The Full Wiki

French and Indian War: Wikis

  
  
  
  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on French and Indian War

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

French and Indian War
Part of the Seven Years' War
French and Indian War map.png
Map of the scene of northwestern operations of the French and Indian War
Date 1754–1763
Location North America
Result Treaty of Paris
Territorial
changes
France cedes Canada to Great Britain, retaining Saint Pierre et Miquelon, and transfers Louisiana to Spain; Spain cedes Florida to Great Britain
Belligerents
France France
 New France
United Kingdom Great Britain
British-Red-Ensign-1707.svg British America
Commanders
Louis-Joseph de Montcalm 
Marquis de Vaudreuil
François-Marie de Lignery 
Chevalier de Lévis #
Jeffrey Amherst
Edward Braddock 
James Wolfe  
James Abercrombie
Edward Boscawen
George Washington  #
Strength
10,000 regulars (troupes de la terre and troupes de la marine, peak strength, 1757)[1]
7,900 militia
2,200 natives (1759)[citation needed]
42,000 regulars and militia (peak strength, 1758)[2]
Casualties and losses
At least 5,700 killed, wounded or captured[citation needed] At least 11,100 killed, wounded or captured[citation needed]
Map showing the 1750 possessions of Britain (pink), France (blue), and Spain (orange) in contemporary Canada and the United States.
.The French and Indian War is the common U.S. name for the war between Great Britain and France in North America from 1754 to 1763. In 1756 the war erupted into the world-wide conflict known as the Seven Years' War and thus came to be regarded as the North American theater of that war.^ Thus, this series of wars are known as the Wars of the Coalitions.
  • The History Guy: Anglo-French Wars 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: Reference]

^ By 1756 Britain and France were once again at war, locked in a conflict that quickly developed into a true WORLD WAR. .

^ It becomes the Seven Years War when fighting spreads to Europe in 1756.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.In Canada, it is usually just referred to as the Seven Years' War, although French speakers in Quebec often call it La guerre de la Conquête ("The War of the Conquest").^ French and Indian Not just a war anymore .
  • French and Indian Not just a war anymore - TheHill.com 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC thehill.com [Source type: News]

^ This is the official beginning of the Seven Years War .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Historian Francis Parkman, in his book The Conspiracy of Pontiac and the Indian War after the Conquest of Canada [Boston: Little, Brown, 1886] refers to a postscript in an earlier letter from Amherst to Bouquet wondering whether smallpox could not be spread among the Indians: .
  • Early Bioterrorism and Native Americans 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC academic.udayton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.[3][4] In Europe, there is no specific name for the North American part of the war.^ When the Americans eventually won the Revolutionary War this wild land west of the Appalachians opened to settlement and would eventually become part of the United States.
  • Occam's Razor: French and Indian War Tag Archive 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.occams-razor.info [Source type: General]

^ The French and Indian War was the North American part of a much larger war raging in the mid-Eighteenth Century called the Seven Years War.
  • HPS Simulations: French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.hpssims.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the largest North American French & Indian War re-enactments is held here annually; the 1759 British siege.
  • THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR ... Mohican History Links 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.mohicanpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The name refers to the two main enemies of the British: the royal French forces and the various Native American forces allied with them.^ The French and their Native American allies became alarmed.
  • 5-3 The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC mrthompson.org [Source type: Original source]

^ French, British, Natives and Sutlers welcome.
  • Schedule of French and Indian War Reenactments 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.living-history.net [Source type: General]

^ Each side had Native American allies.
  • 5-3 The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC mrthompson.org [Source type: Original source]

.The war was fought primarily along the frontiers between the British colonies from Virginia to Nova Scotia, and began with a dispute over the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers, the site of present-day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.^ During this war, the French and British again fought battles along the New England frontier.
  • French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The other is near present-day Amherst, Nova Scotia.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ From 1754 to 1763, the British and French fought for this wilderness of huge potential in a conflict, which though part of the wider Seven Years War, has come to be known as The French & Indian War   .
  • Toy soldiers The French and Indian Wars 1750 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.traditionoflondon.com [Source type: Original source]

.The dispute resulted in the Battle of Jumonville Glen in May 1754. British attempts at expeditions in 1755, 1756, and 1757 in the frontier areas of Pennsylvania and New York all failed, due to a combination of poor management, internal divisions, and effective French and Indian offense.^ French and Indian War (1754–1763) .
  • French and Indian Wars Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about French and Indian Wars 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During this war, the French and British again fought battles along the New England frontier.
  • French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ NEW YORK, May 17.

.The 1755 capture of Fort Beauséjour on the border separating Nova Scotia from Acadia was followed by a British policy of deportation of its French inhabitants, to which there was some resistance.^ The British capture Acadia (later renamed Nova Scotia).

^ Following the capture of French-held Port Royal by Francis Nicholson in 1710, Acadia became the British province of Nova Scotia .

^ French Fort Frontenac captured by British .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.After the disastrous 1757 British campaigns (resulting in a failed expedition against Louisbourg and the Siege of Fort William Henry, which was followed by significant Indian atrocities), the British government fell, and William Pitt came to power, while France was unwilling to risk large convoys to aid the limited forces it had in New France.^ French forts and cities in New France .

^ Montcalm at Fort William Henry in northeastern New York, many British troops die in an ambush by France's Indian allies.

^ They called it Fort William Henry.
  • THE MAKING OF A NATION - May 1, 2003: French and Indian War - 2003-04-30 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The French and Indian War_����Ӣ����ѧ�� 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.wwenglish.com [Source type: Original source]

Pitt significantly increased British military resources in the colonies, and between 1758 and 1760 the British military successfully penetrated the heartland of New France, with Montreal finally falling in September 1760.
.The outcome was one of the most significant developments in a century of Anglo-French conflict.^ The Treaty of Paris ended a century of Anglo-French conflict in the New World, the French were left with the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, which have rich fishing grounds, south of Newfoundland.

^ Enacted in 1787, the Northwest Ordinance is considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ While revolutionary and Civil War sites have been meticulously preserved, most French and Indian War sites are long gone—the site of one 18th century fort in Detroit, Michigan, is now the home of a parking lot.
  • Keeping Alive the French and Indian War - The Brooklyn Rail 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.brooklynrail.org [Source type: Original source]

.To compensate its ally, Spain, for its loss of Florida to the British, France ceded its control of French Louisiana west of the Mississippi.^ The British and the French were struggling for control of the Mississippi River.
  • indianhistory 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.icsee.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The British also took Florida from Spain, which had been an ally of France in the war.
  • CRF-USA - BRIA 17 4 a Clash of Empires: The Fight for North America 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.crf-usa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ France then ceded New Orleans and the lands west of the Mississippi to Spain.
  • TNGenNet Inc. Colonial Period Indian Land Cessions in the American Southeast, Indian Land Cessions Maps and Treaties in the American Southeast. Indian Treaty Maps 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.tngenweb.org [Source type: Original source]

.France's colonial presence north of the Caribbean was reduced to the tiny islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, confirming Britain's position as the dominant colonial power in the eastern half of North America.^ Conflict between france and britain in north...
  • French and Indian War / Flashcards - Create Free Flashcards 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.proprofs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ France keeps the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ France held most of North America .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Origin of the name

The conflict is known by several names. .In British America, wars were often named after the sitting British monarch, such as King William's War or Queen Anne's War.^ By the time it reached America it was known as King William's War.
  • Colonial America - French & Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.jcs-group.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Queen Anne’s War they were a united force against the British.
  • indianhistory 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.icsee.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Britain’s eventual victory stripped France of its North American empire, thus concluding the series of conflicts ( see KING GEORGE’S WAR,; KING WILLIAM’S WAR; QUEEN ANNE’S WAR ), which were known collectively as the French and Indian Wars.
  • FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]

.Because there had already been a King George's War in the 1740s, British colonists named the second war in King George's reign after their opponents, and thus it became known as the French and Indian War.^ French & Indian War 250th Anniversary .

^ Americans know it as the French and Indian War.
  • Colonial America - French & Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.jcs-group.com [Source type: Original source]

^ French and Indian War (1754–1763) .
  • French and Indian Wars Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about French and Indian Wars 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .This traditional name remains standard in the United States, although it obscures the fact that American Indians fought on both sides of the conflict.^ Most American Indians fought on the British side (and some on the American side).

^ From 1754 to 1763, the British and French fought for this wilderness of huge potential in a conflict, which though part of the wider Seven Years War, has come to be known as The French & Indian War   .
  • Toy soldiers The French and Indian Wars 1750 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.traditionoflondon.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Americans eventually won the Revolutionary War this wild land west of the Appalachians opened to settlement and would eventually become part of the United States.
  • Occam's Razor: French and Indian War Tag Archive 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.occams-razor.info [Source type: General]

[6] .American historians generally use the traditional name or the European title (the Seven Years' War).^ This European conflict will be labeled the Seven Years' War .
  • The French & Indian War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.shmoop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the official beginning of the Seven Years War .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Seven Years War from militaryheritage.com .
  • French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.waldsfe.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other, less frequently used names for the war include the Fourth Intercolonial War and the Great War for the Empire.^ This war became part of the Seven Years War (17561763), a worldwide struggle for empire between France and Great Britain.
  • 5-3 The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC mrthompson.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin described the others and explained that they used English names to honor people they respected.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ My son, who had in the preceding war been an officer in the army rais'd against Canada, was my aid-de-camp, and of great use to me.
  • Benjamin Frankin During the French & Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC oldetoolshop.com [Source type: Original source]

[5]
.In Europe, the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War usually has no special name, and so the entire worldwide conflict is known as the Seven Years' War.^ It becomes the Seven Years War when fighting spreads to Europe in 1756.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The conflict spread to Europe in 1756, where it was known as the Seven Years War.
  • History of Lake Champlain: French & British Conflicts 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.lcmm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Seven Years' War's Conflict essay by Philip Keffer ( part 2 ) ( part 3 ) .
  • French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.waldsfe.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The "Seven Years" refers to events in Europe, from the official declaration of war in 1756 to the signing of the peace treaty in 1763. These dates do not correspond with the actual fighting on mainland North America, where the fighting between the two colonial powers was largely concluded in six years, from the Jumonville Glen skirmish in 1754 to the capture of Montreal in 1760.[5]
.In Canada, both French- and English-speaking Canadians refer to both the European and North American conflicts as the Seven Years' War (Guerre de Sept Ans).^ The conflict spread to Europe in 1756, where it was known as the Seven Years War.
  • History of Lake Champlain: French & British Conflicts 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.lcmm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Seven Years' War's Conflict essay by Philip Keffer ( part 2 ) ( part 3 ) .
  • French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.waldsfe.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some Canadians, particularly those of French descent, refer to the conflict as the War of the Conquest.
  • Colonial America - French & Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.jcs-group.com [Source type: Original source]

[7][8] .French Canadians may use the term "War of the Conquest" (Guerre de la Conquête), since it is the war in which New France was conquered by the British and became part of the British Empire, but that usage is never employed by most English Canadians.^ French forts and cities in New France .

^ English Canadians typically refer to the war as the Seven Years War , while French Canadians call it the Guerre de la conquete (War of the Conquest), since it is the war in which New France was conquered by the British and became part of the North American portion of the British Empire.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In the course of the war, British colonial forces captured the French stronghold of Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island , Nova Scotia , but this gain was returned to France under the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle .

This war is also one of America's "Forgotten Wars".

North America in the 1750s

.North America east of the Mississippi River was largely claimed by either Great Britain or France, although significant portions of territory, especially that between the Mississippi and the Appalachian Mountains, were claimed by, and under the control of, native tribes.^ It determined the control of the vast colonial territory of North America.

^ The military force which controlled the lakes and rivers controlled much of North America.
  • THE MAKING OF A NATION - May 1, 2003: French and Indian War - 2003-04-30 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The territory controlled by France was much larger than that controlled by Britain.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

The French colonial presence was largest in the St. Lawrence River valley, with population also in Acadia (present-day New Brunswick), Île Royale (present-day Cape Breton Island), and New Orleans, which was the seat of the French province of Louisiana, whose claims encompassed most of the Mississippi River's drainage basin, including that of the Ohio River. .The French maintained a network of fur traders that penetrated deeply into their claimed territories, but did not generally assert land claims against the tribes there.^ French Canadian fur trappers and traders .
  • CRF-USA - BRIA 17 4 a Clash of Empires: The Fight for North America 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.crf-usa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In April 1754, a force of French and Indians traveling down the Allegheny River, with orders from the governor-general of New France to claim this prized territory for France, encountered a small garrison at the forks of the Ohio.
  • The French and Indian War (1755-1763), Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.clpgh.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After three years of attempts to remove the French from their settlements and forts on English territory, the British resolved to replace their inept, politically appointed commanders with reputable generals.
  • New York State Colonial Military French and Indian War books for sale 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.hopefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.British colonies ranged along the eastern coast of the continent, from Georgia in the south to Nova Scotia and Newfoundland in the north.^ Subsequently, the British deported more than 6000 of the French inhabitants of Nova Scotia, known as Acadians, a signal of the growing brutality of the conflict.
  • French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the course of the war, British colonial forces captured the French stronghold of Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island , Nova Scotia , but this gain was returned to France under the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle .

^ By the treaty of peace in the following February, France ceded to England Canada, Nova Scotia, and in fact all her continental possessions in North America.

.Many of the older colonies had land claims that extended arbitrarily far to the west, as the extent of the continent was unknown at the time their provincial charters were granted.^ The English at this time claimed this land as their own.

^ By this time, Britain had prevailed in the French and Indian War west of the Atlantic, but the final outcome of the Seven Years’War on the European continent was still unclear.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / Wilderness Ordeal 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By 1786, Congress had claimed possession of all lands south of Canada, north of the Ohio, west of the Alleghenies, and east of the Mississippi river.
  • Washington and the Northwest War, Part One 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.dreric.org [Source type: Original source]

.While their population centers were close to the coast, they had growing populations, and British fur traders and settlements were expanding inland toward, and eventually across, the Appalachian Mountains.^ As the British colonial population grew, the allure of western land for settlement meant the land to the west of the Appalachian mountains became their objective.
  • TNGenNet Inc. Colonial Period Indian Land Cessions in the American Southeast, Indian Land Cessions Maps and Treaties in the American Southeast. Indian Treaty Maps 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.tngenweb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Celoron and his soldiers captured several English fur traders and told them to leave and stay on the east side of the Appalachian Mountains.

^ It was a state issue, since British colonists were supposed to be prohibited from going across the Appalachian Mountains by a British law passed in the early 1600s.
  • Inventory of Conflict and Environment (ICE), French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nova Scotia, which had been captured from the French in Queen Anne's War in 1713, still had a significant French-speaking population, primarily based on the shores of the Bay of Fundy and the Northumberland Strait.^ Queen Ann's War 1702-13 .

^ May 4: Queen Anne's War, the second French and Indian War, begins.

^ In the course of the war, British colonial forces captured the French stronghold of Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island , Nova Scotia , but this gain was returned to France under the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle .

.Britain also claimed Rupert's Land, where settlements of the Hudson's Bay Company were established to trade with natives in that territory.^ Hudson (#116) Hudson Bay Company Fur-Trading in 1800s .
  • Inventory of Conflict and Environment (ICE), French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Britain claimed the same land.
  • THE MAKING OF A NATION - May 1, 2003: French and Indian War - 2003-04-30 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ France was forced to “[recognize] the British claim to the Hudson Bay territory, and ceded mainland Acadia (modern Nova Scotia and New Brunswick) to Britain, but not Cape Breton” and Isle Saint-Jean (modern day Prince Edward's Island).
  • Inventory of Conflict and Environment (ICE), French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Iroquois engaging in trade with Europeans (1722)
.In between the French and the British, large areas were dominated by native tribes.^ The last military clash ever, between British and French forces in North America, is fought in 1762 at the Battle of Signal Hill in Newfoundland.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Conflicts between the French and the British began to arise after 1664, when the British captured the colony of New Amsterdam from the Dutch.
  • History of Lake Champlain: French & British Conflicts 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.lcmm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Along with the native peoples that lived around the Great Lakes area large animals roamed.

.To the north, the Mi'kmaq and the Abenaki still held sway in parts of Nova Scotia, Acadia, and the eastern portions of the province of Canada and present-day Maine.^ The other is near present-day Amherst, Nova Scotia.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The New Englanders captured Port Royal, the capital of French Acadia (now the portion of Canada that includes Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island), but the Peace of Ryswick (1697) that ended the war in Europe also returned Acadia to France.
  • French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By the treaty of peace in the following February, France ceded to England Canada, Nova Scotia, and in fact all her continental possessions in North America.

.The Iroquois Confederation dominated much of present-day Upstate New York and the Ohio Country, although the latter also included populations of Delaware and Shawnee.^ Boston has a population of 7,000 and New York has 5,000.
  • The Fort at No.4 – Living History Museum 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.fortat4.org [Source type: General]

^ Governor Duquesne ordered the construction of several forts in the Ohio Valley, including one at the forks of the Ohio and Monongahela rivers (present-day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania).
  • CRF-USA - BRIA 17 4 a Clash of Empires: The Fight for North America 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.crf-usa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition, Celoron wrote letters to the governors of Pennsylvania and New York informing the governors to keep their English citizens out of the Ohio Valley.

.Further south the interior was dominated by Catawba, Creek, Choctaw, and Cherokee tribes.^ Within a few years the Iroquois dominated all the tribes and territory between the Illinois country in the west, the Hudson Valley in the east, and as far south as the Carolinas, where the powerful Cherokee blocked their expansion.
  • Colonial America - French & Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.jcs-group.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Cherokees attacked South Carolina in January 1760, he strengthened the forts and urged the Creeks to fight the Cherokees.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Stuart distributed presents worth £5,000 sterling to 846 Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws, Creeks, and Catawbas.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.When war broke out, the French also used their trading connections to recruit from tribes in western portions the Great Lakes region (an area not directly subject to the conflict between the French and British), including the Huron, Mississauga, Ojibwa, Winnebago, and Potawatomi.^ British ships now control the Great Lakes area.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.rickriordan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The war broke out in 1739 between the Spanish and British and was confined to the Caribbean and Georgia .

^ Traded extensively through the Great Lakes.
  • HistoricalShop.com--Native American Items 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.historicalshop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The British were supported in the war by the Cherokee until differences between them sparked the Anglo-Cherokee War in 1758, and also by the Iroquois.^ Many of these occurred between British settlers in the Carolinas and Native American peoples like the Cherokee , who had sided with the French to protect their lands.
  • French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Following the murder of a Jesuit ambassador in 1658, war between the French and Iroquois resumed along the St. Lawrence.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But the next year, 1758, the British Government, by sending a powerful force of regulars to Pennsylvania, at last adopted the only method for ending the war.
  • The French and Indian War 19 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.danielmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1758 the Pennsylvania government successfully negotiated the Treaty of Easton, in which a number of tribes in the Ohio Country promised neutrality in exchange for land concessions and other considerations.^ Such progress, indeed, was made that by the end of July a treaty of peace was concluded at Easton eliminating those two tribes from the war.
  • The French and Indian War 19 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.danielmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Ulstermen often fought as viciously as their tribal enemies until British armies finally defeated the French in Pennsylvania and Canada, after which the tribes withdrew permanently into the Ohio country.
  • The Not Entirely Forgotten War | The Weekly Standard 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.weeklystandard.com [Source type: General]

^ The Treaty of Easton was a colonial agreement in North America signed in October 1758 between the British colonial government of the Province of Pennsylvania and the Native American tribes in the Ohio Country – the Native Americans agree not to fight the British during the French and Indian War.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Most of the other northern tribes sided with the French, their primary trading partner and supplier of arms.^ In 1629, a fleet of British privateers captured Quebec which cut the flow of French trade goods to the Algonkin and other French trading partners.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An arms race developed, in which tribes providing the most fur had a military advantage over those which did not.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Military activity on Lake Champlain consisted mostly of French vessels moving troops and supplies from the northern end of the lake to Crown Point, Chimney Point, and Ticonderoga.
  • History of Lake Champlain: French & British Conflicts 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.lcmm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Creek and Cherokee were targets of diplomatic efforts by both the French and British for either support or neutrality in the conflict.^ From 1754 to 1763, the British and French fought for this wilderness of huge potential in a conflict, which though part of the wider Seven Years War, has come to be known as The French & Indian War   .
  • Toy soldiers The French and Indian Wars 1750 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.traditionoflondon.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Subsequently, the British deported more than 6000 of the French inhabitants of Nova Scotia, known as Acadians, a signal of the growing brutality of the conflict.
  • French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While the British were claiming victories in the north, newspapers in Virginia and the Carolinas reported that the Creek and Cherokee Indians were spreading mayhem in the southern colonies.
  • New York State Colonial Military French and Indian War books for sale 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.hopefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was not uncommon for individuals or small bands to participate on the "other side" of the conflict from formally-negotiated agreements.^ Individual Cherokees can sell or exchange their land only to other Eastern Band tribal members.
  • UNC Press :: The Encyclopedia of North Carolina 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC uncpress.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Spain's presence in eastern North America was limited to the province of Florida; it also controlled Cuba and other territories in the West Indies that became military objectives in the Seven Years' War.^ Seven Years War Group  Discussion group of the war and other 18th Century wars.
  • The Seven Years War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC members.cox.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The military force which controlled the lakes and rivers controlled much of North America.
  • THE MAKING OF A NATION - May 1, 2003: French and Indian War - 2003-04-30 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is the official beginning of the Seven Years War .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

Florida's population was relatively small, and was dominated by the settlements at St. Augustine and Pensacola.
.At the start of the war, there were no British or French regular army troops in North America.^ The French and Indian War was a struggle between the British and the French in the colonies of North America.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The British had no desire to begin a war in America.
  • French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ King George's War started because The British and French both wanted control of North America.

.New France was defended by about 3,000 troupes de la marine, companies of colonial regulars (some of whom had significant woodland combat experience), and also made calls for militia support when needed.^ Having consulted the full Council, he had decided not to call the Assembly or to attempt to raise a Provincial Regiment owning to the delay involved, but to call out the militia to defend the frontiers.
  • French & Indian War 19 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: General]

^ The colony of New France extended south along the Mississippi River all the way to Louisiana , an area explored and claimed by Chevalier de la Salle a century earlier.
  • French and Indian War@Everything2.com 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ironically, of the year's four offensives, the British poured the most men and supplies into the least significant route to strike New France" (p.
  • Harold E. Selesky, University of Alabama | Imperial Wars | The William and Mary Quarterly, 59.3 | The History Cooperative 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.British colonies mustered militia companies to deal with native threats when needed, but did not have any standing forces.^ Major General Edward Braddock is appointed Commander in Chief of British forces in the thirteen colonies.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Interestingly, the French force outnumber the British and colonials inside Wm.
  • Lake Champlain and Lake George History Timelines-The French and Indian War Part II 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.historiclakes.org [Source type: Original source]

^ France's regular troops and their Native American allies could not continue the war in populated areas of the British colonies.
  • French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

.The colonial governments were also used to operating independently of each other, and of the government in London, a situation that complicated negotiations with natives whose territories encompassed land claimed by multiple colonies, and, after the war began, with the British Army establishment when its leaders attempted to impose constraints and demands on the colonial administrations.^ Furthermore, the political, economic, and social forces that drove the colonies toward revolution were in operation long before the war began.
  • Colonial America - French & Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.jcs-group.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By the end of 1757, with increased British resources, greater demands on the colonists, and the French facing national bankruptcy, the tide began to turn.
  • The French and Indian War (1755-1763), Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.clpgh.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The British Parliament's attempt to cover its overwhelming war debts and to pay for a continuing military presence in America by direct taxation of the colonists soon caused strained relations with the colonies and presaged the War of Independence.
  • The French and Indian War (1755-1763), Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.clpgh.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Events leading to war

Céloron's expedition

.In June 1747, Roland-Michel Barrin de La Galissonière, the Governor-General of New France, ordered Pierre-Joseph Céloron to lead an expedition to the Ohio Country with the objective of removing British influence from the area.^ Cruz, Joseph de la .

^ Marquis Duquesne was the next-to-last Governor General of New France.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The French commander realizes that the fort will be overrun by Brigadier General John Forbes's force of 5,000 men—especially after the Ohio Indians, France's former allies, conclude a peace treaty with the British at Easton.
  • The French & Indian War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.shmoop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Céloron was also to confirm the allegiance of the Native Americans inhabiting the territory to the French crown.^ The frontier was again the scene of many bloody battles; the French and Native American raid (1704) on Deerfield, Mass., was especially notable.
  • French and Indian Wars Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about French and Indian Wars 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Britain gained control over half the North American continent, including French Canada, all French territorial claims east of the Mississippi River, and Spanish Florida.
  • French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of these occurred between British settlers in the Carolinas and Native American peoples like the Cherokee , who had sided with the French to protect their lands.
  • French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

.Céloron's expedition consisted of 213 soldiers of the Troupes de la marine (French Marines), who were transported by 23 canoes.^ Their efforts were interrupted by a contingent of French soldiers, who ran off the workers and finished building the fort, this time for France.
  • French and Indian War@Everything2.com 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The teacher was to be Admiral Jean-Batiste, De Roye de la Rochefoucauld, Duc d'Anville, a French aristocrat, in his thirty-seventh year.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ France Starts Burying Lead Plates Along the Ohio River Celeron's Expedition: 250 men in 23 large canoes .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

The expedition left Lachine on June 15, 1749. The expedition went up the St. Lawrence, continued along the northern shore of Lake Ontario, crossed the portage at Niagara, and then followed the southern shoreline of Lake Erie. .At the Chautauqua Portage (near present-day Barcelona, New York), the expedition moved inland to the Allegheny River, which it followed to the site of present-day Pittsburgh, where Céloron buried lead plates engraved with the French claim to the Ohio Country.^ Fort Duquesne (the present Pittsburgh) is built by the French where the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers join to form the Ohio.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I arrived at noon at the portage of Chatakouin [near present-day Barcelona, New York]...
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ At important locations, lead plates were buried, claiming the lands for the French King.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Whenever he encountered British merchants or fur-traders, Céloron informed them of the French claims on the territory and told them to leave.^ In April 1754, a force of French and Indians traveling down the Allegheny River, with orders from the governor-general of New France to claim this prized territory for France, encountered a small garrison at the forks of the Ohio.
  • The French and Indian War (1755-1763), Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.clpgh.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After three years of attempts to remove the French from their settlements and forts on English territory, the British resolved to replace their inept, politically appointed commanders with reputable generals.
  • New York State Colonial Military French and Indian War books for sale 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.hopefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Celoron and his soldiers captured several English fur traders and told them to leave and stay on the east side of the Appalachian Mountains.

.When Céloron's expedition arrived at Logstown, the Native Americans in the area informed Céloron that they owned the Ohio Country and that they would trade with the British regardless of what the French told them to do.^ English traders also told the Indians that they would attack them if they caught them trading with the French.

^ The defeat was costly for the British: General Braddock lost his life, more than 900 of his men were killed or wounded, and British prestige among Native Americans in the region declined.
  • French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Ulstermen often fought as viciously as their tribal enemies until British armies finally defeated the French in Pennsylvania and Canada, after which the tribes withdrew permanently into the Ohio country.
  • The Not Entirely Forgotten War | The Weekly Standard 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.weeklystandard.com [Source type: General]

[9] .Céloron continued south until his expedition reached the confluence of the Ohio River and the Miami River, which lay just south of the village of Pickawillany, the home of the Miami chief known as "Old Briton". Céloron informed "Old Briton" that there would be "dire consequences" if the elderly chief continued to trade with the British.^ He traveled south of Lake Erie until he found the Ohio River.

^ In return for the Indians' support, the British provided certain financial considerations and their promise to withdraw from the Ohio River country.

^ At the same time, the British crown, with a continuing eye toward colonization, had offered large land grants there for settlement.

"Old Briton" ignored the warning. Céloron and his expedition went no further, and eventually returned to Montreal in November 1749.
.In his report, which extensively detailed the journey, Céloron wrote, "All I can say is that the Natives of these localities are very badly disposed towards the French, and are entirely devoted to the English.^ Montour reported to the English the advance of the French.
  • Revolutionary War Hero Captain John Montour 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.melungeons.com [Source type: Original source]

^ African servants and Indian allies of the English were not protected at all and were massacred as the French watched.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Rarely translated into English, these books have been received by a very limited audience...
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.I don't know in what way they could be brought back."^ However, with Frontenac's backing, they could not legally stop him, but New France was soon divided into two hostile commercial camps.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before you could say Eskippakithiki, Goff and Boone hastily made their way back to Boonesborough.

^ Washington knew that the Indians' hunting grounds would eventually be destroyed, and he thought the only way they could survive was to try and assimilate with the Americans.
  • Washington and the Northwest War, Part One 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.dreric.org [Source type: Original source]

[9] Reports of the situation to both London and Paris were accompanied by recommendations that action be taken. .William Shirley, the expansionist governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, was particularly forceful, stating that British colonists would not be safe as long as the French were present.^ By the end of 1757, with increased British resources, greater demands on the colonists, and the French facing national bankruptcy, the tide began to turn.
  • The French and Indian War (1755-1763), Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.clpgh.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Massachusetts Governor and acting General William Shirley and a force of 2,500 recently recruited colonists reach Fort Oswego, on the southeastern end of Lake Ontario.
  • The French & Indian War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.shmoop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the autumn of 1746, William Shirley, the governor of Massachusetts, who exercised supervision over the affairs of Nova Scotia, seeing in this a real menace to British power in the colony, raised a thousand New Englanders and dispatched them to Annapolis.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

[10]

Failed negotiations

.The War of the Austrian Succession (whose North American theater is also known as King George's War) formally ended in 1748 with the signing of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.^ In 1763, the war formally ended with the Treaty of Paris.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Red Cloud's War: treaty signing .

^ The situation in North America after the 1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle demanded the best that France had to give.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.The treaty was primarily focused on resolving issues in Europe, and the issues of conflicting territorial claims between British and French colonies in North America were turned over to a commission to resolve.^ The French and Indian War was a struggle between the British and the French in the colonies of North America.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Conflict between france and britain in north...
  • French and Indian War / Flashcards - Create Free Flashcards 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.proprofs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Peace treaty between the Huron and the British .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Britain assigned Governor Shirley and the Earl of Albemarle, the governor of the Province of Virginia, whose western border was one of the sources of conflict between the two powers, to the commission.^ Conflict between france and britain in north...
  • French and Indian War / Flashcards - Create Free Flashcards 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.proprofs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Correspondence was then carried on between the governors, Prevost at Louisbourg and Shirley at Boston, about what was to be done with the British prisoners...
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ World War II (abbreviated WWII), or the Second World War, was a worldwide conflict fought between the Allied Powers and the Axis Powers , from 1939 until 1945.

Albemarle also served as ambassador to France. .King Louis XV appointed Galissonière and other equally hard-line members to the French membership of the commission.^ The weak hands of King Louis XV and of his government had let slip the fairest colonies of France.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ It had Bourbon King Louis XV on one side trying as hard as possible to repeat the golden days of Louis XIV, and on the other side Frederick II of an emerging Prussia backed by British gold provided by William Pitt.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ La Salle named this new land Louisiana after the French king Louis.

.The commission met in Paris in the summer of 1750, with the predictable result that nothing was agreed to, given the positions of the negotiators.^ Johnson met with the Six Nations at Onondaga in June 1756, and he persuaded the old Delaware chef Nutimus to agree to negotiations.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Even with Quebec in British hands, "he told Newcastle that Quebec, Montreal, and Louisbourg should 'not be given up for nothing' but were certainly 'proper matters of negotiation.'"
  • Harold E. Selesky, University of Alabama | Imperial Wars | The William and Mary Quarterly, 59.3 | The History Cooperative 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Frontiers between Nova Scotia and Acadia in the north, to the Ohio Country in the south were claimed by both sides.^ The map depicts in great detail the English colonies from Pimlico Sound to Nova Scotia, plus eastern Canada, the Great Lakes and the Ohio Valley.
  • Superb 18th C FRENCH & INDIAN WAR MAP OF NORTH AMERICA Circa 1761 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.equinoxantiques.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It was through these articles, letters from government officials, concerned citizens and common soldiers, public addresses, notices and editorials that the British subjects were kept abreast of the dramatic conflict developing in the Upper Ohio Valley, Nova Scotia, Acadia and the whole of the North American frontier.
  • New York State Colonial Military French and Indian War books for sale 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.hopefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1786, Congress had claimed possession of all lands south of Canada, north of the Ohio, west of the Alleghenies, and east of the Mississippi river.
  • Washington and the Northwest War, Part One 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.dreric.org [Source type: Original source]

.The disputes also extended into the Atlantic, where both powers wanted access to the rich fisheries of the Grand Banks.^ Extending from tidewater on the Atlantic Ocean, it intersected the mountain barrier and continued into the heart of French Canada, to tidewater on the Saint Lawrence River.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

Attack on Pickawillany

.On March 17, 1752, the Governor-General of New France, Marquis de la Jonquière died, and was temporarily replaced by Charles le Moyne de Longueuil.^ Marquis de Duquesne arrives at Quebec to begin his duties as the new Governor General of New France.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Marquis Duquesne was the next-to-last Governor General of New France.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In April 1754, a force of French and Indians traveling down the Allegheny River, with orders from the governor-general of New France to claim this prized territory for France, encountered a small garrison at the forks of the Ohio.
  • The French and Indian War (1755-1763), Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.clpgh.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was not until July 1, 1752 that his permanent replacement, Ange Duquesne de Menneville, arrived in New France to take over the post.^ Page 52 front back Page 53 front back Page 54 front back Page 55 front back Page 56 front back Page 57 front back Page 58 front back Page 59 front back Page 60 front Louis Coulon de Villiers Dictionary of Canadian Biography Ange Duquesne de Menneville, Marquis Duquesne Dictionary of Canadian Biography .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Marquis de Duquesne arrives at Quebec to begin his duties as the new Governor General of New France.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1603 Samuel de Champlain arrived to govern this new territory and founded the city of Quebec.

.Longueuil dispatched an expedition to the Ohio River area under the command of Charles Michel de Langlade, an officer in the Troupes de la Marine.^ Charles-Michel Mouet de Langlade was a cadet in the colonial regulars.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Hlne and Charles-Michel de Langlade.
  • New York State Colonial Military French and Indian War books for sale 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.hopefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The colony of New France extended south along the Mississippi River all the way to Louisiana , an area explored and claimed by Chevalier de la Salle a century earlier.
  • French and Indian War@Everything2.com 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.Langlade was given 300 men comprising members of the Ottawa and French-Canadians.^ The Chaussegros de Lery assembled 362 men, including Indians, officers from Louisbourg, and Canadian and French soldiers.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.His objective was to punish the Miami people of Pickawillany for not following Céloron's orders to cease trading with the British.^ In the historical record, the first references to Pickawillany appear around 1750 when the British were establishing trading posts with the Indians on the frontier.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ After a British post was built, Memeskia began inviting other Miami to come for trade.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The other western forts also followed the instructions of Vaudreuil and were gradually taken over by the British navy, which took control of the fur trade.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.On June 21, the French war party attacked the trading centre at Pickawillany, killing fourteen people of the Miami nation, including Old Briton, who was reportedly ritually cannibalized by some members of the expedition.^ Any tribes who traded with the English were subject to attack from the French military.

^ At this point, the French realized how serious the situation had become In desperation, the French were forced to reach far to the north for allies, and Charles Langlade, a Mtis (mixed-blood), organized a war party of 250 Ottawa and Ojibwe at Mackinac which in June, 1752 attacked Pickawillany killing Memeskia and 30 other Miami.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Americans declared war on Britain on June 18 , 1812 , for a combination of reasons outrage at the impressment (seizure) of thousands of American sailors, frustration at British restraints on neutral trade while Britain warred with France, and anger at British support for native attacks along the frontier [1] which conflicted with American expansion and settlement into the Old Northwest .

Marin's expedition

.In the spring of 1753, Paul Marin de la Malgue was given command of a 2,000 man force of Troupes de la Marine and Indians.^ In May 1747, a fresh squadron, commanded by the Marquis de La Jonquiere , encountered the English off Cape Finisterre in Spain.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The following spring the Assembly increased the Virginia force to 2,000 men.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Soon after, the Marquis de Montcalm takes command of all French forces in North America.
  • The Fort at No.4 – Living History Museum 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.fortat4.org [Source type: General]

.His orders were to protect the King's land in the Ohio Valley from the British.^ While he was living in the Ohio Valley he began to survey the land.

^ The French and Indian War was precipitated through a series of altercations over rights to land in the Upper Ohio Valley.
  • The French and Indian War (1755-1763), Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.clpgh.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The British, meanwhile, also built their own forts, and the British granted lands in the Ohio Valley to the Ohio Company.
  • TNGenNet Inc. Colonial Period Indian Land Cessions in the American Southeast, Indian Land Cessions Maps and Treaties in the American Southeast. Indian Treaty Maps 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.tngenweb.org [Source type: Original source]

.Marin followed the route that Céloron had mapped out four years earlier, but where Céloron had limited the record of French claims to the burial of lead plates, Marin constructed and garrisoned forts.^ At important locations, lead plates were buried, claiming the lands for the French King.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The four-year review outlines six crucial mission areas and spells out capabilities and goals the Pentagon wants to develop.
  • FOXNews.com - White House to Ask Congress for Additional $33B for War Expenses 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.foxnews.com [Source type: News]

^ Wanting to limit British influence along their frontier, the French built a string of forts from Lake Erie towards the forks of the Ohio (present-day Pittsburgh).
  • Incidents leading up to the French and Indian War, 1753-1754 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first fort constructed by Paul Marin was Fort Presque Isle (near present-day Erie, Pennsylvania) on Lake Erie's south shore.^ Presque Isle (on the southern shore of Lake Erie) where the ground plan of a fort was being laid out...
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ France begins construction of Fort Presque Isle .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ We followed the south shore of Lake Erie to the fort of the Presque Isle, which we reached on the 27th.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

He then had a road built to the headwaters of LeBoeuf Creek. .Marin then constructed a second fort at Fort Le Boeuf (present-day Waterford, Pennsylvania), designed to guard the headwaters of LeBoeuf Creek.^ France begins construction of Fort LeBoeuf .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The first battle was fought at Fort Necessity in July 1754, a stockade constructed by George Washington and his troops near the headwaters of the Ohio River near present day Pittsburgh.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ He selects the site for Fort LeBoeuf, the second French fort in what is now Pennsylvania, at the south end of the supply road to French Creek, or Riviere aux Boeufs (Buffalo River) as it was known to the French.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.As he moved south, he drove off or captured British traders, alarming both the British and the Iroquois.^ British traders used the shortage of French goods to their advantage and by 1746 were entering Ohio with Iroquois permission for direct trade with French allies.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the French unable to compete, British and Iroquois traders made inroads into the French monopoly.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the ensuing battles, Sir William Johnson obtained the assistance of the Iroquois, Amherst captured Louisburg (1758) and Ticonderoga (1759), and Fort Duquesne was seized by the British (1758).
  • French and Indian Wars Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about French and Indian Wars 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tanaghrisson, a chief of the Mingo with an intense dislike for the French (whom he accused of killing and eating his father), went to Fort Le Boeuf, where he threatened action against them, which Marin contemptuously dismissed.^ On October 30, 1753 Virginia's Governor Dinwiddie, who was also involved in the Ohio Company, commissioned 21-year-old Major George Washington to warn the French commander at Fort Le Boeuf to depart from the Ohio Valley.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Fort Niagara, vital link of the victorious French troops with Montreal, was threatened by a second British army.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the farther end of this road they began another wooden fort and called it Fort Le Boeuf.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

[11]
.They Iroquois sent runners to William Johnson's manor in upstate New York.^ Sir William Johnson, commanding the attackers since the death of General Prideaux on July 20, sent a detachment to block the road leading to the fort.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In February 1759 the New York Assembly agreed to provide and supply 2,680 men, but they had to offer each recruit a bonus of £15.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When Denonville's army marched into Iroquois country, the Governor of New York (as Nieuw Amsterdam had been renamed) protested loudly.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Johnson, known to the Iroquois as "Warraghiggey", meaning "He who does big business", had become a respected member of the Iroquois Confederacy in the area.^ By the mid nineteenth century they were forced to become a member of the CADDO confederacy in order to survive.
  • indianhistory 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.icsee.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1746, Johnson was made a colonel of the Iroquois, and later a colonel of the Western New York Militia.^ Because he successfully recruited a sizable number of Iroquois to the British interest, Johnson was made a baronet, with a £5,000 sterling award.

^ Virginia and New York approved the document later in 1788, and North Carolina and Rhode Island adopted it last, in 1789 and 1790, respectively.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ When Denonville's army marched into Iroquois country, the Governor of New York (as Nieuw Amsterdam had been renamed) protested loudly.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They met at Albany, New York with Governor Clinton and officials from some of the other American colonies.^ In addition, Celoron wrote letters to the governors of Pennsylvania and New York informing the governors to keep their English citizens out of the Ohio Valley.

^ When Denonville's army marched into Iroquois country, the Governor of New York (as Nieuw Amsterdam had been renamed) protested loudly.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Various news from London and other parts of Europe also with some interesting advertisements as well.
  • French & Indian War Era - Timothy Hughes RareNewspapers.com Old Newspapers Original & Authentic 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.rarenewspapers.com [Source type: General]

.Chief Hendrick insisted that the British abide by their obligations and block French expansion.^ Since the Iroquois's presence worked to block British occupation, the French supported their claim to the land.
  • Colonial America - French & Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.jcs-group.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Three months after the British and French signed the treaty, Chief Pontiac of the Ottawa tribe ordered an uprising of all tribes in the Ohio Country.
  • Keeping Alive the French and Indian War - The Brooklyn Rail 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.brooklynrail.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Sandusky Wyandot of chief Orontony were the first to break with the French and trade with the British.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When an unsatisfactory response was offered by Clinton, Chief Hendrick proclaimed that the "Covenant Chain", a long-standing friendly relationship between the Iroquois Confederacy and the British Crown, was broken.^ His mission consisted of patrolling the waters of Lake Champlain and delaying as long as possible the advance of the British troops coming northward from Crown Point.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Treaty of Savannah , 1733 Treaty of Lancaster, 1744 Treaty at Lancaster Pennsylvania, between British colonies of Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania and the Iroquois nations of Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga and Seneca.
  • TNGenNet Inc. Colonial Period Indian Land Cessions in the American Southeast, Indian Land Cessions Maps and Treaties in the American Southeast. Indian Treaty Maps 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.tngenweb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This short-lived treaty (it was broken within six months) was an attempt to improve relations between the new British colonial government in Nova Scotia and the long-term inhabitants.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

Dinwiddie's reaction

Robert Dinwiddie, British lieutenant governor of Virginia
.Governor Robert Dinwiddie of Virginia found himself in a predicament.^ Early defeats in the French and Indian War led Virginia Governor Robert Dinwiddie to construct forts in the South Branch Valley.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Journal of Colonel George Washington, commanding a detachment of Virginia troops, sent by Robert Dinwiddie, Lieutenant-Governor of Virginia, across the Alleghany Mountains, in 1754, to build forts at the head of the Ohio ...
  • Revolutionary War Hero Captain John Montour 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.melungeons.com [Source type: Original source]

^ George Washington leaves Williamsburg, Virginia, with a letter written by Governor Dinwiddie to the French commanding officer at Fort LeBoeuf, demanding that the French forces depart from the area.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Many merchants had invested heavily in fur trading in the Ohio Country.^ The French commander refused and told the Englishmen that the French would arrest any English (that is, non-French European) settlers or merchants entering the Ohio Country.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The fur trade made many tribes powerful and more agressive.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If the French made good on their claim to the Ohio Country and drove out the British, then the Virginian merchants would lose a lot of money.^ In return for the Indians' support, the British provided certain financial considerations and their promise to withdraw from the Ohio River country.

^ The British conquest of Acadia would ultimately bring severe consequences for its French inhabitants.

^ In 1629, a fleet of British privateers captured Quebec which cut the flow of French trade goods to the Algonkin and other French trading partners.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To counter the French military presence in Ohio, in October 1753 Dinwiddie ordered Major George Washington of the Virginia militia to deliver a message to the French, warning them to leave Virginia territory.^ Major George Washington during .

^ During the year 1754 a young insignificant Lieutenant Colonel of the Virginia Militia by the name of GEORGE WASHINGTON managed, near the small French Fort Duquense, to provide the small spark needed to ignite the already smouldering frontier.

^ George Washington, Adam Stephen and Andrew Lewis on behalf of themselves and the other surviving officers and soldiers who in 1753 had fought in defense of Virginia against the French and who were promised 200,000 acres of land east of the River Ohio.
  • French & Indian War 19 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: General]

.Washington, along with his interpreter Jacob Van Braam and several other men, left for Fort Le Boeuf on October 31. A few days later, they arrived at Wills Creek (near present-day Cumberland, Maryland).^ The other is near present-day Amherst, Nova Scotia.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ One is located in present-day Cumberland, Maryland.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington took Jacob van Braam to interpret French, and Gist joined him as a guide at Wills Creek.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.Here Washington enlisted the help of Christopher Gist, a surveyor who was familiar with the area.^ George Washington and Christopher Gist leave Logstown, on their way to deliver Governor Dinwiddie's letter to the French commanding officer at Fort LeBoeuf.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ George Washington and Christopher Gist arrive at the Forks of the Ohio, on their way to deliver Governor Dinwiddie's letter to the French commanding officer at Fort LeBoeuf.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Washington and his party arrived at Logstown on November 24. At Logstown, Washington met with Tanaghrisson, and convinced him to accompany his small group to Fort Le Boeuf.^ On October 30, 1753 Virginia's Governor Dinwiddie, who was also involved in the Ohio Company, commissioned 21-year-old Major George Washington to warn the French commander at Fort Le Boeuf to depart from the Ohio Valley.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Vauses, but since most of the fork people has Returned--I shall send a small party of my Company to Fort Dinwiddie--I have stationed Capt.
  • French & Indian War 19 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: General]

^ November 25; Colonial troops under Col. George Washington capture Fort Duquesne, site of Washington's surrender four years before.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Washington's map of the Ohio River and surrounding region containing notes on French intentions, 1753 or 1754.
.On December 12, Washington and his men reached Fort Le Boeuf.^ It was July 7 before Braddock reached Turtle Creek, some eight miles from Fort Duquesne, with twelve hundred of his best men...
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ On October 30, 1753 Virginia's Governor Dinwiddie, who was also involved in the Ohio Company, commissioned 21-year-old Major George Washington to warn the French commander at Fort Le Boeuf to depart from the Ohio Valley.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In December 1753, George Washington counted 220 canoes lying around Fort LeBoeuf.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre, who replaced Marin as commander of the French forces after the latter died on October 29, invited Washington to dine with him that evening.^ May 28th An English patrol led by George Washington and his guide, a Seneca Chief named Half-King, attacks a small party of French soldiers under the command of Ensign de Jumonville.
  • The Fort at No.4 – Living History Museum 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.fortat4.org [Source type: General]

^ After three years of attempts to remove the French from their settlements and forts on English territory, the British resolved to replace their inept, politically appointed commanders with reputable generals.
  • New York State Colonial Military French and Indian War books for sale 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.hopefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was made brigadier-general in 1774, and October to commanded the victorious Virginia troops at the battle of Point Pleasant against a most formidable force of Indians.
  • French & Indian War 19 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: General]

.Over dinner, Washington presented Saint-Pierre with the letter from Dinwiddie that demanded an immediate French withdrawal from the Ohio Country.^ In return for the Indians' support, the British provided certain financial considerations and their promise to withdraw from the Ohio River country.

^ George Washington and Christopher Gist arrive at Fort LeBoeuf, to deliver Governor Dinwiddie's letter to the French commanding officer there, Jacques Legardeur de Sainte-Pierre.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1749, the French begin to implement a plan to solidify their presence in the Ohio River country [now western Pennsylvania and the states of Ohio and Kentucky].
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Saint-Pierre was quite civil in his response, saying, "As to the Summons you send me to retire, I do not think myself obliged to obey it."^ Remember, constraints and responsibilities that you are familiar with that pertain to Civil War desertions would apply also to any other war.
  • French & Indian War 19 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: General]

[12] .He explained to Washington that France's claim to the region was superior to that of the British, since René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle had explored the Ohio Country nearly a century earlier.^ Robert Cavalier Sieur de La Salle .

^ In 1669-70, Robert Cavelier de La Salle explored Ohio and Illinois.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In return for the Indians' support, the British provided certain financial considerations and their promise to withdraw from the Ohio River country.

[13]
.Washington's party left Fort Le Boeuf early on December 16, arriving back in Williamsburg on January 16, 1754. In his report, Washington stated, "The French had swept south",[14] detailing the steps they had taken to fortify the area, and communicating their intention to fortify the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers.^ Washington surrenders Fort Necessity to the French .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington in command of an expedition to finish the fort at the forks of the Ohio, the Allegheny, and the Monongahela Rivers.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As early as 1754, a young Virginian named George Washington was involved in an unsuccessful attempt to capture Fort Duquesne.

The War

.
The earliest authenticated portrait of George Washington shows him wearing his colonel's uniform of the Virginia Regiment from the French and Indian War.
^ French and Indian War (1754–1763) .
  • French and Indian Wars Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about French and Indian Wars 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ French and Indian war.
  • Harold E. Selesky, University of Alabama | Imperial Wars | The William and Mary Quarterly, 59.3 | The History Cooperative 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ George Washington is promoted to full Colonel in charge of the Virginia Regiment.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

This portrait was painted years after the war, in 1772.
.Dinwiddie, even before Washington returned, sent a group of 50 men under William Trent to that point, where in February 1754 they constructed a small stockaded fort.^ Construction of Fort William Henry begins .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The first battle was fought at Fort Necessity in July 1754, a stockade constructed by George Washington and his troops near the headwaters of the Ohio River near present day Pittsburgh.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ He defeated a small force of French and Native Americans but had to withdraw and, building Fort Necessity , held his ground until forced to surrender (July, 1754).
  • French and Indian Wars Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about French and Indian Wars 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Governor Duquesne recalled Legardeur, but sent another 600 troupes de la Marine under Claude-Pierre Pecaudy de Contrecoeur to the area.^ The commander of the fort, Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre, received Washington and his men courteously, but denied the validity of English claims to the contested region.
  • Incidents leading up to the French and Indian War, 1753-1754 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The French, commanded by Claude-Pierre Pecaudy de Contrecoeur, immediately destroy the partially completed British Fort Prince George and start building their own larger and stronger fort, named Fort Duquesne in honour of the Marquis Duquesne, Governor General 1752-1755 of New France – all French colonies in North America.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ He recalled Jeffery Amherst from Germany and made him commander-in-chief to attack Louisbourg, and he sent John Forbes to capture Fort Duquesne.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.Contrecoeur arrived at the forks in mid-April, where he allowed Trent and his company to withdraw, and then began construction of Fort Duquesne.^ The French bought their tools and began building Fort Duquesne.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They entered it with armed forces, were drived away from a fort they were building [Fort Prince George, later Fort Duquesne, at the forks of the Ohio] and then returned to try again.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The Civil War began on April 12 with the firing on Fort Sumter by Confederate troops off the coast of Charleston, South Carolina.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.After Washington returned to Williamsburg with his report, Dinwiddie ordered him to lead a larger force to assist Trent in his work.^ In January 1754, Major Washington returned to Williamsburg from his winter trip to deliver Governor Dinwiddie's letter to the French that demanded they vacate English territory.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Dinwiddie was ill and was replaced by Francis Fauquier, who reported in June that the second regiment of a thousand men under Col. Byrd had joined Washington at Winchester.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ George Washington leaves Williamsburg, Virginia, with a letter written by Governor Dinwiddie to the French commanding officer at Fort LeBoeuf, demanding that the French forces depart from the area.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.While en route, he learned of Trent's retreat.^ Braddock's British forces en route to capture Fort Duquesne are ambushed and routed by French and Indians [at a site now in Braddock, Pennsylvania] forcing retreat and failure of the expedition.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Since Tanaghrisson had promised him support, he continued toward Fort Duquesne, and met with the Mingo leader.^ The British continue a slow but determined advance toward Fort Duquesne.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ He recalled Jeffery Amherst from Germany and made him commander-in-chief to attack Louisbourg, and he sent John Forbes to capture Fort Duquesne.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In March 1758 levies up to 2,700 men were authorized to support the expedition led by Brigadier-General John Forbes to take Fort Duquesne, and troops were promised land bounties on the Ohio River.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.Learning of a French scouting party in the area, Washington took some of his men, and with Tanaghrisson and his party, surprised the French on May 28. Many of the French were massacred, among them their commanding officer, Joseph Coulon de Jumonville, whose head was split open by Tanaghrisson.^ Nicholas Antoine Coulon de Villiers is the father of Joseph Coulon de Villiers, Sieur de Jumonville, who was killed in May 1754 by George Washington's men in the Battle of Jumonville Glen, and of Louis Coulon de Villiers , the commander of the French force that forced George Washington to surrender in July 1754 at Fort Necessity.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Learning that Washington was leading a few hundred Virginians to Ohio, Contrecoeur sent a small contingent under Ensign Joseph Coulon de Villiers, Sieur de Jumonville, to warn him he was in French territory.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On May 28, 1754, Colonial soldiers under Washington's command and his American Indian allies surprised a small French force, killing (the French would later say assassinating) envoy Ensign Coulon de Jumonville, and several of his soldiers.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Historian Fred Anderson puts forward the reason for Tanaghrisson's act (which was followed up by one of Tanaghrisson's men informing Contrecoeur that Jumonville had been killed by British musket fire) as one of desperate need to win the support of the British in an effort to regain authority over his people, who were more inclined to support the French.^ He immediately despatched M. de Jumonville with thirty men to summon the English to retire and to evacuate French territory.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Our first work was to bury more effectually the dead we found there, who had been half interr'd by the country people.
  • Benjamin Frankin During the French & Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC oldetoolshop.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From more than two thousand gunshots that had been fired at them only thirty persons were killed, including the women and children; and fourteen were wounded.
  • Article Archives: Father Rasle's War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.bigorrin.org [Source type: Original source]

[15]
.Following the massacre, Washington pulled back several miles and established Fort Necessity, which the French then attacked on July 3.^ Washington surrenders Fort Necessity to the French .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The first battle was fought at Fort Necessity in July 1754, a stockade constructed by George Washington and his troops near the headwaters of the Ohio River near present day Pittsburgh.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The first phase of the war (1754–57) was fought largely in the frontier areas of Virginia, Pennsylvania, New York, and New England and was marked by several defeats for the British forces, including George Washington 's surrender of Fort Necessity (July 3, 1754), the annihilation of Gen.
  • French and Indian Wars Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about French and Indian Wars 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The engagement led to Washington's surrender; he negotiated a withdrawal under arms.^ November 25; Colonial troops under Col. George Washington capture Fort Duquesne, site of Washington's surrender four years before.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One of Washington's men reported that the French force was accompanied by Shawnee, Delaware, and Mingo—just those Tanaghrisson was seeking to influence.^ This influenced the Delaware and Shawnee to side with the French.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dinwiddie was ill and was replaced by Francis Fauquier, who reported in June that the second regiment of a thousand men under Col. Byrd had joined Washington at Winchester.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Unable to proceed against the superior French forces in the fort, Washington erected Fort Necessity at nearby Great Meadows.
  • The French and Indian War (1755-1763), Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.clpgh.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16]
.When news of the two battles reached England in August, the government of the Duke of Newcastle, after several months of negotiations, decided to send an army expedition the following year to dislodge the French.^ However, British Prime Minister Thomas Pelham-Holles, Duke of Newcastle, reacted swiftly to the news, and planned a quick strike against the French forts before they could be reinforced.
  • Incidents leading up to the French and Indian War, 1753-1754 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In August 1756, a combined French and Indian force captured Fort Oswego on Lake Ontario and the following year took Fort William Henry, situated at the foot of New York's Lake George.

^ When news of Washington?s failure reached British Prime Minister Thomas Pelham-Holles, Duke of Newcastle, he called for a quick undeclared retaliatory strike.
  • French and Indian War/Seven Years' War, 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] .Major General Edward Braddock was chosen to lead the expedition.^ Major General Edward Braddock is appointed Commander in Chief of British forces in the thirteen colonies.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Major James Grant of the 77th Highland Regiment was chosen to lead the scouting expedition.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Braddock also approved an expedition into Acadia and put Brigadier-General Robert Monckton in command.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

[18] .Word of the British military plans leaked to France well before Braddock's departure for North America, and King Louis XV dispatched a much larger body of troops to Canada in 1755.[19] The British, intending to blockade French ports, sent out their fleet in February 1755, but the French fleet had already sailed.^ France held most of North America .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In North America, the war pitted France, French colonists, and their Native allies against Great Britain, the Anglo-American colonists and the Iroquois Confederacy, which controlled most of upstate New York and parts of northern Pennsylvania.
  • French and Indian War/Seven Years' War, 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, British Prime Minister Thomas Pelham-Holles, Duke of Newcastle, reacted swiftly to the news, and planned a quick strike against the French forts before they could be reinforced.
  • Incidents leading up to the French and Indian War, 1753-1754 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Admiral Edward Hawke detached a fast squadron to North America in an attempt to intercept the French.^ The last military clash ever, between British and French forces in North America, is fought in 1762 at the Battle of Signal Hill in Newfoundland.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Dutch in New York had told them so—that taking Quebec was the best way to strike at the root of French power in North America.
  • Harold E. Selesky, University of Alabama | Imperial Wars | The William and Mary Quarterly, 59.3 | The History Cooperative 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soon after, the Marquis de Montcalm takes command of all French forces in North America.
  • The Fort at No.4 – Living History Museum 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.fortat4.org [Source type: General]

.In a second British act of aggression, Admiral Edward Boscawen fired on the French ship Alcide on June 9, 1755, capturing her and two troop ships.^ In the spring of 1755 Admiral Edward Boscawen commanded a large fleet from England that intercepted part of the French convoy carrying 3,150 men and seized the ships Alcide and Lys with 330 soldiers.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1755 Admirals Boscawen and Edward Hawke captured about three hundred French merchant vessels and six thousand men.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That spring, British ships tried to intercept French reinforcements bound for Canada.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

[20] The British harassed French shipping throughout 1755, seizing ships and capturing seamen, contributing to the eventual formal declarations of war in spring 1756.[21]

British campaigns, 1755

The British formed an aggressive plan of operations for 1755. General Braddock was to lead the expedition to Fort Duquesne, while Massachusetts provincial governor William Shirley was given the task of fortifying Fort Oswego and attacking Fort Niagara, Sir William Johnson was to capture Fort St. Frédéric (at present-day Crown Point, New York), and Lieutenant Colonel Robert Monckton was to capture Fort Beauséjour on the frontier between Nova Scotia and Acadia.
.Braddock led about 2,000 army troops and provincial militia on an expedition in June 1755 to take Fort Duquesne.^ England takes possession of Fort Duquesne .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Dumas was no stranger to battle or strategic raiding; his savvy leadership and quick thinking had turned certain defeat into a stunning victory when Braddock’s army had knocked into them outside Fort Duquesne in 1755.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / Wilderness Ordeal 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On July 13, 1755 Braddock himself died while on a failed expedition to capture Fort Duquesne in present-day Pittsburgh, after being mortally wounded in an ambush.
  • French and Indian War/Seven Years' War, 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The expedition was a disaster. .At the battle of the Monongahela, Braddock was mortally wounded.^ On July 13, 1755 Braddock himself died while on a failed expedition to capture Fort Duquesne in present-day Pittsburgh, after being mortally wounded in an ambush.
  • French and Indian War/Seven Years' War, 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ General Braddock is mortally wounded when he and his force of British troops and colonial militia are caught in a French and Indian ambush.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ General Edward Braddock – the highest-rank British officer in North America – dies from the wound he received four days earlier at the Battle of the Monongahela.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Two future opponents in the American Revolutionary War, Washington and Thomas Gage, played key roles in organizing the retreat.^ Johnson played a key role in pressing the crown to limit immigration west of the Appalachians, but land-hungry settlers ignored royal edicts, intensifying conflicts over land.

^ This eminently readable guide to the locales that played an important role in the American Revolution is remarkable for its attention to historical detail as well as its handsome illustrations.
  • New York State Colonial Military French and Indian War books for sale 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.hopefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Waldeck (Germany) Soldiers of the American Revolutionary War - contains brief biographies of everyman who served from Waldeck in the 3rd English-Waldeck Regiment.
  • New York State Colonial Military French and Indian War books for sale 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.hopefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One consequence of the debacle was that the French acquired a copy of the British war plans, including the activities of Shirley and Johnson.^ The British conquest of Acadia would ultimately bring severe consequences for its French inhabitants.

^ Pontiac's War Led by Pontiac, the Ottawa, Wyandot, Pota-watomi and Ojibwa attempt to drive British settlers out of former French territories.

^ In retrospect, the British victory in the Seven Years War was one of the truly pivotal events in American history.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

Shirley's efforts to fortify Oswego were bogged down in logistical difficulties and magnified by Shirley's inexperience in managing large expeditions. .When it was clear he would not have time to mount an expedition across Lake Ontario to Fort Ontario, Shirley left garrisons at Oswego, Fort Bull, and Fort Williams (the latter two located on the Oneida Carry between the Mohawk River and Wood Creek at present-day Rome, New York).^ Fort Niagara was strategically located at the mouth of the Niagara River, where it flows into Lake Ontario.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Fort Oswego was located at the mouth of the Oswego River on the southeast shore of Lake Ontario [now Oswego, New York].
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ New York Times, 3/13/94.
  • Obama and Afghanistan: America’s Drug-Corrupted War « From the islands of Langerhans 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC embiggens.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Supplies for use in the projected attack on Niagara were cached at Fort Bull.^ During the summer the British used the schooner Huron to bring supplies and men to Fort Detroit and to blast Pontiac's village.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Bradstreet demonstrates how vulnerable Fort Duquesne's supply line is, by destroying vast quantities of provisions destined for Forts Niagara, Detroit and Duquesne, together with the boats that were to deliver them.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Archaeological evidence suggests, however, that the site of Fort Niagara was used seasonally as a fishing and hunting camp.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Johnson's expedition was better organized than Shirley's, something that did not escape the attention of New France's governor, the Marquis de Vaudreuil.^ Marquis Duquesne was the next-to-last Governor General of New France.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Governor Vaudreuil instructed Claude Roch de Ramezay to surrender Quebec.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ De Vaudreuil, Governor of Canada, succeeded in keeping the Iroquois neutral.
  • The Baldwin Project: Indian History for Young Folks by Francis S. Drake 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

.He had primarily been concerned about the extended supply line to the forts on the Ohio, and had sent Baron Dieskau to lead the defenses at Frontenac against Shirley's expected attack.^ However, many Indians in the upper Ohio Valley were concerned about British colonists encroaching upon their land, and did not acknowledge either British or Iroquois authority.
  • Incidents leading up to the French and Indian War, 1753-1754 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dinwiddie sent Captain William Trent of the Virginia militia to construct a fort at the strategically important forks of the Ohio River and also to convince the local Indians to ally against the French.
  • Incidents leading up to the French and Indian War, 1753-1754 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He recalled Jeffery Amherst from Germany and made him commander-in-chief to attack Louisbourg, and he sent John Forbes to capture Fort Duquesne.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

When Johnson was seen as the larger threat, Vaudreuil sent Dieskau to Fort St. Frédéric to meet that threat. .Dieskau planned to attack the British encampment at Fort Edward at the upper end of navigation on the Hudson River, but Johnson had strongly fortified it, and Dieskau's Indian support was reluctant to attack.^ There they built Fort George and Fort Edward on the upper Hudson.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Indians attacked retreating British troops on their way to nearby Fort Edward.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ These were strongly fortified dwellings calculated to repel Indian attacks.
  • The Baldwin Project: Indian History for Young Folks by Francis S. Drake 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

.The two forces finally met in the bloody Battle of Lake George between Fort Edward and Fort William Henry.^ Construction of Fort William Henry begins .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In August 1756, a combined French and Indian force captured Fort Oswego on Lake Ontario and the following year took Fort William Henry, situated at the foot of New York's Lake George.

^ A squadron of soldiers led by a brash, unknown, twenty-two year old George Washington attacked a French stronghold named Fort Duquesne .
  • The French and Indian War [ushistory.org] 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

.The battle ended inconclusively, with both sides withdrawing from the field.^ This occurred after almost all Amerindians on both sides had secretly agreed to withdraw from the action, at least temporarily, and were mere witnesses to a white man's fight.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Johnson's advance stopped at Fort William Henry, and the French withdrew to Ticonderoga point, where they began the construction of Fort Carillon (later renamed Fort Ticonderoga after British capture in 1759).^ Amherst restored Carillon and renamed it Fort Ticonderoga.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ France begins construction of Fort Carillon .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The British capture Acadia (later renamed Nova Scotia).

.Colonel Monckton, in the only real British success that year, successfully captured Fort Beauséjour in June 1755, cutting the French fortress at Louisbourg off from land-based reinforcements.^ French Fort Gaspereau captured by England .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ French Fort Frontenac captured by British .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Massachusetts captures Fortress Louisbourg .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.The victory was tarnished by the decision of Nova Scotia's Governor Charles Lawrence afterwards to order the deportation of the French-speaking Acadian population from the area.^ Thus, by this date, the Acadians had been deported from Nova Scotia.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles Lawrence, Military Governor of Nova Scotia, dies suddenly at Halifax .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Governor Shirley of Massachusetts and Lt. Governor Lawrence of Nova Scotia had commissioned Major John Winslow to raise two thousand volunteers to fight the French Acadians in Nova Scotia.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.Monckton's forces, including companies of Rogers' Rangers, forcibly removed thousands of Acadians, chasing down many who resisted, and sometimes committing atrocities.^ Murray on May 26 announced that he was pardoning militiamen who laid down their arms, but those resisting had their homes burned.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In June they were attacked by a thousand Cherokee warriors, who killed eleven and wounded 52 while losing twice as many men.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In early 1755 he established the first Ranger company, which was made up of hardy New England woodsmen who were expert survivalists and Indian fighters.
  • New York State Colonial Military French and Indian War books for sale 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.hopefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Acadian resistance, in concert with native allies, including the Mi'kmaq, was sometimes quite stiff, with ongoing frontier raids.^ The next two years would find the Fort Niagara garrison busily supporting Native allies in their raids against the frontiers of Pennsylvania and Virginia.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their agreement with the French was significant in that it also extended to French native allies and trading partners, including those in the Great Lakes.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The only clash of any size was the 1757 Battle of Bloody Creek near Annapolis Royal.^ Second Battle of Bloody Creek, 1757 Wikipedia .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In the battle of Bloody Run the English suffered eighteen killed and forty wounded, but only six of Pontiac's warriors were killed.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Second Battle of Bloody Creek .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

French victories, 1756–1757

Conference between the French and Indian leaders around a ceremonial fire.
.Following the death of Braddock, William Shirley assumed command of British forces in North America.^ The British Government sent General Edward Braddock to the colonies as commander in chief of British North American forces, but he alienated potential Indian allies and colonial leaders failed to cooperate with him.
  • French and Indian War/Seven Years' War, 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The crucible of war: the Seven Years' War and the fate of empire in British North America, 1754-1766 .
  • French and Indian War and the American Revolution - Guide to History Research - PepWikis 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC wikis.pepperdine.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Special attention is paid by the author to the following: the crippling defeat of Braddock's expedition; the appointment by Parliament of Earl of Loudon to commander-in-chief of North American forces; the dynamic leadership of Virginia governor Francis Fauquier and British secretary of state William Pitt; the taking of Forts Frontenac and Duquesne; and other notable campaigns of the conflict.
  • New York State Colonial Military French and Indian War books for sale 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.hopefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At a meeting in Albany in December 1755 he laid out his plans for 1756. In addition to renewing the efforts to capture Niagara, Crown Point and Duquesne, he proposed attacks on Fort Frontenac on the north shore of Lake Ontario and an expedition through the wilderness of the Maine district and down the Chaudière River to attack the city of Quebec.^ Fort Niagara was strategically located at the mouth of the Niagara River, where it flows into Lake Ontario.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Presque Isle (on the southern shore of Lake Erie) where the ground plan of a fort was being laid out...
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ French Fort Frontenac captured by British .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Bogged down by disagreements and disputes with others, including William Johnson and New York's Governor Sir Charles Hardy, Shirley's plan had little support, and Newcastle replaced him in January 1756 with Lord Loudoun, with Major General James Abercrombie as his second in command.^ In June 1756 William Henry Lyttelton arrived at Charles Town as the new governor.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sir William Johnson (1715-1774) .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Governor Shirley set in motion his new plans for Nova Scotia.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Neither of these men had as much campaign experience as the trio of officers France sent to North America.^ France held most of North America .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ All together England sent 23,000 soldiers to America compared to France's 6,800, and with so many provincials the Anglo-American force was nearly 50,000 men.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Most of these enlisted men lacked the physical size and stamina to endure a campaign in the North American wilderness," Brasseaux writes, which "proved a major liability in Louisiana's numerous campaigns against Native Americans" (p.
  • Harold E. Selesky, University of Alabama | Imperial Wars | The William and Mary Quarterly, 59.3 | The History Cooperative 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21] .French regular army reinforcements arrived in New France in May 1756, led by Major General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm and seconded by the Chevalier de Lévis and Colonel François-Charles de Bourlamaque, all experienced veterans from the War of the Austrian Succession.^ In March 1756 Louis Joseph, the Marquis de Montcalm, was appointed commander of New France's forces.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In September 1759, British General James Wolfe's defeat of the French Army, commanded by Marquis Louis-Joseph de Montcalm, on the Plains of Abraham resulted in the surrender of Quebec.

^ In North America, the war pitted France, French colonists, and their Native allies against Great Britain, the Anglo-American colonists and the Iroquois Confederacy, which controlled most of upstate New York and parts of northern Pennsylvania.
  • French and Indian War/Seven Years' War, 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Governor Vaudreuil, who harboured ambitions to become the French commander in chief (in addition to his role as governor), acted during the winter of 1756 before those reinforcements arrived.^ Edward Cornwallis, uncle of Lord Cornwallis of the Revolutionary War, was made governor and commander-in-chief...
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The French commander at Louisbourg was the one-legged naval officer Jean-Baptiste-Louis le Prévost DuQuesnel , who had been appointed to that post on 1 September 1740 and had arrived at Louisbourg on 3 November 1740.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ On October 30, 1753 Virginia's Governor Dinwiddie, who was also involved in the Ohio Company, commissioned 21-year-old Major George Washington to warn the French commander at Fort Le Boeuf to depart from the Ohio Valley.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.Scouts had reported the weakness of the British supply chain, so he ordered an attack against the forts Shirley had erected at the Oneida Carry.^ During the summer the British used the schooner Huron to bring supplies and men to Fort Detroit and to blast Pontiac's village.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Micmacs and Malecites rallied to his side on 7 September, the day he attacked the British fort at Annapolis.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Correspondence was then carried on between the governors, Prevost at Louisbourg and Shirley at Boston, about what was to be done with the British prisoners...
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.In the March Battle of Fort Bull, French forces destroyed the fort and large quantities of supplies, including 45,000 pounds of gunpowder, effectively setting back any British hopes for campaigns on Lake Ontario, and endangering the Oswego garrison, which was already short on supplies.^ Fort Duquesne abandoned by French forces .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Battle of Fort Bull, a French victory .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ French Fort Frontenac captured by British .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.French forces in the Ohio valley also continued to intrigue with Indians throughout the area, encouraging them to raid frontier settlements.^ However, many Indians in the upper Ohio Valley were concerned about British colonists encroaching upon their land, and did not acknowledge either British or Iroquois authority.
  • Incidents leading up to the French and Indian War, 1753-1754 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wanting to limit British influence along their frontier, the French built a string of forts from Lake Erie towards the forks of the Ohio (present-day Pittsburgh).
  • Incidents leading up to the French and Indian War, 1753-1754 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ohio Valley campaigns US forces fight sporadic battles with Miami, Shawnee and other tribes in present-day Ohio, Indiana and Illinois.

.This led to ongoing alarms along the western frontiers, with streams of refugees returning east to get away from the action.^ As he crawled along the shore of the pond, some distance from the scene of action, he found a canoe into which he rolled himself, and was drifted away by the wind.
  • The Baldwin Project: Indian History for Young Folks by Francis S. Drake 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The northern frontier seemed to be collapsing in upon the British colonies along the east coast of North America.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.The new British command was not in place until July.^ Lord Loudoun came to New York City in July 1756, and housing the British soldiers was a crisis for the next year.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Early in July 1755, General Phineas Lyman begins building a new fort at a sharp bend on the Hudson River known as "The Great Carrying Place."
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

Abercrombie, when he arrived in Albany, refused to take any significant actions until Loudoun approved them. His inaction was met by Montcalm with bold action. .Building on Vaudreuil's work harassing the Oswego garrison, Montcalm executed a strategic feint by moving his headquarters to Ticonderoga, as if to presage another attack along Lake George.^ Along the old road, in 1755, the first important victory by an army of colonial soldiers against a foreign power was won at the Battle of Lake George.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ This attack is the first of three separate engagements this day – Bloody Morning Scout, Battle at Lake George and Battle at Bloody Pond.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ They begin work preparing the site for a fort on a bluff [now Garrison Hill] overlooking the peninsula and Lake Erie.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.With Abercrombie pinned down at Albany, Montcalm slipped away and led the successful attack on Oswego in August.^ In early August 1757, under the leadership of the Marquis de Montcalm, French forces attacked the fort, and forced a British surrender on August 9th.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Montcalm marched on the three forts at Chouaguen (Oswego) in August with 1,550 regulars, 1,500 Canadian militiamen, and 250 Indians.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the aftermath, Montcalm and the Indians under his command disagreed about the disposition of prisoners' personal effects.^ A column of British regulars under the command of General Edward Braddock was ambushed and routed by the French and their Indian allies in July 1755.

^ August 9; the French and Indians under the Marquis de Montcalm take Fort William Henry on Lake George.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On May 7 Pontiac and about three hundred Indians entered the fort hiding sawed-off guns under their robes.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.These sorts of items were not prizes in European warfare, but Indians were angered by the fact that the French troops prevented them from stripping the prisoners of their valuables.^ Indian or French prisoner or scalp."
  • The French and Indian War [ushistory.org] 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ General Braddock is mortally wounded when he and his force of British troops and colonial militia are caught in a French and Indian ambush.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Although Amherst resented this expense and discounted their value, they prevented Indians from joining the French and were excellent guides through the rapids.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

Montcalm trying to stop allied Native Americans from attacking British soldiers and civilians as they leave after the Battle of Fort William Henry.
.Loudoun, a capable administrator but a cautious field commander, planned only one major operation for 1757: an attack on New France's capital, Quebec.^ The administration also plans to tell Congress next month that its central military objectives for the next four years will include winning the current wars while preventing new ones, and its core missions will include both counterinsurgency and counterterror operations.
  • FOXNews.com - White House to Ask Congress for Additional $33B for War Expenses 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.foxnews.com [Source type: News]

^ Marquis de Duquesne arrives at Quebec to begin his duties as the new Governor General of New France.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The huge cost of the 1745 attack on the French military base at Louisbourg forcefully demonstrates how deeply threatened New England was by the military might of France.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Leaving a sizable force at Fort William Henry to distract Montcalm, he began organizing for the expedition to Quebec, only to be ordered by William Pitt, the Secretary of State responsible for the colonies, to attack Louisbourg first.^ Construction of Fort William Henry begins .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Montcalm marched to Fort William Henry in August and demanded surrender.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Fort William Henry repels a French attack .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Beset by delays of all kinds, the expedition was ready to sail from Halifax, Nova Scotia in early August.^ At the time of the transfer of British authority from Louisbourg to Halifax, a remarkable but shadowy figure enters Nova Scotia history.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The British sailed from Halifax in August, reinforced with ships and troops from New York, and retook the island city...
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward Cornwallis arrives at Chebucto (Halifax Harbour, Nova Scotia) and begins the work of establishing a new military base and town to be named Halifax.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.However, French ships had managed to escape the British blockade of the French coast, and a fleet outnumbering the British one awaited them at Louisbourg.^ French Fortress Louisbourg captured by British .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1629, a fleet of British privateers captured Quebec which cut the flow of French trade goods to the Algonkin and other French trading partners.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That spring, British ships tried to intercept French reinforcements bound for Canada.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Faced with this strength Loudoun returned to New York amid news that a massacre had occurred at Fort William Henry.^ Construction of Fort William Henry begins .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Lord Loudoun came to New York City in July 1756, and housing the British soldiers was a crisis for the next year.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, he does not incorporate in his discussion of the French capture of Fort William Henry in August 1757 Steele's Betrayals: Fort William Henry and the "Massacre," the modern authority on the subject—a decision that underscores his lack of interest in the role the French thought Native Americans might play in the defense of New France.
  • Harold E. Selesky, University of Alabama | Imperial Wars | The William and Mary Quarterly, 59.3 | The History Cooperative 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.French irregular forces (Canadian scouts and Indians) harassed Fort William Henry throughout the first half of 1757. In January they ambushed British rangers near Ticonderoga.^ Fort Duquesne abandoned by French forces .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Fort William Henry repels a French attack .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The story includes the siege at Fort William Henry (1757) during the French and Indian War.
  • TNGenNet Inc. Colonial Period Indian Land Cessions in the American Southeast, Indian Land Cessions Maps and Treaties in the American Southeast. Indian Treaty Maps 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.tngenweb.org [Source type: Original source]

.In February they launched a daring raid against the position across the frozen Lake George, destroying storehouses and buildings outside the main fortification.^ They mounted a raid on the Abenaki village at Norridgewock, which is located on the Kennebec River in Maine.
  • Article Archives: Father Rasle's War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.bigorrin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Along the old road, in 1755, the first important victory by an army of colonial soldiers against a foreign power was won at the Battle of Lake George.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ They entered it with armed forces, were drived away from a fort they were building [Fort Prince George, later Fort Duquesne, at the forks of the Ohio] and then returned to try again.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.In early August, Montcalm and 7,000 troops besieged the fort, which capitulated with an agreement to withdraw under parole.^ Fort de Ile-aux-Noix was besieged by British forces on August 16-20, 1760...
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ November 25; Colonial troops under Col. George Washington capture Fort Duquesne, site of Washington's surrender four years before.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Abercombie leads an army of 16,000 British and Colonial troops against a small French force of 3200 entrenched at Fort Carillon.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.When the withdrawal began, some of Montcalm's Indian allies, angered at the lost opportunity for loot, attacked the British column, killing and capturing several hundred men.^ It was July 7 before Braddock reached Turtle Creek, some eight miles from Fort Duquesne, with twelve hundred of his best men...
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Oswego was captured in 1756, thus removing the nearest potential base for a British attack.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then the English with their Iroquois allies killed at least two hundred French and took a hundred prisoners.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

British conquest, 1758–1760

The Victory of Montcalm's Troops at Carillon by Henry Alexander Ogden.
.The British failures in North America, combined with other failures in the European theater, led to the fall from power of Newcastle and his principal military advisor, the Duke of Cumberland.^ The crucible of war: the Seven Years' War and the fate of empire in British North America, 1754-1766 .
  • French and Indian War and the American Revolution - Guide to History Research - PepWikis 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC wikis.pepperdine.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Events in Virginia carried more weight in England than those of any other colony in North America.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The last military clash ever, between British and French forces in North America, is fought in 1762 at the Battle of Signal Hill in Newfoundland.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

Newcastle and Pitt then joined in an uneasy coalition where Pitt dominated the military planning. .He embarked on a plan for the 1758 campaign that was largely developed by Loudoun, who was replaced by Abercrombie as commander in chief, after the failures of 1757. Pitt's plan called for three major offensive actions involving large numbers of regular troops, supported by the provincial militias, aimed at capturing the heartlands of New France.^ By generally advocating a version of the traditional maritime strategy that relied on the Royal navy (and a rejuvenated militia) to keep the home islands inviolate, and now being willing to support measures for the defense of Hanover that mollified George II's fears for his Continental dominions, Pitt was able to dispatch across the Atlantic a massive infusion of regular troops, along with promises to pay for large numbers of colonial soldiers.
  • Harold E. Selesky, University of Alabama | Imperial Wars | The William and Mary Quarterly, 59.3 | The History Cooperative 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After three years of attempts to remove the French from their settlements and forts on English territory, the British resolved to replace their inept, politically appointed commanders with reputable generals.
  • New York State Colonial Military French and Indian War books for sale 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.hopefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By contrast, Quebec City was mainly an administrative center for the official bureaucracy of New France, and Montreal was not much more than a large trading post.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Vaudreuil and Montcalm were only minimally resupplied in 1758, as the British blockade of the French coastline again limited French shipping.^ That spring, British ships tried to intercept French reinforcements bound for Canada.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The attempt failed; French General Montcalm inflicted 440 casualties while his forces suffered only 60.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In early August 1757, under the leadership of the Marquis de Montcalm, French forces attacked the fort, and forced a British surrender on August 9th.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.The situation in New France was further exacerbated by a poor harvest in 1757, a difficult winter, and the allegedly corrupt machinations of François Bigot, the intendant of the territory, whose schemes to supply the colony inflated prices and were believed by Montcalm to line his pockets and those of his associates.^ Ironically, of the year's four offensives, the British poured the most men and supplies into the least significant route to strike New France" (p.
  • Harold E. Selesky, University of Alabama | Imperial Wars | The William and Mary Quarterly, 59.3 | The History Cooperative 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ WASHINGTON'S FAREWELL Code: WF01 Price: $21.00 The story of George Washington's farewell to his troops at Frances Tavern in New York City.
  • New York State Colonial Military French and Indian War books for sale 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.hopefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under the effective generalship of the Marquis de Montcalm, New France enjoyed victory after victory.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.A massive outbreak of smallpox among western tribes led many of them to stay away in 1758. While many parties to the conflict blamed others (the Indians critically blaming the French for bringing "bad medicine" as well as denying them prizes at Fort William Henry), the disease was probably spread through the crowded conditions at William Henry after the battle.^ From the French & Indian War through the War of 1812 .
  • New York State Colonial Military French and Indian War books for sale 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.hopefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fort William Henry repels a French attack .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Like many other Indian tribes they were used as a pawn by the French.
  • indianhistory 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.icsee.com [Source type: Original source]

[22] .In the light of these conditions, Montcalm focused his meager resources on the defense of the Saint Lawrence, with primary defenses at Carillon, Quebec, and Louisbourg, while Vaudreuil argued unsuccessfully for a continuation of the raiding tactics that had worked quite effectively in previous years.^ Extending from tidewater on the Atlantic Ocean, it intersected the mountain barrier and continued into the heart of French Canada, to tidewater on the Saint Lawrence River.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ This successful raid greatly elated the French, who had not yet recovered from the effects of the blow struck at Montreal by the Iroquois in the previous year.
  • The Baldwin Project: Indian History for Young Folks by Francis S. Drake 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the French troops at Carillon were nearly equal in number to the previous year, their rations were short and disease had ravaged the men inside the fort.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

[23]
.In 1758 two of the British expeditions were successful, with Fort Duquesne and Louisbourg falling to sizable British forces.^ Fort Duquesne abandoned by French forces .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ A squadron of soldiers led by a brash, unknown, twenty-two year old George Washington attacked a French stronghold named Fort Duquesne .
  • The French and Indian War [ushistory.org] 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ He recalled Jeffery Amherst from Germany and made him commander-in-chief to attack Louisbourg, and he sent John Forbes to capture Fort Duquesne.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.The third was stopped with the improbable French victory in the Battle of Carillon, in which 4,000 Frenchmen famously defeated Abercrombie's force of 16,000 outside the fort the French called Carillon and the British called Ticonderoga.^ Fort Duquesne abandoned by French forces .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Battle of Fort Bull, a French victory .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The British are soundly defeated by 4,000 French defenders.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Abercrombie saved something from the disaster when he sent John Bradstreet on an expedition that successfully captured Fort Frontenac, including a large cache of supplies destined for New France's western forts and furs destined for Europe.^ French Fort Frontenac captured by British .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ He recalled Jeffery Amherst from Germany and made him commander-in-chief to attack Louisbourg, and he sent John Forbes to capture Fort Duquesne.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, with Frontenac's backing, they could not legally stop him, but New France was soon divided into two hostile commercial camps.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Abercrombie was recalled and replaced by Jeffrey Amherst, victor at Louisbourg.^ He recalled Jeffery Amherst from Germany and made him commander-in-chief to attack Louisbourg, and he sent John Forbes to capture Fort Duquesne.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the aftermath of generally poor French results in most theaters of the Seven Years' War in 1758, France's new foreign minister, the duc de Choiseul, decided to focus on an invasion of Britain, to draw British resources away from North America and the European mainland.^ Pitt is the architect of the eventual British victory over France in the Seven Years War.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The crucible of war: the Seven Years' War and the fate of empire in British North America, 1754-1766 .
  • French and Indian War and the American Revolution - Guide to History Research - PepWikis 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC wikis.pepperdine.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This is the official beginning of the Seven Years War .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.The invasion failed both militarily and politically, as Pitt again planned significant campaigns against New France, and sent funds to Britain's ally on the mainland, Prussia, and the French Navy failed in naval battles at Lagos and Quiberon Bay.^ After an American victory at Saratoga in 1777, France , with Spain and the Netherlands as its allies, entered the war against Britain.

^ Remove the French (a no less dangerous Enemy in time of peace then warr) from their settlement on the south ( sic ) side of the Bay of Appalatia.” 26 A hastily planned expedition was launched against St. Augustine in the fall.
  • Crane, Southern Frontier in Queen Anne's War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.dinsdoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Its terms forced France to recognize British control of the Hudson's Bay area and to cede to Britain control of Acadia (now Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and part of eastern Maine).
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.In one piece of good fortune, some French supply ships managed to reach New France, eluding blockades on both sides of the Atlantic.^ We oblige ourselves, on our Side, to give an Escort to return in Safety these two Officers; and expect to have our French in two Months and a Half furthest; a Duplicate of this being fixed upon one of the Posts of our Blockade the Day above named.

^ It eventually became the staging ground for invasions northward into French Canada by the British and provincial troops who would eventually drive the French out of New France.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Ironically, of the year's four offensives, the British poured the most men and supplies into the least significant route to strike New France" (p.
  • Harold E. Selesky, University of Alabama | Imperial Wars | The William and Mary Quarterly, 59.3 | The History Cooperative 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

British General Jeffrey Amherst
.British victories continued in all theaters in the Annus Mirabilis of 1759, when they finally captured Ticonderoga, James Wolfe defeated Montcalm at Quebec (in a battle that claimed the lives of both commanders), and victory at Fort Niagara successfully cut off the French frontier forts further to the west and south.^ Battle of Fort Bull, a French victory .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ French Fort Gaspereau captured by England .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ It was not the British who defeated the French at Quebec; it was the Six Nations and the British who defeated the French in 1759.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.The victory was made complete in 1760, when, despite losing outside Quebec City in the Battle of Sainte-Foy, the British were able to prevent French relief ships from arriving in the naval Battle of the Restigouche while their armies marched on Montreal from three sides.^ After three years of attempts to remove the French from their settlements and forts on English territory, the British resolved to replace their inept, politically appointed commanders with reputable generals.
  • New York State Colonial Military French and Indian War books for sale 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.hopefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Murray Treaty, made in September 1760 during the final week of conflict between the French and the British, was in the form of a laissez-passer which guaranteed the Hurons safe passage to their village at Lorette, near Quebec.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1629, a fleet of British privateers captured Quebec which cut the flow of French trade goods to the Algonkin and other French trading partners.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In September of 1760, Governor Vaudreuil negotiated a surrender with General Amherst.^ Governor Vaudreuil instructed Claude Roch de Ramezay to surrender Quebec.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Lyttelton appealed to Virginia governor Fauquier and to General Amherst to send troops.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the Seven Years War (the French and Indian War) does not officially end until 1763, in North America the fighting pretty much comes to an end after British General Jeffrey Amherst captures French Montreal in September 1760.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Amherst granted Vaudreuil's request that any French residents who chose to remain in the colony would be given freedom to continue worshiping in their Roman Catholic tradition, continued ownership of their property, and the right to remain undisturbed in their homes.^ The Journal fell into the hands of the enemy, who, in 1756, printed a version of it in French; a new translation of this in English is what is here given in the absence of the original.
  • Revolutionary War Hero Captain John Montour 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.melungeons.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On September 18, 1759 Vice-Admiral Saunders and Brigadier-General George Townshend signed the capitulation that granted the honors of war to the garrison and promised property rights and religious freedom to the habitants.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This comprehensive register lists the name and place of residence for thousands of Colonial Loyalists who fought during the American Revolution and settled in Upper Canada.
  • New York State Colonial Military French and Indian War books for sale 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.hopefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The British provided medical treatment for the sick and wounded French soldiers and French regular troops were returned to France aboard British ships with an agreement that they were not to serve again in the present war.^ English ships transported the French troops back to France.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The French soldiers are paroled back to France.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In the course of the war, British colonial forces captured the French stronghold of Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island , Nova Scotia , but this gain was returned to France under the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle .

Outcome

The descent of the French on St. John's, Newfoundland, 1762
Most of the fighting between France and Britain in continental North America ended in 1760. The notable exception was a French attempt to gain a bargaining chip for peace talks in 1762, when Choiseul sent a small fleet that gained control of St. John's, Newfoundland in June of that year. .When General Amherst heard of this surprise action, he immediately dispatched troops under his nephew William Amherst, who regained control of Newfoundland in the Battle of Signal Hill in September.^ On 15 September, in an action known as the Battle of Signal Hill, British troops under the command of Lieutenant Colonel William Amherst rout the French on Signal Hill and drive them down into Fort William.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ When the British regained control of the area in September 1762, they reinforced Quidi Vidi, building a garrison and cutting a road from Fort William to the hills of the village...
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The last military clash ever, between British and French forces in North America, is fought in 1762 at the Battle of Signal Hill in Newfoundland.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

Many troops from North America were reassigned to participate in further British actions in the West Indies, including the capture of Spanish Havana when Spain belatedly entered the conflict on the side of France, and a British expedition against French Martinique in 1762.[24]
.General Amherst also oversaw the transition of French forts in the western lands to British control.^ French Fort Frontenac captured by British .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ After three years of attempts to remove the French from their settlements and forts on English territory, the British resolved to replace their inept, politically appointed commanders with reputable generals.
  • New York State Colonial Military French and Indian War books for sale 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.hopefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the British regained control of the area in September 1762, they reinforced Quidi Vidi, building a garrison and cutting a road from Fort William to the hills of the village...
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.The policies he introduced in those lands disturbed large numbers of Indians, and contributed to the outbreak in 1763 of the conflict known as Pontiac's Rebellion.^ In 1763 the corps was revived to take part in Pontiacs Rebellion.
  • New York State Colonial Military French and Indian War books for sale 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.hopefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The French and Indian War, as the conflict is popularly known today, would result in the complete transformation of Fort Niagara.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The little town of Paxton had been burned by Indians in 1755, and many were upset by the massacre of settlers in the Wyoming Valley during Pontiac's war in the late summer of 1763.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

This series of attacks on frontier forts and settlements required the continued deployment of British troops, and was not resolved until 1766.
.The war in North America officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on February 10, 1763, and war in the European theatre of the Seven Years' War was settled by the Treaty of Hubertusburg on February 15, 1763. The British offered France a choice of either its North American possessions east of the Mississippi or the Caribbean islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique, which had been occupied by the British.^ Under the Treaty of Paris that ends the Seven Years War in 1763, France surrenders most of its North American possessions, including Fort de Chartres, to Great Britain.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Pitt is the architect of the eventual British victory over France in the Seven Years War.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The crucible of war: the Seven Years' War and the fate of empire in British North America, 1754-1766 .
  • French and Indian War and the American Revolution - Guide to History Research - PepWikis 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC wikis.pepperdine.edu [Source type: Academic]

France chose to cede Canada, and was able to negotiate the retention of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, two small islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and fishing rights in the area. .The economic value of the Caribbean islands to France was greater than that of Canada because of their rich sugar crops, and they were easier to defend.^ Consequently, the greater part of them showed at his death signs of deeper grief than if they had lost their nearest relatives.
  • Article Archives: Father Rasle's War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.bigorrin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But even if France had devoted more attention and resources to Canada, she would have failed because of her inferiority to Britain on the ocean.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The British returned to France the fortress of Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island in Canada, which had been captured by Massachusetts in 1745, and held by England 1745-1748.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.The British, however, were happy to take New France, as defence was not an issue, and they already had many sources of sugar.^ However, with Frontenac's backing, they could not legally stop him, but New France was soon divided into two hostile commercial camps.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New France has been for so many years witness, had won for him the respect and affection of Frenchmen and native Americans.
  • Article Archives: Father Rasle's War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.bigorrin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It eventually became the staging ground for invasions northward into French Canada by the British and provincial troops who would eventually drive the French out of New France.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Spain, which traded Florida to Britain to regain Cuba, also gained Louisiana, including New Orleans, from France in compensation for its losses.^ The conflict resulted in the British acquiring Canada , while Spain gained Louisiana in compensation for its loss of Florida to the British.

^ Britain acquires Canada and Louisiana east of the Mississippi from France, and East and West Florida from Spain.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In early 1762 Spain declared war on Britain, and on November 3 the French and Spanish made a secret treaty at Paris in which France ceded to Spain western Louisiana from the Mississippi River west and including New Orleans.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

Consequences

Map showing British territorial gains following the Treaty of Paris in pink, and Spanish territorial gains after the Treaty of Fontainebleau in yellow.
.The war changed economic, political, and social relations between three European powers (Britain, France, and Spain), their colonies and colonists, and the natives that inhabited the territories they claimed.^ Conflict between france and britain in north...
  • French and Indian War / Flashcards - Create Free Flashcards 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.proprofs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ King Philip's War was an armed conflict between Native American inhabitants of present-day southern New England and English colonists and their Native American allies from 16751676.

^ After an American victory at Saratoga in 1777, France , with Spain and the Netherlands as its allies, entered the war against Britain.

.France and Britain both suffered financially because of the war, with significant long-term consequences.^ After an American victory at Saratoga in 1777, France , with Spain and the Netherlands as its allies, entered the war against Britain.

^ France secretly cedes the greater part of Louisiana to Spain (hoping to eventually regain it), in return for Spanish agreement to an end of the war with Great Britain.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For some seventy-five years, France and England had engaged in a series of generally inconclusive wars both in Europe and North America.
  • New York State Colonial Military French and Indian War books for sale 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.hopefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Britain gained control of French Canada and Acadia, colonies containing approximately 80,000 primarily French-speaking Roman Catholic residents.^ However, Montcalm's army of 6,000 French regulars were joined by 979 western Indians and 820 Catholic Indians at Fort Carillon in July.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Contains detailed accounts of the various chains and obstructions used by Patriots attempting to thwart the British plan to divide the colonies by controlling the Hudson River.
  • New York State Colonial Military French and Indian War books for sale 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.hopefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eight Canadian fire-ships had little effect on May 29, but Cadet's company had gained a profit of 80,000 livres for each ship.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.The deportation of Acadians beginning in 1755 resulted in land made available to migrants from Europe and the colonies further south.^ Deportation of the Acadians begins .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of the English colonies accepted the Acadians, but Virginia and South Carolina shipped them to England, where they were imprisoned until the 1763 Treaty of Paris repatriated them to France.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In one important respect, however, the position of South Carolina as the southern frontier of the English colonies was markedly improved as a result of the Indian war.
  • Crane, Southern Frontier in Queen Anne's War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.dinsdoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.The British resettled many Acadians throughout its North American provinces, but many went to France, and some went to New Orleans, which they had expected to remain French.^ They made a peace march to New Orleans to make peace with the French.
  • indianhistory 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.icsee.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But, in the meantime, news reached the French that no reinforcements could be expected from Louisbourg; and such disaffection arose among the Acadians that they were forbidden by a council of war to deliberate together or to desert the fort under pain of being shot.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Later that same day, another meeting of Council is convened at Halifax and another memorial signed by 207 French Acadians is read: they continue to refuse to take any kind of a new oath.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

Some were sent to colonize places as diverse as French Guiana and the Falkland Islands; these latter efforts were unsuccessful. .Others migrated to places like Saint-Domingue, and fled to New Orleans after the Haitian Revolution.^ European settlers relied upon French Creek as a "water highway" for timber and other goods destined for places as far away as New Orleans during the late 1700s and early 1800s...
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In the first place, the position of South Carolina was more favorable to the development of the western trade than that of any other of the English colonies, with the possible exception of New York.
  • Crane, Southern Frontier in Queen Anne's War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.dinsdoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A Revolutionary Pilgrimage Code: P139 Price: $30.00 Being an Account of a Series of Visits to Battlegrounds & Other Places Made Memorable by the War of the Revolution.
  • New York State Colonial Military French and Indian War books for sale 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.hopefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Louisiana population contributed to the founding of the modern Cajun population.[25]
.Following the peace treaty, King George III issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763 on October 7, 1763, which outlined the division and administration of the newly conquered territory, and to some extent continues to govern relations between the government of Canada and the First Nations.^ Royal Proclamation of 1763 .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ George III becomes King of England.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Peace treaty between the Huron and the British .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Included in its provisions was the reservation of lands west of the Appalachian Mountains to its Indian population, an act that was extremely unpopular in the colonies, where many thought the war was fought to gain access to those lands.^ Indian Wars - Wars of the West timeline .

^ The French and Indian War (known as the Seven Years War in Europe) would change everything, as England, France, and dozens of American Indian nations fought for control of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains, and the confluence of three mighty rivers at Pittsburgh – Allegheny, Monongahelia, and Ohio – were seen as the strategic key to victory.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1755, during the French and Indian War, many would be expelled from the colony.

The proclamation also contained provisions that the Roman Catholic Canadians found unacceptable. When accommodations were made in the Quebec Act in 1774 to address these issues, they fanned religious concerns in the largely Protestant Thirteen Colonies over the advance of "popery".
.The Seven Years' War nearly doubled Britain's national debt.^ This is the official beginning of the Seven Years War .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Anderson relied on the more nuanced arguments of T. Roy Clayton, the current authority on the American origins of the Seven Years' War.
  • Harold E. Selesky, University of Alabama | Imperial Wars | The William and Mary Quarterly, 59.3 | The History Cooperative 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It becomes the Seven Years War when fighting spreads to Europe in 1756.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.The Crown, seeking sources of revenue to pay off the debt, attempted to impose new taxes on its colonies.^ The northern counties refused to circulate the new currency or pay taxes, and so Carolinians had to drive cattle and hogs to Virginia.
  • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Source: Connecticut troops under Roger Wolcott help capture Louisburg The Society of Colonial Wars in the State of Connecticut, New Haven .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

These attempts were met with increasingly stiff resistance, until troops were called in so that representatives of the Crown could safely perform their duties. .These acts ultimately led to the start of the American Revolutionary War.^ Waldeck (Germany) Soldiers of the American Revolutionary War - contains brief biographies of everyman who served from Waldeck in the 3rd English-Waldeck Regiment.
  • New York State Colonial Military French and Indian War books for sale 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.hopefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet the B.A.E. was powerful and would not leave any public space for these revolutionary ideas, at least not until the years just preceding the Great War.
  • Diane Camurat. The American Indian in the Great War, Real and Imagined. Part One, Chapter Three, continued. 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC net.lib.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Canada During the American Revolutionary War: Lieutenant Friedrich Julius von Papet's Journal of the Sea Voyage to North America and the Campaign conducted there.
  • New York State Colonial Military French and Indian War books for sale 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.hopefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.France attached comparatively little value to its North American possessions, especially in respect to the highly profitable sugar-producing Antilles islands, which it managed to retain.^ Under the Treaty of Paris that ends the Seven Years War in 1763, France surrenders most of its North American possessions, including Fort de Chartres, to Great Britain.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ France did manage to obtain one concession which was to prove of great importance – the retention of Isle Royal (Cape Breton Island).
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Losing a Continent: France's North American Policy, 1753–1763 .
  • Harold E. Selesky, University of Alabama | Imperial Wars | The William and Mary Quarterly, 59.3 | The History Cooperative 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Minister Choiseul considered he had made a good deal at the Treaty of Paris, and philosopher Voltaire wrote that Louis XV had only lost "a few acres of snow".[26] For France however, the military defeat and the financial burden of the war weakened the monarchy and contributed to the advent of the French Revolution in 1789.[27]
.For many native populations, the elimination of French power in North America meant the disappearance of a strong ally and counterweight to British expansion, leading to their ultimate dispossession.^ This marks the effective end of French power in North America.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The British conquest of Acadia would ultimately bring severe consequences for its French inhabitants.

^ British traders used the shortage of French goods to their advantage and by 1746 were entering Ohio with Iroquois permission for direct trade with French allies.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27] .Although the Spanish takeover of the Louisiana territory (which was not completed until 1769) had only modest repercussions, the British takeover of Spanish Florida resulted in the westward migration of tribes that did not want to do business with the British, and a rise in tensions between the Choctaw and the Creek, historic enemies whose divisions the British at times exploited.^ The war broke out in 1739 between the Spanish and British and was confined to the Caribbean and Georgia .

^ In the late 1700’S and early 1800’S several CHOCTAW members came to Louisiana seeking better hunting territories.
  • indianhistory 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.icsee.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Tension continued between these factions and resulted in threats to nullify national laws or to secede from the union.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

[28] .The change of control in Florida also prompted most of its Spanish Catholic population to leave.^ Spanish Florida as a “mark of English provincial hatred against the Church of God” ( vide Shea, Catholic Church in Col. Days, pp.
  • Crane, Southern Frontier in Queen Anne's War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.dinsdoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They were partial to the Spanish and left Florida when Spain lost control of Florida.
  • indianhistory 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.icsee.com [Source type: Original source]

Most went to Cuba, including the entire governmental records from St. Augustine, although some Christianized Yamasee were resettled to the coast of Mexico.[29]
The history of the Seven Years' War, particularly the siege of Quebec and the deaths of British Brigadier General James Wolfe and French General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm, generated a vast number of ballads, broadsides, images, maps and other printed materials, which testify to how this event continued to capture the imaginations of the British and French publics long after their deaths in 1759.[30]
.France would soon return to North America in 1778 with the establishment of a Franco-American alliance against Great Britain in the American War of Independence.^ France held most of North America .
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ During the Period of the American Revolution, the newly founded United States of America overturned the traditional attitudes of enmity toward Catholic, monarchical France, to establish an alliance that endured until the end of the war.
  • New York State Colonial Military French and Indian War books for sale 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.hopefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the first half of the 1700s, Britain's hold in North America was, at heart, a consensual arrangement.
  • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

.This time France succeeded in prevailing over Great Britain, in what could be seen as a revenge for Montcalm's defeat.^ France secretly cedes the greater part of Louisiana to Spain (hoping to eventually regain it), in return for Spanish agreement to an end of the war with Great Britain.
  • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States was drawn into the War of 1812 because of economic ties to the warring nations of Great Britain and France.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 8 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Brecher's conclusion that France's defeat in North America "may be seen as an inevitable consequence of Bourbon ineptness" (p.
  • Harold E. Selesky, University of Alabama | Imperial Wars | The William and Mary Quarterly, 59.3 | The History Cooperative 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31]

See also

.

Footnotes

  1. ^ Brumwell, pp. 24–25.
  2. ^ Brumwell, pp. 26–31, documents the starting sizes of the expeditions against Louisbourg, Carillon, Duquesne, and West Indies.
  3. ^ The Canadian Encyclopedia
  4. ^ The Siege of Québec: An episode of the Seven Year's War - Canadian National Battlefields Commission Plains of Abraham website
  5. ^ a b c Anderson, Crucible of War, 747.
  6. ^ Jennings, Empire of Fortune, xv.
  7. ^ The Canadian Encyclopedia: Seven Years' War.
  8. ^ (French) L'Encyclopédie canadienne: Guerre de Sept Ans.
  9. ^ a b Fowler, Empires at War, 14.
  10. ^ Fowler, p. 15.
  11. ^ Fowler, p. 31.
  12. ^ Fowler, p. 35.
  13. ^ Ellis, His Excellency George Washington, 5.
  14. ^ Fowler, p. 36.
  15. ^ Anderson (2000), pp. 51–59.
  16. ^ Anderson (2000), pp. 59–65.
  17. ^ Fowler, p. 52.
  18. ^ Lengel p. 52.
  19. ^ Fowler, p. 64.
  20. ^ Fowler, pp. 74–75.
  21. ^ a b Fowler, p. 98.
  22. ^ Fowler, p. 138.
  23. ^ Fowler, p. 139.
  24. ^ Cave, p. 21.
  25. ^ Calloway, pp. 161–164.
  26. ^ Cave, p. 52.
  27. ^ a b Cave, p. xii.
  28. ^ Calloway, pp. 133–138.
  29. ^ Calloway, pp. 152–156.
  30. ^ Virtual Vault, an online exhibition of Canadian historical art at Library and Archives Canada.
  31. ^ Cave, p. 82.

References

.
  • Anderson, Fred (2000).^ The Seven Years' War: A provincial's view by Fred Anderson Canadian Journal of History, December 2000 .
    • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

    .Crucible of War: The Seven Years' War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754-1766.^ It becomes the Seven Years War when fighting spreads to Europe in 1756.
    • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The last military clash ever, between British and French forces in North America, is fought in 1762 at the Battle of Signal Hill in Newfoundland.
    • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Phinehas Stevens, and of Col. Robert Rogers, with an Account of His Services in America during the Seven Years' War.
    • New York State Colonial Military French and Indian War books for sale 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.hopefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    New York: Knopf. ISBN 0375406425. 
  • Anderson, Fred (2005). .The War that Made America: A Short History of the French and Indian War.^ Flashcard » Society & Social Sciences » French and Indian War .
    • French and Indian War / Flashcards - Create Free Flashcards 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.proprofs.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In 1755, during the French and Indian War, many would be expelled from the colony.

    ^ The Treaty of Paris also ended the French and Indian War in North America.
    • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    New York: Viking. .ISBN 0670034541.  Released in conjunction with the 2006 PBS miniseries The War that Made America.
  • Brumwell, Stephen (2006).^ George Washington surrenders Fort Necessity to the French – on July 3rd, not July 4th as has been frequently reported (such as in the 2005 PBS 4-hour television documentary The War that Made America ).
    • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ General Braddock's army marching along Braddock Road, approaching the Monongahelia River crossing just before being ambushed, as depicted in the PBS documentary The War That Made America .
    • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The War That Made America tells the remarkable stories of The French and Indian War.
    • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

    .Redcoats: The British Soldier and War in the Americas, 1755-1763.^ In 1758 the British had about 25,000 soldiers and 14,000 sailors in America, stationed mostly in New York and Boston.
    • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Unlike earlier colonial wars, both France and Britain soon committed large numbers of trained regular soldiers to the campaigns in North America.
    • The French and Indian War 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.centuryinter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The little town of Paxton had been burned by Indians in 1755, and many were upset by the massacre of settlers in the Wyoming Valley during Pontiac's war in the late summer of 1763.
    • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

    Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521675383. 
  • Calloway, Colin G (2006). .The Scratch of a Pen: 1763 and the Transformation of North America.^ The Scratch of a Pen 1763 by Colin G. Calloway, p.
    • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Scratch of a Pen: 1763 and the Transformation of America .
    • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Empires at War: The French and Indian War and the Struggle for North America, 1754-1763 .
    • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

    Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195300710.
     
  • Cave, Alfred A. (2004). .The French and Indian War.^ Flashcard » Society & Social Sciences » French and Indian War .
    • French and Indian War / Flashcards - Create Free Flashcards 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.proprofs.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In 1755, during the French and Indian War, many would be expelled from the colony.

    ^ English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 .
    • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

    Westport, Connecticut - London: Greenwood Press. ISBN 031332168X.
     
  • Ellis, Joseph J. (2004). His Excellency George Washington. .New York: Vintage Books.^ The New York Times Book Review said, Brilliantly controversial, will invite a rethinking of the whole stretch of our American Past.
    • New York State Colonial Military French and Indian War books for sale 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.hopefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If you are having any trouble ordering from this extensive listing of New York Military History books, just call: 1-800-883-5778 .
    • New York State Colonial Military French and Indian War books for sale 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.hopefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Fight with France for North America (book) by A.G. Bradley Published 1902 by E.P. Dutton, New York .
    • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ISBN 1400032539.
     
  • Fowler, William M. (2005). .Empires at War: The French and Indian War and the Struggle for North America, 1754-1763.^ The last military clash ever, between British and French forces in North America, is fought in 1762 at the Battle of Signal Hill in Newfoundland.
    • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Flashcard » Society & Social Sciences » French and Indian War .
    • French and Indian War / Flashcards - Create Free Flashcards 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.proprofs.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In 1755, during the French and Indian War, many would be expelled from the colony.

    New York: Walker. ISBN 0802714110.
     
  • Jennings, Francis (1988). .Empire of Fortune: Crowns, Colonies, and Tribes in the Seven Years War in America.^ It becomes the Seven Years War when fighting spreads to Europe in 1756.
    • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Phinehas Stevens, and of Col. Robert Rogers, with an Account of His Services in America during the Seven Years' War.
    • New York State Colonial Military French and Indian War books for sale 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.hopefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Reevaluating the Impact of Armstrong's Raid on the Seven Years' War in Pennsylvania by Daniel P. Barr, Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, January 2007 .
    • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

    New York: Norton. ISBN 0393306402.
     
  • "Virtual Vault". .Library and Archives Canada.^ Library and Archives Canada has an archived copy of this webpage: Timeline of the Seven Years War Timeline of the French and Indian War .
    • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

    http://www.collectionscanada.ca/virtual-vault/
    .
     

Further reading

  • Eckert, Allan W. Wilderness Empire. .Bantam Books, 1994, originally published 1969. ISBN 0-553-26488-5. Second volume in a series of historical narratives, with emphasis on Sir William Johnson.^ Williams, who, after his return home, published a narrative of this tragedy, tells us that he was roused from sleep by the sound of axes and hatchets plied against his doors and windows.
    • The Baldwin Project: Indian History for Young Folks by Francis S. Drake 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Jeffery Amherst to Sir William Johnson, August 9, 1761, Johnson Papers , 3:514-516 quoted in Never Come to Peace Again by David Dixon, p.
    • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Originally published in 1969, it constitutes Volume II of Burt Loeschers meticulously researched History of Rogers Rangers.
    • New York State Colonial Military French and Indian War books for sale 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.hopefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Academic historians often regard Eckert's books, which are written in the style of novels, to be unreliable, as they contain things like dialogue that is clearly fictional.
  • Parkman, Francis.^ The few books that blame Washington for the attack have been written in French by Quebec historians.
    • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The eminent American historians Francis Parkman and L. H. Gipson strive to justify Washington's actions, to exonerate him from the charge of having murdered Jumonville and of admitting the crime.
    • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This is Francis Parkman's description of the Forbes Road in October 1758, excerpted from a Gutenberg Project e-book: Montcalm and Wolfe .
    • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

    .Montcalm and Wolfe: The French and Indian War.^ Flashcard » Society & Social Sciences » French and Indian War .
    • French and Indian War / Flashcards - Create Free Flashcards 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.proprofs.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 .
    • English, French, and Indian Wars 1754-1763 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The War That Made America tells the remarkable stories of The French and Indian War.
    • Seven Years War Timeline 13 January 2010 4:33 UTC www.ns1763.ca [Source type: Original source]

    Originally published 1884. New York: Da Capo, 1984. ISBN 0-306-81077-8.

External links


French and Indian War
Part of the Seven Years' War
Date 1754–1763
Location North America
Result Treaty of Paris
Territorial
changes
France cedes Canada to Great Britain, retaining Saint Pierre et Miquelon, and transfers Louisiana to Spain; Spain cedes Florida to Great Britain
Belligerents
 France
 New France
File:Union flag 1606 (Kings Colors).svg Great Britain
[[File:|22x20px|border |alt=|link=]] British America

Iroquois Confederacy

Commanders and leaders
Louis-Joseph de Montcalm 
Marquis de Vaudreuil
François-Marie de Lignery 
Chevalier de Lévis (P.O.W.)
Joseph de Jumonville 
Jeffrey Amherst
Edward Braddock 
James Wolfe 
James Abercrombie
Edward Boscawen
George Washington
Strength
10,000 regulars (troupes de la terre and troupes de la marine, peak strength, 1757)[1]
7,900 militia
2,200 natives (1759)[citation needed]
42,000 regulars and militia (peak strength, 1758)[2]

The French and Indian War is the common U.S. name for the war between Great Britain and France in North America from 1754 to 1763. In 1756 the war erupted into the world-wide conflict known as the Seven Years' War and thus came to be regarded as the North American theater of that war. In Canada, it is usually just referred to as the Seven Years' War, although French speakers in Quebec often call it La guerre de la Conquête ("The War of Conquest").[3][4] In Europe, there is no specific name for the North American part of the war. The name refers to the two main enemies of the British colonists: the royal French forces and the various Native American forces allied with them.

The war was fought primarily along the frontiers between the British colonies from Virginia to Nova Scotia, and began with a dispute over the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers, the site of present-day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The dispute resulted in the Battle of Jumonville Glen in May 1754. British attempts at expeditions in 1755, 1756 and 1757 in the frontier areas of Pennsylvania and New York all failed, due to a combination of poor management, internal divisions, and effective French and Indian offense. The 1755 capture of Fort Beauséjour on the border separating Nova Scotia from Acadia was followed by a British policy of deportation of its French inhabitants, to which there was some resistance.

After the disastrous 1757 British campaigns (resulting in a failed expedition against Louisbourg and the Siege of Fort William Henry, which was followed by significant atrocities on British victims by Indians), the British government fell, and William Pitt came to power, while France was unwilling to risk large convoys to aid the limited forces it had in New France. Pitt significantly increased British military resources in the colonies, and between 1758 and 1760 the British military successfully penetrated the heartland of New France, with Montreal finally falling in September 1760.

The outcome was one of the most significant developments in a century of Anglo-French conflict. To compensate its ally, Spain, for its loss of Florida to the British, France ceded its control of French Louisiana east of the Mississippi. France's colonial presence north of the Caribbean was reduced to the tiny islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, confirming Britain's position as the dominant colonial power in the eastern half of North America.

Contents

Origin of the name

The conflict is known by several names. In British America, wars were often named after the sitting British monarch, such as King William's War or Queen Anne's War. Because there had already been a King George's War in the 1740s, British colonists named the second war in King George's reign after their opponents, and thus it became known as the French and Indian War.[5] This traditional name remains standard in the United States, although it obscures the fact that American Indians fought on both sides of the conflict.[6] American historians generally use the traditional name or the European title (the Seven Years' War). Other, less frequently used names for the war include the Fourth Intercolonial War and the Great War for the Empire.[5]

In Europe, the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War usually has no special name, and so the entire worldwide conflict is known as the Seven Years' War. The "Seven Years" refers to events in Europe, from the official declaration of war in 1756 to the signing of the peace treaty in 1763. These dates do not correspond with the actual fighting on mainland North America, where the fighting between the two colonial powers was largely concluded in six years, from the Jumonville Glen skirmish in 1754 to the capture of Montreal in 1760.[5]

In Canada, both French- and English-speaking Canadians refer to both the European and North American conflicts as the Seven Years' War (Guerre de Sept Ans).[7][8] French Canadians may use the term "War of Conquest" (Guerre de la Conquête), since it is the war in which New France was conquered by the British and became part of the British Empire, but that usage is never employed by most English Canadians.[citation needed] This war is also one of America's "Forgotten Wars."[citation needed]

North America in the 1750s

File:Nouvelle-France
Map showing the 1750 possessions of Britain (pink), France (blue), and Spain (orange) in contemporary Canada and the United States.

North America east of the Mississippi River was largely claimed by either Great Britain or France, although significant portions of territory, especially that between the Mississippi and the Appalachian Mountains, were claimed by, and under the control of, native tribes. The French colonial presence was largest in the St. Lawrence River valley, with population also in Acadia (present-day New Brunswick), Île Royale (present-day Cape Breton Island), and New Orleans, which was the seat of the French province of Louisiana, whose claims encompassed most of the Mississippi River's drainage basin, including that of the Ohio River. The French maintained a network of fur traders that penetrated deeply into their claimed territories, but did not generally assert land claims against the tribes there.

British colonies ranged along the eastern coast of the continent, from Georgia in the south to Nova Scotia and Newfoundland in the north. Many of the older colonies had land claims that extended arbitrarily far to the west, as the extent of the continent was unknown at the time their provincial charters were granted. While their population centers were close to the coast, they had growing populations, and British fur traders and settlements were expanding inland toward, and eventually across, the Appalachian Mountains. Nova Scotia, which had been captured from the French in Queen Anne's War in 1713, still had a significant French-speaking population, primarily based on the shores of the Bay of Fundy and the Northumberland Strait. Britain also claimed Rupert's Land, where settlements of the Hudson's Bay Company were established to trade with natives in that territory.

File:Iroquois western
Iroquois engaging in trade with Europeans (1722)

In between the French and the British, large areas were dominated by native tribes. To the north, the Mi'kmaq and the Abenaki still held sway in parts of Nova Scotia, Acadia, and the eastern portions of the province of Canada and present-day Maine.[9] The Iroquois Confederation dominated much of present-day Upstate New York and the Ohio Country, although the latter also included populations of Delaware, Shawnee, and Mingo. These tribes were formally under Iroquois control, and were limited by them in authority to make agreements.[10] Further south the interior was dominated by Catawba, Creek, Choctaw, and Cherokee tribes.[11] When war broke out, the French also used their trading connections to recruit from tribes in western portions the Great Lakes region (an area not directly subject to the conflict between the French and British), including the Huron, Mississauga, Ojibwa, Winnebago, and Potawatomi. The British were supported in the war by the Iroquois, and also by the Cherokee — until differences sparked the Anglo-Cherokee War in 1758. In 1758 the Pennsylvania government successfully negotiated the Treaty of Easton, in which a number of tribes in the Ohio Country promised neutrality in exchange for land concessions and other considerations. Most of the other northern tribes sided with the French, their primary trading partner and supplier of arms. The Creek and Cherokee were targets of diplomatic efforts by both the French and British for either support or neutrality in the conflict. It was not uncommon for individuals or small bands to participate on the "other side" of the conflict from formally-negotiated agreements.

Spain's presence in eastern North America was limited to the province of Florida; it also controlled Cuba and other territories in the West Indies that became military objectives in the Seven Years' War. Florida's population was relatively small, and was dominated by the settlements at St. Augustine and Pensacola.

At the start of the war, there were no French regular army troops in North America, and few British troops. New France was defended by about 3,000 troupes de la marine, companies of colonial regulars (some of whom had significant woodland combat experience), and also made calls for militia support when needed. British colonies mustered militia companies to deal with native threats when needed, but did not have any standing forces. Virginia, with a large frontier, had several companies of British regulars. The colonial governments were also used to operating independently of each other, and of the government in London, a situation that complicated negotiations with natives whose territories encompassed land claimed by multiple colonies, and, after the war began, with the British Army establishment when its leaders attempted to impose constraints and demands on the colonial administrations.

Historians estimate the colonial English population at 1.2 million, the French at 55,000 as of 1750.[12]

Events leading to war

Céloron's expedition

In June 1747, concerned about the incursion and expanding influence of British traders such as George Croghan in the Ohio Country, Roland-Michel Barrin de La Galissonière, the Governor-General of New France, ordered Pierre-Joseph Céloron to lead a military expedition through the area. Its objectives were confirm the original French claim to the territory, determine the level of British influence, and impress the Indians with a French show of force.[13]

Céloron's expedition force consisted of about 200 Troupes de la marine (provincial marines) and 30 Indians. The expedition covered about 3,000 miles (4,800 km) between June and November 1749. It went up the St. Lawrence, continued along the northern shore of Lake Ontario, crossed the portage at Niagara, and then followed the southern shore of Lake Erie. At the Chautauqua Portage (near present-day Barcelona, New York), the expedition moved inland to the Allegheny River, which it followed to the site of present-day Pittsburgh, where Céloron buried lead plates engraved with the French claim to the Ohio Country.[13] Whenever he encountered British merchants or fur-traders, Céloron informed them of the French claims on the territory and told them to leave.[13]

When Céloron's expedition arrived at Logstown, the Native Americans in the area informed Céloron that they owned the Ohio Country and that they would trade with the British regardless of what the French told them to do.[14] Céloron continued south until his expedition reached the confluence of the Ohio River and the Miami River, which lay just south of the village of Pickawillany, the home of the Miami chief known as "Old Briton". Céloron informed "Old Briton" that there would be dire consequences if the elderly chief continued to trade with the British. "Old Briton" ignored the warning. Céloron returned to Montreal in November 1749.

In his report, which extensively detailed the journey, Céloron wrote, "All I can say is that the Natives of these localities are very badly disposed towards the French, and are entirely devoted to the English. I don't know in what way they could be brought back."[14] Reports of the situation to both London and Paris were accompanied by recommendations that action be taken. William Shirley, the expansionist governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, was particularly forceful, stating that British colonists would not be safe as long as the French were present.[15]

Negotiations

In 1747 some British colonists in Virginia established the Ohio Company for the purpose developing trade and settlements in the Ohio Country.[16] The company received a grant from King George II in 1749 that included requirements that it settle 100 families in the territory, and construct a fort for their protection.[17] The territory was also claimed by Pennsylvania, and both colonies began pushing for action to improve their respective claims.[18] In 1750 Christopher Gist, acting on behalf of both Virginia and the company, explored the Ohio territory and opened negotiations with the Indian tribes at Logstown.[19] This beginning resulted in the 1752 Treaty of Logstown, in which the local Indians, through their "Half-King" Tanacharison and an Iroquois representative, agreed to terms that included permission to build a "strong house" at the mouth of the Monongahela River (the site of present-day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania).[20]

The War of the Austrian Succession (whose North American theater is also known as King George's War) formally ended in 1748 with the signing of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. The treaty was primarily focused on resolving issues in Europe, and the issues of conflicting territorial claims between British and French colonies in North America were turned over to a commission to resolve. Britain assigned Governor Shirley and the Earl of Albemarle, the governor of the Province of Virginia, whose western border was one of the sources of conflict between the two powers, to the commission. Albemarle also served as ambassador to France. King Louis XV appointed Galissonière and other equally hard-line members to the French membership of the commission. The commission met in Paris in the summer of 1750, with the predictable result that nothing was agreed to, given the positions of the negotiators. Frontiers between Nova Scotia and Acadia in the north, to the Ohio Country in the south were claimed by both sides. The disputes also extended into the Atlantic, where both powers wanted access to the rich fisheries of the Grand Banks.

Attack on Pickawillany

On March 17, 1752, the Governor-General of New France, Marquis de la Jonquière died, and was temporarily replaced by Charles le Moyne de Longueuil. It was not until July 1752 that his permanent replacement, the Marquis Duquesne, arrived in New France to take over the post.[21] The continuing British activity in the Ohio territories prompted Longueuil to dispatch another expedition to the area under the command of Charles Michel de Langlade, an officer in the Troupes de la Marine. Langlade was given 300 men comprising members of the Ottawa and French-Canadians. His objective was to punish the Miami people of Pickawillany for not following Céloron's orders to cease trading with the British. On June 21, the French war party attacked the trading centre at Pickawillany, killing 14 people of the Miami nation, including Old Briton, who was reportedly ritually cannibalized by some aboriginal members of the expedition.

Marin's expedition

In the spring of 1753, Paul Marin de la Malgue was given command of a 2,000 man force of Troupes de la Marine and Indians. His orders were to protect the King's land in the Ohio Valley from the British. Marin followed the route that Céloron had mapped out four years earlier, but where Céloron had limited the record of French claims to the burial of lead plates, Marin constructed and garrisoned forts. The first fort constructed by Paul Marin was Fort Presque Isle (near present-day Erie, Pennsylvania) on Lake Erie's south shore. He then had a road built to the headwaters of LeBoeuf Creek. Marin then constructed a second fort at Fort Le Boeuf (present-day Waterford, Pennsylvania), designed to guard the headwaters of LeBoeuf Creek. As he moved south, he drove off or captured British traders, alarming both the British and the Iroquois. Tanaghrisson, a chief of the Mingo with an intense dislike for the French (whom he accused of killing and eating his father), went to Fort Le Boeuf, where he threatened action against them, which Marin contemptuously dismissed.[22]

File:Robert
Robert Dinwiddie, British lieutenant governor of Virginia

The Iroquois sent runners to William Johnson's manor in upstate New York. Johnson, known to the Iroquois as "Warraghiggey", meaning "He who does big business", had become a respected member of the Iroquois Confederacy in the area. In 1746, Johnson was made a colonel of the Iroquois, and later a colonel of the Western New York Militia. They met at Albany, New York with Governor Clinton and officials from some of the other American colonies. Chief Hendrick insisted that the British abide by their obligations and block French expansion. When an unsatisfactory response was offered by Clinton, Chief Hendrick proclaimed that the "Covenant Chain", a long-standing friendly relationship between the Iroquois Confederacy and the British Crown, was broken.

Dinwiddie's reaction

Governor Robert Dinwiddie of Virginia found himself in a predicament. He was one of the investors in the Ohio Company, which stood to lose money if the French held their claim.[23] To counter the French military presence in Ohio, in October 1753 Dinwiddie ordered the 21-year-old Major George Washington (another Ohio Company investor) of the Virginia militia to warn the French to leave Virginia territory.[24] Washington left with a small party, picking up along the way Jacob Van Braam as an interpreter, Christopher Gist, a company surveyor working in the area, and a few Mingo led by Tanaghrisson. On December 12, Washington and his men reached Fort Le Boeuf.[25][26]

Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre, who replaced Marin as commander of the French forces after the latter died on October 29, invited Washington to dine with him that evening. Over dinner, Washington presented Saint-Pierre with the letter from Dinwiddie that demanded an immediate French withdrawal from the Ohio Country. Saint-Pierre was quite civil in his response, saying, "As to the Summons you send me to retire, I do not think myself obliged to obey it."[27] He explained to Washington that France's claim to the region was superior to that of the British, since René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle had explored the Ohio Country nearly a century earlier.[28]

File:Washington Pennsylvania
Washington's map of the Ohio River and surrounding region containing notes on French intentions, 1753 or 1754.

Washington's party left Fort Le Boeuf early on December 16, arriving back in Williamsburg on January 16, 1754. In his report, Washington stated, "The French had swept south",[29] detailing the steps they had taken to fortify the area, and communicating their intention to fortify the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers.[30]

Course of the war

Dinwiddie, even before Washington returned, sent a group of 40 men under William Trent to that point, where in the early months of 1754 they began construction of a small stockaded fort.[31] Governor Duquesne sent additional French forces under Claude-Pierre Pecaudy de Contrecœur to relieve Saint-Pierre during the same period, and Contrecœur led 500 men south from Fort Venango on April 5, 1754.[32] When these arrived at the forks, Contrecœur generously allowed Trent's small company to withdraw, after purchasing their construction tools to continue building what became Fort Duquesne.[33]

After Washington returned to Williamsburg with his report, Dinwiddie ordered him to lead a larger force to assist Trent in his work. While en route, he learned of Trent's retreat.[34] Since Tanaghrisson had promised him support, he continued toward Fort Duquesne, and met with the Mingo leader. Learning of a French scouting party in the area, Washington took some of his men, and with Tanaghrisson and his party, surprised the French on May 28. Many of the French were slain, among them their commanding officer, Joseph Coulon de Jumonville, whose head was split open by Tanaghrisson. Historian Fred Anderson puts forward the reason for Tanaghrisson's act (which was followed up by one of Tanaghrisson's men informing Contrecoeur that Jumonville had been killed by British musket fire) as one of desperate need to win the support of the British in an effort to regain authority over his people, who were more inclined to support the French.[35]

File:Washington
The earliest authenticated portrait of George Washington shows him wearing his colonel's uniform of the Virginia Regiment. This portrait was painted in 1772 by Charles Willson Peale.

Following the battle, Washington pulled back several miles and established Fort Necessity, which the French then attacked on July 3. The engagement led to Washington's surrender; he negotiated a withdrawal under arms. One of Washington's men reported that the French force was accompanied by Shawnee, Delaware, and Mingo—just those Tanaghrisson was seeking to influence.[36]

When news of the two battles reached England in August, the government of the Duke of Newcastle, after several months of negotiations, decided to send an army expedition the following year to dislodge the French.[37] Major General Edward Braddock was chosen to lead the expedition.[38] Word of the British military plans leaked to France well before Braddock's departure for North America, and King Louis XV dispatched six regiments to New France under the command of Baron Dieskau in 1755.[39] The British, intending to blockade French ports, sent out their fleet in February 1755, but the French fleet had already sailed. Admiral Edward Hawke detached a fast squadron to North America in an attempt to intercept the French. In a second British act of aggression, Admiral Edward Boscawen fired on the French ship Alcide on June 8, 1755, capturing her and two troop ships.[40] The British harassed French shipping throughout 1755, seizing ships and capturing seamen, contributing to the eventual formal declarations of war in spring 1756.[41]

British campaigns, 1755

The British formed an aggressive plan of operations for 1755. General Braddock was to lead the expedition to Fort Duquesne, while Massachusetts provincial governor William Shirley was given the task of fortifying Fort Oswego and attacking Fort Niagara, Sir William Johnson was to capture Fort St. Frédéric (at present-day Crown Point, New York),[42] and Lieutenant Colonel Robert Monckton was to capture Fort Beauséjour on the frontier between Nova Scotia and Acadia.[43]


Braddock led about 2,000 army troops and provincial militia on an expedition in June 1755 to take Fort Duquesne. The expedition was a disaster. At the battle of the Monongahela, Braddock was mortally wounded. Two future opponents in the American Revolutionary War, Washington and Thomas Gage, played key roles in organizing the retreat. One consequence of the debacle was that the French acquired a copy of the British war plans, including the activities of Shirley and Johnson. Shirley's efforts to fortify Oswego were bogged down in logistical difficulties and magnified by Shirley's inexperience in managing large expeditions. When it was clear he would not have time to mount an expedition across Lake Ontario to Fort Ontario, Shirley left garrisons at Oswego, Fort Bull, and Fort Williams (the latter two located on the Oneida Carry between the Mohawk River and Wood Creek at present-day Rome, New York). Supplies for use in the projected attack on Niagara were cached at Fort Bull.

Johnson's expedition was better organized than Shirley's, something that did not escape the attention of New France's governor, the Marquis de Vaudreuil. He had primarily been concerned about the extended supply line to the forts on the Ohio, and had sent Baron Dieskau to lead the defenses at Frontenac against Shirley's expected attack. When Johnson was seen as the larger threat, Vaudreuil sent Dieskau to Fort St. Frédéric to meet that threat. Dieskau planned to attack the British encampment at Fort Edward at the upper end of navigation on the Hudson River, but Johnson had strongly fortified it, and Dieskau's Indian support was reluctant to attack. The two forces finally met in the bloody Battle of Lake George between Fort Edward and Fort William Henry. The battle ended inconclusively, with both sides withdrawing from the field. Johnson's advance stopped at Fort William Henry, and the French withdrew to Ticonderoga point, where they began the construction of Fort Carillon (later renamed Fort Ticonderoga after British capture in 1759).

Colonel Monckton, in the only real British success that year, successfully captured Fort Beauséjour in June 1755, cutting the French fortress at Louisbourg off from land-based reinforcements. The victory was tarnished by the decision of Nova Scotia's Governor Charles Lawrence afterwards to order the deportation of the French-speaking Acadian population from the area. Monckton's forces, including companies of Rogers' Rangers, forcibly removed thousands of Acadians, chasing down many who resisted, and sometimes committing atrocities. The Acadian resistance, in concert with native allies, including the Mi'kmaq, was sometimes quite stiff, with ongoing frontier raids (against Dartmouth and Lunenburg among others). Other than the campaigns to expel the Acadians (ranging around the Bay of Fundy, on the Petitcodiac and St. John Rivers, and Île Saint-Jean), the only clashes of any size were at Petitcodiac in 1755 and at Bloody Creek near Annapolis Royal in 1757.

French victories, 1756–1757

File:Conference Between the French and Indian Leaders Around a Ceremonial Fire by
Conference between the French and Indian leaders around a ceremonial fire.

Following the death of Braddock, William Shirley assumed command of British forces in North America. At a meeting in Albany in December 1755 he laid out his plans for 1756. In addition to renewing the efforts to capture Niagara, Crown Point and Duquesne, he proposed attacks on Fort Frontenac on the north shore of Lake Ontario and an expedition through the wilderness of the Maine district and down the Chaudière River to attack the city of Quebec. Bogged down by disagreements and disputes with others, including William Johnson and New York's Governor Sir Charles Hardy, Shirley's plan had little support, and Newcastle replaced him in January 1756 with Lord Loudoun, with Major General James Abercrombie as his second in command. Neither of these men had as much campaign experience as the trio of officers France sent to North America.[41] French regular army reinforcements arrived in New France in May 1756, led by Major General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm and seconded by the Chevalier de Lévis and Colonel François-Charles de Bourlamaque, all experienced veterans from the War of the Austrian Succession.

Governor Vaudreuil, who harboured ambitions to become the French commander in chief (in addition to his role as governor), acted during the winter of 1756 before those reinforcements arrived. Scouts had reported the weakness of the British supply chain, so he ordered an attack against the forts Shirley had erected at the Oneida Carry. In the March Battle of Fort Bull, French forces destroyed the fort and large quantities of supplies, including 45,000 pounds of gunpowder, effectively setting back any British hopes for campaigns on Lake Ontario, and endangering the Oswego garrison, which was already short on supplies. French forces in the Ohio valley also continued to intrigue with Indians throughout the area, encouraging them to raid frontier settlements. This led to ongoing alarms along the western frontiers, with streams of refugees returning east to get away from the action.

The new British command was not in place until July. Abercrombie, when he arrived in Albany, refused to take any significant actions until Loudoun approved them. His inaction was met by Montcalm with bold action. Building on Vaudreuil's work harassing the Oswego garrison, Montcalm executed a strategic feint by moving his headquarters to Ticonderoga, as if to presage another attack along Lake George. With Abercrombie pinned down at Albany, Montcalm slipped away and led the successful attack on Oswego in August. In the aftermath, Montcalm and the Indians under his command disagreed about the disposition of prisoners' personal effects. These sorts of items were not prizes in European warfare, but Indians were angered by the fact that the French troops prevented them from stripping the prisoners of their valuables.

File:Montcal trying to stop the
Montcalm trying to stop allied Native Americans from attacking British soldiers and civilians as they leave after the Battle of Fort William Henry.

Loudoun, a capable administrator but a cautious field commander, planned only one major operation for 1757: an attack on New France's capital, Quebec. Leaving a sizable force at Fort William Henry to distract Montcalm, he began organizing for the expedition to Quebec, only to be ordered by William Pitt, the Secretary of State responsible for the colonies, to attack Louisbourg first. Beset by delays of all kinds, the expedition was ready to sail from Halifax, Nova Scotia in early August. In the meantime French ships had escaped the British blockade of the French coast, and a fleet outnumbering the British one awaited Loudoun at Louisbourg. Faced with this strength Loudoun returned to New York amid news that a massacre had occurred at Fort William Henry.

French irregular forces (Canadian scouts and Indians) harassed Fort William Henry throughout the first half of 1757. In January they ambushed British rangers near Ticonderoga. In February they launched a daring raid against the position across the frozen Lake George, destroying storehouses and buildings outside the main fortification. In early August, Montcalm and 7,000 troops besieged the fort, which capitulated with an agreement to withdraw under parole. When the withdrawal began, some of Montcalm's Indian allies, angered at the lost opportunity for loot, attacked the British column, killing and capturing several hundred men, women, children, and slaves. The aftermath of the siege may also have been responsible for the transmission of smallpox into remote Indian populations; some Indians were reported to have traveled from beyond the Mississippi to participate in the campaign.[44]

British conquest, 1758–1760

File:The Victory of Montcalms Troops at Carillon by Henry Alexander
The Victory of Montcalm's Troops at Carillon by Henry Alexander Ogden.

The British failures in North America, combined with other failures in the European theater, led to the fall from power of Newcastle and his principal military advisor, the Duke of Cumberland. Newcastle and Pitt then joined in an uneasy coalition where Pitt dominated the military planning. He embarked on a plan for the 1758 campaign that was largely developed by Loudoun, who was replaced by Abercrombie as commander in chief, after the failures of 1757. Pitt's plan called for three major offensive actions involving large numbers of regular troops, supported by the provincial militias, aimed at capturing the heartlands of New France. Vaudreuil and Montcalm were only minimally resupplied in 1758, as the British blockade of the French coastline again limited French shipping. The situation in New France was further exacerbated by a poor harvest in 1757, a difficult winter, and the allegedly corrupt machinations of François Bigot, the intendant of the territory, whose schemes to supply the colony inflated prices and were believed by Montcalm to line his pockets and those of his associates. A massive outbreak of smallpox among western tribes led many of them to stay away in 1758. While many parties to the conflict blamed others (the Indians critically blaming the French for bringing "bad medicine" as well as denying them prizes at Fort William Henry), the disease was probably spread through the crowded conditions at William Henry after the battle.[45] In the light of these conditions, Montcalm focused his meager resources on the defense of the Saint Lawrence, with primary defenses at Carillon, Quebec, and Louisbourg, while Vaudreuil argued unsuccessfully for a continuation of the raiding tactics that had worked quite effectively in previous years.[46]

In 1758 two of the British expeditions were successful, with Fort Duquesne and Louisbourg falling to sizable British forces. The third was stopped with the improbable French victory in the Battle of Carillon, in which 3,600 Frenchmen famously and decisively defeated Abercrombie's force of 18,000 regulars, militia and Native American allies outside the fort the French called Carillon and the British called Ticonderoga. Abercrombie saved something from the disaster when he sent John Bradstreet on an expedition that successfully destroyed Fort Frontenac, including caches of supplies destined for New France's western forts and furs destined for Europe. Abercrombie was recalled and replaced by Jeffrey Amherst, victor at Louisbourg.

In the aftermath of generally poor French results in most theaters of the Seven Years' War in 1758, France's new foreign minister, the duc de Choiseul, decided to focus on an invasion of Britain, to draw British resources away from North America and the European mainland. The invasion failed both militarily and politically, as Pitt again planned significant campaigns against New France, and sent funds to Britain's ally on the mainland, Prussia, and the French Navy failed in naval battles at Lagos and Quiberon Bay. In one piece of good fortune, some French supply ships managed to reach New France, eluding blockades on both sides of the Atlantic.

[[File:|thumb|upright|right|British General Jeffrey Amherst]] British victories continued in all theaters in the Annus Mirabilis of 1759, when they finally captured Ticonderoga, James Wolfe defeated Montcalm at Quebec (in a battle that claimed the lives of both commanders), and victory at Fort Niagara successfully cut off the French frontier forts further to the west and south. The victory was made complete in 1760, when, despite losing outside Quebec City in the Battle of Sainte-Foy, the British were able to prevent the arrival of French relief ships in the naval Battle of the Restigouche while armies marched on Montreal from three sides.

In September of 1760, Governor Vaudreuil negotiated a surrender with General Amherst. Amherst granted Vaudreuil's request that any French residents who chose to remain in the colony would be given freedom to continue worshiping in their Roman Catholic tradition, continued ownership of their property, and the right to remain undisturbed in their homes. The British provided medical treatment for the sick and wounded French soldiers and French regular troops were returned to France aboard British ships with an agreement that they were not to serve again in the present war.

Outcome

File:French attack St. John's Newfoundland
The descent of the French on St. John's, Newfoundland, 1762

Most of the fighting between France and Britain in continental North America ended in 1760. The notable exception was the French seizure of St. John's, Newfoundland. When General Amherst heard of this surprise action, he immediately dispatched troops under his nephew William Amherst, who regained control of Newfoundland after the Battle of Signal Hill in September.[47]

Many troops from North America were reassigned to participate in further British actions in the West Indies, including the capture of Spanish Havana when Spain belatedly entered the conflict on the side of France, and a British expedition against French Martinique in 1762.[48]

General Amherst also oversaw the transition of French forts in the western lands to British control. The policies he introduced in those lands disturbed large numbers of Indians, and contributed to the outbreak in 1763 of the conflict known as Pontiac's Rebellion.[49] This series of attacks on frontier forts and settlements required the continued deployment of British troops, and was not resolved until 1766.[50]

The war in North America officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on February 10, 1763, and war in the European theatre of the Seven Years' War was settled by the Treaty of Hubertusburg on February 15, 1763. The British offered France a choice of either its North American possessions east of the Mississippi or the Caribbean islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique, which had been occupied by the British. France chose to cede Canada, and was able to negotiate the retention of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, two small islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and fishing rights in the area. The economic value of the Caribbean islands to France was greater than that of Canada because of their rich sugar crops, and they were easier to defend. The British, however, were happy to take New France, as defense was not an issue, and they already had many sources of sugar. Spain, which traded Florida to Britain to regain Cuba, also gained Louisiana, including New Orleans, from France in compensation for its losses. Navigation on the Mississippi was to be open to all nations.[51]

Consequences

[[File:|thumb|left|200px|Map showing British territorial gains following the Treaty of Paris in pink, and Spanish territorial gains after the Treaty of Fontainebleau in yellow.]] The war changed economic, political, and social relations between three European powers (Britain, France, and Spain), their colonies and colonists, and the natives that inhabited the territories they claimed. France and Britain both suffered financially because of the war, with significant long-term consequences.

Britain gained control of French Canada and Acadia, colonies containing approximately 80,000 primarily French-speaking Roman Catholic residents. The deportation of Acadians beginning in 1755 resulted in land made available to migrants from Europe and the colonies further south. The British resettled many Acadians throughout its North American provinces, but many went to France, and some went to New Orleans, which they had expected to remain French. Some were sent to colonize places as diverse as French Guiana and the Falkland Islands; these latter efforts were unsuccessful. Others migrated to places like Saint-Domingue, and fled to New Orleans after the Haitian Revolution. The Louisiana population contributed to the founding of the modern Cajun population.[52]

Following the peace treaty, King George III issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763 on October 7, 1763, which outlined the division and administration of the newly conquered territory, and to some extent continues to govern relations between the government of modern Canada and the First Nations. Included in its provisions was the reservation of lands west of the Appalachian Mountains to its Indian population,[53] a demarcation that was at best a temporary impediment to a rising tide of westward-bound settlers.[54] The proclamation also contained provisions that prevented civic participation by the Roman Catholic Canadians.[55] When accommodations were made in the Quebec Act in 1774 to address this and other issues, religious concerns were raised in the largely Protestant Thirteen Colonies over the advance of "popery".

The Seven Years' War nearly doubled Britain's national debt. The Crown, seeking sources of revenue to pay off the debt, attempted to impose new taxes on its colonies. These attempts were met with increasingly stiff resistance, until troops were called in so that representatives of the Crown could safely perform their duties. These acts ultimately led to the start of the American Revolutionary War.[56]

France attached comparatively little value to its North American possessions, especially in respect to the highly profitable sugar-producing Antilles islands, which it managed to retain. Minister Choiseul considered he had made a good deal at the Treaty of Paris, and philosopher Voltaire wrote that Louis XV had only lost "a few acres of snow".[57] For France however, the military defeat and the financial burden of the war weakened the monarchy and contributed to the advent of the French Revolution in 1789.[58]

For many native populations, the elimination of French power in North America meant the disappearance of a strong ally and counterweight to British expansion, leading to their ultimate dispossession.[58] The Ohio Country was particularly vulnerable to legal and illegal settlement due to the construction of military roads to the area by Braddock and Forbes.[59] Although the Spanish takeover of the Louisiana territory (which was not completed until 1769) had only modest repercussions, the British takeover of Spanish Florida resulted in the westward migration of tribes that did not want to do business with the British, and a rise in tensions between the Choctaw and the Creek, historic enemies whose divisions the British at times exploited.[60] The change of control in Florida also prompted most of its Spanish Catholic population to leave. Most went to Cuba, including the entire governmental records from St. Augustine, although some Christianized Yamasee were resettled to the coast of Mexico.[61]

The history of the Seven Years' War, particularly the siege of Quebec and the deaths of British Brigadier General James Wolfe and French General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm, generated a vast number of ballads, broadsides, images, maps and other printed materials, which testify to how this event continued to capture the imaginations of the British and French publics long after their deaths in 1759.[citation needed]

France returned to North America in 1778 with the establishment of a Franco-American alliance against Great Britain in the American War of Independence. This time France succeeded in prevailing over Great Britain, in what historian Alfred Cave describes as "French [...] revenge for Montcalm's death".[62]

See also

History of Canada portal
New France portal

Footnotes

  1. ^ Brumwell, pp. 24–25.
  2. ^ Brumwell, pp. 26–31, documents the starting sizes of the expeditions against Louisbourg, Carillon, Duquesne, and West Indies.
  3. ^ The Canadian Encyclopedia
  4. ^ The Siege of Québec: An episode of the Seven Year's War - Canadian National Battlefields Commission Plains of Abraham website
  5. ^ a b c Anderson (2000), p. 747.
  6. ^ Jennings, p. xv.
  7. ^ The Canadian Encyclopedia: Seven Years' War.
  8. ^ (French) L'Encyclopédie canadienne: Guerre de Sept Ans.
  9. ^ Jennings, pp. 9, 176
  10. ^ Anderson (2000), p. 23
  11. ^ Jennings, p. 8
  12. ^ Baird, Joel Banner (9 September 2010). "Historian traces course of empire". Burlington, Vermont: Burlington Free Press. pp. 2B. http://www.burlingtonfreepress.com/article/20100909/NEWS02/9090304/Author-traces-empires-wreckage-and-legacy-in-Champlain-Valley. 
  13. ^ a b c Anderson (2000), p. 26.
  14. ^ a b Fowler, p. 14.
  15. ^ Fowler, p. 15.
  16. ^ Jennings, p. 10
  17. ^ Jennings, p. 13
  18. ^ Jennings, p. 15
  19. ^ Jennings, p. 18
  20. ^ Anderson (2000), p. 28
  21. ^ Anderson (2000), p. 27
  22. ^ Fowler, p. 31.
  23. ^ O'Meara, p. 48
  24. ^ Anderson (2000), pp. 42–43
  25. ^ Anderson (2000), p. 43
  26. ^ Jennings, p. 63
  27. ^ Fowler, p. 35.
  28. ^ Ellis, His Excellency George Washington, p. 5.
  29. ^ Fowler, p. 36.
  30. ^ O'Meara, pp. 37–38.
  31. ^ O'Meara, p. 41
  32. ^ O'Meara, pp. 43–45
  33. ^ Jennings, p. 65
  34. ^ Anderson (2000), p. 50
  35. ^ Anderson (2000), pp. 51–59.
  36. ^ Anderson (2000), pp. 59–65.
  37. ^ Fowler, p. 52.
  38. ^ Lengel p. 52.
  39. ^ O'Meara, p. 113.
  40. ^ Fowler, pp. 74–75.
  41. ^ a b Fowler, p. 98.
  42. ^ O'Meara, pp. 110–111.
  43. ^ O'Meara, p. 163.
  44. ^ Nester, pp. 53–61
  45. ^ Fowler, p. 138.
  46. ^ Fowler, p. 139.
  47. ^ Anderson (2000), p. 498
  48. ^ Cave, p. 21
  49. ^ Jennings, p. 439
  50. ^ Anderson (2000), pp. 617–632
  51. ^ Anderson (2000), pp. 505–506
  52. ^ Calloway, pp. 161–164
  53. ^ Anderson (2000), pp. 565–566
  54. ^ Anderson (2000), pp. 636–637
  55. ^ Anderson (2000), p. 568
  56. ^ Anderson, Fred. "The Real First World War and the Making of America" American Heritage, November/December 2005.
  57. ^ Cave, p. 52
  58. ^ a b Cave, p. xii
  59. ^ Anderson (2000), p. 525
  60. ^ Calloway, pp. 133–138
  61. ^ Calloway, pp. 152–156
  62. ^ Cave, p. 82

References

Further reading

External links


Simple English

File:Vue de la descente a Terre Neuve par le chevalier de Ternay en
The descent of the French on St. John's, Newfoundland, 1762.

The French and Indian War was a part of The Seven Years' War. It took place between 1754 and 1763. The name refers to the part of the Seven Years' War that was fought in what is now the United States and Canada. The war was between the French with Indian allies and the British with British-American and Indian allies. The war is called The Conquest War in Quebec and Ontario, Canada

Causes of the War

There were many causes for the war. Some included:

Outcome

The fighting in North American stopped on Sept. 8, 1763. It ended with the surrender of Montreal and all of Canada to Britain. The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on February 10, 1763. France lost all of its North American lands east of the Mississippi. All of Canada was given to Britain except for two small islands near Newfoundland. France got the Caribbean islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique.

Other websites

Error creating thumbnail: sh: convert: command not found
Wikimedia Commons has images, video, and/or sound related to:

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 15, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on French and Indian War, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message