Free Soil Party: Wikis

  
  

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Free Soil Party
Founded 1848 (1848)
Dissolved 1854 (1854)
Preceded by Liberty Party, Whig Party, Democratic Party
Succeeded by Republican Party
Ideology Anti-slavery expansion
International affiliation None
Politics of the United States
Political parties
Elections

The Free Soil Party was a short-lived political party in the United States active in the 1848 and 1852 presidential elections, and in some state elections. It was a third party that largely appealed to and drew its greatest strength from New York State. The party leadership consisted of former anti-slavery members of the Whig Party and the Democratic Party. Its main purpose was opposing the expansion of slavery into the western territories, arguing that free men on free soil comprised a morally and economically superior system to slavery. They opposed slavery in the new territories and worked to remove existing laws that discriminated against freed blacks in states such as Ohio.

The party membership was largely absorbed by the Republican Party in 1854.

Contents

Positions

In this 1850 political cartoon, the artist attacks abolitionist, Free Soil, and other sectionalist interests of 1850 as dangers to the Union.

Free Soil candidates ran on the platform that declared: "...we inscribe on our banner, 'Free Soil, Free Speech, Free Labor and Free Men,' and under it we will fight on and fight ever, until a triumphant victory shall reward our exertions." The party also called for a homestead act and a tariff for revenue only. The Free Soil Party's main support came from areas of upstate New York, western Massachusetts, and Ohio, although other northern states also had representatives. The Free Soil Party contended that slavery undermined the dignity of labor and inhibited social mobility, and was therefore fundamentally un-Democratic. Viewing slavery as an economically inefficient, obsolete institution, Free Soilers believed that slavery should be contained, and that if contained it would ultimately disappear.[citation needed]

History

Van Buren / Adams campaign banner

In 1847 the New York State Democratic convention did not endorse the Wilmot Proviso, an act that would have banned slavery in any conquered territory of the Mexican War. Almost half the members, known as "Barnburners", walked out after denouncing the national platform. Lewis Cass, the Democratic Party's 1848 presidential nominee supported popular sovereignty for determining the status of slavery in the U.S. territories. This stance repulsed the New York State democrats and encouraged them to join with anti-slavery Whigs to form the Free Soil Party which was formalized in the summer of 1848 at conventions in Utica and Buffalo, New York. There the Free Soilers nominated former Democratic President Martin Van Buren for president with Charles Francis Adams for vice president at Lafayette Square then known as Court House Park.[1] The main party leaders were Salmon P. Chase of Ohio and John P. Hale of New Hampshire. The Free Soil candidates won 10% of the popular vote, but no electoral votes, in part because their nomination of Van Buren discouraged many anti-slavery Whigs from supporting the Free Soil Party.

The party downplayed abolitionism and avoided the moral problems implicit in slavery. Members emphasized instead the threat slavery would pose to free white labor and northern businessmen in the new western territories. Although William Lloyd Garrison derided the party as "white manism", the approach appealed to many moderate opponents of slavery. The 1848 platform pledged to promote internal improvements, work for a homestead law, pay public debt, and support moderate tariffs for revenue only.

The Compromise of 1850 temporarily neutralized the issue of slavery and undercut the party's no-compromise position. Most Barnburners returned to the Democratic party, and the Free Soil Party became dominated by ardent anti-slavery leaders.

The party ran John P. Hale in the 1852 presidential election, but its share of the popular vote shrank to less than 5%. After enormous outrage over the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, the remains of the Free Soil Party helped form the Republican party.[2]

Legacy

The Free Soil Party was a notable third party. More successful than most, it sent two Senators and fourteen Representatives to the thirty-first Congress. Its presidential nominee in 1848, Martin Van Buren, received 291,616 votes against Zachary Taylor of the Whigs and Lewis Cass of the Democrats but Van Buren received no electoral votes. The Party's "spoiler" effect in 1848 may have put Zachary Taylor into office in a narrowly-contested election.

The strength of the party, however, was its representation in Congress. The sixteen elected officials' influence far exceeded its numbers[citation needed]. The party's most important legacy was as a route for anti-slavery Democrats to join the new Republican coalition.

In Ottawa, Illinois, in August 1854, an alliance was brokered between the Free Soil Party and the Whigs (in part based on the efforts of local newspaper publisher Jonathan F. Linton) that gave rise to the Republican Party.[3]

Presidential candidates

Year Presidential candidate Vice Presidential candidates Won/Lost
1848 Martin Van Buren Charles Francis Adams Lost
1852 John P. Hale George W. Julian Lost

Other Noted Free Soilers

See also

References

  1. ^ "Old Court House". History of Buffalo. Chuck LaChiusa. http://lucky.phpwebhosting.com/~ah/h/lafsq/courthse/index.html. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  2. ^ Mayfield, John; Rehearsal for Republicanism: Free Soil and the Politics of Anti-Slavery; Port Washington. NY; Kennikat, 1980
  3. ^ Taylor, William Alexander. CENTENNIAL HISTORY OF COLUMBUS http://www.heritagepursuit.com/Franklin/Franklin%20Vol%20II%20Bio%2006%20P100.htm 1909.

Further reading

  • Frederick J. Blue; Salmon P. Chase: A Life in Politics 1987
  • Frederick J. Blue. The Free Soilers: Third Party Politics, 1848-54 (1973)
  • Martin Duberman; Charles Francis Adams, 1807-1886 1968.
  • Foner, Eric (1995 edition; originally published 1970). Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195094972. 
  • T. C. Smith, Liberty and Free Soil Parties in the Northwest (New York, 1897)
  • Wikisource-logo.svg "Free Soil Party". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. 

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
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From LoveToKnow 1911

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Simple English

[[File:|thumb|left |300px|In this 1850 political cartoon, the artist attacks abolitionist, Free Soil, and other such interests of 1850 as dangers to the Union.]]

The Free Soil Party was, for a short time, a political party in the United States. It was active in the 1848 and 1852 president elections, and in some state elections. It got lots of its strength from New York. Most of the important party members were former anti-slavery members of the Whig Party and the Democratic Party. Its main purpose was stopping slavery from spreading into the western lands, arguing that free men on free soil had a morally and economically better system than slavery.

The party membership was largely taken over by the Republican Party in 1854.

Further reading

  • Frederick J. Blue; Salmon P. Chase: A Life in Politics 1987
  • Frederick J. Blue. The Free Soilers: Third Party Politics, 1848-54 (1973)
  • Martin Duberman; Charles Francis Adams, 1807-1886 1968.
  • Foner, Eric (1995 edition; originally published 1970). Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195094972. 
  • T. C. Smith, Liberty and Free Soil Parties in the Northwest (New York, 1897)
  • Template:Wikisource1911Enc Citation

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