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Soudan français
French Sudan
French colony

 

1890 - 1902
1920 - 1959

 

Flag

Capital Bamako¹
Language(s) French
Political structure Colony
Historical era New Imperialism
 - Established August 18, 1890
 - Partial dissolution October 10, 1899
 - Senegambia and Niger 1902
 - Recreated 1920
 - Autonomy November 28, 1958
 - Federated with Senegal April 4, 1959
Area
 - 1959 1,241,238 km2 (479,245 sq mi)
Currency French West African franc
¹ Kayes (1892-1899)

French Sudan (French: Soudan) was a colony in French West Africa that had two separate periods of existence, first from 1890 to 1899, then from 1920 to 1960, when the territory became the independent nation of Mali.

Colonial establishment

French Sudan was created as a French territory on September 9, 1880 as "Upper Senegal", and was renamed the "French Sudan Territory" on August 18, 1890, with its capital at Kayes. On October 10, 1899 French Sudan was broken up; 11 southern provinces went to French Guinea, the Côte d'Ivoire and Dahomey, although two were returned in the following year.

In 1902 the parts of the colony not organized into military districts became Senegambia and Niger, then Upper Senegal and Niger in 1904, then the old name came back in a reorganization of 1920.

When the French Upper Volta was first abolished in 1933 (it was reestablished in 1947), French Sudan picked up some of its provinces.

Independence

After the 4 October 1958 French constitutional referendum, the "République Soudanaise" became a member of the French Community, once again with the name French Sudan, and gained complete internal autonomy 25 November 1958.

On 4 April 1959, French Sudan was joined with Senegal to form the Mali Federation, which became fully independent within the French Community on June 20, 1960. The federation collapsed on August 20, 1960, when Senegal seceded. On 22 September, French Sudan proclaimed itself the Republic of Mali and withdrew from the French Community.

See also

  • Sudan (region): the sudan or soudan (French) climate region, of which French Soudan formed the western part.
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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

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Proper noun

Singular
French Sudan

Plural
-

French Sudan

  1. A former colony of France in Africa, now called Mali.

Simple English

French Sudan (Fr.: Soudan) was a colony in French West Africa.

Contents

Existence

It existed at two separate times. The first time was from 1890 to 1899, and the second was from 1920 to 1960. In 1960 it became the independent nation of Mali.

Beginning

It was created as a French territory on September 9, 1880 and its name was "Upper Senegal".

Name

The name changed to the "French Sudan Territory" on August 18, 1890, and its capital was Kayes. On October 10, 1899, French Sudan was broken into pieces: 11 southern provinces became part of French Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire and Dahomey. However, two provinces were returned in 1900.

History

In 1902 the parts of the colony which were not organised into military districts became Senegambia and Niger, then the name changed to Upper Senegal and Niger in 1904. Finally, the old name of French Sudan returned in a reorganisation in 1920.

In 1933, Upper Volta stopped existing (It began again in 1947.) and French Sudan gained some of its provinces.

Independence

After the October 4, 1958 French vote about the constitution, the "République Soudanaise" joined the French Community, again with the name French Sudan, and it gained complete domestic control on 25 November, 1958.

On April 4, 1959, French Sudan was joined with Senegal to form the Mali Federation. This became fully independent but still inside the French Community on June 20, 1960. This union finished on August 20, 1960, when Senegal left. On 22 September, French Sudan changed its name to the Republic of Mali and left the French Community.


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