Freeman Freeman-Thomas, 1st Marquess of Willingdon: Wikis

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Rangkronen-Fig. 16.png
Major The Most Honourable
 The Marquess of Willingdon
 PC, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, GBE, BA Cantab


In office
18 April 1931 – 18 April 1936
Monarch George V
Edward VIII
Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald
Stanley Baldwin
Preceded by The Lord Irwin
Succeeded by The Marquess of Linlithgow

In office
5 August 1926 – 4 April 1931
Monarch George V
Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King
R. B. Bennett
Preceded by The Viscount Byng of Vimy
Succeeded by The Earl of Bessborough


Born 12 September 1866(1866-09-12)
Died 12 July 1941 (aged 74)
Spouse(s) Marie Adelaide Freeman-Thomas
Profession Politician

Major Freeman Freeman-Thomas, 1st Marquess of Willingdon GCSI GCMG GCIE GBE PC (12 September 1866 – 12 August 1941) was a British Liberal politician, cricketer, scouting pioneer and administrator who, between 1926 and 1931 served as the 13th Governor General of Canada,[1] and between 1931 and 1936 served as the 32nd Viceroy and Governor-General of India, in both posts representing first King George V and then King Edward VIII. He was born in England and educated at Eton College and then the University of Cambridge before serving for 15 years in the Sussex Artillery. He then entered the diplomatic and political fields, acting as aide-de-camp to his father-in-law when the latter was Governor of Victoria, and in 1900 was elected to the British House of Commons. Freeman-Thomas thereafter occupied a variety of government posts, including secretary to the Prime Minister and Lord-in-Waiting to the King.

From 1913 on, Freeman-Thomas held viceregal offices throughout the British Empire, starting with the governorship of Bombay and then the governorship of Madras, before his appointment as Governor General of Canada and, finally, Viceroy of India. After the end of his viceregal tenure, Freeman-Thomas was appointed as the Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports and was elevated in the peerage as the Marquess of Willingdon. After representing the UK at a number of organisations and celebrations, Freeman-Thomas died in 1941 at his home in London, and his ashes were interred in Westminster Abbey.

Contents

Early life and education

Freeman-Thomas was born the only son of Frederick Freeman Thomas, an officer in the rifle brigade of Ratton and Yapton, and his wife, Mabel, who was the daughter of Henry Brand, Viscount Hampden. By the age of two, Freeman-Thomas' father died, and he was raised thereafter by his mother, who sent him to Eton College.[2] There, he acted as President of the Eton Society, and was for three years a member of the school's cricket team, serving as captain of the playing eleven during his final year. He carried this enthusiasm for sport on to the University of Cambridge, where he was accepted to Trinity College after leaving Eton,[2] and was drafted into the Cambridge playing eleven, and played for Sussex and I Zingari. Upon his general admission from university, Freeman-Thomas then volunteered for fifteen years for the Sussex Artillery, achieving the rank of major.

It was in 1892 that Freeman-Thomas assumed his surname through a royal licence and married Lady Marie Adelaide Brassey, the daughter of Thomas Brassey, Earl Brassey, and a woman whom Freeman-Thomas often cited as a source of support, stating once: "My wife has been a constant inspiration and encouragement."[1] The couple had two sons: Gerard (1893-1914) and Inigo (1899-1979). Gerard, was killed in World War I and Inigo eventually succeeded his father as Marquess of Willingdon.

Political career

Freeman-Thomas' political career began in 1897 with his appointment as aide-de-camp to his father-in-law, Lord Brassey, who was then the Governor of Victoria, in Australia.[1] Upon his return to the United Kingdom, Freeman-Thomas joined the Liberal Party and in 1900 was elected to the British House of Commons to represent the borough of Hastings.[3] He then served as a junior lord of the Treasury in the Liberal Cabinet that sat from 1905 to 1906.[4] Though he lost in the 1906 elections, Freeman-Thomas returned to the House of Commons by winning the by-election for Bodmin,[5] and, for some time, served as a secretary to the Prime Minister, Herbert Asquith. For his services in government, Freeman-Thomas was in 1910 elevated to the peerage as Baron Willingdon of Ratton in the County of Sussex,[6] and the following year was appointed as lord-in-waiting to King George V, becoming a favourite tennis partner of the monarch.[1]

Governorship of Bombay

Freeman-Thomas was on 17 February 1913 appointed as the Crown Governor of Bombay, replacing George Clarke, Baron Sydenham of Combe,[7] and to mark this event, Freeman-Thomas was on 12 March 1913 honoured with induction into the Order of the Indian Empire, as a knight grand commander (additional).[8] Within a year, however, the First World War had erupted, and India, as a part of the British Empire, was immediately drawn into the conflict, and the Baron Willingdon strove to serve the Allied cause, taking responsibility for treating the wounded from the Mesopotamian campaign. In the midst of those dark times, Mahatma Gandhi returned to Bombay from South Africa, and Freeman-Thomas, a governor, was one of the first persons to meet him and invite him to Government House for a formal meeting. This tête-à-tête was the first meeting Freeman-Thomas had with Gandhi, and he later described the Indian spiritual leader as "honest, but a Bolshevik and for that reason very dangerous."

Mahatma Gandhi, whose return to India and subsequent nationalistic activities would cause problems for Freeman-Thomas as Crown Governor of Bombay and Madras.

In 1917, the year before Freeman-Thomas' quitting of the governorship, a severe famine broke out in the Kheda region of the Bombay Presidency, which had far reaching effects on the economy, and left farmers in no position to pay their taxes. Still, the government insisted that tax not only be paid, but also implemented a 23% increase to the levies to take effect that year. Kheda thus became the setting for Gandhi's first satyagraha in India, and, with support from Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Narhari Parikh, Mohanlal Pandya, and Ravi Shankar Vyas, organised a Gujarat sabha. The people under Gandhi's influence then rallied together and sent a petition to Freeman-Thomas, asking that he cancel the taxes for that year. However, the Cabinet refused and advised the Governor to begin confiscating property by force, leading Gandhi to thereafter employ non-violent resistance to the government, which eventually succeeded and made Gandhi famous throughout India after Freeman-Thomas' departure from the colony. For his actions there, in relation to governance and the war effort, the Baron Willingdon was on 3 June 1918 appointed by the King as a knight grand commander of the Order of the Star of India,[9] which, along with his place in the Order of the Indian Empire, entitled Freeman-Thomas to the honorific style of sir.

Governorship of Madras

Freeman-Thomas returned to the United Kingdom from Bombay only briefly before he was appointed on 10 April 1919 as the Governor of Madras. This posting came shortly after the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms of 1918 were formalised by the Government of India Act, which distributed power in India between the executive and legislative bodies.[10] Thus, in November 1920, Freeman-Thomas dropped the writs of election for the first election for the Madras Legislative Assembly; however, due to their adherence to Gandhi's non-cooperation movement, the Indian National Congress party refused to run any candidates, and the Justice Party was subsequently swept into power. Freeman-Thomas appointed A. Subbarayalu Reddiar as his premier, and Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (a former governor general of Canada) opened the first meeting of the Legislative Assembly.

The following year, the Governor found himself dealing with a series of communal riots that in August 1921 broke out in the district of Malabar.[11] Following a number of cases of arson, looting, and assaults,[12] Freeman-Thomas declared martial law,[11] before the government of India sent in a large force to quell the riots.[13] At around the same time, over 10,000 workers in the Buckingham and Carnatic Mills of Madras city organised for six months a general strike contemporaneous with the non-cooperation movement, which also sparked riots between pro- and anti-strike workers, that were again only put down with police intervention.[14][15]

When he returned once more to the United Kingdom at the end of his tenure as the governor in Madras, Freeman-Thomas was elevated within the peerage to the status of a viscount, becoming on 24 June 1924 The Viscount Willingdon,[16] which thus permitted his eldest son to use the courtesy title of Baron Willingdon.

Governor generalship of Canada

Princes Edward and George, along with the Earl of Willingdon, outside Rideau Hall's main door, August 1927.

It was announced on 5 August 1926 from the Prime Minister's office that George V had, by commission under the royal sign-manual and signet, approved the recommendation of his British prime minister, Stanley Baldwin, to appoint as his representative Freeman-Thomas. He had initially not been considered by the sitting Conservative British Cabinet as a candidate for the Canadian govenror generalcy, as he was seen to have less of the necessary knowledge of affairs and public appeal that other individuals held. However, King George himself put forward Freeman-Thomas' name for inclusion in the list sent to Canada, and it was that name that the then Canadian prime minister, William Lyon Mackenzie King, chose as his preference for the nomination to the King.[17] George readily accepted, and Freeman-Thomas was notified of his appointment while on a diplomatic mission in China.

This would be the last Canadian viceregal appointment made by the monarch in his or her capacity as sovereign of the United Kingdom, as it was decided at the Imperial Conference in October 1926 that the Dominions of the British Empire would thereafter be equal with one another, and the monarch would only operate for a specific country under the guidance of that country's ministers. Though this was not formalised until the enactment of the Statute of Westminster on 11 December 1931, the concept was brought into practice at the start of Freeman-Thomas' tenure as governor general of Canada, making him the first viceroy to represent a Canadian sovereign, and act on the advice of Canadian ministers of the Crown, rather than as an agent of the British government.[1]

Freeman-Thomas arrived at Quebec City in late 1926, and on 2 October was sworn in as Canada's governor general in a ceremony in the salon rouge of the parliament buildings of Quebec. His following journey to Ottawa to take up residence in the country's official royal and viceroyal home, Rideau Hall, was just the first of many trips Freeman-Thomas took around Canada, meeting with a variety of Canadians, and bringing with him what was described as "a sense of humour and an air of informality to his duties."[17] He also became the first governor general to travel by air, flying from Ottawa to Montreal and back, and the first to make official visits abroad; not only did he tour the Caribbean in 1929, but he further paid a visit to the United States, going there in 1927 to meet with and receive state honours from President Calvin Coolidge. On that visit, the Governor General was welcomed in Washington by the King's emissary to the US, Vincent Massey, who would later himself be appointed as governor general of Canada.[1]

In Canada, Freeman-Thomas hosted members of Royal Family, including the King's two sons, Prince Edward, Prince of Wales, and Prince George, who, along with Baldwin, came to Canada to participate in the celebrations of the Diamond Jubilee of Confederation. The Princes resided at Rideau Hall, and the Prince of Wales, accompanied by Freeman-Thomas, dedicated at the Peace Tower both the altar of the Memorial Chamber and the Dominion Carillon,[18] the first playing of which on that day was heard by listeners across the country on the first ever coast-to-coast radio broadcast in Canada.[19] This dedication marked the completion of the Centre Block of Parliament Hill, and the following year, Freeman-Thomas moved the annual governor general's New Year's levée to that building from the East Block, where the party had been held since 1870.[20]

In their time the viceroyal couple, the Earl and Countess of Willingdon fostered their appreciation of the arts, building on previous governor general Albert Grey, Earl Grey's Lord Grey Competition for Music and Drama by introducing the Willingdon Arts Competition, which dispensed awards for painting and sculpture. They also left at Rideau Hall a collection of carpets and objets d'art that they had collected during their travels around India and China, and many of which were restored in 1993 to the Long Gallery of Rideau Hall.[21] However, Freeman-Thomas' tastes also included sports, particularly fishing, tennis, skating, skiing, curling, cricket, and golf.[1] For the latter, he in 1927 donated to the Royal Canadian Golf Association the Willingdon Cup for Canadian interprovincial amateur golf competition, which has been contested annually since that year.

Viceroyalty of India

Freeman Freeman-Thomas in later life.

He had not been governor general of Canada for five years before Freeman-Thomas received word that he was to be sent back to India as that country's viceroy and governor general. He was sworn in as such on 18 April 1931, merely two weeks after he was replaced in Canada by Vere Ponsonby, Earl of Bessborough. When Freeman-Thomas arrived again in India, the country was gripped by the Great Depression, and was soon leading there Britain's departure from the gold standard, seeing thousands of tonnes of gold shipped to the United Kingdom through the port of Bombay. Of this, Freeman-Thomas said: "For the first time in history, owing to the economic situation, Indians are disgorging gold. We have sent to London in the past two or three months, £25,000,000 sterling and I hope that the process will continue."

Whether or not it was associated with the economic situation, as viceroy of all India, Freeman-Thomas found himself dealing with the consequences of the nationalistic movements that Gandhi had earlier started when Freeman-Thomas was governor of Bombay and then Madras. Against the Indian agitators, the Governor-General adopted much stricter measures, as opposed to his predecessors, who had favoured reconciliatory tactics. The Governor-in-Council in 1931 ordered the arrest of Gandhi – who was lodged in jail until 1933 – and the civil disobedience movement was suppressed, with thousands of congressmen arrested, all of which led to threats on Freeman-Thomas' life. He therefore relied on his military secretary, Hastings Ismay, for his safety, and took precautions after he was threatened by assassins.[22]

It was also by Freeman-Thomas' hand, as Governor-in-Council, that the Lloyd's Barrage was commissioned, seeing £20 million put into the construction of the barrage across the mouth of the Indus River, which not only provided labour but also brought millions of hectares of land in the Thar Desert under irrigation.[23] Further, Freeman-Thomas established the Willingdon Airport (now known as Safdarjung Airport) in Delhi, and, after he was denied entry to the Royal Bombay Yacht Club because he was accompanied by Indian friends, despite his being the viceroy, Freeman-Thomas was motivated to establish the Willingdon Sports Club in Bombay, with membership open to both Indians and British, and which still operates today.[24]

As he had been in Canada, for India Freeman-Thomas acted as chief scout of the Bharat Scouts and Guides, and took this role as more than an ex-officio title. Convinced that Scouting would contribute greatly to the welfare of India, Freeman-Thomas promoted the organisation, especially in rural villages, and requested that J. S. Wilson pay special attention to cooperation between Scouting and village development.[25]

Post-viceregal life

Once back in the United Kingdom, Freeman-Thomas associated with Roland Gwynne, attending, along with numerous other luminaries such as Rudyard Kipling, parties at Gwynne's East Sussex estate, Folkington Manor.[26] He was also honoured by George V, not only by being appointed as the Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports – one of the higher honours bestowed by the sovereign, and normally reserved for members of the Royal Family and former prime ministers – but he was also elevated once more in the peerage, being on 26 May 1936 created by Edward VIII as the Marquess of Willingdon, making him the last non-royal to be promoted to such a rank.

Freeman-Thomas did not cease diplomatic life all-together; he undertook a goodwill mission to South America, representing the Ibero-American Institute, and chaired the British committee on the commissioning of army officers. In 1940, he also represented the United Kingdom at the celebrations for the centennial of the formation of New Zealand. The next year, however, on 12 August, Freeman-Thomas died, at 5 Lygon Place, in London, and his ashes were interred in Westminster Abbey.

Titles, styles, and honours

Viceregal styles of
Freeman Freeman-Thomas, 1st Marquess of Willingdon
India-Viceroy-Embem.png  Canadian Coat of Arms Shield 1921.png
Reference style His Excellency The Right Honourable
(in Canada, also) Son Excellence le très honorable
Spoken style Your Excellency
(in Canada, also) Votre Excellence
Alternative style Sir
(in Canada, also) Monsieur
  • 12 September 1866 – 1884: Mister Freeman Thomas
  • 1884 – 1892: Freeman Thomas, Esquire
  • 1892 – 26 October 1901: Freeman Freeman-Thomas, Esquire
  • 26 October 1901 – 5 December 1901: Captain Freeman Freeman-Thomas, Esquire[27]
  • 5 December 1901 – 21 July 1910: Major Freeman Freeman-Thomas, Esquire[28]
  • 21 July 1910 – 17 February 1913: Major The Right Honourable The Lord Willingdon
  • 17 February 1913 – 16 December 1918: Major The Right Honourable The Lord Willingdon, Governor of the Presidency of Bombay
  • 16 December 1918 – 10 April 1919: Major The Right Honourable The Lord Willingdon
  • 10 April 1919 – 12 April 1924: Major The Right Honourable The Lord Willingdon, Governor of the Presidency of Madras
  • 12 April 1924 – 24 June 1924: Major The Right Honourable The Lord Willingdon
  • 24 June 1924 – 5 August 1926: Major The Right Honourable The Viscount Willingdon
  • 5 August 1926 – 23 February 1931: His Excellency Major The Right Honourable The Viscount Willingdon, Governor General and Commander-in-Chief of the Militia and Naval and Air Forces of Canada
  • 23 February 1931 – 4 April 1931: His Excellency Major The Right Honourable The Earl of Willingdon, Governor General and Commander-in-Chief of the Militia and Naval and Air Forces of Canada[29]
  • 4 April 1931 – 18 April 1931: Major The Right Honourable The Earl of Willingdon
  • 18 April 1931 – 18 April 1936: His Excellency Major The Right Honourable The Earl of Willingdon, Viceroy and Govenror-General of India
  • 18 April 1936 – 26 May 1936: Major The Right Honourable The Earl of Willingdon
  • 26 May 1936 – 12 July 1941: Major The Most Honourable The Marquess of Willingdon[30]

Freeman-Thomas' style and title as governor general of Canada was, in full, and in English: His Excellency The Right Honourable Sir Freeman-Freeman Thomas, Earl of Willingdon, Viscount Willingdon, Baron Willingdon, Knight Grand Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Knight Grand Commander of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, Governor General and Commander-in-Chief of the Militia and Naval and Air Forces of Canada, Major of the militia of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and in French: Son Excellence le très honorable Sir Freeman Freeman-Thomas, compte de Willingdon, viscompte Willingdon, baron Willingdon, chevallier grand commandeur de le très exalteé ordre de l'Étoile d'Inde, chevalier grand-croix de le très distingué ordre de Saint-Michel et Saint-George, chevallier grand commandeur de le très emineé ordre de l'Empire d'Inde, chevallier grand-croix de l'excellentissime ordre de l'Empire britannique, gouverneur générale et commandant en chef de la milice et les forces navales et aérienne du Canada, major de la milice du Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Norde. It should be noted that, for Freeman-Thomas, Commander-in-Chief was strictly a title, and not a position that he held; the actual commander-in-chief (who can also be, and is, called such) is perpetually the monarch of Canada.[31]

Freeman-Thomas' style and title as viceroy and governor-general of India was, in full: His Excellency The Right Honourable Sir Freeman Freeman-Thomas, Earl of Willingdon, Viscount Willingdon, Baron Willingdon, Knight Grand Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Knight Grand Commander of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, Major of the militia of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Viceroy and Governor-General of India.

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Honours

Statue of Lord Willingdon in Coronation Park, Delhi.
Appointments
Medals

Honorary military appointments

Honorific eponyms

Awards
Organizations
Geographic locations
Schools

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Office of the Governor General of Canada. "Governor General > Former Governors General > The Marquess of Willingdon". Queen's Printer for Canada. http://www.gg.ca/gg/fgg/bios/01/willingdon_e.asp. Retrieved 3 April 2009. 
  2. ^ a b Thomas (post Freeman-Thomas), Freeman in Venn, J. & J. A., Alumni Cantabrigienses, Cambridge University Press, 10 vols, 1922–1958.
  3. ^ London Gazette: no. 27244, p. 6770, 6 November 1900. Retrieved on 4 April 2009.
  4. ^ London Gazette: no. 27866, p. 9171, 22 December 1905. Retrieved on 4 April 2009.
  5. ^ London Gazette: no. 27935, p. 5130, 27 July 1906. Retrieved on 4 April 2009.
  6. ^ London Gazette: no. 28398, p. 5269, 22 July 1910. Retrieved on 13 December 2008.
  7. ^ London Gazette: no. 28693, p. 1446, 25 February 1913. Retrieved on 4 April 2009.
  8. ^ London Gazette: no. 28701, p. 2060, 18 March 1913. Retrieved on 5 April 2009.
  9. ^ London Gazette: no. 30723, p. 6529, 31 May 1918. Retrieved on 5 April 2009.
  10. ^ "Episodes in the chronology of the world's revival". The New York Times. 1 January 1922. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9804E3DF1239E133A25752C0A9679C946395D6CF. Retrieved 5 April 2009. 
  11. ^ a b Associated Press (28 August 1921). "Military occupy riot area in India". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9C03E2DD143EEE3ABC4051DFBE66838A639EDE. Retrieved 5 April 2009. 
  12. ^ "More Moplah Disorders". The New York Times. 14 September 1921. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9B05E5DC153EEE3ABC4C52DFBF66838A639EDE. Retrieved 5 April 2009. 
  13. ^ "64 Out of 100 Moplah Prisoners Suffocated In a Closed Car on Train in India". The New York Times. 22 November 1921. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9F01E6DD113CE533A25751C2A9679D946095D6CF. Retrieved 5 April 2009. 
  14. ^ "Ambush British in India". The New York Times. 2 September 1921. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9407E5DA1439E133A25751C0A96F9C946095D6CF. Retrieved 5 April 2009. 
  15. ^ Mendelsohn, Oliver; Marika Vicziany (1998). The Untouchables: Subordination, Poverty, and the State in Modern India. Cambridge University Press. p. 94. ISBN 9780521556712. 
  16. ^ London Gazette: no. 32949, p. 4887, 24 June 1924. Retrieved on 13 December 2008.
  17. ^ a b Hillmer, Norman. "Biography > Governors General of Canada > Willingdon, Freeman Freeman-Thomas, 1st Marquess of". in Marsh, James H.. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Toronto: Historica Foundation of Canada. http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0008607. Retrieved 6 April 2009. 
  18. ^ Library and Archives Canada. "The Books of Remembrance > History of the Books". Queen's Printer for Canada. http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/200/301/ic/can_digital_collections/books/history.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-23. 
  19. ^ Library of Parliament. "The House of Commons Heritage Collection > Carillon > History". Queen's Printer for Canada. http://www.parl.gc.ca/Sites/Collections//carillon/history-e.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-24. 
  20. ^ Phillips, R. A. J. (1982). "The House That History Built". Canadian Parliamentary Review (Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada) 5 (1). http://www.parl.gc.ca/Infoparl/english/issue.htm?param=100&art=442. Retrieved 2009-01-04. 
  21. ^ MacMillan, Margaret; Harris, Majorie; Desjardins, Anne L. (2004). Canada's House: Rideau Hall and the Invention of a Canadian Home. Toronto: Alfred A. Knopf Canada. ISBN 9780676976755. 
  22. ^ Ismay, Hastings (1960). The Memoirs of General Lord Ismay. New York: Viking Press. p. 66. ISBN 978-0837162805. 
  23. ^ George, Robert E.; Sencourt, Robert (1949). Heirs of Tradition: Tributes of a New Zealander. p. 66. 
  24. ^ Streat, Raymond, Marguerite Dupree (1987). Lancashire and Whitehall. Manchester University Press ND. p. 260. ISBN 0719023904. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=BxANAQAAIAAJ&client=firefox-a. 
  25. ^ Wilson, John S.; Baden-Powell, Olave (1959). Scouting Round the World. London: Blandford Press. pp. 91–93. ASIN B0000CKE7M. 
  26. ^ Cullen, Pamela V. (2006). A Stranger in Blood: The Case Files on Dr John Bodkin Adams. London: Elliott & Thompson. ISBN 1-904027-19-9. 
  27. ^ London Gazette: no. 27368, p. 6923, 25 October 1901. Retrieved on 4 April 2009.
  28. ^ London Gazette: no. 27389, p. 8985, 20 December 1901. Retrieved on 4 April 2009.
  29. ^ London Gazette: no. 33692, p. 1283, 24 February 1931. Retrieved on 13 December 2008.
  30. ^ London Gazette: no. 34289, p. 3440, 29 May 1936. Retrieved on 13 December 2008.
  31. ^ Victoria (29 March 1867). Constitution Act, 1867. III.15. Westminster: Queen's Printer. http://www.solon.org/Constitutions/Canada/English/ca_1867.html. Retrieved 15 January 2009. 
  32. ^ London Gazette: no. 28515, p. 5429, 21 July 1911. Retrieved on 6 April 2009.
  33. ^ London Gazette: no. 28686, p. 761, 31 January 1913. Retrieved on 6 April 2009.
  34. ^ London Gazette: no. 33184, p. 4795, 20 July 1926. Retrieved on 5 April 2009.
  35. ^ London Gazette: no. 33700, p. 1877, 20 March 1931. Retrieved on 5 April 2009.
  36. ^ "Friends of Geographical Names of Alberta > 300 Names > Top 300 Names > Willingdon, Mount". Friends of Geographical Names of Alberta. http://www.placenamesofalberta.ca/300_names_definitions/willingdon.html. Retrieved 4 April 2009. 

External links

Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
William Lucas-Shadwell
Member of Parliament for Hastings
1900 – 1906
Succeeded by
William Harvey du Cros
Preceded by
Thomas Agar-Robartes
Member of Parliament for Bodmin
Jul 1906 – Jan 1910
Succeeded by
Cecil Grenfell
Government offices
Preceded by
George Clarke
Governor of Bombay
17 February 1913 – 16 December 1918
Succeeded by
George Lloyd
Preceded by
Alexander Cardew
Governor of Madras
10 April 1919 – 12 April 1924
Succeeded by
The Viscount Goschen
Preceded by
The Viscount Goschen
Viceroy of India
1931–1936
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Linlithgow
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Marquess of Reading
Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports
1936 – 1941
Succeeded by
Winston Churchill
Court offices
Preceded by
The Baron Colebrooke
Lord-in-Waiting
1911 – 1913
Succeeded by
The Baron Ashby St. Ledgers
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Marquess of Willingdon
26 May 1936 – 12 July 1941
Succeeded by
Inigo Freeman-Thomas
New creation Earl of Willingdon
23 February 1931 – 12 July 1941
New creation Viscount Willingdon
24 June 1924 – 12 July 1941
New creation Baron Willingdon
21 July 1910 – 12 July 1941

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