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Coordinates: 36°44′52″N 119°46′21″W / 36.74778°N 119.7725°W / 36.74778; -119.7725

City of Fresno
—  City  —
Downtown Fresno Skyline behind a Fresno Grizzlies baseball game at Chukchansi Park

Flag

Seal
Location in the state of California
City of Fresno is located in the USA
City of Fresno
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 36°44′52″N 119°46′21″W / 36.74778°N 119.7725°W / 36.74778; -119.7725
Country United States United States
State California California
County Fresno
Founded 1872
Incorporated October 12, 1885
Government
 - Type Mayor-Council
 - City Council Mayor Ashley Swearengin
Blong Xiong
Andreas Borgeas
Cynthia Sterling
Larry Westerlund
Mike Dages
Lee Brand
Henry T Perea
 - City Manager Andrew T. Souza
 - City Treasurer / Finance Director Karen M. Bradley, CPA
 - City Clerk Rebecca E. Klisch
Area
 - City 104.8 sq mi (271.4 km2)
 - Land 104.4 sq mi (270.3 km2)
 - Water 0.4 sq mi (1.1 km2)
Elevation 296 ft (90 m)
Population (2009)[1][2]
 - City 505,479
 Density 4,097.9/sq mi (1,582.2/km2)
 Metro 1,002,846
 - Demonym Fresnan
Time zone PST (UTC-8)
 - Summer (DST) PDT (UTC-7)
ZIP code 93650, 93701-93712, 93714-93718, 93720-93730, 93740-93741, 93744-93745, 93747, 93750, 93755, 93760-93761, 93764-93765, 93771-93780, 93784, 93786, 93790-93794, 93844, 93888
Area code(s) 559
FIPS code 06-27000[3]
GNIS feature ID 0277606[4]
Website www.fresno.gov

Fresno (pronounced /ˈfrɛznoʊ/, FREZ-noe) is a city in California, USA, the county seat of Fresno County. As of 2010, the population was estimated at 505,479 and by 2020 it will have 590,797 residents.[5] making it the fifth largest city in California, the largest inland city in California, and the 36th largest in the nation. Fresno is located in the center of the wide San Joaquin Valley of Central California, approximately 200 miles (322 km) north of Los Angeles and 170 miles (274 km) south of the state capital, Sacramento. The city is part of the Fresno-Clovis metropolitan area, which, with a population of 1,002,046, is the second largest metropolitan area in the Central Valley after Sacramento. The name Fresno is the Spanish language word for the ash tree and an ash leaf is featured on its flag.

Contents

History

The original inhabitants of the region were the Yokuts.

The County of Fresno was formed in 1856. It was named for the abundant mountain ash trees lining the San Joaquin River. Fresno is the Spanish word for white ash trees. The county was much larger than it is today as part of Tulare County, comprising its current area plus all of what became Madera County and parts of what are now San Benito, Kings, Inyo, and Mono counties.

Millerton, then on the banks of the free-flowing San Joaquin River and close to Fort Miller, became the county seat after becoming a focal point for settlers. Other early county settlements included Firebaugh's Ferry, Scottsburg and Elkhorn Springs.

The San Joaquin River flooded on December 24, 1867, inundating Millerton. Some residents rebuilt, others moved. Flooding also destroyed the town of Scottsburg that winter. Rebuilt on higher ground, Scottsburg was renamed Centerville.

In 1867, Anthony Easterby purchased land bounded by the present Chestnut, Belmont, Clovis and California avenues. Unable to grow wheat for lack of water, he hired Moses J. Church in 1871 to build an irrigation canal. Church then formed the Fresno Canal and Irrigation Company, a predecessor of the Fresno Irrigation District.

In 1872, the Central Pacific Railroad established a station near Easterby's farm for its new Southern Pacific line. Soon there was a store. Around the station and the store grew the town of Fresno Station, later called Fresno. Many Millerton residents, drawn by the convenience of the railroad and worried about flooding, moved to the new community. Fresno became an incorporated city in 1885.

An 1897 photo of K Street High School, which was replaced by Fresno High School in 1896. The school later became Emerson Elementary School and was demolished ca. 1930.

Two years after the station was established, county residents voted to move the county seat from Millerton to Fresno. When the Friant Dam was completed in 1944, the site of Millerton became inundated by the waters of Millerton Lake. In extreme droughts, when the reservoir shrinks, ruins of the original county seat can still be observed.

In the nineteenth century, with so much wooden construction and in the absence of sophisticated firefighting resources, fires often ravaged American frontier towns. The greatest of Fresno's early-day fires, in 1882, destroyed an entire block of the city. Another devastating blaze struck in 1883.

In 1909, Fresno's first and oldest synagogue, Temple Beth Israel, was founded.

The population of Fresno proper soared in the second half of the 20th century. It entered the ranks of the 100 largest United States cities in 1960 census with a population of 134,000. In the 1990 census it moved up to 47th place with 354,000, and in the census of 2000 it achieved 37th place with 428,000, a 21 percent increase during the preceding decade.[6]

The Fresno Municipal Sanitary Landfill was the first modern landfill in the United States, and incorporated several important innovations to waste disposal, including trenching, compacting, and the daily covering of trash with dirt. It was opened in 1937 and closed in 1987. Today, it has the unusual distinction of being a National Historic Landmark as well as a Superfund Site.[7]

Before World War II, Fresno had many ethnic neighborhoods, including Little Armenia, German Town, Little Italy, and China Town. During 1942, Pinedale, in what is now North Fresno, was the site of the Pinedale Assembly Center, an interim facility for the relocation of Fresno area Japanese Americans to internment camps.[8] The Fresno Fairgrounds was also utilized as an assembly center.

Row crops and orchards gave way to urban development particularly in the period after World War II; this transition was particularly vividly demonstrated in locations such as the Blackstone Avenue corridor.

In September 1958, Bank of America launched a new product called BankAmericard in Fresno. After a troubled gestation during which its creator resigned, BankAmericard went on to become the first successful credit card; that is, a financial instrument which was usable across a large number of merchants and also allowed cardholders to revolve a balance (earlier financial products could do one or the other but not both). In 1976, BankAmericard was renamed and spun off into a separate company known today as Visa Inc.

The dance style commonly known as popping evolved in Fresno in the 1970s.[9]

Fictional residents of the town were portrayed in a 1986 comedic mini series titled "Fresno", featuring Carol Burnett, Dabney Coleman, Teri Garr and Charles Grodin, along with numerous other celebrities. The mini series was presented as a parody of the prime time soap operas popular in the 1980s.

In 1995, the FBI's Operation Rezone sting resulted in several prominent Fresno and Clovis politicians being charged in connection with taking bribes in return for rezoning farmland for housing developments. Before the sting brought a halt to it, housing developers could buy farmland cheaply, pay off council members to have it rezoned, and make a large profit building and selling inexpensive housing. Sixteen people were eventually convicted as a result of the sting.[10]

Economy

Fresno serves as the economic hub of Fresno County and California's Central Valley. The unincorporated area and rural cities surrounding Fresno remain predominantly tied to large-scale agricultural production.

Fresno is unique in that it is home to many business incubators that serve as a resource hub for business entrepreneurs and new companies. Some of these incubators are found at California State University, Fresno. Many of the businesses formed at the incubators have gone on to become internationally known in the business world[citation needed]. Some of the businesses involved range from environmental engineering to fashion designers.

Geography

Fresno is located at 36°44′52″N 119°46′21″W / 36.74778°N 119.7725°W / 36.74778; -119.7725.[11]

The United States Census Bureau reports Fresno as having a total area of 104.8 square miles (271 km2) with 99.58% land covering 104.4 square miles (270 km2), and .42% water, 0.4 square miles (1.0 km2).

Fresno's location, very near the geographical center of California, places the city a comfortable distance from several of the major recreation areas and urban centers in the state. Just 60 mi (97 km) south of Yosemite National Park, it is the nearest major city to the park. Likewise, Sierra National Forest is 40 mi (64 km), Kings Canyon National Park is 60 mi (97 km) and Sequoia National Park is 75 mi (121 km).

Because it sits at the junction of Highways 41 and 99 (41 is the park's southern access road, and 99 branches east from Interstate 5 to serve the urban centers of the San Joaquin Valley), the city is a major gateway for visitors coming from Los Angeles. The city also serves as an entrance into Sierra National Forest via highway 168, and Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks via Highway 180.

Fresno has three large public parks, two located in the city limits and one in county land to the southwest. Woodward Park, which features the Shinzen Japanese Gardens, numerous picnic areas and several miles of trails, is located in North Fresno and is adjacent to the San Joaquin River Parkway. Roeding Park, located near Downtown Fresno, is home to the Chaffee Zoological Gardens, and Rotary Storyland and Playland. Kearney Park is the largest of the Fresno region's park system and is home to historic Kearney Mansion and plays host to the annual Civil War Revisited, the largest reenactment of the Civil War in the west coast of the U.S.[12][13]

Climate

Fresno has relatively mild winters and hot dry summers. Somewhat like a Mediterranean Climate but more like a semi-arid climate[14] December low temperatures average 37.0 °F (2.8 °C) with July high temperatures averaging 100.6 °F (38.1 °C), though summer temperatures can occasionally soar to highs of 112 °F (44 °C) or more. Summers provide considerable sunshine, with July peaking at 97 percent of the total possible sunlight hours; conversely, January is the lowest with only 46 percent of the daylight time in sunlight because of thick tule fog. Average annual precipitation is 11.23 in (28.5 cm), which, by definition, would classify the area as a semidesert and very close to a desert climate—with agriculture only possible through the use of very extensive, tax-payer subsidized irrigation; rainfall is concentrated in the winter and spring seasons, with the summers typically being very dry. Most of the wind rose direction occurrences derive from the northwest, as winds are driven downward along the axis of the California Central Valley; in December, January and February there is an increased presence of southeastern wind directions in the wind rose statistics.[15] Fresno meteorology was selected in a national U.S. Environmental Protection Agency study for analysis of equilibrium temperature for use of ten-year meteorological data to represent a warm, dry western United States locale.[16]


Climate data for Fresno, CA
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 54
(12.2)
61
(16.1)
66
(18.9)
74
(23.3)
83
(28.3)
91
(32.8)
97
(36.1)
95
(35)
89
(31.7)
78
(25.6)
63
(17.2)
53
(11.7)
75.3
(24.1)
Average low °F (°C) 38
(3.3)
41
(5)
45
(7.2)
48
(8.9)
55
(12.8)
61
(16.1)
66
(18.9)
65
(18.3)
60
(15.6)
52
(11.1)
42
(5.6)
37
(2.8)
50.8
(10.4)
Precipitation inches (mm) 2.16
(54.9)
2.12
(53.8)
2.20
(55.9)
0.76
(19.3)
0.39
(9.9)
0.23
(5.8)
0.01
(0.3)
0.01
(0.3)
0.26
(6.6)
0.65
(16.5)
1.10
(27.9)
1.34
(34)
11.23
(285.2)
Source: The Weather Channel [17] March 2008

The highest temperature recorded at the Fresno air terminal was 113 °F (45 °C) on July 23, 2006; the lowest temperature recorded was 18 °F (−8 °C) on January 10, 1949, and December 23, 1990. These temperatures have been exceeded at other locations within the city limits. Temperatures reach 90 °F (32 °C) or higher on an average of 106.4 days annually and drop to 32 °F (0 °C) or lower on an average of 21.2 days annually. The wettest year at the airport was 1983 with 21.61 inches and the dryest year was 1966 with 6.07 inches. The most rainfall in one month was 8.56 inches in January 1969 and the most rainfall in 24 hours was 2.38 inches on March 10, 1995. Measurable precipitation falls on an average of 46 days annually. Snow is a rarity; the heaviest snowfall at the airport was 2.2 inches on January 21, 1962.[18]

Demographics

Location of the Fresno-Madera CSA and its components:      Fresno Metropolitan Statistical Area      Madera Metropolitan Statistical Area
Fresno
Population by

year

1880 1,112
1890 10,818
1900 12,470
1910 24,892
1920 45,086
1930 52,513
1940 60,685
1950 91,669
1960 133,929
1970 165,655
1980 217,129
1990 354,202
2000 427,652
2007 486,171
2009 500,017 (As of 2/27/2009)

Fresno is the larger principal city of the Fresno-Madera CSA, a Combined Statistical Area that includes the Fresno (Fresno County) and Madera (Madera County) metropolitan areas,[19][20] which had a combined population of 922,516 at the 2000 census.[3]

At the 2005-2007 American Community Survey Estimates the city's population was 56.3% White (34.0% non-Hispanic White alone), 9.2%Black or African American, 2.1% American Indian and Alaska Native, 12.5% Asian, 0.2% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 23.4% from some other race and 3.6% from two or more races. 44.0% of the total population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.[21]

As of the census[3] of 2000, there were 427,652 people, 140,079 households, and 97,915 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,097.9 people per square mile (1,582.2/km²). There were 149,025 housing units at an average density of 1,427.9 square miles (3,698 km2). The racial makeup of the city was 50.17% White, 8.36% Black or African American, 1.58% Native American, 11.23% Asian (mostly Hmong), 0.14% Pacific Islander, 23.36% from other races, and 5.16% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 39.87% of the population.

There were 140,079 households out of which 40.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.1% were married couples living together, 17.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.1% were non-families. 23.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.99 and the average family size was 3.57.

In the city the population was spread out with 32.9% under the age of 18, 11.8% from 18 to 24, 28.8% from 25 to 44, 17.2% from 45 to 64, and 9.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females there were 96.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $32,236, and the median income for a family was $35,892. Males had a median income of $32,279 versus $26,551 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,010. About 20.5% of families and 26.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.5% of those under age 18 and 10.7% of those age 65 or over.

The population as of July 1, 2007 was estimated to be 470,508 by the US Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program.[22] The Fresno Metropolitan Statistical Area population was estimated at 899,348.[2]

Armenian population

The first Armenians to move to Fresno were the brothers Hagop and Garabed Seropian, who arrived in 1881. Their letters to their home village of Marsovan in the Ottoman Empire brought more immigrants to the San Joaquin Valley, which reminded them so much of home. By 1894 the Armenian population in Fresno was 360, a number which grew rapidly with the onset of the Hamidian Massacres in 1895-96. Many of the immigrants were Protestant converts, the result of heavy missionary activity in Armenia by American Christians seeking converts from the Armenian Church. During and after the genocide even more Armenians came until the restrictions on immigration in 1921 and 1924 brought this to a virtual end. Los Angeles also became a focus of Armenian immigration, and some Armenians from Fresno moved there as well. The number of Armenians in LA surpassed those in Fresno in 1930 - partly because of the agricultural depression in the valley during the 1920s.

The early immigrants were primarily involved with farming and agriculture, with the ultimate goal almost always that of land ownership. By 1930 Armenians owned 40% of the raisin acreage in Fresno County. They were pioneers in the melon and fig production as well.

From the very beginning, bigotry against Armenians was common, and led many to Anglicize their names. In the 1890s Armenian Protestants were stripped of membership in local churches. Fear of Armenian land ownership caused the passage of laws restricting their rights to freely buy land. This attitude towards the tight knit Armenian community led some to try and assimilate, while having the opposite affect on others. The problem lasted for many decades, finally abating in the 1950s.

After WWII, displaced Soviet Armenians came from Germany, and a natural population flow of Armenians from east to west in the US also contributed to growth.

Today, the number of Armenians in Fresno is thought to number 25-30,000.

  • 1881 - first Armenians move to Fresno
  • 1894 - large influx due to Hamidian Massacres
  • 1897 - First Armenian Presbyterian Church constructed
  • 1900 - Holy Trinity Armenian Apostolic Church built, which burned in 1914 and was rebuilt in a new location in the heart of "Little Armenia".
  • 1901 - Pilgrim Armenian Congregational Church
  • 1902 - Kaghakatsi (meaning Citizen) founded, renamed Nor Or (meaning New Day) in 1923.
  • 1908 - Asbarez (meaning Arena) newspaper founded.
  • 1957 - California Courier, which was California's first English-language Armenian newspaper.
  • 1970s - Establishment of Armenian Community School of Fresno and the Armenian Studies department at California State University Fresno.

Government

Fresno has a modified strong-mayor form of local government and seven City Council members (Legislative branch) elected for no more than two 4-year terms. The City council and the mayor are nonpartisan, not affiliated with any political party. Alan Autry was first elected in November 2000, reelected on March 2, 2004, and served until January 2009. Ashley Swearengin was sworn in as Mayor on January 6, 2009.

Mayor

  • 2009-present Ashley Swearengin
  • 2001-2009 Alan Autry
  • 1993-2001 Jim Patterson
  • 1989-1993 Karen Humphrey
  • 1985-1989 Dale Doig
  • 1977-1985 Dan Whitehurst
  • 1969-1977 Ted C. Wills
  • 1965-1969 Floyd H. Hyde
  • 1964-1965 Wallace Henderson (acting)
  • 1958-1964 Arthur L. Selland †
  • 1957-1958 C. Cal Evans
  • 1949-1957 Gordon D. Dunn
  • 1947 Glenn M. Devore (acting)
  • 1941-1947 Z.S. Leymel †
  • 1937-1941 Frank A. Homan
  • 1929-1934 Z.S. Leymel
  • 1925-1929 A.E. Sunderland
  • 1921-1925 Truman C. Hart
  • 1917-1921 William F. Toomey
  • 1912-1917 Alva E. Snow
  • 1909-1912 Chester Rowell †
  • 1908-1909 Ed. F. Bush (acting)
  • 1905-1908 W. Parker Lyon
  • 1901-1905 L.O. Stephens

† Died in office

President, Board of Trustees

Prior to 1901, Fresno was governed by a board of trustees.

  • October 27, 1895-1901 C.J. Craycroft
  • April 15, 1889-unknown A.J. Pedlar
  • October 31, 1887-April 15, 1889 A.M. Clark
  • April 25, 1887-October 31, 1887 W.L. Graves
  • October 27, 1885-April 25, 1887 William Faymonville

City Council

City council is made up of seven members, elected by district:

  • District 1 (west-central) - Blong Xiong
  • District 2 (northwest) - Andreas Borgeas
  • District 3 (southwest) - Cynthia Sterling (Council President)
  • District 4 (east-central) - Larry Westerlund
  • District 5 (southeast) - Mike Dages
  • District 6 (northeast) - Lee Brand
  • District 7 (central) - Henry T. Perea

Courts

The Robert E. Coyle United States Courthouse is the new building housing the Eastern District of California, Fresno Division, Federal Courts.
The California Fifth Appellate District Fresno courthouse.

Fresno is the county seat of Fresno County. It maintains the main courthouse in the county for criminal and some civil court cases. There is also a satellite court house that was recently built and judges were moved to the new courthouse to help alleviate some of the overcrowding in the main courthouse.

The United States District Court, Eastern District of California, has one of its six divisions based in the Robert E. Coyle Courthouse. The new courthouse replaced the outdated B.F. Sisk Federal Building in 2006. The Sisk building did not have enough space for the growing Fresno Division and it is currently undergoing renovation for future use.

Fresno is also the seat of the Fifth Appellate District of the State of California Court of Appeal where a new courthouse was built in the old Armenian Town section of downtown Fresno in 2007 across from Selland Arena and the Fresno Convention Center.

The Fifth District Court of Appeal Courthouse is named after the distinguished George N. Zenovich, the former Senator and Associate Justice of the Fifth District.

Politics

The city of Fresno is closely split between Democrats and Republicans. Mirroring the nationwide vote, George Bush won 48.41% of the vote in 2000[23] and 51.77% in 2004, while Barack Obama won with 50.3% in 2008.[24]

The citizens of Fresno are represented in the California State Senate by Dave Cogdill (R) and Dean Florez (D) and in the California State Assembly by Michael Villines (R) and Juan Arambula (I). The citizens of Fresno are represented in the United States Congress by George Radanovich (R) in California's 19th congressional district, Jim Costa (D) in California's 20th congressional district and Devin Nunes (R) in California's 21st congressional district.

Education

The Old Administration Building, the first permanent structure on California State University, Fresno's original campus, is now part of Fresno City College and listed on the National Register of Historic Places.[25]

Four-year institutions

Two-year institutions

Career colleges

High Schools (Public)

K-12, Districts

Private Schools

Neighborhoods

Downtown

Fresno County Courthouse

Through the 1990s, downtown was one of the last remaining examples of untouched architecture in California, but it has recently been subjected to a mixed revitalization effort.[citation needed] While many of the buildings that were once abandoned for many years have been remodeled, many have been demolished or are under threat of being demolished to be replaced with new structures. Recently added new structures such as Grizzlies Stadium, now Chukchansi Park and the Federal Courthouse, and plans to eventually erect new high-rise buildings, threaten the unique and increasingly rare twentieth century architecture.

A victim of this redevelopment was the Vagabond Hotel, unique in its relevance in popular culture. The Vagabond, which had a pool that was an important location in modern skateboarding history and a prime example of mid-century modern googie "roadside" architecture, was demolished in 2004 and replaced by concrete commercial lots and lofts in 2006. The old Army Induction Center, which was used during the Vietnam War, was also recently destroyed in the next development project on H St and Amador.

The historic Fulton Mall and Chinatown (Japantown) are two downtown areas which still retain an exceptional amount of historic buildings and architecture of contextual, associative and memorial value in comparison with other cities of California and the Western United States, and are being considered for preservation as historic districts.

Van Ness Arch

Sunnyside

The neighborhood of Sunnyside is located on Fresno's far southeast side, bounded by Chestnut Avenue to the West. Its major thoroughfares are Kings Canyon Avenue and Clovis Avenue. Although parts of Sunnyside are within the City of Fresno, much of the neighborhood is a "county island" within Fresno County. Largely developed in the 1950s through the 1970s, it has recently experienced a surge in new home construction. It is also the home of the Sunnyside Country Club, which maintains a golf course designed by William Bell.

Old Fig Garden

First started as a development known as Forkner-Giffen Fig Garden Estates #1 the now historic community set among mature trees of Old Fig Garden has long been one of Fresno's most prestigious neighborhoods. Fig Garden is an area of approximately 6 sq mi (16 km2), once on the northern fringe of Fresno, but the city has since incorporated all of the surrounding land, making Fig Garden a county "island." The city's annual "Christmas Tree Lane" is found on a section of Van Ness Boulevard during the holiday season.

Christmas Tree Lane is located on Van Ness Boulevard in between Shields Avenue and Shaw Avenue and runs through Old Fig Garden. It was started in 1920 when a single tree in the front yard of one of the houses on Van Ness Boulevard was decorated with lights to honor their teenage son who was killed by an accident at the family home. After that, more and more houses began decorating their front yard trees and soon enough Christmas Tree Lane was born. In 1941 the lane was unable to light up the trees due to wartime restrictions and another time in 1973 due to an energy crisis. December 5, 2009 will mark the 87th anniversary for Christmas Tree Lane which will make it one of the longest running Christmas traditions in the country. Christmas Tree Lane is so well known that it even made the Washington Post. Over 100,000 people make the effort to either walk or drive down Christmas Tree Lane every year. Many homes on Christmas Tree Lane hold parties at their homes in order to see the annual parade on the opening night. Many neighborhoods in Fresno have started their own holiday light lanes, but to this day Christmas Tree Lane is still the one that people line up to see.

Tower District

The popular neighborhood known as the Tower District is centered around the historic Tower Theater, which is included on the National List of Historic Places.[26] The theater was built in 1939 and is located at Olive and Wishon Avenues in the heart of the Tower District. (The name of the theater refers to a well-known landmark water tower which is actually located in another nearby area). The Tower District neighborhood is located just north of downtown Fresno proper, and one-half mile south of Fresno City College.[27] Although the neighborhood was known as a residential area prior, the early commercial establishments of the Tower District began with small shops and services that flocked to the area shortly after World War II. The character of small local businesses largely remains today, despite the presence of national chain Starbucks. To some extent, the businesses of the Tower District were developed due to the proximity of the original Fresno Normal School, (later renamed California State University at Fresno). In 1916 the college moved to what is now the site of Fresno City College one-half mile north [28] of the Tower District.

This vibrant and culturally diverse area of retail businesses and residences experienced a renewal after a significant decline in the late 1960s and 1970s. After decades of neglect and suburban flight, the neighborhood revival followed the re-opening of the Tower Theater in the late 1970s, which at that time showed second and third run movies, along with classic films. Roger Rocka's Dinner Theatre and its Good Company Players also opened nearby in 1978, at Olive and Wishon Avenues. Fresno native Audra McDonald performed in the leading roles of Evita and The Wiz at the theatre while she was a high school student. Ms. McDonald subsequently became a leading performer on Broadway in New York City and a Tony award winning actress.

The Tower District has become a hub for community events such as Jamaica My Weekend, Mardi Gras in February, Car Shows, A Taste of The Tower, Halloween in the Tower, and the opened Farmer's Market on the North-West Corner of Olive and Van Ness.

The neighborhood features some notable restaurants, live Theatre and nightclubs, as well as several independent shops and bookstores, currently operating on or near Olive Avenue, and all within a few hundred feet of each other. Since renewal, the Tower District has become an attractive area for restaurant and other local businesses. Today, the Tower District is also known as the center of Fresno's LGBT community.

The area is also known for its early twentieth century homes, many of which have been restored in recent decades. The area includes many California Bungalow and American Craftsman style homes, Spanish Colonial Revival Style architecture, Mediterranean Revival Style architecture, Mission Revival Style architecture, and many Storybook houses designed by Fresno architects, Hilliard, Taylor & Wheeler. The residential architecture of the Tower District contrasts with the newer areas of tract homes urban sprawl in north and east areas of Fresno.

Huntington Boulevard

Homes from the early 20th century line this boulevard in the heart of the historic Alta Vista Tract. The section of Huntington Boulevard between First Street on the west to Cedar Avenue on the east is the home to many large, stately homes. The original development of this area began circa 1910, on 190 acres of what had been an alfalfa field. The Alta Vista Tract, as the land would become known, was mapped by William Stranahan for the Pacific Improvement Corporation, and was officially platted in 1911. The tract's boundaries were Balch Avenue on the south, Cedar Avenue on the east, the rear property line of Platt Avenue (east of Sixth Street) and Platt Avenue (west of Sixth Street) on the north, and First Street on the west. The subdivision was annexed to the City in January 1912, in an election that was the first in which women voted in the community. At the time of its admission to the City, the Alta Vista Tract was uninhabited but landscaped, although the trees had to be watered by tank wagon. In 1914 developers Billings & Meyering acquired the tract, completed street development, provided the last of the necessary municipal improvements including water service, and began marketing the property with fervor. A mere half decade later the tract had 267 homes. This rapid development was no doubt hastened by the Fresno Traction Company right-of-way along Huntington Boulevard, which provided streetcar connections between downtown and the County Hospital.

The surrounding streets, Kerckhoff and Balch Avenues (which are part of the original Alta Vista tract), have homes from the Arts and Crafts era which, like the downtown, are being renovated and brought back to their historic roots. During Christmas, the homes along the boulevard are adorned with lights and decorations. The nation's tallest living Christmas Tree, located at Huntington and 6th Street, is the highlight of the event.

Huntington Boulevard has been referred to as Fresno's "anti-gated community."[29]

Van Ness Extension

North of Shaw Avenue, Van Ness continues as the Van Ness Extension, located between Marks Avenue and West Avenue. The Van Ness Extension could be considered the most prestigious neighborhood in the city, and boasts some of Fresno's most elaborate homes and most affluent citizens.

The West Side

The "West Side" of Fresno, also often called "Southwest Fresno", is one of the oldest neighborhoods in the city. The neighborhood lies southwest of the 99 freeway (which divides it from Downtown Fresno), west of the 41 freeway and south of Nielsen Ave (or the newly-constructed 180 Freeway), and extends to the city limits to the west and south. The neighborhood is traditionally considered to be the center of Fresno's African-American community. It is culturally diverse and also includes significant Mexican-American and Asian-American (principally Hmong or Laotian) populations.

The neighborhood includes Kearney Boulevard, named after early 20th century entrepreneur and millionaire M. Theo Kearney, which extends from Fresno Street in Southwest Fresno about 20 mi (32 km) west to Kerman, California. A small, two-lane rural road for most of its length, Kearney Boulevard is lined with tall palm trees. The roughly half-mile stretch of Kearney Boulevard between Fresno Street and Thorne Ave was at one time the preferred neighborhood for Fresno's elite African-American families. Another section, Brookhaven, on the southern edge of the West Side south of Jensen and west of Elm, was given the name by the Fresno City Council in an effort to revitalize the neighborhood's image. The isolated subdivision was for years known as the "Dogg Pound" in reference to a local gang, and as of late 2008 was still known for high levels of violent crime.

While many homes in the neighborhood date back to the 1930s or before, the neighborhood is also home to several public housing developments built between the 1960s and 1990s by the Fresno Housing Authority. The US Department of Housing and Urban Development has also built small subdivisions of single-family homes in the area for purchase by low-income working families. There have been numerous attempts to revitalize the neighborhood, including the construction of a modern shopping center on the corner of Fresno and B streets, an aborted attempt to build luxury homes and a golf course on the western edge of the neighborhood, and some new section 8 apartments have been built along Church Ave west of Elm St. Cargill Meat Solutions and Foster Farms both have large processing facilities in the neighborhood, and the stench from these (and other small industrial facilities) has long plagued area residents. The Fresno Chandler Executive Airport is also located on the West Side. Due to its position on the edge of the city and years of neglect by developers, is not a true "inner-city" neighborhood, and there are many vacant lots, strawberry fields and vineyards throughout the neighborhood. The neighborhood has very little retail activity, aside from the area near Fresno Street and State Route 99 Freeway (Kearney Palm Shopping Center, built in the late 1990s) and small corner markets scattered throughout.

Woodward Park

Located in the north eastern part of Fresno, Woodward Park is surrounded by upper middle level residential area.

Sierra Sky Park

Formed in 1946, Sierra Sky Park Airport is a residential airport community born of a unique agreement in transportation law to allow personal aircraft and automobiles to share certain roads. Sierra Sky Park was the first aviation community to be built[citation needed] and there are now numerous such communities across the United States and around the world. Developer William Smilie created the nation's first planned aviation community. Still in operation today, the public use airport provides a unique neighborhood which spawned interest and similar communities nationwide.

Unincorporated communities

Culture

Performing Arts and Music

  • Artists' Repertory Theatre
  • Children's Musical Theatreworks
  • Center State Productions
  • Fresno Grand Opera
  • Fresno Philharmonic
  • Roger Rocka's Music Hall & Second Space Theatre

Historic Theatres

  • Crest Theatre
  • Liberty Theatre
  • Saroyan Theatre
  • Tower Theatre – formerly a Fox Theatre
  • Warnors Theatre
  • Wilson Theatre
  • Veteran's Memorial Auditorium

Museums and other attractions

Annual Events

  • ArtHop
  • Big Fresno Fair
  • Christmas Tree Lane
  • Fall Wine Cornucopia
  • Fresno County Blossom Trail
  • Fresno Film Festival
  • Miss California Pageant
  • Reel Pride Film Festival
  • Rogue Performing Arts Festival
  • Woodward Shakespeare Festival

Sports

Fresno-based sports organizations include:

Club Sport Founded League Venue
Fresno Grizzlies Baseball 1998 Pacific Coast League Chukchansi Park
Central Valley Coyotes Arena Football 2002 Arena Football 1 Selland Arena
Fresno Fuego Soccer 2003 USL Premier Development League Chukchansi Park
Fresno Monsters Hockey 2009 Western States Hockey League Selland Arena
Fresno Legends Basketball 2009 American Basketball Association San Joaquin Memorial High School
  • Fresno's Woodward Park is the location of the CIF Cross Country State Championships, where high schoolers from around the state compete. Additionally the BMX course located in the park plays host to the National Bicycle League State Championships.
  • Ratcliffe Stadium, located on the campus of Fresno City College, is a 13,000 seat track and field stadium. The stadium played host to the West Coast Relays. It is home to the college's football program and is also host to high school football games and track and field events.

Media

Newspapers

Magazines

  • Fresno Magazine

Radio

88.1 KFCF is Fresno's Pacifica station, and one of Fresno's few non-commercial, non-corporate radio stations.

KMJ was Fresno's first radio station; it began broadcasting in 1922. Over the years its powerful 50,000-watt signal could clearly be heard throughout much of California. Here are the Fresno radio stations currently broadcasting:

FM Stations
AM Stations

Television

To avoid interference with existing VHF television stations in the San Francisco Bay Area and those planned for Chico, Sacramento, Salinas, and Stockton, the FCC decided that Fresno would only have UHF television stations. The very first Fresno television station to begin broadcasting was KMJ-TV, now known as KSEE, Channel 24, which began broadcasting on June 1, 1953. Here are the Fresno television stations currently on the air:

Sister cities

Fresno has five sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International, Inc. (SCI).

Transportation

Highways

Fresno is served by a main north/south freeway State Route 99. Other highways include the State Route 168 (Sierra Freeway), which is an east-west bound freeway that leads to the city of Clovis and Huntington Lake, State Route 41 (Yosemite Freeway/Eisenhower Freeway) that comes into Fresno from the south via Atascadero, and State Route 180 (Kings Canyon Freeway) that comes from the west via Mendota and from the east in Kings Canyon National Park.

Fresno is the largest U.S. city not directly linked to an Interstate highway.[citation needed] Perhaps in light of this, but probably more because of increasing traffic on Interstate 5 on the west side of the Central Valley, much discussion has been made to upgrade SR 99 to interstate standards and, eventually, incorporate it into the interstate system, most likely as Interstate 9. Major improvements to signage, lane width, median separation, vertical clearance, and other concerns are currently underway.

Airports

Fresno Yosemite International Airport (FAT), until recently "Fresno Air Terminal", provides regularly scheduled commercial airline service. The airport serves an estimated 1.3 million passengers annually to domestic and two international destinations.

Fresno Chandler Executive Airport (FCH) is located 2 mi (3.2 km) southwest of Downtown Fresno. Built in the 1920s, it is one of the oldest operational airports in California. The airport currently serves as a general aviation airport.

Sierra Sky Park Airport, located in Northwest Fresno, is a privately owned airport, but is open to the public. The airport was America's first aviation community[citation needed]. Extra-wide streets surrounding the airport allow for residents of the community to land, taxi down extra-wide avenues, and park in the driveway at home.[30]

Rail

Passenger rail service is provided by Amtrak San Joaquins. The main passenger rail station is the recently renovated historic Santa Fe Railroad Depot located in Downtown Fresno. The Bakersfield-Stockton mainlines of the Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway and Union Pacific Railroad railroads cross in Fresno, and both railroads maintain railyards within the city; the San Joaquin Valley Railroad also operates former Southern Pacific branchlines heading west and south out of the city.

Public transportation

Public transit is provided by the Fresno Area Express. It consists entirely on buses serving the greater Fresno metropolitan area. Intercity and long-distance bus service is provided by Greyhound and Orange Belt Stages.

The city once provided trolley service during the late 19th and early 20th century. Known as the Fresno City Railway Company and later the Fresno Traction Company, the service operated horse-drawn streetcars from 1887 to 1901. Electric streetcars were introduced in 1903. The electric streetcars were used until 1939.[31]

Military Units

US Army

US Army Reserve, 63rd Regional Support Command All at the US Army Reserve Center at the Fresno Chandler Executive Airport

AMSA 14: Army Maintenance Support Activity

729 TC CO: Training Camp Company

924 TC DET: Training Camp Detachment[32]

US Marine Corps

US Marine Corps Forces Reserve, Marine Wing Support Squadron 473 Detachment Alpha[33] located at The Fresno Yosemite international Airport

US Navy

United States Naval Sea Cadet Corps - Fresno battalion Navy Operational Support Center[34] Located in central Fresno

Navy League Cadet Corps - Training Ship Fresno Navy Operational Support Center[34] Located at The Fresno Armed Forces Reserve Center adjacent to Hammer Army Air Field Armory

US Air Force

Civil Air Patrol Fresno Composite Squadron 112[35] Located at the Army National Guard Armory at the Fresno Fair grounds

California Army National Guard

40th Aviation Brigade[36] located at Hammer Army Air Field Armory

1106th Aviation Classification Repair Depot[37] Located at Fresno Yosemite International airport

California Air National Guard

144th Fighter Wing[37] Located at the California Air National Guard Base at Fresno Yosemite International Airport

California State Military Reserve

40th Aviation Brigade Support Battalion[38] Located at The Fresno Armed Forces Reserve Center adjacent to Hammer Army Air Field Armory

Community Based Organizations (Nonprofits)

The City of Fresno is home to a number of nonprofits that serve the community, and/or contribute to the local economy by providing employment opportunities. Nonprofits based in Fresno include:

  • Central California Legal Services
  • Centro La Familia
  • Fresno Rescue Mission
  • Marjaree Mason Center
  • Poverello House
  • ReadFresno
  • Tree Fresno

See also

References

  1. ^ "Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places Over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2007 Population: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007 (SUB-EST2007-01)". US Census Bureau, Population Division. 2008-07-10. http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2007-01.csv. Retrieved 2008-12-03. 
  2. ^ a b "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007". 2010. http://www.census.gov/popest/metro/tables/2007/CBSA-EST2007-01.csv. Retrieved 2008-12-03. 
  3. ^ a b c "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  4. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. http://geonames.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  5. ^ (.xls) E-1 Population Estimates for Cities, Counties and the State with Annual Percent Change — January 1, 2007 and 2008. California Department of Finance. May 1, 2009. http://www.dof.ca.gov/research/demographic/reports/estimates/e-1/2008-09/documents/E-1%202009%20Internet%20Version.xls. Retrieved 2009-05-01. 
  6. ^ [http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0027/tab19.txt U.S. Census Bureau, Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 TO 1990]
  7. ^ Kevin Enns-Rempel; John Edward Powell. "Fresno Sanitary Landfill (1937)". HistoricFresno.org. http://historicfresno.org/nrhp/landfill.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-23. 
  8. ^ "Pinedale Assembly Center, California". U.s. National Parks Service. http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/anthropology74/ce16e.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-23. 
  9. ^ Holman, Michael (October 1984). "History". Breaking and the New York City Breakers. Freundlich Books. ISBN 0-88191-016-3. http://www.msu.edu/~okumurak/styles/pop.html. Retrieved 2007-05-15. 
  10. ^ Jim Boren (December 12, 2002). "Lessons learned from Rezone can't be forgotten". The Fresno Bee. http://www.fresnobee.com/columnists/boren/story/5599730p-6576567c.html. Retrieved 2007-04-23. 
  11. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographical Names Information System: Fresno, California
  12. ^ "Civil War Revisited Wraps Up". ABC30.com. October 10, 2005. http://abclocal.go.com/kfsn/story?section=local&id=3522714. Retrieved 2007-03-06. 
  13. ^ "The Civil War Revisited". Fresno Historical Society. http://www.civilwarrevisited.com/index.html. Retrieved 2007-03-06. 
  14. ^ "Fresno, California Climate Summary". RSS Feeds World Weather. http://www.rssweather.com/climate/California/Fresno/. Retrieved 2007-03-06. 
  15. ^ "Fresno, California Wind Direction Diagram". Causes of Haze Assessment. 2002. http://www.coha.dri.edu/web/state_analysis/California/KingsCanyonNP_metsfcwind_fresno.html. Retrieved 2007-03-06. 
  16. ^ Hogan, C. Michael; Patmore, Leda C.;Harry Seidman (August 1973). Statistical Prediction of Dynamic Thermal Equilibrium Temperatures using Standard Meteorological Data Bases. EPA-660/2-73-003. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. http://cave.epa.gov/cgi/nph-bwcgis/BASIS/ncat/dba/ncat/DDW?M=145&W=DATETAG++%3D++1060217. Retrieved 2007-03-06. 
  17. ^ "Average Weather for Fresno, CA - Temperature and Precipitation". The Weather Channel. http://www.weather.com/outlook/travel/businesstraveler/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/USCA0406?from=search. Retrieved 2008-03-01. 
  18. ^ http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/cgi-bin/cliMAIN.pl?ca3257
  19. ^ METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREAS AND COMPONENTS, Office of Management and Budget, 2007-05-11. Accessed 2008-08-01.
  20. ^ COMBINED STATISTICAL AREAS AND COMPONENT CORE BASED STATISTICAL AREAS, Office of Management and Budget, 2007-05-11. Accessed 2008-08-01.
  21. ^ http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-context=adp&-qr_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_DP3YR5&-ds_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_&-tree_id=3307&-redoLog=true&-_caller=geoselect&-geo_id=16000US0627000&-format=&-_lang=en
  22. ^ "Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places Over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2007 Population: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007" (CSV). 2007 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. 2008-07-10. http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2007-01.csv. Retrieved 2008-12-01. 
  23. ^ "2000 election results" (PDF). http://www.sos.ca.gov/elections/sov/2000_general/ssov/pol_dis.pdf. Retrieved 2008-02-28. 
  24. ^ "2008 election results"" (PDF). http://www.sos.ca.gov/elections/sov/2008_general/sov_complete.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-29. 
  25. ^ History, SCCC Foundation: Old Administration Building, Accessed August 3, 2009.
  26. ^ building # 92001276 on the national register of historic places
  27. ^ http://www.tower2000.com/history/index.html
  28. ^ [1]
  29. ^ http://www.fresnobee.com/907/story/699204.html
  30. ^ "The Front-Door Fliers". Time Magazine. December 10, 1965. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,898437,00.html. Retrieved 2007-01-22. 
  31. ^ "Fulton Berry's Street: From Street Cars To No Cars At All, Almost". Fresno Historical Society. http://www.valleyhistory.org/PandP/fultonstreet.html. Retrieved 2007-06-06. 
  32. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/army/63rsc.htm
  33. ^ http://www.mfr.usmc.mil/4thmaw/mwsg47/mwss473/deta/default.htm
  34. ^ a b http://dolphin.seacadets.org/US_units/unitlist_public.asp?stateid=ca#Fresno
  35. ^ http://cap.findlocation.com/
  36. ^ http://www.strategypage.com/fyeo/howtomakewar/databases/wherearethedivisions.asp
  37. ^ a b http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/facility/fresno.htm
  38. ^ http://www.calguard.ca.gov/casmr/Pages/unit_contact.aspx

External links


Simple English

[[File:|290 px|thumb|right|Fresno, CA]] Fresno is the largest inland city in U.S. state of California. It has a population of 451,455. If the surrounding suburbs are included, it has a population of 983,788. It is the county seat of Fresno County, in the Central Valley.

Fresno is the closest major city to Yosemite National Park. Fresno has a major airport called Fresno Yosemite International Airport that has many flights by many airlines everyday. It was the first airport to use the new security systems made after the September 11, 2001 attacks.


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