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Freshwater drum
Conservation status
Secure
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Sciaenidae
Genus: Aplodinotus
Species: A. grunniens
Binomial name
Aplodinotus grunniens
Rafinesque, 1819

The freshwater drum, Aplodinotus grunniens, is a fish endemic to North and Central America. It is the only species in the genus Aplodinotus. It is also known for its succulent flesh, but many fishermen are put off by its mucus lining and dank smell. Freshwater drum possess an adapted swim bladder which is able to produce sound. Sound production is thought to be related to spawning activity where many drum will gather in pelagic waters of an ecosystem and begin drumming.

It is also called shepherd's pie, silver bass, gray bass,[1] Gasper goo, Gaspergou,[2] gou,[2] grunt, grunter,[1] grinder, wuss fish, and croaker, and is commonly known as sheephead or sheepshead in parts of Canada,[3] the United Kingdom,[4] and the United States.[1][2][5][6]

Freshwater drum have the largest latitudinal range of any freshwater fish in North America. Consistent with other Sciaenids, freshwater drum are strongly nocturnal with the bulk of most catches being derived from night angling/sampling[7]. Commercial fisheries are present for this species, although market price tends to be quite low. Thus, many freshwater drum are harvested as bycatch from targeted higher-value species.[8]

The diet of the freshwater drum is generally benthic and composed of macroinvertebrates (mainly aquatic insect larvae and bivalve mussels), as well as small fish which in certain ecosystems results in excessive accumulation of lipophilic pollutants such as PCBs which are harmful to humans (in some cases over 16 time EPA recommended levels)[9]. However, accumulations of mercury tend to be lower as drum do not occupy high positions in food chains.

The name "Gasper Goo" is an English mispronunciation of the French name "Casse burgau" (mussel breaker). Freshwater mussels are a favored prey item of this fish.

The drum's otoliths are large and in the past were used by Native Americans for jewelry, currency and as good luck charms. Otoliths can also be used to estimate drum ages, which has been validated to be accurate by using bomb radiocarbon dating[10]. The species is sexually dimorphic in terms of its size with females reaching considerably larger sizes than males[11]. Freshwater drum are long-lived and have attained maximum ages of 72 years old in Red Lakes, Minnesota and 32 years old in the Cahaba River, Alabama[12]. Using sectioned otoliths from archaeological sites near Lake Winnebago, WI, freshwater drum have attained the age 74 years (Davis-Foust, [1]).

Typical Freshwater Drum, Lake Jordan, Alabama (Released)

References

  1. ^ a b c Life History Notes: Freshwater Drum Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife. Retrieved on 2007-07-14.
  2. ^ a b c Freshwater Drum (Aplodinotus grunniens). Texas Parks and Wildlife. Retrieved on 2007-07-14.
  3. ^ Lilabeth, Miranda and Alrene G. Sampang. Common Name of Aplodinotus grunniens. Fishbase. Retrieved on 2007-07-14.
  4. ^ Cruz, Tess and Alrene G. Sampang. Common Name of Aplodinotus grunniens. Fishbase. Retrieved on 2007-07-14.
  5. ^ Freshwater Drum: Nature Snapshots from Minnesota DNR. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Nature Snapshots. Retrieved on 2007-07-14.
  6. ^ Fishes of North Dakota: Drum Family. United States Department of the Interior, United States Geological Survey, Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. Retrieved on 2007-07-14.
  7. ^ Rypel, A.L., and J.B. Mitchell. 2007. Summer nocturnal patterns in freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunnniens). American Midland Naturalist, 157: 230-234.
  8. ^ "Nearshore Waters of the Great Lakes" (Government website). Environment Canada. Section 7.2.3. Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
  9. ^ Rypel, A.L., D.R. Bayne, J.B. Mitchell and R.H. Findlay. 2007. Variations in PCB concentrations between genders of six warmwater fish species in Lake Logan Martin, Alabama, U.S.A., Chemosphere, 68: 1707-1715.
  10. ^ Davis-Foust, Shannon L., Ronald M. Bruch, Steven E. Campana, Robert P. Olynyk, and John Janssen. 2009. Age validation of freshwater drum using bomb radiocarbon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 138:385–396.
  11. ^ Rypel, A.L. 2007. Sexual dimorphism in growth of freshwater drum. Southeastern Naturalist, 6: 333-342.
  12. ^ Rypel, A.L., D.R. Bayne and J.B. Mitchell. 2006. Growth of freshwater drum from lotic and lentic habitats in Alabama. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 135: 987-997.

External links

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Freshwater drum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Sciaenidae
Genus: Aplodinotus
Species: A. grunniens
Binomial name
Aplodinotus grunniens
Rafinesque, 1819

The freshwater drum, Aplodinotus grunniens, is a fish endemic to North and Central America. It is the only species in the genus Aplodinotus. It is also known for its succulent flesh, but many fishermen are put off by its mucus lining and dank smell. Freshwater drum possess an adapted swim bladder which is able to produce sound. Sound production is thought to be related to spawning activity where many drum will gather in pelagic waters of an ecosystem and begin drumming. Freshwater Drum can weigh in excess of 54 lbs.

It is also called shepherd's pie, silver bass, gray bass,[1] Gasper goo, Gaspergou,[2] gou,[2] grunt, grunter,[1] grinder, wuss fish, and croaker, and is commonly known as sheephead or sheepshead in parts of Canada,[3] the United Kingdom,[4] and the United States.[1][2][5][6]

Freshwater drum have the largest latitudinal range of any freshwater fish in North America. Consistent with other Sciaenids, freshwater drum are strongly nocturnal with the bulk of most catches being derived from night angling/sampling[7]. Commercial fisheries are present for this species, although market price tends to be quite low. Thus, many freshwater drum are harvested as bycatch from targeted higher-value species.[8]

The diet of the freshwater drum is generally benthic and composed of macroinvertebrates (mainly aquatic insect larvae and bivalve mussels), as well as small fish which in certain ecosystems results in excessive accumulation of lipophilic pollutants such as PCBs which are harmful to humans (in some cases over 16 time EPA recommended levels)[9]. However, accumulations of mercury tend to be lower as drum do not occupy high positions in food chains.

The name "Gasper Goo" is an English mispronunciation of the French name "Casse burgau" (mussel breaker). Freshwater mussels are a favored prey item of this fish.

The drum's otoliths are large and in the past were used by Native Americans for jewelry, currency and as good luck charms. Otoliths can also be used to estimate drum ages, which has been validated to be accurate by using bomb radiocarbon dating[10]. The species is sexually dimorphic in terms of its size with females reaching considerably larger sizes than males[11]. Freshwater drum are long-lived and have attained maximum ages of 72 years old in Red Lakes, Minnesota and 32 years old in the Cahaba River, Alabama[12]. Using sectioned otoliths from archaeological sites near Lake Winnebago, WI, freshwater drum have attained the age 74 years (Davis-Foust, [1]).

, Alabama (Released)]]

References

  1. ^ a b c Life History Notes: Freshwater Drum Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife. Retrieved on 2007-07-14.
  2. ^ a b c Freshwater Drum (Aplodinotus grunniens). Texas Parks and Wildlife. Retrieved on 2007-07-14.
  3. ^ Lilabeth, Miranda and Alrene G. Sampang. Common Name of Aplodinotus grunniens. Fishbase. Retrieved on 2007-07-14.
  4. ^ Cruz, Tess and Alrene G. Sampang. Common Name of Aplodinotus grunniens. Fishbase. Retrieved on 2007-07-14.
  5. ^ Freshwater Drum: Nature Snapshots from Minnesota DNR. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Nature Snapshots. Retrieved on 2007-07-14.
  6. ^ Fishes of North Dakota: Drum Family. United States Department of the Interior, United States Geological Survey, Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. Retrieved on 2007-07-14.
  7. ^ Rypel, A.L., and J.B. Mitchell. 2007. Summer nocturnal patterns in freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunnniens). American Midland Naturalist, 157: 230-234.
  8. ^ "Nearshore Waters of the Great Lakes" (Government website). Environment Canada. Section 7.2.3. Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
  9. ^ Rypel, A.L., D.R. Bayne, J.B. Mitchell and R.H. Findlay. 2007. Variations in PCB concentrations between genders of six warmwater fish species in Lake Logan Martin, Alabama, U.S.A., Chemosphere, 68: 1707-1715.
  10. ^ Davis-Foust, Shannon L., Ronald M. Bruch, Steven E. Campana, Robert P. Olynyk, and John Janssen. 2009. Age validation of freshwater drum using bomb radiocarbon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 138:385–396.
  11. ^ Rypel, A.L. 2007. Sexual dimorphism in growth of freshwater drum. Southeastern Naturalist, 6: 333-342.
  12. ^ Rypel, A.L., D.R. Bayne and J.B. Mitchell. 2006. Growth of freshwater drum from lotic and lentic habitats in Alabama. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 135: 987-997.
13. Schneider, H. und A.D.Hasler. 1960. Laute und Lauterzeugung beim Süsswassertrommler Aplodinotus grunniens Rafinesque (Sciaenidae, Pisces).  Zeitschrift für vergleichende Physiologie, 43: 499-517.

External links


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