14] The two men then ran to their horses. Hundreds of Matabele warriors then left camp to search for the attackers, but escaped. After the assassination of Mlimo, Cecil Rhodes spoke with the Matabele warrior and got them to end the Second Matabele War.[15][16]

Burnham is the finest scout who ever scouted in Africa. He was my Chief of Scouts in '96 in Matabeleland and he was the the eyes and ears of my force.

— Gen. Carrington, British Army commander during the Second Matabele War.[17]

Klondike Gold Rush

With the Matabele war over, Burnham and his family left Africa and returned to California. Soon he and his son Roderick, then 12 years old, traveled to Alaska and the Yukon to prospect in the Klondike Gold Rush.[3] After reading about of the Spanish-American War, Burnham rushed home to volunteer, but the fighting ended too soon. Burnham then returned to the Klondike. Colonel Theodore Roosevelt wish Burnham had been there to help.[4]

Second Boer War

In January 1900, while prospecting in Skagway, Alaska, Burnham received a telegram: Lord Roberts appoints you on his personal staff as Chief of Scouts. If you accept, come at once the quickest way possible. He left almost immediately.[18] Burnham was made a captain and he arrive in South Africa just before the Battle of Paardeberg. During the war, Burnham crossed Boer lines many times. He was captured by Boer soldiers twice and escaped twice escaped, but he was shot and almost killed.[18]

I take this opportunity of thanking you for the valuable services you have rendered since you joined my headquarters at Paardeberg last February. I doubt if any other man in the force could have successfully carried out the thrilling enterprises in demanding as they did the training of a lifetime, combined with exceptional courage, caution, and powers of endurance.

— Lord Roberts, Commander of all British troops fighting in the Second Boer War (1900).[19]
returning from the Boer War on the Dunottar Castle, July 1900.[20]]]

After he was shot and almost killed, Burnham was sent to England by Lord Roberts and promoted to the rank of major.[3][21][22] Once in England, Burnham was asked to dine with Queen Victoria.[23] After the Queen's death, King Edward VII presented Burnham with the Queen's South Africa Medal with four bars for the battles at Driefontein (Mar 10, 1900), Johannesburg (May 31, 1900), Paardeberg (February 17–26, 1900), and Cape Colony (October 11, 1899 – May 31, 1902), in addition to the cross of the Distinguished Service Order,[22][24] as a hero.

"Father of Scouting"

Frederick Russell Burnham: Explorer, discoverer, cowboy, and Scout. Native American, he served as chief of scouts in the Boer War, an intimate friend of Lord Baden-Powell. It was on some of his exploits demanding great courage, alertness, skill in surmounting the perils of the out-of-doors, that the founder of Scouting based some of the activities of the Boy Scout program. As an honorary Scout of the Boy Scouts of America, he has served as an inspiration to the youth of the Nation and is the embodiment of the qualities of the ideal Scout.

— 27th Annual Report of the Boy Scouts of America (1936).[25]

Burnham became friends with Baden-Powell during the Second Matabele War. Baden-Powell and Burnham rode many times into the Matobo Hills on patrol, and it was here that Burnham taught Baden-Powell to the ways and methods of American indians and cowboys and taught him woodcraft (better known today as scoutcraft).[26] Burnham also taught Baden-Powell to wear his signature Stetson campaign hat and kerchief for the first time.[27] and the two men discussed teaching scouting to young men. In Africa, there was no better scout than Burnham.[28] Baden-Powell later started scouting for boys and Burnham is known as the father of scouting.[29]

Burnham is the sufficient and heroic figure, model and living example, who inspired and gave Baden-Powell the plan for the program and the code of honor of Scouting for Boys.

— E.B. DeGroot, BSA Executive (1944).[30]


Burnham later became close friends with others in Scouting, such as Theodore Roosevelt, the Chief Scout Citizen, and Gifford Pinchot, the Chief Scout Forester.[31] The Boy Scouts of America (BSA) made Burnham an Honorary Scout in 1927,[32] and was awarded by the Boy Scouts of America the Silver Buffalo Award, in 1936.[33] Burnham stayed active in Scouting spoke regularly with Baden-Powell on Scouting. Burnham and Baden-Powell stayed close friends for life. [34]

In 1931, Burnham read the speech dedicating Mount Baden-Powell in California,[35][36] to his old Scouting friend.[37] Later, a nearby mountain was dedicated to Burnham, Mount Burnham.[38][39] in his honor.

Burnham's family stayed active in Scouting and in the military. His son Roderick joined the U.S. Army and fought in World War I France. His grandson, Frederick Russell Burnham II, was a leader in the Boy Scout and fought in the Vietnam War . His great-grandson, Russell Adam Burnham is an Eagle Scout and was United States Army's Soldier of the Year in 2003.[40][41]

Later in life

Post war

Burnham worked as the London office manager for the Wa Syndicate. In 1901, while working for the Wa Syndicate, he left London to scout in Ghana and Upper Volta.[42] From 1902–1904, Burnham worked in the East Africa Syndicate. He scouted in the area around Lake Rudolph (now Lake Turkana) and he discovered a lake of carbonate of soda in Tanzania.[23][43]

Yaqui

Burnham returned to North America and participated in the Yaqui River irrigation project in Mexico. Burnham wanted to build a dam on the Yaqui river to improve farming and create electricity. With an old friend from Africa, John Hays Hammond, Burnham bought water rights and land. in 1908, Burnham with Charles Frederick Holder, discovered ruins from a Mayan civilization that had been nearby. One ruin they named the Esperanza Stone.[44][45] Just as the partners were finishing their work in 1912, several Mexican revolutions began. In 1917, when Mexico passed laws stopping the sale of land to foreigners. Burnham and Hammond kept their lands until 1930 and then sold them to the Mexican government.[46]

Spy

To my friendly enemy, Major Frederick Russell Burnham, the greatest scout of the world, whose eyes were that of an Empire. I once craved the honour of killing him, but failing that, I extend my heartiest admiration.

Fritz Joubert Duquesne, 1933, One warrior to another.[36]

During World War I, Burnham was living in California working as a spy for Britain.[47] He spied on a famous Boer spy, Capt. Fritz Joubert Duquesne, who became a German spy in both World Wars and claimed to have killed Field Marshal Kitchener.[48] During the Second Boer War, Burnham and Duquesne had tried to assassinate eachother, but they never met until 1910 in Washington, D.C.[36] Duquesne was arrested twice by the FBI and in 1942 he and 32 other Nazi agents were captured and sent to prison in the largest spy ring case in U.S. history.[49]

I know Burnham. He is a scout and a hunter of courage and ability, a man totally without fear, a sure shot, and a fighter. He is the ideal scout, and when enlisted in the military service of any country he is bound to be of the greatest benefit.

President Theodore Roosevelt, 1901. [1]

In 1917, after the U.S. entered World War I, former U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt asked Burnham to create a volunteer Army to fight in France.[50][51] The U.S. Congress let Roosevelt create an Army similar to the Rough Riders of 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry Regiment, but President Woodrow Wilson would not accept the use of these volunteers.[52][53]

Oil wealth

In 1923, Burnham found oil at Dominguez Hill, California. In the first 10 years of operation, the Burnham Exploration Company paid out $10.2 million in dividends.[46]

Conservation

A conservationist and hunter, Burnham supported the early conservation programs of his friends Theodore Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot. He and John Hayes Hammond left for Africa to bring back to the United States large animals such as Giant Eland, hippopotamus, zebra, and various bird species for breeding for future hunting. Burnham, Hammond, and Duquesne went to the U.S. Congress to ask for help in importing large African animals.[54][55] In 1914, he helped establish the Wild Life Protective League of American, Department of Southern California, and worked as its first Secretary.[56]

Burnham later worked in various public positions and also as a member of the Boone and Crockett Club of New York,[57][58] and as a founding member of the American Committee for International Wildlife Protection (now a committee of the World Conservation Union).[59] He helped start the Save-the-Redwoods League, he helped create the Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge and the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge for Desert Bighorn Sheep in Arizona, and he help start state parks in California.[60][61] He was one of the original members of the first California State Parks Commission, serving from 1927 to 1934,[62] and late in his life he was president of the Southwest Museum of Los Angeles from 1938 until 1940.[63]

Personal life

Appearance

At 5 ft 4 in (1.62 m), Burnham was slight, but he was also muscular and bronzed, with a finely formed square jaw and steady, grey-blue eyes. [1][3][64]

Mannerisms

Burnham would not smoke and seldom drank alcohol, fearing these habits would hurt his sense of smell. He trained himself in mental patience, took power naps instead of long sleep, and drank very little water. He trained himself to accept these abstinences to help him overcome hunger, thirst, and exhaustion. He survived in places where others would have died, or were in fact dying, of exhaustion. To Burnham, scouting was an exact skill. He could read the face of nature as easily as most could read their morning newspaper. He was quiet-mannered and courteous, a man who was neither shy nor self-conscious, who was extremely modest, and who seldom spoke of his many adventures.[1][3][64]

Family

He was married to Blanche Blick Burnham (February 25, 1862 - December 22, 1939) of Nevada, Iowa for 55 years. She accompanied him in very primitive conditions through many travels in both the Southwest United States and Southern Africa. They had three children together, but only one survived into adulthood. In the early years, she watched over the children and the pack animals, always careful to keep a rifle within arms length. In the dark of night, she used her rifle many times against lions and hyena and, during the Siege of Bulawayo, against Ndebele warriors. Several members of the Blick family joined the Burnhams in Rhodesia, moved with them to England, and returned to the United States with the Burnhams to live near Three Rivers, California. When Burnham Exploration Company struck found oil in 1923, the Burnhams moved to a mansion in a new housing development then known as Hollywoodland (a name later shortened to "Hollywood") and took many trips around the world. In 1939, Blanche suffered a stroke. She died a month later and was buried in the Three Rivers Cemetery.[65][66]

Burnham's first son, Roderick (August 22, 1886 – July 2, 1976), was born in Pasadena, California, but went with the family to Africa and learned the Northern Ndebele language.[67] He went to Skagway, Alaska with his father, and then to a military school in France in 1900. In 1904, he went to the University of California, Berkeley, joined the football team, but left Berkeley after a fight with his coach. From 1905-08, he went to the University of Arizona, joined the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity, played football as running back and as captain of the team. He attended the Michigan School of Mines (now Michigan Technological University) in 1910, became a geologist, and worked for Union Oil as Manager of Lands and Foreign Exploration. He help build the first wells in Mexico and Venezuela.[68] He took time off from his job to serve in the U.S. Army in World War I and fought in France.[66] He and his father worked for the Burnham Exploration Company, incorporated in 1919 by Harris Hays Hammond (the son of John Hays Hammond, Sr). In 1930, he and Paramount Pictures founder W. W. Hodkinson started the Central American Aviation Corporation, the first airline in Guatemala.[69][70]

Dedication

To the Memory of the Child: Nada Burnham, who "bound all to her" and, while her father cut his way through the hordes of the Ingobo Regiment, perished of the hardships of war at Buluwayo on 19 May 1896, I dedicate these tales—and more particularly the last, that of a Faith which triumphed over savagery and death.

H. Rider Haggard, from his book: The Wizard (1896)[71]

Nada (May 1894 - May 19, 1896), Burnham’s daughter who was the first white child born in Bulawayo, died of fever and starvation during the Siege of Bulawayo. She was buried three days later in the Pioneer Cemetery, plot #144, in Bulawayo, now Zimbabwe. Nada is the Zulu word for lily and she was named after the heroine in Sir H. Rider Haggard’s Zulu tale, Nada the Lily (1892). Three of Haggard's books are dedicated to Burnham's daughter, Nada: The Wizard (1896), Elissa: The Doom of Zimbabwe (1899), and Black Heart and White Heart: A Zulu Idyll (1900).[64][72]

Burnham’s youngest son, Bruce B. Burnham (1897–1902) accidentally drowned in the River Thames in London.[73]

, brother]] His brother Howard (1870–1918) was born shortly before the family moved to Los Angeles. He lost one leg at the age of 14 and suffered from tuburculosis. As a teen he lived with Fred in California and learned from his brother the art of Scoutcraft, how to shoot, and how to ride the range, all in spite of his wooden leg.[36] Howard went to Africa and became a mining engineer in the gold mines of Johannesburg, South Africa and later wrote a text book on Modern Mine Valuation.[74] He traveled the world and for a time teamed up with Fred on Yaqui River irregation project in Mexico.[46] During World War I, Howard worked as a spy for the French government, operating behind enemy lines in southwest Germany.[36] Howard used his wooden leg to hide tools he needed for spying.[36] He returned to France via Switzerland and shared his secrets with the French government: the Germans were not opening a new front in the Alps and there was no need to move allied troops away from the Western Front.[36] Howard was buried at Cannes, France, leaving behind his wife and four children.[36] He had been named after his second cousin, Lt. Howard Mather Burnham who was killed in action in the American Civil War[3].

In 1943, when he was 83 years old, Burnham married his young typist, Ilo K. Willetts Burnham (1914–1958). The couple sold their mansion and moved to Santa Barbara in 1946.[66][75]

Burnham was a descendant of Thomas Burnham (1617–1688) of Hartford, Connecticut, the first American ancestor of a large number of Burnhams.[65] The descendants of Thomas Burnham have been noted in every American war, including the French and Indian war.[4]

Death

Burnham died at 86 on September 1, 1947 of heart failure at his home in Santa Barbara, California. At a private ceremony he was buried at Three Rivers, California, near his old cattle ranch, La Cuesta. His memorial stone was designed by his only surviving child, Roderick. Also buried at Three Rivers cemetery is his first wife, Blanche Blick Burnham, several members of the Blick family who had also pioneered in 19th century Rhodesia with Burnham for a time, his son Roderick, his granddaughter Martha Burnham Burleigh, and the Montana cowboy “Pete” Ingram who survived the Shangani Patrol massacre along with Burnham.[76]

Allan Quatermain and Indiana Jones

"Burnham in real life is more interesting than any of my heroes of romance!"

Sir H. Rider Haggard[3]

Rider Haggard's fictional Allan Quatermain character was heavily influenced by his close friendship with Burnham. Quatermain and Burnham were both small and wiry Victorian adventurers in colonial Africa, both sought and discovered ancient treasures and civilizations, both battled large wild animals and native peoples, both were renowned for their ability to track, even at night, and both men had strikingly similar nicknames: Quatermain, "Watcher-by-Night"; Burnham, "He-who-sees-in-the-dark". But Burnham’s influence on fictional adventurers wasn’t to end there. In the 1970s, a young movie director, George Lucas, decided to write the ultimate adventure film. The template for his hero, Indiana Jones, was the hero of the H. Rider Haggard books, Allan Quatermain.[12]

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Davis, Richard Harding (1906). Real Soldiers of Fortune. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0873642392. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 West, James E.; Peter O. Lamb; illustrated by Lord Baden-Powell (1932). He-who-sees-in-the-dark; the boys' story of Frederick Burnham, the American scout. Brewer, Warren and Putnam. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Burnham, Frederick Russell (1926). Scouting on Two Continents. Doubleday, Page & company. pp. 2; Chapters 3 & 4. OCLC 407686. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Press Reference Library: Notables of the West. International News Service. 1915. 
  5. Money, R. R. (April 1962). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Tonto Basin Feud"]. Blackwood's Magazine 291. ISSN 0006-436X. 
  6. Donovan, Charles Henry Wynne (1894). With Wilson in Matabeleland, Or, Sport and War in Zambesia. London: Henry. p. 271. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Forbes, Archibald; Arthur Griffiths, George Alfred Henty, and E. F. Knight (1896). Battles of the Nineteenth Century. London, Paris, Melbourne: Castle. pp. 110–119. 
  8. Hensman, Howard (1900) (PDF). A history of Rhodesia, compiled from official sources. Edinburgh and London: W. Blackwood and sons. http://www.rhodesia.nl/hensman.pdf. 
  9. Burnham, Frederick Russell (1899). "Northern Rhodesia". In Wills, Walter H.. Bulawayo Up-to-date; Being a General Sketch of Rhodesia. Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent & Co.. pp. 177–180. 
  10. Baxter, T.W.; E.E. Burke (1970). Guide to the Historical Manuscripts in the National Archives of Rhodesia. p. 67. 
  11. [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Railway And Other Companies: Northern Territories (B.S.A.) Exploring Company Limited"]. The Times (35824): 3. May 9 1899. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 Hough, Harold (January 2010). "The Arizona Miner and Indiana Jones". Miner News. http://www.minersnews.com/Dec09Jan10/AZMiner.html. 
  13. Selous, Frederick Courteney (1896). Sunshine and Storm in Rhodesia. London: R. Ward. http://books.google.com/?id=GjNfildy5fsC&pg=PA1&dq=Sunshine+and+Storm+in+Rhodesia. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 "Killed the Matabele God: Burnham, the American scout, may end uprising" (PDF). New York Times. June 25, 1896. ISSN 0093-1179. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9E06E7DF123BEE33A25756C2A9609C94679ED7CF. Retrieved 2007-09-28. 
  15. Farwell, Byron (2001). The Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Land Warfare: An Illustrated World View. W. W. Norton. p. 539. ISBN 0393047709. 
  16. Leebaert, Derek (2006). To Dare and to Conquer: Special Operations and the Destiny of Nations. Little, Brown. p. 379. ISBN 0316143847. 
  17. Lott, Jack (1981). "Chapter 8. The Making of a Hero: Burnham in the Tonto Basin". In Boddington, Craig. America -- The Men and Their Guns That Made Her Great. Petersen Publishing Co.. p. 90. ISBN 0822730227. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 Byron Farwell (March 1976). "Taking Sides in the Boer War". American Heritage Magazine 20 (3). ISSN 0002-8738. http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/1976/3/1976_3_20.shtml. Retrieved 2007-03-07. 
  19. Hales, A.G. (November 13, 1900). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Anglo-African Writers: Letter to Major Burnham from Lord Roberts"]. Daily News (UK) (17048). 
  20. "FinestHour" (PDF). Journal of the Churchill Center and Societies, Summer 2005. http://www.winstonchurchill.org/files/public/FinestHour127.pdf. Retrieved 2007-08-02. 
  21. [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Southern California by Towns and Counties: Fred Burnham now a Major in British Army; Recovering from His Injuries"]. Los Angeles Times. August 4, 1900. ISSN 0458-3035. 
  22. 22.0 22.1 [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Burnham's services brought to the attention of Parliament: He maintains his well-known modesty. His injuries received in Africa. Now living in a London suburb."]. Los Angeles Times. March 2, 1902. ISSN 0458-3035. 
  23. 23.0 23.1 Lee Shippey (February 2, 1930). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Lee Side o' L.A.: Personal Glimpses of Famous Southlanders"]. Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. 
  24. "More South African Honors: Lady Sarah Wilson and Major Burnham, the American Scout, among those decorated" (PDF). New York Times. September 28, 1901. ISSN 0362-4331. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9E06E2DB1130E132A2575BC2A96F9C946097D6CF. 
  25. West, James E (1937). 10108 H.doc.18. U.S. Congress, House Committee on Education.. p. 472. 
  26. Baden-Powell, Robert (1908). Scouting for Boys: A Handbook for Instruction in Good Citizenship. London: H. Cox. xxiv. ISBN 0-486457-19-2. 
  27. Jeal, Tim (1989). Baden-Powell. London: Hutchinson. ISBN 0-09-170670-X. 
  28. Prichard, Hesketh Vernon Hesketh (2004). Sniping in France, 1914-18 : with notes on the scientific training of scouts, observers, and snipers. Solihull, West Midlands, England: Helion. ISBN 1874622477. 
  29. Forster, Reverend Dr. Michael. "The Origins of the Scouting Movement" (DOC). Netpages. http://www.netpages.free-online.co.uk/sha/scouthistory.doc. Retrieved 2007-10-02. 
  30. DeGroot, E.B. (July 1944). "Veteran Scout". Boys' Life (Boy Scouts of America): 6–7. http://books.google.com/books?id=FDDyrmwdQKIC&printsec=frontcover. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  31. The Official Handbook for Boys (First ed.). Boy Scouts of America. 1911. 
  32. Handbook for Boys (Third ed.). Boy Scouts of America. 1933. p. 611. 
  33. "Fact Sheet: The Silver Buffalo Award". Fact sheet. Boy Scouts of America Troop 14. 1936. http://www.bsa14.org/FactSheetSupport/02-532.html. Retrieved 2006-11-28. 
  34. van Wyk, Peter (2000). "Burnham: King of Scouts". Trafford Publishing. http://www.burnhamkingofscouts.com/. Retrieved 2007-03-30. 
  35. "GNIS: Mount Baden-Powell". USGS. http://geonames.usgs.gov/pls/gnispublic/f?p=gnispq:3:::NO::P3_FID:255344. Retrieved April 17, 2006. 
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 36.3 36.4 36.5 36.6 36.7 Burnham, Frederick Russell (1944). Taking Chances. Haynes Corp. xxv-xxix. ISBN 1-879356-32-5. 
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  43. Alistair Tough; Burnham (1985). "Papers of Frederick R. Burnham (1861–1947) in the Hoover Institution Archives". History in Africa (African Studies Association) 12: 385–387. doi:10.2307/3171734. ISSN 03615413. http://jstor.org/stable/3171734. 
  44. Charles Holder (1910). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "The Esperanza Stone"]. Scientific American (Scientific American, Inc): 196. ISSN 0036-8733. 
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  46. 46.0 46.1 46.2 John Hays Hammond (1935). The Autobiography of John Hays Hammond. Farrar & Rinehart. p. 565. ISBN 0-40505-913-2. 
  47. Lott, J. "Jack" P. (March 1977). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Major F. R. Burnham, D.S.O."]. Rhodesiana Magazine 36. ISSN 0556-9605. 
  48. Wood, Clement (1932). The man who killed Kitchener: The life of Fritz Joubert Duquesne. New York: W. Faro. OCLC 1071583. 
  49. "FBI History: Famous Cases". Federal Bureau of Investigation. http://www.fbi.gov/libref/historic/famcases/spyring/spyring.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-05. 
  50. "Burnham, FR". Anglo Boer War. http://angloboerwar.com/DSO/b/burnham_fr.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-13. 
  51. "Enroll Westerners for Service in War; Movement to Register Men of That Region Begun at the Rocky Mountain Club. Headed by Major Burnham. John Hays Hammond and Others of Prominence Reported to be Supporting Plan" (PDF). New York Times. March 13, 1917. ISSN 0362-4331. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9D05E1DA123BEE3ABC4B52DFB566838C609EDE&oref=slogin. 
  52. Roosevelt, Theodore (1917). The Foes of Our Own Household. New York: George H. Doran. p. 347. LCCN 17025965. 
  53. "Roosevelt's Army has not lost hope; Colonel's Aids from all over the country meet and leave the future in his hands." (PDF). New York Times. May 20, 1917. ISSN 0362-4331. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9F02E3DA123AE433A25753C2A9639C946696D6CF. 
  54. "May import African animals to solve meat problem" (PDF). New York Times. April 17, 1910. ISSN 0362-4331. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9B02E6D71539E433A25754C1A9629C946196D6CF. Retrieved 2007-09-28. 
  55. [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Animals from Africa: Maj Burnham will import wild beasts for Western plains"]. Washington Post (reprint from New York Herald). March 3, 1911. ISSN 0148-2076. 
  56. Bryant, H. C. (April 1915). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Organizations Defending Wild Life"]. California Fish and Game: 123. ISSN 0008-1078. 
  57. [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "The Fauna of the British Empire"]. Science 71: 308. March 21, 1930. doi:10.1126/science.71.1838.308. 
  58. [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Maj. Burnham and family depart for Africa: Angelenos to tour world"]. Los Angeles Times. May 14, 1929. ISSN 0458-3035. 
  59. [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Scientific Notes and News"]. Science 71: 536. May 23, 1930. ISSN 0036-8075. 
  60. Arizona Department of Transportation (1941). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Arizona National Wildlife Refuges"]. Arizona Highways (magazine) 17. ISSN 0004-1521. 
  61. Coates, Peter A. (2007). American Perceptions of Immigrant and Invasive Species: Strangers on the Land. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0520249305. 
  62. Colby, William E.; Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr (April 1933). "Borrego Desert Park". Sierra Club Bulletin XVIII: 144. http://www.sandiegohistory.org/journal/73fall/anza.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-29. 
  63. Dan L. Thrapp (1991). Encyclopedia of frontier biography. University of Nebraska Press. p. 195. ISBN 0-80329-418-2. 
  64. 64.0 64.1 64.2 Haggard, H. Rider (1926). The Days of My Life Volume II. http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks03/0300141.txt. Retrieved 2006-12-17. 
  65. 65.0 65.1 Bradford, Mary E; Richard H Bradford (1993). An American family on the African frontier: the Burnham family letters, 1893–1896. Niwot, Colorado: Roberts Rinehart. ISBN 1879373661. 
  66. 66.0 66.1 66.2 van Wyke, Peter (2003). Burnham: Chief of Scouts. Victoria, Canada: Trafford Publishing. ISBN 1879373661. 
  67. [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "A Young South African"]. Los Angeles Times. June 6, 1896. ISSN 0458-3035. 
  68. [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Californians Develop Venezuela Oil Fields"]. Los Angeles Times. June 19, 1927. ISSN 0458-3035. 
  69. [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Plane line saves weeks: American Air Service in Guatemala carries odd passenger list over hard country"]. New York Times. January 17, 1932. ISSN 0362-4331. 
  70. Cubé, Caroline. "Finding Aid for the W.W. Hodkinson Papers, 1881-1971". Manuscript guide. University of California Los Angeles, Special Collections, Young Research Library. http://content.cdlib.org/view?docId=kt429020hc&doc.view=entire_text&brand=oac. Retrieved 2007-10-15. 
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  72. [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Rider Haggard's Tribute"]. Atlanta Constitution. November 21, 1896. ISSN 0093-1179. 
  73. Montgomery, Ruth (1967). A Search for the Truth. New York: Fawcett Crest. ISBN 0449210855. 
  74. Burnham, M. Howard (1912). Modern Mine Valuation. London, C. Griffin and Company, limited. ISBN 1151746312. 
  75. Weideman, Christine. "Guide to the Frederick Russell Burnham Papers". Manuscript guide. Yale University Library. http://mssa.library.yale.edu/findaids/stream.php?xmlfile=mssa.ms.0115.xml. Retrieved 2007-09-11. 
  76. Elliott, John (2004). "King of Scouts honored at gravesite". The Kaweah Commonwealth Online. http://www.kaweahcommonwealth.com/8-27-04features.htm. Retrieved 2004-08-27. 

Bibliography

Wikisource has original works written by or about:

Works

]]

  • Burnham, Frederick Russell (1926). Scouting on Two Continents. Doubleday, Page. ISBN 1879356317. 
  • Burnham, Frederick Russell (1944). Taking Chances. Haynes. ISBN 1-879356-32-5. 
  • Bradford, Mary E; Richard H Bradford (1993). An American family on the African frontier: the Burnham family letters, 1893–1896. Niwot, Colorado: Roberts Rinehart. ISBN 1879373661. 
  • Burnham, Frederick R. (1927). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "The remarks of Major Frederick R. Burnham"]. Historical Society of Southern California 13 (4): 334–352. 

Biographies

  • Davis, Richard Harding (1906). Real Soldiers of Fortune. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0873642392. ; Free eBook Real Soldiers of Fortune at Project Gutenberg
  • West, James E.; Peter O. Lamb, illustrated by Lord Baden-Powell (1932). He-who-sees-in-the-dark; the boys' story of Frederick Burnham, the American scout. Brewer, Warren and Putnam. OCLC 1710834. 
  • van Wyk, Peter (2003). "Burnham: King of Scouts". Trafford Publishing. http://www.burnhamkingofscouts.com/. Retrieved 2007-03-30. 
  • Wilson, James Grant; John Fiske (1900). Appleton's Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: Gale Research. p. 249. ISBN 1855069571. 
  • Homans, James Edward (1918). The Cyclopaedia of American Biography. New Enlarged Edition of Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography. Volume VIII.. New York: The Press Association Compilers, inc. pp. 249–251. OCLC 81277904. 
  • Hammond, John Hays (January-June 1921). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "South African Memories: Rhodes — Barnato — Burnham"]. Scribner's Magazine LXIX: 257–277. 
  • Britt, Albert (1923). The Boys' Own Book of Adventurers. New York: The Macmillan company. p. A chapter on Burnham, the Last of the Scouts. OCLC 4585632. 
  • Ehrenclou, V. L. (May-June 1925). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Major Burnham — The Scout"]. Union Oil Bulletin: 1–11, 19. OCLC 12064434. 
  • Haggard, H. Rider (1926). The Days of My Life Volume II. London, New York: Longmans, Green and Co. Chapter XVII is on Major Burnham; Letters in chapter XIII dedicated to Burnham's daughter, Nada. OCLC 476006. http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks03/0300141.txt. 
  • Banning, William; George Hugh Banning (1930). Six Horses. New York: Century. Foreword by Frederick Russell Burnham. OCLC 1744707. 
  • Shippey, Lee; A. L. Ewing (1930). Folks Ushud Know; Interspersed with Songs of Courage. Sierra Madre, Calif: Sierra Madre Press. p. 23; Chapter on Major Burnham. OCLC 2846678. 
  • Grant, Madison; Charles Stewart Davison (1930). The alien in our midst; or, "Selling our birthright for a mess of pottage"; the written views of a number of Americans (present and former) on immigration and its results. New York: Galton Pub. Co.. Essay by Major Burnham titled, The howl for cheap Mexican labor, pp. 44–48. OCLC 3040493. 
  • West, James E. (1931). The Boy Scout's Book of True Adventure: their own story of famous exploits and adventures told by honorary scouts. New York: Putman. Essay by Major Burnham titled Scouting Against the Apache; foreword by Theodore Roosevelt. OCLC 8484128. 
  • Grinnell, George Bird Grinnell; Kermit Roosevelt, W. Redmond Cross, and Prentiss N. Gray (editors) (1933). Hunting trails on three continents; a book of the Boone and Crockett Club. New York: The Derrydale Press. Essay by Major Burnham titled, Taps for the Great Selous. OCLC 1624738. 
  • [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "In my fathers house are many mansions"]. Sunset Club Yearbook. May-June 1951. EPH.061.9494.11. 
  • American Council of Learned Societies (1928-58). Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Scribner. OCLC 4171403. 
  • Money, R. R. (January 1962). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Greatest Scout"]. Blackwood's Magazine v291: 42–52. ISSN 0006-436X. 
  • Lott, J.P. "Jack" (September 1976). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Major Burnham of the Shangani Patrol"]. Rhodesiana Magazine. ISSN 0006-436X. 
  • Bradford, Richard H. (1984). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Frederick Russell Burnham, the British Empire's American Scout"]. Paper presented at the American Historical Society Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C.. 

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Persondata
NAME Burnham, Frederick Russell
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Burnham, Frederick; Burnham, Major
SHORT DESCRIPTION father of scouting; military scout; soldier of fortune; oil man; writer; rancher
DATE OF BIRTH May 11, 1861
PLACE OF BIRTH Tivoli (Mankato), Minnesota, USA
DATE OF DEATH September 1, 1947
PLACE OF DEATH Santa Barbara, California, USA


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