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From Russia with Love

film poster
James Bond Sean Connery
Also starring Daniela Bianchi
Lotte Lenya
Robert Shaw
Pedro Armendáriz
Directed by Terence Young
Produced by Harry Saltzman
Albert R. Broccoli
Novel/Story by Ian Fleming
Screenplay by Richard Maibaum
Johanna Harwood
(adaptation)
Cinematography Ted Moore
Music by John Barry
Main theme From Russia with Love
   Composer Lionel Bart
   Performer Matt Monro
Editing by Peter R. Hunt
Distributed by United Artists
Release date(s) 10 October 1963 (UK)
8 April 1964 (US)
Running time 111 min.
Budget $2,000,000
Worldwide gross $78,900,000
Preceded by Dr. No
Followed by Goldfinger

From Russia with Love (1963) is the second spy film in the James Bond series, and the second to star Sean Connery as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond. The film was produced by Albert R. Broccoli and Harry Saltzman, and directed by Terence Young. It is based on the 1957 novel of the same name by Ian Fleming. In the film, James Bond is sent to assist in the defection of Corporal Tatiana Romanova in Turkey, where SPECTRE plans to avenge the killing of Dr. No.

In addition to filming on location in Turkey, the action scenes were shot both in Scotland and Pinewood Studios, Buckinghamshire. From Russia with Love was a critical and commercial success, outgrossing its predecessor Dr. No with over $78 million in worldwide box office. It is considered one of the best films in the James Bond series.

Contents

Plot

In a mansion garden at night, James Bond is seen alternately stalking and being stalked by a tall, blond assassin. Bond is captured and strangled violently to death by a man named Red Grant, using a garrote wire. Suddenly, floodlights switch on and the dead person turns out to be a man wearing a Bond mask, in a scenario that completes a SPECTRE training exercise.

Kronsteen, a chess grandmaster, and SPECTRE's expert planner, has devised a plot to steal a Lektor cryptographic device from the Soviets and sell it back to them while punishing MI6 (the British Secret Service) for killing their agent Dr. No. Ex-SMERSH operative Rosa Klebb is put in charge of the mission by the megalomaniac Number 1. She has already chosen a pawn: Tatiana Romanova, a cypher clerk at the Soviet consulate in Istanbul. Klebb departs to SPECTRE Island, the organisation's secret training base, where she assigns Grant to be the assassin.

In London, M tells Bond that Romanova has contacted their "Station 'T'" in Turkey, offering to defect with a Lektor, which MI6 and the CIA have been after for years. She has said that she will only defect to Bond, whose photo she has allegedly found in a Soviet intelligence file. In fact she is following orders from Klebb, who pretends she is still working for SMERSH and that this is a SMERSH deception.

Bond flies to Istanbul to meet station head Ali Kerim Bey. He is followed from the airport by an unkempt man in glasses and by Red Grant. The next day, after Kerim Bey's office is bombed, Bond and Kerim Bey spy on the Soviet consulate using a periscope from an underground tunnel beneath the consulate. Seeing rival agent Krilencu, Kerim Bey takes Bond to a rural gypsy settlement, where Kerim Bey plans to lie low while deciding how to deal with Krilencu. While two jealous gypsy girls fight over a lover, the camp is attacked by Krilencu's men. From concealment Red Grant saves Bond's life from Krilencu's men. Although he is wounded in the attack, Kerim Bey kills Krilencu the next night with Bond's sniper rifle. When Bond returns to his hotel suite, he finds Romanova in bed waiting for him, unaware that they are being filmed by Grant and Klebb.

The next day, Romanova heads off for a pre-arranged rendezvous at Hagia Sophia. Bond follows her and stalks the bespectacled man who had followed him at the airport. The man attempts to intercept Romanova's floor plan of the Soviet consulate, but he is killed by Grant. When Bond finds the body, he takes the floor plan. Kerim Bey and Bond set up a plan to steal the Lektor and smuggle it back to Britain. On the appointed day, Bond enters the consulate lobby. Kerim Bey then sets off an explosion under the building, which releases tear gas. In the resulting chaos, Bond finds Romanova and escapes with the Lektor on the Orient Express. Kerim Bey and a Soviet security officer named Benz, who spots Romanova, also board the train, but Grant later kills both of them, making it appear as if they killed each other.

The train crosses southern-central Europe to Belgrade. There Bond arranges for agent Nash from "Station 'Y'" to meet him at Zagreb. When the train stops, Grant finds and kills Nash. Grant boards the train once again, meeting Bond as Nash. He drugs Romanova at dinner, then overcomes Bond. Grant taunts him, boasting SPECTRE has been pitting the Soviets and the British against each other. He also claims that Romanova thinks that "she's doing it all for mother Russia" when she is really working for SPECTRE. Bond tricks Grant into opening Bond's attaché case, which releases tear gas. In the ensuing struggle, Bond eventually manages to stab Grant with the knife hidden in the attaché case, and strangles Grant with his own garrote. At dawn, Bond and Romanova leave the train, hijack Grant's getaway truck, destroy an enemy helicopter, and drive to a dock, eventually boarding a powerboat.

Number 1 is very unhappy, and summons Kronsteen and Klebb. He reminds them that SPECTRE does not tolerate failure; they blame each other. Number 1 promptly brings in Morzeny to then execute Kronsteen with a poisoned spike in the toe of his shoe. Number 1 tells a frightened Klebb that she has one last chance.

Klebb sends Morzeny after Bond with a squadron of SPECTRE's boats. When stray bullets puncture several barrels of fuel stored on his boat, Bond throws them overboard. Pretending to surrender, he fires a signal flare into the fuel, engulfing all the enemy boats in flames.

Bond and Romanova reach Venice and check into a hotel. Rosa Klebb, disguised as a maid, attempts to steal the Lektor. In the climax, Klebb gets the drop on Bond, and holds him at gunpoint but the gun is knocked away by Romanova. Klebb releases her poisoned toe-spike, but Bond pins her to the wall with a dining chair. Romanova grabs the gun and shoots Klebb. Riding in a gondola, Bond throws the film of him and Romanova into the water, and they sail away.

Cast

The film features the first appearance of Desmond Llewelyn as Major Boothroyd, known as Q, the character he would play in all but two of the series' films until his death in 1999. However, screen credit for Llewelyn was omitted at the opening of the film and is reserved for the exit credits. The Q character appeared in the previous film, Dr. No, portrayed by actor Peter Burton, and addressed by M initially as "Armourer," and as Major Boothroyd by Bond.

Production

As President John F. Kennedy had named Fleming's novel From Russia with Love among his ten favorite books of all time in Life magazine,[3] producers Broccoli and Saltzman chose this as the follow-up to the cinematic debut of Dr. No. From Russia with Love was the last film President Kennedy saw at the White House on 20 November 1963 before going to Dallas.[4]

Ian Fleming's novel was a Cold War thriller, however the producers named the crime syndicate SPECTRE instead of the Soviet undercover agency SMERSH so as to avoid controversial political overtones.[3] The SPECTRE training grounds were inspired by the film Spartacus.[5]

The film introduced several conventions which would become essential elements of the franchise: a pre-title sequence, the Blofeld character (referred in the film only as "Number 1"), a secret weapon gadget for Bond, a helicopter sequence (repeated in every subsequent Bond film except The Man with the Golden Gun), a postscript action scene after the main climax, a theme song with lyrics, and the line "James Bond will return/be back" in the credits.

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Casting

Although uncredited, the actor who played Ernst Stavro Blofeld, was Anthony Dawson, who had played Professor Dent in the previous Bond film, Dr. No. In the end credits, Blofeld is credited with a question mark. Blofeld's voice was provided by Viennese actor Eric Pohlmann.[3] It is rumoured that author and James Bond creator Ian Fleming has a cameo appearance, in a location train scene, standing outside the train in grey trousers and a white sweater.[6]

Many actresses were considered for the role of Tatiana, including Sylva Koscina, Virna Lisi, and Annette Vadim, with 1960 Miss Universe runner-up Daniela Bianchi being ultimately cast, supposedly by Sean Connery's choice. Bianchi started taking English classes for the role, but the producers ultimately chose to dub her voice over.[7] The scene in which Bond finds Tatiana in his hotel bed was used for Daniela Bianchi's screen test, with Dawson standing in, this time, as Bond.[3] The scene later became the traditional screen test scene for prospective James Bond actors. This screen test forms part of the Ultimate Edition DVD series, showing potential candidates auditioning for the role down the years: James Brolin, Sean Bean, and Sam Neill along with future 007 Pierce Brosnan. The scene has also been used to audition several James Bond leading ladies, including Maryam D'Abo and Maud Adams.[8][9]

Katina Paxinou was originally considered for the role of Rosa Klebb, but was unavailable. Terence Young cast Lotte Lenya after hearing one of her musical recordings. Young wanted Kronsteen's portrayer to be "an actor with a remarkable face", so the minor character would be well remembered by audiences. This led to the casting of Vladek Sheybal, who Young also considered convincing as an intellectual.[5] Several women were tested for the roles of Vida and Zora, and after Aliza Gur and Martine Beswick were cast, they spent six weeks practicing their fight choreography with stunt work arranger Peter Perkins.[10]

Pedro Armendáriz was recommended to Young by director John Ford to play Kerim Bey. After experiencing increasing discomfort on location in Istanbul, Armendáriz was diagnosed with inoperable cancer. Filming in Istanbul was terminated, the production moved to Britain, and Armendáriz's scenes were brought forward so that he could complete his scenes without delay. Though visibly in pain, he continued working as long as possible. When he could no longer work, he returned home, and took his own life.[3] Remaining shots after Armendáriz left London had a stunt double and Terence Young himself as stand-ins.[1]

Joe Robinson was a strong contender for the role of Red Grant but it was given to Robert Shaw.[11] Shaw built himself up for the role and wore lifts to give him height.[12]

Filming

Most of the film was set in Istanbul, Turkey. Locations included the Basilica Cistern, Hagia Sophia, and the Sirkeci Station which also was used for the Belgrade and Zagreb railway stations. The MI6 office in London, SPECTRE Island, the Venice hotel and the interior scenes of the Orient Express were filmed at Pinewood Studios with some footage of the train. In the film, the train journey was set in Eastern Europe. The journey and the truck ride were shot in Argyll, Scotland and Switzerland. The end scenes for the film were shot in Venice.[3] However, to qualify for the British film funding of the time, at least 70% of the film had to have been filmed in Great Britain or the Commonwealth.[13] The gypsy camp was also to be filmed in an actual camp in Topkapi, but was actually shot in a replica of it in Pinewood.[7] The scene with rats (after the theft of the Lektor) was shot in Spain, as Britain did not allow filming with wild rats, and filming white rats painted in cocoa didn't work.[14]

Director Terence Young's eye for realism was evident throughout production. For the opening chess match, Kronsteen wins the game with a reenactment of Boris Spassky's victory over David Bronstein in 1960.[15] Production Designer Syd Cain built up the "chess pawn" motif in his $150,000 set for the brief sequence.[7] A noteworthy gadget featured was the attaché case issued by the Q-Branch. It had a tear gas bomb that detonated if it was improperly opened, a folding AR-7 sniper rifle with twenty rounds of ammunition, a throwing knife, and 50 gold sovereigns. A boxer at Cambridge, Young choreographed the fight between Grant and Bond along with stunt co-ordinator Peter Perkins. The scene took three weeks to film and was violent enough to worry some on the production. Yet Robert Shaw and Connery did most of the stunts themselves.[1][3] The fact that there was not as much light thrown on gadgets and vehicles as in future films has been critically appreciated, since it benefitted the storyline.

After the unexpected loss of Armendariz, production proceeded, experiencing complications from rewriting by Richard Maibaum during filming. Editor Peter Hunt set about editing the film while key elements were still to be filmed, helping to restructure the opening scenes. Hunt and Young conceived of moving the training exercise on a Bond double to preface the main title, a signature feature that has been an enduring hallmark of every Bond film since. The briefing with Blofeld was rewritten, and back projection was used to refilm Lotte Lenya's lines.[3]

Behind schedule and over budget, the production crew struggled to complete production in time for the already-announced premiere date that October. On 6 July 1963, while scouting locations in Argyll, Scotland for that day's filming of the climactic boat chase, Terence Young's helicopter crashed into the water with Art Director Michael White and a cameraman aboard. The craft sank into 40–50 feet (12–15 m) of water, but all escaped with minor injuries. Despite the calamity, Young was behind the camera for the full day's work. A few days later, Bianchi's driver fell asleep during the commute to a 6 a.m. shoot and crashed the car; causing bruising to her face, the actress' scenes had to be delayed two weeks while these facial contusions healed.[3]

The helicopter and boat chase scenes were not in the original novel, but were added to create an action climax. The former was inspired by Hitchcock's North By Northwest, and the latter by a previous Young/Broccoli/Maibaum collaboration, The Red Beret.[16] These two scenes would be shot in Istanbul, but were moved to Scotland; the speed boats could not run fast enough due to the many waves in the sea,[17] and a rented boat filled with cameras ended up sinking in the Bosphorus.[7] A helicopter was also hard to get—the special effects crew nearly got arrested trying to get one at a local air base.[17][18]

The helicopter chase was filmed with a radio controlled miniature helicopter.[7] The sounds of the boat chase were replaced since the boats were not loud enough[19] and the explosion, shot in Pinewood, got out of control, burning Walter Gotell's eyelids[17] and seriously injuring three stuntmen.[16]

Photographer David Hurn was commissioned by the producers of the James Bond films to shoot a series of stills with Sean Connery and the actresses of the film. When the theatrical property Walther PPK pistol didn't arrive, Hurn volunteered the use of his own Walther LP-53 air pistol.[20]. Though the photographs of the "James Bond is Back" posters of the US release airbrushed out the long barrel of the pistol, film poster artist Renato Fratini used the long barreled pistol for his drawings of Connery on the British posters./ref> This pistol became a symbol of James Bond on many posters of the series.

Music

From Russia with Love is the first Bond film in the series with John Barry as the primary soundtrack composer.[21] The theme song was composed by Lionel Bart of Oliver! fame and sung by Matt Monro,[22] although the title credit music is a lively instrumental version of the tune beginning with Barry's brief James Bond is Back then segueing into Monty Norman's "James Bond Theme"). Monro's vocal version is later played during the film (as source music on a radio) and properly over the film's end titles.[22] Barry travelled with the crew to Turkey to try getting influences of the local music, but ended up using almost nothing, just local instruments such as finger cymbals to give an exotic feeling, since he thought the Turkish music had a comedic tone that did not fit in the "dramatic feeling" of the James Bond movies.[23]

In this film, Barry introduced the percussive theme "007"—action music that came to be considered the 'secondary James Bond Theme'. He composed it to have a lighter, enthusiastic and adventurer theme, in order to relax the audiences.[23] The arrangement appears twice on the soundtrack album; the second version, entitled "007 Takes the Lektor", is the one used during the gunfight at the gypsy camp and also during Bond's theft of the Lektor decoding machine.[3][24] The completed film features a holdover from the Monty Norman-supervised Dr. No music; the post-rocket-launch music from Dr. No is played in From Russia with Love during the helicopter and speedboat attacks.[24]

Release and initial reception

From Russia with Love premiered on 10 October 1963 at the Odeon, Leicester Square in London. The following year, it was released in 16 countries worldwide. In April 1964, Bosley Crowther of The New York Times said:[25]

Don't miss it! This is to say, don't miss it if you can still get the least bit of fun out of lurid adventure fiction and pseudo-realistic fantasy. For this mad melodramatization of a desperate adventure of Bond with sinister characters in Istanbul and on the Orient Express is fictional exaggeration on a grand scale and in a dashing style, thoroughly illogical and improbable, but with tongue blithely wedged in cheek.

Time magazine called the film "fast, smart, shrewdly directed and capably performed" and commented extensively on the film's humor:[26]

Director Young is a master of the form he ridicules, and in almost every episode he hands the audience shocks as well as yocks. But the yocks are more memorable. They result from slight but sly infractions of the thriller formula. A Russian agent, for instance, does not simply escape through a window; no, he escapes through a window in a brick wall painted with a colossal poster portrait of Anita Ekberg, and as he crawls out of the window, he seems to be crawling out of Anita's mouth. Or again, Bond does not simply train a telescope on the Russian consulate and hope he can read somebody's lips; no, he makes his way laboriously into a gallery beneath the joint, runs a submarine periscope up through the walls, and there, at close range, inspects two important Soviet secrets: the heroine's legs.

The budget for the film was $2 million;[27] double that of Dr. No. At the box office, it grossed $24 million in North America,[28] and $54 million internationally for a total of $78 million worldwide.[27]

The film's cinematographer Ted Moore won the BAFTA award and the British Society of Cinematographers award for Best Cinematography.[29] At the 1965 Laurel Awards, Lotte Lenya stood third for Best Female Supporting Performance, and the film secured second place in the Action-Drama category. The film was also nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song for "From Russia with Love".[30]

Retrospective assessment

Rotten Tomatoes rates From Russia with Love at a 97%, and is the second highest rated Bond film on the website, surpassed only by Dr. No.

From Russia with Love was re-released in 1965, as part of a "James Bond is back ... to back!" double feature with Dr. No that grossed "nearly as much the second time around as the first."[31] Time magazine noted:[31]

There seems to be no geographical limit to the appeal of sex, violence and snobbery with which Fleming endowed his British secret agent. In Tokyo, the queue for Goldfinger stretches half a mile. In Brazil, where From Russia broke all Rio and Sao Paulo records, one unemployed TV actor had only to change his name to Jaime Bonde to be swamped with offers. In Beirut, where Goldfinger outdrew My Fair Lady, even Goldfinger's hat-hurling bodyguard, Oddjob, has become a minor hero.

In his 1986 book, Danny Peary described From Russia with Love as “an excellent, surprisingly tough and gritty James Bond film” which is “refreshingly free of the gimmickry that would characterize the later Bond films, and Connery and Bianchi play real people. We worry about them and hope their relationship will work out…Shaw and Lotte Lenya are splendid villains. Both have exciting, well-choreographed fights with Connery. Actors play is straight, with excellent results.”[32]

In June 2001, Neil Smith of BBC Films called it "a film that only gets better with age".[33] In 2004, Total Film magazine named it the ninth-greatest British film of all time.[34] In 2006, Jay Antani of Filmcritic praised the film's "impressive staging of action scenes",[35] while IGN listed it as second-best Bond film ever, behind only Goldfinger.[36] That same year, Entertainment Weekly put the film at ninth among Bond films, criticizing the slow pace.[37] When the "James Bond Ultimate Collector’s Set" was released in November 2007 by MGM, Norman Wilner of MSN chose From Russia with Love as the best Bond film.[38]

The British Film Institute's screenonline guide called the film "one of the series' high points" and said it "had advantages not enjoyed by many later Bond films, notably an intelligent script that retained the substance of Ian Fleming's novel while toning down the overt Cold War politics (the Cuban Missile Crisis had only occurred the previous year)."[39] From Russia with Love is the favourite Bond film of Sean Connery[1] and James Berardinelli.[40] In 2008, Michael G. Wilson, the current co-producer of the series, stated "We always start out trying to make another From Russia with Love and end up with another Thunderball."[41]

Video game adaptation

Sean Connery as James Bond in the From Russia with Love video game.

The From Russia with Love video game was developed by Electronic Arts and released on 1 November 2005 in North America. It follows the storyline of the book and film, albeit adding in new scenes, making it more action-oriented. One of the most significant changes to the story is the replacement of the organization SPECTRE to OCTOPUS because the name SPECTRE constituted a long-running legal dispute over the film rights to Thunderball between United Artists/MGM and the late writer Kevin McClory. Most of the cast from the film returned in likeness. Connery not only played Bond, but also recorded his voice to the character. Featuring a third-person multiplayer deathmatch mode, the game depicts several elements of later Bond films such as the Aston Martin DB5 from Goldfinger (1964) and the rocketbelt from Thunderball (1965).

The game was penned by Bruce Feirstein who previously worked on the film scripts for GoldenEye, Tomorrow Never Dies, The World Is Not Enough, and the 2004 video game, Everything or Nothing. Its soundtrack was composed by Christopher Lennertz and Vic Flick.[42]

The game begins with a standard pre-title sequence in which Elizabeth Stark, the British Prime Minister's daughter, is kidnapped by OCTOPUS while attending a party. Fortunately, Bond was assigned to attend the party; he defeats OCTOPUS' henchmen and rescues Stark. Soon, OCTOPUS conceives a plan to avenge the death of Dr. Julius No. The plan involves the theft of a Soviet encoding machine known as the Lektor with the help of a defecting Soviet agent, Romanova, being used by OCTOPUS to lure Bond into a trap; their ultimate goal is to let him obtain the Lektor and then ambush and kill him. Romanova is sent by Rosa Klebb, a KGB agent who has secretly defected to OCTOPUS. Her immediate subordinate, Red Grant, protects Bond through the first half of the game and attacks him in the second. The game ends with a final assault on OCTOPUS headquarters.

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d (2006) Album notes for From Russia with Love Ultimate Edition DVD.
  2. ^ FILMFAX Magazine Oct 2003-Jan 2004
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Martine Beswick, Daniela Bianchi, Dana Broccoli, Syd Cain, Sean Connery, Peter Hunt, John Stears, Norman Wanstall. (2000). Inside From Russia with Love. [DVD]. MGM Home Entertainment Inc.. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0322760/. Retrieved 2007-08-04. 
  4. ^ http://www.prospect.org/cs/articles?article=arthur_m_schlesinger_jr_19172007
  5. ^ a b Terence Young. From Russia with Love audio commentary. From Russia with Love Ultimate Edition, Disc 1: MGM Home Entertainment. 
  6. ^ Krofchok, Bryan (March 1995). "Does Ian Fleming have a cameo appearance in the film From Russia with Love?". Shaken, Not Stirred. Ian Fleming Foundation. http://www.hmss.com/afjb/FAQpage4.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  7. ^ a b c d e From Russia with Love audio commentary, Ultimate Edition DVD
  8. ^ Inside Octopussy. [DVD]. MGM Home Entertainment Inc.. 2000. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0322765/. Retrieved 2007-08-04. 
  9. ^ Inside The Living Daylights. [DVD]. MGM Home Entertainment Inc.. 2000. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0307015/. Retrieved 2007-08-04. 
  10. ^ Aliza Gur. From Russia with Love audio commentary. From Russia with Love Ultimate Edition, Disc 1: MGM Home Entertainment. 
  11. ^ 19/05/2010
  12. ^ http://www.celebheights.com/s/Robert-Shaw-2384.html
  13. ^ Crossing the cinematic pond: British film funds gaining favor among U.S.-based producers. (Up Front). | Los Angeles Business Journal (August, 2003)
  14. ^ Syd Cain. From Russia with Love audio commentary. From Russia with Love Ultimate Edition, Disc 1: MGM Home Entertainment. 
  15. ^ "The name is Spassky – Boris Spassky". ChessBase.com. 2004-09-02. http://www.chessbase.com/newsprint.asp?newsid=1882. Retrieved 2008-02-16. 
  16. ^ a b John Cork. From Russia with Love audio commentary. From Russia with Love Ultimate Edition, Disc 1: MGM Home Entertainment. 
  17. ^ a b c Walter Gotell. From Russia with Love audio commentary. From Russia with Love Ultimate Edition, Disc 1: MGM Home Entertainment. 
  18. ^ John Stears. From Russia with Love audio commentary. From Russia with Love Ultimate Edition, Disc 1: MGM Home Entertainment. 
  19. ^ Norman Wanstall. From Russia with Love audio commentary. From Russia with Love Ultimate Edition, Disc 1: MGM Home Entertainment. 
  20. ^ "Lot 250 Sale 9017 From Russia with Love, 1963"
  21. ^ ""From Russia with Love" (1963) at Soundtrack Incomplete". Loki Carbis. http://restless.rimspace.net/soundtrack/fff/from_russia_with_love.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  22. ^ a b "Listology: Rating the James Bond Theme Songs". Listology.com. http://www.listology.com/content_show.cfm/content_id.10101. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  23. ^ a b John Barry. From Russia with Love audio commentary. From Russia with Love Ultimate Edition, Disc 1: MGM Home Entertainment. 
  24. ^ a b The Music of James Bond. [DVD]. MGM Home Entertainment Inc.. 2000. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0307198/. Retrieved 2007-08-04. 
  25. ^ Bosley Crowther (April 9, 1964). "James Bond Travels the Orient Express". The New York Times. http://movies.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=9E05EEDA1330E033A2575AC0A9629C946591D6CF. Retrieved 2009-05-11. 
  26. ^ "Once More Unto the Breach". Time. Friday, April 10, 1964. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,875772,00.html. Retrieved 2009-05-11. 
  27. ^ a b "From Russia with Love". The Numbers. Nash Information Service. http://the-numbers.com/movies/1964/0FRLW.php. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  28. ^ "From Russia, with Love (1964)". Box Office Mojo. http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=fromrussiawithlove.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  29. ^ "Awards at Yahoo Movies". http://movies.yahoo.com/movie/1800068321/awards. Retrieved 2007-07-30. 
  30. ^ "Awards won by From Russia with Love". Internet Movie Database. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0057076/awards. Retrieved 2007-08-01. 
  31. ^ a b "Bondomania". Time. Friday, June 11, 1965. http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,833710,00.html. Retrieved 2009-05-11. 
  32. ^ Danny Peary, Guide for the Film Fanatic (Simon & Schuster, 1986) p.163
  33. ^ "From Russia with Love (1963)". BBC. 19 June 2001. http://www.bbc.co.uk/films/2001/06/19/from_russia_with_love_1963_review.shtml. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  34. ^ "Get Carter tops British film poll". BBC News. 2004-10-03. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/3711460.stm. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  35. ^ Antani, Jay. "From Russia with Love". Filmcritic.com. http://www.filmcritic.com/misc/emporium.nsf/reviews/From-Russia-with-Love. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  36. ^ "James Bond's Top 20". IGN. 2006-11-17. http://movies.ign.com/articles/746/746573p4.html. Retrieved 2008-03-04. 
  37. ^ Benjamin Svetkey, Joshua Rich (2006-11-15). "Ranking the Bond Films". http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,1560072_14,00.html. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  38. ^ Norman Wilner. "Rating the Spy Game". MSN. http://movies.sympatico.msn.ca/features/ArticleNormanWilner.aspx?cp-documentid=436189. Retrieved 2008-03-04. 
  39. ^ Michael Brooke. "From Russia With Love (1963)". screenonline. British Film Institute. http://www.screenonline.org.uk/film/id/520462/. Retrieved 2009-05-11. 
  40. ^ Berardinelli, James. "Top 100 Runner Up: From Russia with Love". Reelviews. http://www.reelviews.net/top100/103.html. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  41. ^ Nusair, David (2008-11-01). "From Russia With Love". AskMen. http://www.askmen.com/entertainment/movie/from-russia-with-love.html. Retrieved 2009-02-28. 
  42. ^ Electronic Arts. From Russia with Love. (2005-11-01)

See also

External links

Preceded by
Dr. No
James Bond Films
1963
Succeeded by
Goldfinger

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