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The Frente Revolucionario Antifascista y Patriótico ("Revolutionary Anti-Fascist Patriotic Front"), sometimes also called Frente Revolucionario Antifascista y Patriota (Ruedo Ibérico), better known by its acronym FRAP, was a radical Spanish Marxist-Leninist revolutionary organization that operated in the 1970s.

History

FRAP began operating around 1971 in the universities of the largest cities in Spain (Valencia, Barcelona and Madrid) as an obscure and vague opposition movement against Franco's dictatorship called Frente Republicano de Acción Popular. However, in 1973, it was renamed in Paris as the Frente Revolucionario Antifascista y Patriótico, keeping the acronym FRAP and initiating a more serious career as a violent organization. Its goal was to establish a Popular Federal Republic in Spain through an insurrection and to fight against what it perceived as “Yankee Imperialism”.

The peak of FRAP’s success was around this time. On May 1, 1974, FRAP called for a demonstration in the largest universities against the dictatorship and the response of the Spanish students was positive. They came out to the campuses and the streets in great numbers and the demonstration ended in a big battle. The balance was: one dead policeman, about 20 people wounded and about 300 FRAP sympathizers arrested. During the following months, the Armed Spanish police continued identifying and arresting hundreds of FRAP militants and supporters.

During 1975, the Franco regime unleashed a more thorough wave of repression. The result was that 11 members of FRAP were arrested by the Spanish police and brought to a military court. In August the 16th, a policeman was assassinated by FRAP members. In August 26th, the Franco regime promulgates an "Antiterrorist Law" with a retrospective action. 5 members of FRAP were brought to a military court and 3 of them, Sánchez Bravo, Baena Alonso and García Sanz were sentenced to death and were executed by the Franco regime. International observateurs of the trial such as the lawyer Christian Grobet from Switzerland contested the validity of the trial. After Franco's death in 1975, the FRAP movement continued its struggle against the newly-instituted monarchy, but it had lost much of its initial steam.

References

  • Stanley G. Payne, Politics and the Military in Modern Spain. Stanford, California
  • Pierre Celhay, Consejos de guerra en España. Ruedo Iberico. Paris
  • Junta de Castilla Y Leon. El FRAP y el GRAPO en España
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