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Free and open source software, also F/OSS, FOSS, or FLOSS (free/libre/open source software) is software that is liberally licensed to grant the right of users to use, study, change, and improve its design through the availability of its source code. This approach has gained both momentum and acceptance as the potential benefits have been increasingly recognized by both individuals and corporate players.[1][2]

Newcomers to the subject can be confused by the term "free".[citation needed] In the context of free and open source software, "free" is intended to refer to the freedom to copy and re-use the software, rather than to the price of the software. The Free Software Foundation, an organization that advocates for free software, suggests that to understand the concept, one should "think of free as in free speech, not as in free beer".[3]

Free and open source software is an inclusive term which covers both free software and open source software which, despite describing similar development models, have differing cultures and philosophies.[4] Free software focuses on the philosophical freedoms it gives to users while open source focuses on the perceived strengths of its peer-to-peer development model.[5] FOSS is a term that can be used without particular bias towards either political approach.

Free software licences and open source licenses are used by many software packages. The licenses have important differences, which mirror the differences in the ways the two kinds of software can be used and distributed and reflect differences in the philosophy behind the two.[6]

By mid 2007,[7] enough companies were opening some source while keeping other advanced functionality closed, that the common meaning of "open source" came to include what is now called commercial open source software (COSS) as well.[citation needed] Today either the specific terms free software/FOSS/FLOSS or COSS are often used instead of the more general term "open source" in order to differentiate between the two different models and preserve the original meaning of the free software/FOSS/FLOSS space.[citation needed]

Contents

History

In the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, it was normal for computer users to have the freedoms that are provided by free software. Software was commonly shared by individuals who used computers and by hardware manufacturers who were glad that people were making software that made their hardware useful. Organizations of users and suppliers were formed to facilitate the exchange of software, see, for example, SHARE. By the late 1960s change was inevitable: software costs were dramatically increasing, a growing software industry was competing with the hardware manufacturer's bundled software products (free in that the cost was included in the hardware cost), leased machines required software support while providing no revenue for software, and some customers able to better meet their own needs did not want the costs of "free" software bundled with hardware product costs. In United States vs. IBM, filed January 17, 1969, the government charged that bundled software was anticompetitive.[8] While some software might always be free, there would be a growing amount of software that was for sale only. In the 1970s and early 1980s, the software industry began using technical measures (such as only distributing binary copies of computer programs) to prevent computer users from being able to study and modify software. In 1980 copyright law was extended to computer programs.

In 1983, Richard Stallman, longtime member of the hacker community at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, announced the GNU project, saying that he had become frustrated with the effects of the change in culture of the computer industry and its users. Software development for the GNU operating system began in January 1984, and the Free Software Foundation (FSF) was founded in October 1985. He developed The Free Software Definition and the concept of "copyleft", designed to ensure software freedom for all.

The Linux kernel, started by Linus Torvalds, was released as freely modifiable source code in 1991. The licence wasn't exactly a free software licence, but with version 0.12 in February 1992, he relicensed the project under the GNU General Public License.[9] Much like Unix, Torvalds' kernel attracted the attention of volunteer programmers.

In 1997, Eric Raymond published The Cathedral and the Bazaar, a reflective analysis of the hacker community and free software principles. The paper received significant attention in early 1998 and was one factor in motivating Netscape Communications Corporation to release their popular Netscape Communicator Internet suite as free software. This code is today better known as Mozilla Firefox and Thunderbird.

Netscape's act prompted Raymond and others to look into how to bring free software principles and benefits to the commercial software industry. They concluded that FSF's social activism was not appealing to companies like Netscape, and looked for a way to rebrand the free software movement to emphasize the business potential of the sharing of source code. The new name they chose was "open source," and quickly Bruce Perens, publisher Tim O'Reilly, Linus Torvalds, and others signed on to the rebranding. The Open Source Initiative was founded in February 1998 to encourage use of the new term and evangelize open source principles.[10]

Naming

Free software

The Free Software Definition, written by Richard Stallman and published by Free Software Foundation (FSF), defines free software as a matter of liberty, not price.[11] The earliest known publication of the definition was in the February 1986 edition[12] of the now-discontinued GNU's Bulletin publication of FSF. The canonical source for the document is in the philosophy section of the GNU Project website. As of April 2008, it is published there in 39 languages.[13]

Open source

The Open Source Definition is used by the Open Source Initiative to determine whether a software license can be considered open source. The definition was based on the Debian Free Software Guidelines, written and adapted primarily by Bruce Perens.[14][15] Perens did not base his writing on the "four freedoms" of Free Software from the Free Software Foundation, which were only widely available later.[16]

FOSS

The first known use of the phrase "free open source software" on Usenet was in a posting on 18 March, 1998, just a month after the term "open source" itself was coined.[17] In February 2002, "F/OSS" appeared on a Usenet newsgroup dedicated to Amiga computer games.[18] In early 2002, MITRE used the term "FOSS" in what would later be their 2003 report Use of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) in the U.S. Department of Defense.

FLOSS

"FLOSS" was used in 2001 as a project acronym by Rishab Aiyer Ghosh as an acronym for free/libre/open source software. Later that year, the European Commission (EC) used the phrase when they funded a study on the topic.[19]

Unlike "libre software", which aimed to solve the ambiguity problem, "FLOSS" aimed to avoid taking sides in the debate over whether it was better to say "free software" or to say "open source software".

Proponents of the term point out that parts of the FLOSS acronym can be translated into other languages, with for example the "F" representing free (English) or frei (German), and the "L" representing libre (Spanish or French), livre (Portuguese), or libero (Italian), and so on. However, this term is not often used in official, non-English, documents, since the words in these languages for "free as in freedom" do not have the ambiguity problem of English's "free".

By the end of 2004, the FLOSS acronym had been used in official English documents issued by South Africa,[20] Spain,[21] and Brazil.[22]

Adoption

  • In 2005 the Government of Peru voted to adopt free software across all its bodies.[23] The 2002 response to Microsoft's critique is available online. In the preamble to the bill, the Peruvian government stressed that the choice was made to ensure that key pillars of democracy were safeguarded: "The basic principles which inspire the Bill are linked to the basic guarantees of a state of law."[24]
  • In December 2004, law in Venezuela (Decree 3390) went into effect, mandating a two year transition to open source in all public agencies. As of June 2009 this ambitious transition is still under way.[25][26]
  • Vietnam - the Ministry of Information and Communications has issued an instruction on using open source software at state agencies.[27]
  • "Malaysian Public Sector Open Source Software Program" launched in 2004 saved millions on proprietary software licences till 2008.[28][29]
  • The Government of India has set up a resource centre for Free and Open Source Software managed jointly by C-DAC Chennai and Anna University, Chennai. It has one of its node in Mumbai at VJTI College[30]
  • In Germany's federal state Thuringia the Ministry for culture and education has launched a project called "Linux für Schulen" (Linux for schools) which is intended to further the influences of Open Source software in public education.[citation needed]
  • Munich city civil service in Germany, 2003 started migrating to free software.[31]
  • In February 2008, the Dominican Republic passed a law to facilitate the migration of all public entities (government, education, etc.) to Software Libre, and to adopt open standards in the public sector.[32]
  • In April 2008, Ecuador passed a similar law, Decree 1014, designed to migrate the public sector to Software Libre.[33]
  • In March 2009, the French Gendarmerie Nationale announced it will totally switch to Ubuntu by 2015.[34]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Hatlestad, Luc (2005-08-09). "LinuxWorld Showcases Open-Source Growth, Expansion". InformationWeek. CMP Media, LLC. Archived from the original on 2007-11-25. http://www.webcitation.org/5Tchd69ij. Retrieved 2007-11-25. 
  2. ^ Claburn, Thomas (January 17, 2007). "Study Finds Open Source Benefits Business". InformationWeek. CMP Media LLC. Archived from the original on 2007-11-25. http://www.webcitation.org/5TchF5fkl. Retrieved 11 2 5 2007. 
  3. ^ "The Free Software Definition". GNU.org. http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 
  4. ^ Feller (2005), p. 89, 362
  5. ^ Feller (2005), pp. 101-106, 110-111.
  6. ^ Barr, Joe (1998). "Why “Free Software” is better than “Open Source”". Free Software Foundation. Archived from the original on 2007-11-25. http://www.webcitation.org/5TchyyzYm. Retrieved 2007-11-25. 
  7. ^ Opensource.org, Will The Real Open Source CRM Please Stand Up?
  8. ^ Fisher, Franklin M.; McKie, James W.; Mancke, Richard B. (1983). IBM and the U.S. Data Processing Industry: An Economic History. Praeger. ISBN 0-03-063059-2. 
  9. ^ "Release notes for Linux kernel 0.12". Kernel.org. http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/Historic/old-versions/RELNOTES-0.12. 
  10. ^ "History of the OSI". Opensource.org. http://opensource.org/history. 
  11. ^ GNU.org
  12. ^ "GNU's Bulletin, Volume 1 Number 1, page 8". GNU.org. http://www.gnu.org/bulletins/bull1.txt. 
  13. ^ "The Free Software Definition - Translations of this page". GNU.org. http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html#translations. 
  14. ^ "The Open Source Definition by Bruce Perens". http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/opensources/book/perens.html. , Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution, January 1999, ISBN 1-56592-582-3
  15. ^ "The Open Source Definition". http://opensource.org/docs/osd. , The Open Source Definition according to the Open Source Initiative
  16. ^ Slashdot.org
  17. ^ "Posting re "free open source software", 18 March, 1998.". http://groups.google.com/groups/search?hl=en&lr=&safe=off&num=10&q=%22free+open+source+software%22&safe=off&qt_s=Search&as_drrb=b&as_mind=1&as_minm=1&as_miny=1981&as_maxd=1&as_maxm=6&as_maxy=1998. 
  18. ^ "Using m$ products is supporting them :(". http://groups.google.com/group/comp.sys.amiga.games/msg/4a192ea899e10c55. 
  19. ^ "Free/Libre and Open Source Software: Survey and Study". http://flossproject.org/. 
  20. ^ "Free/Libre and Open Source Software and Open Standards in South Africa: A Critical Issue for Addressing the Digital Divide". National Advisory Council on Innovation. http://www.naci.org.za/floss/index.html. 
  21. ^ "FLOSS deployment in Extremadura, Spain". http://ec.europa.eu/idabc/en/document/1637/470. 
  22. ^ "Relatório da ONU aponta o Software Livre (FLOSS) como melhor". http://www.softwarelivre.org/news/1727. 
  23. ^ TheRegister.co.uk
  24. ^ National Advisory Council on Innovation Open Software Working Group (July 2004). "Free/Libre & Open Source Software and Open Standards in South Africa" (PDF). http://www.naci.org.za/pdfs/floss_v2_6_9.pdf. Retrieved 2008-05-31. 
  25. ^ (Spanish) Venezuela Open Source
  26. ^ Chavez, Hugo F. (December 2004). "Publicado en la Gaceta oficial No 38.095 de fecha 28/ 12/ 2004". http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&ct=res&cd=1&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cenit.gob.ve%2Fcenitcms%2Fservlet%2Fcom.mvdcomm.cms.andocasociado%3F5%2C64&ei=exWqSbzYEYjWnQetxLjXDw&usg=AFQjCNFJeNhXh8KBljw8SK2VSFiaT8GWug&sig2=cJFlnI1Ob10dbypPaF8vIw. Retrieved 2009-03-01. 
  27. ^ (English) Vietnamnet.vn
  28. ^ OSCC.org
  29. ^ OSCC.org
  30. ^ NRCfosshelpline.in, NRC-FOSS Helpline article
  31. ^ Declaration of Independence: The LiMux Project in Munich
  32. ^ Ley de Software Libre República Dominicana
  33. ^ {{}es icon} Estebanmendieta.com, Decree 1014
  34. ^ "Ars Technica - French police: we saved millions of euros by adopting Ubuntu". http://arstechnica.com/open-source/news/2009/03/french-police-saves-millions-of-euros-by-adopting-ubuntu.ars. 

References

  • Joseph Feller, Brian Fitzgerald, Scott A. Hissam, Karim R. Lakahani. Perspectives on Free and Open Source Software. MIT Press, 2005. ISBN 0262062461.
  • Peter H. Salus (2005-03-28), Groklaw.net, A History of Free and Open Source, Groklaw.
  • David A. Wheeler (2007-04-16), Dwheeler.com, Why Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS, FLOSS, or FOSS)? Look at the Numbers!.
  • K.S.Sampath kumar, Books.google.uk, Understanding FOSS Version 3.0i revised.

External links


Free and open source software (F/OSS, FOSS) or free/libre/open source software (FLOSS) is software that is liberally licensed to grant the right of users to use, study, change, and improve its design through the availability of its source code. This approach has gained both momentum and acceptance as the potential benefits have been increasingly recognized by both individuals and corporate players.[1][2]

In the context of free and open source software, free refers to the freedom to copy and re-use the software, rather than to the price of the software. The Free Software Foundation, an organization that advocates the free software model, suggests that, to understand the concept, one should "think of free as in free speech, not as in free beer".[3]

Free and open source software is an inclusive term which covers both free software and open source software which, despite describing similar development models, have differing cultures and philosophies.[4] Free software focuses on the philosophical freedoms it gives to users while open source focuses on the perceived strengths of its peer-to-peer development model.[5] FOSS is a term that can be used without particular bias towards either political approach.

Free software licences and open source licenses are used by many software packages. While the licenses themselves are in most cases the same, the two terms grew out of different philosophies and are often used to signify different distribution methodologies.[6]

Contents

History

In the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, it was normal for computer users to have the freedoms that are provided by free software. Software was commonly shared by individuals who used computers and by hardware manufacturers who were glad that people were making software that made their hardware useful. Organizations of users and suppliers were formed to facilitate the exchange of software; see, for example, SHARE. By the late 1960s change was inevitable: software costs were dramatically increasing, a growing software industry was competing with the hardware manufacturer's bundled software products (free in that the cost was included in the hardware cost), leased machines required software support while providing no revenue for software, and some customers able to better meet their own needs did not want the costs of "free" software bundled with hardware product costs. In United States vs. IBM, filed January 17, 1969, the government charged that bundled software was anticompetitive.[7] While some software might always be free, there would be a growing amount of software that was for sale only. In the 1970s and early 1980s, the software industry began using technical measures (such as only distributing binary copies of computer programs) to prevent computer users from being able to study and modify software. In 1980 copyright law was extended to computer programs.

In 1983, Richard Stallman, longtime member of the hacker community at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, announced the GNU project, saying that he had become frustrated with the effects of the change in culture of the computer industry and its users. Software development for the GNU operating system began in January 1984, and the Free Software Foundation (FSF) was founded in October 1985. An article outlining the project and its goals was published in March 1985 titled the GNU Manifesto. The manifesto also focused heavily on the philosophy of free software. He developed The Free Software Definition and the concept of "copyleft", designed to ensure software freedom for all.

The Linux kernel, started by Linus Torvalds, was released as freely modifiable source code in 1991. The licence wasn't exactly a free software licence, but with version 0.12 in February 1992, he relicensed the project under the GNU General Public License.[8] Much like Unix, Torvalds' kernel attracted the attention of volunteer programmers.

In 1997, Eric Raymond published The Cathedral and the Bazaar, a reflective analysis of the hacker community and free software principles. The paper received significant attention in early 1998, and was one factor in motivating Netscape Communications Corporation to release their popular Netscape Communicator Internet suite as free software. This code is today better known as Mozilla Firefox and Thunderbird.

Netscape's act prompted Raymond and others to look into how to bring free software principles and benefits to the commercial software industry. They concluded that FSF's social activism was not appealing to companies like Netscape, and looked for a way to rebrand the free software movement to emphasize the business potential of the sharing of source code. The new name they chose was "open source", and quickly Bruce Perens, publisher Tim O'Reilly, Linus Torvalds, and others signed on to the rebranding. The Open Source Initiative was founded in February 1998 to encourage use of the new term and evangelize open source principles.[9]

Naming

Free software

The Free Software Definition, written by Richard Stallman and published by Free Software Foundation (FSF), defines free software as a matter of liberty, not price.[10] The earliest known publication of the definition was in the February 1986 edition[11] of the now-discontinued GNU's Bulletin publication of FSF. The canonical source for the document is in the philosophy section of the GNU Project website. As of April 2008, it is published there in 39 languages.[12]

Open source

The Open Source Definition is used by the Open Source Initiative to determine whether a software license can be considered open source. The definition was based on the Debian Free Software Guidelines, written and adapted primarily by Bruce Perens.[13][14] Perens did not base his writing on the four freedoms of free software from the Free Software Foundation, which were only widely available later.[15]

FOSS

The first known use of the phrase free open source software on Usenet was in a posting on 18 March 1998, just a month after the term open source itself was coined.[16] In February 2002, F/OSS appeared on a Usenet newsgroup dedicated to Amiga computer games.[17] In early 2002, MITRE used the term FOSS in what would later be their 2003 report Use of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) in the U.S. Department of Defense.

FLOSS

The acronym FLOSS was coined in 2001 by Rishab Aiyer Ghosh for free/libre/open source software. Later that year, the European Commission (EC) used the phrase when they funded a study on the topic.[18]

Unlike libre software, which aimed to solve the ambiguity problem, FLOSS aimed to avoid taking sides in the debate over whether it was better to say free software or to say open source software.

Proponents of the term point out that parts of the FLOSS acronym can be translated into other languages, with for example the F representing free (English) or frei (German), and the L representing libre (Spanish or French), livre (Portuguese), or libero (Italian), and so on. However, this term is not often used in official, non-English, documents, since the words in these languages for free as in freedom do not have the ambiguity problem of free in English.

By the end of 2004, the FLOSS acronym had been used in official English documents issued by South Africa,[19] Spain,[20] and Brazil.[21]

Adoption by governments

Munich Germany announced its intention to switch from Microsoft Windows-based Operating Systems to an open source implementation of SuSE Linux in March 2003.[22][23]

In 2004, a law in Venezuela (Decree 3390) went into effect, mandating a two year transition to open source in all public agencies. As of June 2009 this ambitious transition is still under way.[24][25] Malaysia launched the "Malaysian Public Sector Open Source Software Program", saving millions on proprietary software licences till 2008.[26][27]

In 2005 the Government of Peru voted to adopt open source across all its bodies.[28] The 2002 response to Microsoft's critique is available online. In the preamble to the bill, the Peruvian government stressed that the choice was made to ensure that key pillars of democracy were safeguarded: "The basic principles which inspire the Bill are linked to the basic guarantees of a state of law."[29] In September, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts announced its formal adoption of the OpenDocument standard for all Commonwealth entities.[30]

In 2006, the Brazilian government has simultaneously encouraged the distribution of cheap computers running Linux throughout its poorer communities by subsidizing their purchase with tax breaks. [31]

In February 2008, the Dominican Republic passed a law to facilitate the migration of all public entities (government, education, etc.) to Software Libre, and to adopt open standards in the public sector.[32] In April, Ecuador passed a similar law, Decree 1014, designed to migrate the public sector to Software Libre.[33]

In March 2009, the French Gendarmerie Nationale announced it will totally switch to Ubuntu by 2015.[34] In October, PCWorld reported that the current President Barack Obama had switched the entire White House Web site over to Linux servers using Drupal for content management.[35]

See also

Free software portal

Notes

  1. ^ Hatlestad, Luc (2005-08-09). "LinuxWorld Showcases Open-Source Growth, Expansion". InformationWeek. CMP Media, LLC. Archived from the original on 2007-11-25. http://www.webcitation.org/5Tchd69ij. Retrieved 2007-11-25. 
  2. ^ Claburn, Thomas (January 17, 2007). "Study Finds Open Source Benefits Business". InformationWeek. CMP Media LLC. Archived from the original on 2007-11-25. http://www.webcitation.org/5TchF5fkl. Retrieved 11 2 5 2007. 
  3. ^ "The Free Software Definition". GNU.org. http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 
  4. ^ Feller (2005), p. 89, 362
  5. ^ Feller (2005), pp. 101-106, 110-111.
  6. ^ Barr, Joe (1998). "Why “Free Software” is better than “Open Source”". Free Software Foundation. Archived from the original on 2007-11-25. http://www.webcitation.org/5TchyyzYm. Retrieved 2007-11-25. 
  7. ^ Fisher, Franklin M.; McKie, James W.; Mancke, Richard B. (1983). IBM and the U.S. Data Processing Industry: An Economic History. Praeger. ISBN 0-03-063059-2. 
  8. ^ "Release notes for Linux kernel 0.12". Kernel.org. http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/Historic/old-versions/RELNOTES-0.12. 
  9. ^ "History of the OSI". Opensource.org. http://opensource.org/history. 
  10. ^ GNU.org
  11. ^ "GNU's Bulletin, Volume 1 Number 1, page 8". GNU.org. http://www.gnu.org/bulletins/bull1.txt. 
  12. ^ "The Free Software Definition - Translations of this page". GNU.org. http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html#translations. 
  13. ^ "The Open Source Definition by Bruce Perens". http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/opensources/book/perens.html. , Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution, January 1999, ISBN 1-56592-582-3
  14. ^ "The Open Source Definition". http://opensource.org/docs/osd. , The Open Source Definition according to the Open Source Initiative
  15. ^ Slashdot.org
  16. ^ "Posting re "free open source software", 18 March 1998.". http://groups.google.com/groups/search?hl=en&lr=&safe=off&num=10&q=%22free+open+source+software%22&safe=off&qt_s=Search&as_drrb=b&as_mind=1&as_minm=1&as_miny=1981&as_maxd=1&as_maxm=6&as_maxy=1998. 
  17. ^ "Using m$ products is supporting them :(". http://groups.google.com/group/comp.sys.amiga.games/msg/4a192ea899e10c55. 
  18. ^ "Free/Libre and Open Source Software: Survey and Study". http://flossproject.org/. 
  19. ^ "Free/Libre and Open Source Software and Open Standards in South Africa: A Critical Issue for Addressing the Digital Divide". National Advisory Council on Innovation. http://www.naci.org.za/floss/index.html. 
  20. ^ "FLOSS deployment in Extremadura, Spain". http://ec.europa.eu/idabc/en/document/1637/470. 
  21. ^ "Relatório da ONU aponta o Software Livre (FLOSS) como melhor". http://www.softwarelivre.org/news/1727. 
  22. ^ Casson and Ryan, Open Standards, Open Source Adoption in the Public Sector, and Their Relationship to Microsoft’s Market Dominance
  23. ^ Declaration of Independence: The LiMux Project in Munich
  24. ^ (Spanish) Venezuela Open Source
  25. ^ Chavez, Hugo F. (December 2004). "Publicado en la Gaceta oficial No 38.095 de fecha 28/ 12/ 2004". http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&ct=res&cd=1&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cenit.gob.ve%2Fcenitcms%2Fservlet%2Fcom.mvdcomm.cms.andocasociado%3F5%2C64&ei=exWqSbzYEYjWnQetxLjXDw&usg=AFQjCNFJeNhXh8KBljw8SK2VSFiaT8GWug&sig2=cJFlnI1Ob10dbypPaF8vIw. Retrieved 2009-03-01. [dead link]
  26. ^ OSCC.org
  27. ^ OSCC.org
  28. ^ TheRegister.co.uk
  29. ^ National Advisory Council on Innovation Open Software Working Group (July 2004). "Free/Libre & Open Source Software and Open Standards in South Africa" (PDF). http://www.naci.org.za/pdfs/floss_v2_6_9.pdf. Retrieved 2008-05-31. 
  30. ^ Casson and Ryan, Open Standards, Open Source Adoption in the Public Sector, and Their Relationship to Microsoft’s Market Dominance
  31. ^ Casson and Ryan, Open Standards, Open Source Adoption in the Public Sector, and Their Relationship to Microsoft’s Market Dominance
  32. ^ Ley de Software Libre República Dominicana
  33. ^ (Spanish) Estebanmendieta.com, Decree 1014
  34. ^ "Ars Technica - French police: we saved millions of euros by adopting Ubuntu". http://arstechnica.com/open-source/news/2009/03/french-police-saves-millions-of-euros-by-adopting-ubuntu.ars. 
  35. ^ Vaughan-Nichols, Steven J. "Obama Invites Open Source into the White House" in PCWorld, October 29, 2009.

References

  • Joseph Feller, Brian Fitzgerald, Scott A. Hissam, Karim R. Lakahani. Perspectives on Free and Open Source Software. MIT Press, 2005. ISBN 0-262-06246-1.
  • Peter H. Salus (2005-03-28), Groklaw.net, A History of Free and Open Source, Groklaw.
  • David A. Wheeler (2007-04-16), Dwheeler.com, Why Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS, FLOSS, or FOSS)? Look at the Numbers!.
  • K.S.Sampath kumar Coimbatore India, Books.google.uk, Understanding FOSS Version 3.0i revised.

External links


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Simple English

Free and open source software (for short: FOSS, means free software and/or open source software) is software whose source code is open and available to anyone who wishes to:

  • improve it,
  • study it,
  • modify it, and
  • share the original and the modifications with others.

These additional rights are generally granted to the user through the GPL, LGPL, or BSD license.

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