Friar: Wikis

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A friar.

A friar is a member of one of the mendicant orders.

Contents

Friars and monks

Friars differ from monks in that they are called to live the evangelical counsels (vows of poverty, chastity and obedience) in service to a community, rather than through cloistered asceticism and devotion. Whereas monks live cloistered away from the world in a self-sufficient community, friars are supported by donations or other charitable support.[1]

Name

The name Friar is derived from the French word frère ("brother" in English), and dates from the 13th century. The French word frère in turn comes from the Latin word frater, which also means "brother".

St. Francis of Assisi called his followers fratres minores, which G. K. Chesterton translated as "little brothers". However, another interpretation of fratres minores is "lesser brothers", because the Franciscan order stresses minority or humility.

Orders

There are two classes of order known as friars, or mendicant orders: the four "great orders" and the so-called "lesser orders".

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Four great orders

The four great orders were mentioned by the Second Council of Lyons (1274), and are:

  • The Dominicans, founded ca. 1216. The Dominicans are also known as the "Friar Preachers", or the "Black Friars", from the black mantle ("cappa") worn over their white habit. The Dominicans were founded by St. Dominic and received papal approval from Honorius III, in 1216 as the "Ordo Praedicatorum" under the Rule of St. Augustine. They became a mendicant order in 1221.
  • The Franciscans, founded in 1209. The Franciscans are also known as the "Friars Minor" or the "Grey Friars". The Franciscans were founded by St. Francis of Assisi and received oral papal approval by Innocent III in 1209 and formal papal confirmation by Honorius III in 1223.
  • The Carmelites, founded ca. 1155.[2] The Carmelites are also known as the "White Friars" because of the white cloak which covers their brown habit. They received papal approval from Honorius III in 1226 and later by Innocent IV in 1247. The Carmelites were founded as a purely contemplative order, but became mendicants in 1245. There are two types of Carmelites, the Calced and Discalced Carmelites.
  • The Augustinians, founded in 1244 (the "Little Union") and enlarged in 1256 (the "Grand Union"). The Augustinians are also known as the "Hermits of St. Augustine", or the "Austin Friars". Their rule is based on the writings of Augustine of Hippo. The Augustinians were assembled from various groups of hermits as a mendicant order by Pope Innocent IV in 1244 (Little Union). Additional groups were added by Alexander IV in 1256 (Grand Union).

Lesser orders

The lesser orders are:

Other name use

Friars have been used as a mascot. Several schools and colleges use Friars as a mascot. Friar is also the mascot for the San Diego Padres, an MLB franchise.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Catholic encyclopedia entry for "friar"
  2. ^ The Carmelite order was founded around 1155 according to many modern historians, but this date is often disputed, and has been disputed since at least the 14th century.
  3. ^ The Conventual Franciscans are a branch of the Franciscan Order
  4. ^ The Third Order Regular of St. Francis are a branch of the third order of St. Francis, part of the Franciscan Order.
  5. ^ The Capuchin are a branch of the Franciscan Order.
  6. ^ The Discalced Carmelites are a branch of the Carmelites.
  7. ^ The Order of Penance is known in Italy as the Scalzetti.

External links

  • Vocation-Network.org information about Catholic religious communities and life as a sister, brother, or priest.
  • VocationMatch.com helps those discerning a Catholic religious vocation sort through options and find the order or vocation that may be right for them.
  • DigitalVocationGuide.org digital edition of VISION, the annual Catholic religious vocation discernment guide.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

FRIAR (from the Lat. frater, through the Fr. frere), the English generic name for members of the mendicant religious orders. Formerly it was the title given to individual members of these orders, as Friar Laurence (in Romeo and Juliet), but this is not now common. In England the chief orders of friars were distinguished by the colour of their habit: thus the Franciscans or Minors were the Grey Friars; the Dominicans or Preachers were the Black Friars (from their black mantle over a white habit), and the Carmelites were the White Friars (from their white mantle over a brown habit): these, together with the Austin Friars or Hermits, formed the four great mendicant orders - Chaucer's "alle the ordres foure." Besides the four great orders of friars, the Trinitarians, though really canons, were in England called Trinity Friars or Red Friars; the Crutched or Crossed Friars were often identified with them, but were really a distinct order; there were also a number of lesser orders of friars, many of which were suppressed by the second council of Lyons in 1274. Detailed information on these orders and on their position in England is given in separate articles. The difference between friars and monks is explained in article Monasticism. Though the usage is not accurate, friars, and also canons regular, are often spoken of as monks and included among the monastic orders.

See Fr. Cuthbert, The Friars and how they came to England, pp. 11 -32 (1903); also F. A. Gasquet, English Monastic Life, pp. 2 34249 (1904), where special information on all the English friars is coveniently brought together.. C. B.)


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Simple English

Friars are special monks that do a service to a community and that lead a simple life, rather than living like ascets in a monastery.

Contents

Orders

There are two classes of orders known as friars, or mendicant orders: the four "great orders" and the so-called "lesser orders".

Four great orders

The four great orders were mentioned by the Second Council of Lyons (1274), and are:

  • The Dominicans, founded ca. 1215. The Dominicans are also known as the "Friar Preachers", or the "Black Friars", from the black mantle ("cappa") worn over their white habit. The Dominicans were founded by St. Dominic and received papal approval from Honorius III, in 1216 as the "Ordo Praedicatorum" under the Rule of St. Augustine. They became a mendicant order in 1221.
  • The Franciscans, founded in 1209. The Franciscans are also known as the "Friars Minor" or the "Grey Friars". The Franciscans were founded by St. Francis of Assisi and received oral papal approval by Innocent III in 1209 and formal papal confirmation by Honorius III in 1223.
  • The Carmelites, founded ca. 1155.[1] The Carmelites are also known as the "White Friars" because of the white cloak which covers their brown habit. They received papal approval from Honorius III in 1226 and later by Innocent IV in 1247. The Carmelites were founded as a purely contemplative order, but became mendicants in 1245. There are two types of Carmelites, the Calced and Discalced Carmelites.
  • The Augustinians, founded in 1255. The Augustinians are also known as the "Hermits of St. Augustine", or the "Austin Friars". Their rule is based on the writings of Augustine of Hippo. The Augustinians were assembled from various groups of hermits as a mendicant order by Alexander IV, from whom they obtained papal approval in 1255.

Lesser orders

The lesser orders are:

  • the Minims, established in 1474
  • the Conventual Franciscans,[2] established in 1517
  • the Third Order Regular of St. Francis,[3] established in 1521
  • the Capuchin,[4] established in 1525
  • the Discalced Carmelites,[5] established in 1568
  • the Discalced Trinitarians, established in 1599
  • the Order of Penance,[6] established in 1781

References

  1. The Carmelite order was founded around 1155 according to many modern historians, but this date is often disputed, and has been disputed since at least the 14th century.
  2. The Conventual Franciscans are a branch of the Franciscan Order
  3. The Third Order Regular of St. Francis are a branch of the third order of St. Francis, part of the Franciscan Order.
  4. The Capuchin are a branch of the Franciscan Order.
  5. The Discalced Carmelites are a branch of the Carmelites.
  6. The Order of Penance is known in Italy as the Scalzetti.


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