Freedom of movement for workers: Wikis

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The freedom of movement for workers is a policy chapter of the acquis communautaire of the European Union. It is part of the free movement of persons and one of the four economic freedoms: free movement of goods, services, labour and capital.

Contents

Introduction

Article 45 of the amended EC Treaty states that:

  1. Freedom of movement for workers shall be secured within the Community.
  2. Such freedom of movement shall entail the abolition of any discrimination based on nationality between workers of the Member States as regards employment, remuneration and other conditions of work and employment.
  3. It shall entail the right, subject to limitations justified on grounds of public policy, public security or public health:
    (a) to accept offers of employment actually made;
    (b) to move freely within the territory of Member States for this purpose;
    (c) to stay in a Member State for the purpose of employment in accordance with the provisions governing the employment of nationals of that State laid down by law, regulation or administrative action;
    (d) to remain in the territory of a Member State after having been employed in that State, subject to conditions which shall be embodied in implementing regulations to be drawn up by the Commission.
  4. The provisions of this article shall not apply to employment in the public service.[1]
The right to free movement is has both 'horizontal' and 'vertical' direct effective[2][3], such that a private citizen can invoke the right, without more, in an ordinary court, against other persons, both governmental and non-governmental.

History

The Treaty of Paris (1951)[4] establishing the European Coal and Steel Community established a right to free movement for workers in these industries and the Treaty of Rome (1957)[5] provided for the free movement of workers within the European Economic Community. The Directive 2004/38/EC on the right to move and reside freely assembles the different aspects of the right of movement in one document. It also clarifies procedural issues, and it strengthens the rights of family members of European citizens using the freedom of movement.

Personal scope

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Definition of worker

The meaning of 'worker' is a matter of European Community law.[6] "The essential feature of an employment relationship, however, is that for a certain period of time a person performs services for and under the direction of another person in return for which he receives remuneration."[7]

  • Purpose. Under the ECJ caselaw, the rights of free movement of workers applies regardless of the worker's purpose in taking up employment abroad[8], so long as the work is not solely provided as a means of rehabilitation or reintegration of the workers concerned into society[9].
  • Time commitment. The right of free movement applies to both part-time and full-time work, so long as the work is effective and genuine[8] and not of such small scale, irregular nature or limited duration to be purely marginal and ancillary.[8][10]
  • Remuneration. Remuneration is a necessary precondition for activity to constitute work, but the amount is not important. The right to free movement applies whether or not the worker required additional financial assistance from the Member State into which he moves.[11] Remuneration may be indirect quid pro quo rather than strict consideration for work.[12]
  • Direction of another. Where a person is self-employed, he can avail himself of the freedom to provide services and freedom of establishment but not of the free movement of workers.

Free movement rights of nationals of new member states

In both the Treaty of Accession 2003 and the Treaty of Accession 2005, there is a clause about a transition period before workers from the new member states can be employed on an equal, non-discriminatory terms in the old member states. The old member states have the right to impose such transitional period for 2 years, then to decide if to extend it for additional 3 years, and then, if there is serious proof that labour from new member states would be disruptive to the market in the old member states then the period can be extended for the last time for 2 more years.[13]

Further the citizens of the member states of the European Economic Area have the same right of freedom of movement inside the EEA. Also, the European Union and Switzerland have concluded a bilateral agreement with the same meaning. Both EEA member states and Switzerland are treated as "old member states" in regard to the Treaty of Accession of the new EU members, so they can impose such 2+3+2 transitional periods.

Establishment of rights of nationals of each member state to work in each member state
citizen of → to be employed in ↓
European Union
Other EEA members
Switzerland
citizen of ← to be employed in ↓
Portugal
Spain
Italy
Greece
France
Germany
Austria
Belgium
Netherlands
Luxembourg
Denmark
Finland
Ireland
UK
Sweden
Cyprus
Malta
Estonia
Latvia Lithuania Poland
Hungary
Czech Republic Slovakia Slovenia Bulgaria Romania
Norway
Iceland Liechtenstein
Portugal 1986 1986 1986 1986 1986 1994 1986 1986 1986 1986 1994 1986 1986 1994 2004 2004 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2009 2009 1994 1994 1994 2002 Portugal
Spain 1986 1986 1986 1986 1986 1994 1986 1986 1986 1986 1994 1986 1986 1994 2004 2004 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2009 2009 1994 1994 1994 2002 Spain
Italy 1986 1986 1981 1958 1958 1994 1958 1958 1958 1973 1994 1973 1973 1994 2004 2004 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2012 2012 1994 1994 1994 2002 Italy
Greece 1986 1986 1981 1981 1981 1994 1981 1981 1981 1981 1994 1981 1981 1994 2004 2004 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2009 2009 1994 1994 1994 2002 Greece
France 1986 1986 1958 1981 1958 1994 1958 1958 1958 1973 1994 1973 1973 1994 2004 2004 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2012 2012 1994 1994 1994 2002 France
Germany 1986 1986 1958 1981 1958 1994 1958 1958 1958 1973 1994 1973 1973 1994 2004 2004 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2012 2012 1994 1994 1994 2002 Germany
Austria 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 2004 2004 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2012 2012 1994 1994 1994 2002 Austria
Belgium 1986 1986 1958 1981 1958 1958 1994 1958 1958 1973 1994 1973 1973 1994 2004 2004 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2012 2012 1994 1994 1994 2002 Belgium
Netherlands 1986 1986 1958 1981 1958 1958 1994 1958 1958 1973 1994 1973 1973 1994 2004 2004 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2012 2012 1994 1994 1994 2002 Netherlands
Luxembourg 1986 1986 1958 1981 1958 1958 1994 1958 1958 1973 1994 1973 1973 1994 2004 2004 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2012 2012 1994 1994 1994 2002 Luxembourg
Denmark 1986 1986 1973 1981 1973 1973 1994 1973 1973 1973 1954 1973 1973 1954 2004 2004 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 1954 1954 1994 2002 Denmark
Finland 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1954 1994 1994 1954 2004 2004 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2007 2007 1954 1954 1994 2002 Finland
Ireland 1986 1986 1973 1981 1973 1973 1994 1973 1973 1973 1973 1994 1973 1994 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2012 2012 1994 1994 1994 2002 Ireland
UK 1986 1986 1973 1981 1973 1973 1994 1973 1973 1973 1973 1994 1973 1994 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2012 2012 1994 1994 1994 2002 UK
Sweden 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1954 1954 1994 1994 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2007 2007 1954 1954 1994 2002 Sweden
Cyprus 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2007 2007 2004 2004 2004 2005 Cyprus
Malta 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2012 2012 2004 2004 2004 2005 Malta
Estonia 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2007 2007 2004 2004 2004 2005 Estonia
Latvia 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2007 2007 2004 2004 2004 2005 Latvia
Lithuania 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2007 2007 2004 2004 2004 2005 Lithuania
Poland 2006 2006 2006 2006 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2006 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2007 2007 2006 2006 2007 2007 Poland
Hungary 2006 2006 2006 2006 2008 2009 2009 2009 2007 2007 2009 2006 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2009 2009 2006 2006 2009 2009 Hungary
Czech Republic 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2007 2007 2004 2004 2004 2005 Czech Republic
Slovakia 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2007 2007 2004 2004 2004 2005 Slovakia
Slovenia 2006 2006 2006 2006 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2006 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2007 2007 2006 2006 2007 2007 Slovenia
Bulgaria 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 Bulgaria
Romania 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 Romania
Norway 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1954 1954 1994 1994 1954 2004 2004 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2012 2012 1954 1994 2002 Norway
Iceland 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1954 1954 1994 1994 1954 2004 2004 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2012 2012 1954 1994 2002 Iceland
Liechtenstein 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 2004 2004 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2014 2014 1994 1994 2002 Liechtenstein
Switzerland 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2005 2005 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2016 2016 2002 2002 2002 Switzerland[14]

     no restriction on freedom of movement of workers or restriction expired as of 2009; year of lifting of restrictions; 0+0+0      restricted movement of workers; year of expected lifting of the restrictions; 2+0+0      restricted movement of workers; year of expected lifting of the restrictions; 2+3+0      restricted movement of workers; year of expected lifting of the restrictions; 2+3+2      restricted movement of workers; no special agreement for their lifting

Material scope

The precise legal scope of the right to free movement for workers has been shaped by the European Court of Justice and by directives and regulations. Underlying these developments is a tension "between the image of the Community worker as a mobile unit of production, contributing to the creation of a single market and to the economic prosperity of Europe" and the "image of the worker as a human being, exercising a personal right to live in another state and to take up employment there without discrimination, to improve the standard of living of his or her family".[15]

Territorial scope

The right to free movement applies where the legal relationship of employment is entered into in or shall take effect within the territory of the European Community.[16][17].

See also

References

  1. ^ Treaty of Rome (consolidated version)
  2. ^ Case C-415/93 Union royale belge des sociétés de football association ASBL v Jean-Marc Bosman.
  3. ^ Case C-281/98 Roman Angonese v Cassa di Risparmio di Bolzano SpA.
  4. ^ Article 69.
  5. ^ Title 3.
  6. ^ Case 75-63 Mrs M.K.H. Hoekstra (née Unger) v Bestuur der Bedrijfsvereniging voor Detailhandel en Ambachten.
  7. ^ Case 66/85 Deborah Lawrie-Blum v Land Baden-Württemberg.
  8. ^ a b c Case 53/81 D.M. Levin v Staatssecretaris van Justitie.
  9. ^ Case 344/87 I. Bettray v Staatssecretaris van Justitie.
  10. ^ Case C-357/89 V. J. M. Raulin v Minister van Onderwijs en Wetenschappen.
  11. ^ Case 139/85 R. H. Kempf v Staatssecretaris van Justitie.
  12. ^ [1] Udo Steymann v Staatssecretaris van Justitie.
  13. ^ European Commission. "FAQ on the Commission's free movement of workers report". http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/free_movement/enlargement_en.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-27. 
  14. ^ According to the Protocol to the Agreement between the European Community and Switzerland regarding the participation of Bulgaria and Romania Switzerland applies transitional periods by the formula 2+3+2 starting from 1.6.2009 and then it has additional 3 years possibility to enforce some exclusions
  15. ^ Craig & de Búrca 2003, p. 701
  16. ^ Case 36-74 B.N.O. Walrave and L.J.N. Koch v Association Union cycliste internationale, Koninklijke Nederlandsche Wielren Unie et Federación Española Ciclismo.
  17. ^ See also C-214/94 Ingrid Boukhalfa v Bundesrepublik Deutschland.

Craig, Paul; de Búrca, Gráinne (2003), EU Law: Text, Cases and Materials (3rd ed.), Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-925608-X 

External links


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