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Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg.

Frederick William (German: Friedrich Wilhelm) (February 16, 1620 – April 29, 1688) was the Elector of Brandenburg and the Duke of Prussia from 1640 until his death. He was of the House of Hohenzollern and is popularly known as the Great Elector (Der Große Kurfürst) because of his military and political skill. Frederick William was also a staunch pillar of the Calvinist faith, associated with the rising commercial class. He saw the importance of trade and promoted it vigorously. The Great Elector's shrewd domestic reforms gave Prussia a strong position in the post-Westphalia political order of north-central Europe, setting Prussia up for elevation from duchy to kingdom, achieved under his successor.

Contents

Biography

Elector Frederick William was born in Berlin to George William, Elector of Brandenburg, and Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate. His inheritance consisted of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Duchy of Cleves, the County of Mark, and the Duchy of Prussia.

Foreign diplomacy

During the Thirty Years' War, George 1 William strove to maintain, with a minimal army, a delicate balance between the Protestant and Catholic forces fighting throughout the Holy Roman Empire. Out of these meagre beginnings Frederick William managed to rebuild his war-ravaged territories. In contrast to the religious disputes in other European states, the elector supported religious tolerance. With the help of French subsidies, he built up an army to defend the country. In the Second Northern War, he was forced into accepting Swedish vassalage for the Duchy of Prussia in the Treaty of Königsberg (1656).[1] As the war progressed, Frederick William succeeded in gaining full sovereignty over the Prussian duchy in the treaties of Labiau, Wehlau, Bromberg and Oliva, leaving the Holy Roman Emperor as his only liege for his imperial holdings.[2]

In the conflict for Pomerania inheritance, Frederick William had to accept two setbacks, one in the Northern War and one in the Scanian War. Though militarily successful in Swedish Pomerania, he had to bow to France's demands and return his gains to Sweden in the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1679).[3]

Military career

Frederick William was a military commander of wide renown; his standing army would later become the model for the Prussian Army. He is notable for his joint victory with Swedish forces at the Battle of Warsaw (1656), which according to Hajo Holborn marked "the beginning of Prussian military history",[4] but the Swedes turned on him at the behest of King Louis XIV of France and invaded Brandenburg. After marching 250 kilometers in 15 days back to Brandenburg, he caught the Swedes by surprise and managed to defeat them on the field at the Battle of Fehrbellin, destroying the myth of Swedish military invincibility. He later destroyed another Swedish army that invaded the Duchy of Prussia during the Great Sleigh Drive in 1678. He is noted for his use of broad directives and delegation of decision-making to his commanders, which would later become the basis for the German doctrine of Auftragstaktik, and he is noted for using rapid mobility to defeat his foes.[5]

Domestic policies

Frederick William is notable for raising an army of 40,000 soldiers by 1678, through the General War Commissariat presided over by Joachim Friedrich von Blumenthal. He was an advocate of mercantilism, monopolies, subsidies, tariffs, and internal improvements. Following Louis XIV's revocation of the Edict of Nantes, Frederick William encouraged skilled French and Walloon Huguenots to emigrate to Brandenburg-Prussia with the Edict of Potsdam, bolstering the country's technical and industrial base. On Blumenthal's advice he agreed to exempt the nobility from taxes and in return they agreed to dissolve the Estates-General. He also simplified travel in Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia by connecting riverways with canals, a system that was expanded by later Prussian architects, such as Georg Steenke; the system is still in use today.

Ancestry

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8. Joachim Frederick, Elector of Brandenburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4. John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. Margravine Catherine of Brandenburg-Küstrin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. George William, Elector of Brandenburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. Duchess Anna of Prussia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11. Marie Eleonore of Cleves
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12. Louis VI, Elector Palatine
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6. Frederick IV, Elector Palatine
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13. Landgravine Elisabeth of Hesse
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3. Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
14. William the Silent
Prince of Orange and Count of Nassau
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7. Countess Louise Juliana of Nassau
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
15. Princess Charlotte of Bourbon
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Marriages

On 7 December 1646 at The Hague, Frederick William entered into marriage, proposed by Blumenthal as a partial solution to the Jülich-Berg question, with Luise Henriette of Nassau (1627-1667), daughter of Frederick Henry of Orange-Nassau and Amalia of Solms-Braunfels. Their children were

  • William Henry (1648-1649),
  • Charles (1655-1674),
  • Frederick (1657-1713), his successor,
  • Amalie (1656-1664),
  • Henry (1664-1664),
  • Louis (1666-1687), who married Ludwika Karolina Radziwiłł.

On 13 June 1668 at Gröningen, Frederick William married Sophie Dorothea of Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, daughter of Philipp of Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and Sophie Hedwig of Saxe-Lauenburg. Their children were

  • Philip William (1669-1711),
  • Marie Amalie (1670-1739),
  • Albert Frederick (1672-1731),
  • Charles (1673-1695),
  • Elisabeth Sofie (1674-1748),
  • Dorothea (1675-1676),
  • Christian Ludwig (1677-1734), recipient of Bach's Brandenburg Concertos.

References

  1. ^ Press, Volker (1991) (in German). Kriege und Krisen. Deutschland 1600-1715. Neue deutsche Geschichte. 5. Munich: Beck. pp. 401-402. ISBN 3406308171. 
  2. ^ Press, Volker (1991) (in German). Kriege und Krisen. Deutschland 1600-1715. Neue deutsche Geschichte. 5. Munich: Beck. pp. 402ff. ISBN 3406308171. 
  3. ^ Clark, Christopher M. (2006). Iron kingdom: the rise and downfall of Prussia, 1600-1947. Harvard University Press. p. 50. ISBN 0674023854. 
  4. ^ Holborn, Hajo (1982). A History of Modern Germany: 1648-1840. A History of Modern Germany. 2. Princeton University Press. p. 57. ISBN 0691007969. 
  5. ^ Citino, Robert. The German Way of War. From the Thirty Years War to the Third Reich. pp 1-35. University Press of Kansas, 2005.
Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg
Born: 16 February 1620 Died: 29 April 1688
Regnal titles
Preceded by
George William
Elector of Brandenburg
1640-1688
Succeeded by
Frederick III
Duke of Prussia
vassal of Poland (to 1660)

1640-1688

External links

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File:Frans Luycx
Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg.

Frederick William (German: Friedrich Wilhelm; February 16 1620 – April 29 1688) was the Elector of Brandenburg and the Duke of Prussia from 1640 until his death. He was of the House of Hohenzollern and is popularly known as the Great Elector (Großer Kurfürst) because of his military and political skill. Frederick William was also a staunch pillar of the Calvinist faith, associated with the rising commercial class. He saw the importance of trade and promoted it vigorously. The Great Elector's shrewd domestic reforms gave Prussia a strong position in the post-Westphalia political order of north-central Europe, setting Prussia up for elevation from duchy to kingdom, achieved under his successor.

Contents

Biography

Frederick William was born in Berlin to George William, Elector of Brandenburg, and Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate. His inheritance consisted of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Duchy of Cleves, the County of Mark, and the Duchy of Prussia.

Foreign diplomacy

During the Thirty Years' War, George William had striven to maintain with a minimal army a delicate balance between the Protestant and Catholic forces fighting throughout the Holy Roman Empire. Out of these meagre beginnings Frederick William managed to rebuild his war-ravaged territories. In contrast to the religious disputes in other European states, the elector supported religious tolerance. With the help of French subsidies, he built up an army to defend the country. Through the treaties of Wehlau, Labiau, and Oliva, Frederick William succeeded in revoking Polish sovereignty over the Duchy of Prussia, leaving the Holy Roman Emperor as his only liege.

Military career

Frederick William was a military commander of wide renown; his standing army would later become the model for the Prussian Army. He is notable for his joint victory with Swedish forces at the Battle of Warsaw (1656), but the Swedes turned on him at the behest of King Louis XIV of France and invaded Brandenburg. After marching 250 kilometers in 15 days back to Brandenburg, he caught the Swedes by surprise and managed to defeat them on the field at the Battle of Fehrbellin, destroying the myth of Swedish military invincibility. He later destroyed another Swedish army that invaded the Duchy of Prussia during the Great Sleigh Drive in 1678. He is noted for his use of broad directives and delegation of decision-making to his commanders, which would later become the basis for the German doctrine of Auftragstaktik, and he is noted for using rapid mobility to defeat his foes.

Domestic policies

Frederick William is notable for raising an army of 40,000 soldiers by 1678, through the General War Commissariat presided over by Joachim Friedrich von Blumenthal. He was an advocate of mercantilism, monopolies, subsidies, tariffs, and internal improvements. Following Louis XIV's revocation of the Edict of Nantes, Frederick William encouraged skilled French and Walloon Huguenots to emigrate to Brandenburg-Prussia with the Edict of Potsdam, bolstering the country's technical and industrial base. On Blumenthal's advice he agreed to exempt the nobility from taxes and in return they agreed to dissolve the Estates-General. He also simplified travel in Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia by connecting riverways with canals, a system that was expanded by later Prussian architects, such as Georg Steenke; the system is still in use today.

Ancestry

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8. Joachim Frederick, Elector of Brandenburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4. John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. Margravine Catherine of Brandenburg-Küstrin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. George William, Elector of Brandenburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. Duchess Anna of Prussia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11. Marie Eleonore of Cleves
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12. Louis VI, Elector Palatine
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6. Frederick IV, Elector Palatine
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13. Landgravine Elisabeth of Hesse
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3. Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
14. William the Silent
Prince of Orange and Count of Nassau
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7. Countess Louise Juliana of Nassau
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
15. Princess Charlotte of Bourbon
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Marriages

On 7 December 1646 at The Hague, Frederick William entered into marriage, proposed by Blumenthal as a partial solution to the Jülich-Berg question, with Luise Henriette of Nassau (1627-1667), daughter of Frederick Henry of Orange-Nassau and Amalia of Solms-Braunfels. Their children were

  • William Henry (1648-1649),
  • Charles (1655-1674),
  • Frederick (1657-1713), his successor,
  • Amalie (1656-1664),
  • Henry (1664-1664),
  • Louis (1666-1687).

On 13 June 1668 at Gröningen, Frederick William married Sophie Dorothea of Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, daughter of Philipp of Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and Sophie Hedwig of Saxe-Lauenburg. Their children were

  • Philip William (1669-1711),
  • Marie Amalie (1670-1739),
  • Albert Frederick (1672-1731),
  • Charles (1673-1695),
  • Elisabeth Sofie (1674-1748),
  • Dorothea (1675-1676),
  • Christian Ludwig (1677-1734), recipient of Bach's Brandenburg Concertos.
Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg
Born: 16 February 1620 Died: 29 April 1688
Regnal titles
Preceded by
George William
Elector of Brandenburg
1640-1688
Succeeded by
Frederick III
Duke of Prussia
vassal of Poland (to 1660)

1640-1688

Weblinks


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