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.
Direct-methanol fuel cell.
^ Direct methanol and regenerative fuel cells are also being extensively researched.

^ I find the direct methanol conversion fuel cells to be very attractive.
  • EV WORLD: Fuel Cell Efficiency: A Reality Check 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.evworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fuel cells are direct energy converters.
  • Fuel Cell Basics 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Academic]

The actual fuel cell stack is the layered cube shape in the center of the image
.A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts a source fuel into an electrical current and water.^ BACKGROUND Fuel cells convert the chemical energy of fuels directly into electricity.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Fuel cells convert electrochemical energy by combining fuel and an oxidant.
  • fuel cell welding | ARCOR Laser Services 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.arcorlaser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A device that electrochemically converts the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidant to electrical energy.
  • Fuel cell - Definition, Glossary, Details - Oilgae 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: Academic]

.It generates electricity inside a cell through reactions between a fuel and an oxidant, triggered in the presence of an electrolyte.^ How does a Fuel Cell Generate Electricity?
  • FuelCellStore.com - Fuel Cells, Education, Science Kits, Components and Hydrogen 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.fuelcellstore.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The fuel cell produces power through a redox reaction between hydrogen and oxygen.

^ What is the difference between a fuel cell and a battery?

.The reactants flow into the cell, and the reaction products flow out of it, while the electrolyte remains within it.^ This permits the continuous supply of reactants to the cells and a continuous removal of the reaction products.
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The fuel and the oxidant flows into the cells and the reaction products flow out of the cell.
  • Fuel Cells in Cars - Details of How, Where and Why the Fuel Cell is Being Used 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.whatgas.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Usually, reactants flow in and reaction products flow out.
  • PowerPedia:Fuel cell - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]
  • all about fuel-cell-heating 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC fuel-cell-heating.com [Source type: Reference]

.Fuel cells can operate virtually continuously as long as the necessary flows are maintained.^ Virtually continuous long-term operation is feasible as long as these flows fuel-cell-heating, hydrogen-heating are maintained.

^ Figure 4 illustrates the fuel flow and fundamental operation of a fuel cell.

^ A fuel cell can be designed to operate reversibly.
  • fuel cell -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Fuel cells are different from conventional electrochemical cell batteries in that they consume reactant from an external source, which must be replenished[1] – a thermodynamically open system.^ Top Different types of fuel cells.
  • A Basic Overview of Fuel Cell Technology 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC americanhistory.si.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ A fuel cell is a battery that you can refuel.
  • Fuel Cells 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.ecoworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device similar to a battery, differing in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i.e.

.By contrast, batteries store electrical energy chemically and hence represent a thermodynamically closed system.^ By contrast, batteries store electrical energy chemically and hence represent a thermodynamically closed system.
  • Greentech Media: Where Fuel Cells Make Sense 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.greentechmedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From chemical energy to electrical energy - Designing fuel cell systems .
  • fuel cell -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Electricity - stored in batteries .
  • A Student's Guide to Alternative Fuel Vehicles - Fuel Cell Vehicles 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.energyquest.ca.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many combinations of fuels and oxidants are possible.^ Many combinations of fuel and oxidant are also possible.
  • Fuel Cells Information, Fuel Cells Facts, Fuel Cells Technology - National Geographic 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC environment.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since a single fuel cell produces only about 0.7 volts, many separate fuel cells are combined to form a fuel cell stack.
  • How Hydrogen Fuel Cells Work | GreenCar.com 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.greencar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fuel cells are devices that produce electricity by combining an oxidant and a fuel, such as oxygen and hydrogen.
  • Fuel Cells | FuelCellsWorks 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC fuelcellsworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A hydrogen fuel cell uses hydrogen as its fuel and oxygen (usually from air) as its oxidant.^ Most fuel cells in use today, however, use hydrogen and oxygen as the chemicals.
  • Fuel Cells Information, Fuel Cells Facts, Fuel Cells Technology - National Geographic 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC environment.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydrogen fuel cells in the data center .

^ Fuel cells rely on hydrogen for its electrons.

.Other fuels include hydrocarbons and alcohols.^ Other fuels which can be used include hydrocarbons and alcohols.
  • Fuel Cells in Cars - Details of How, Where and Why the Fuel Cell is Being Used 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.whatgas.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Should we be trying to use fuel cells in cars and other vehicles, or is there another more important way that we should be using fuel cells to reduce the burning of hydrocarbons?
  • Teachers' Domain: Fuel Cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.teachersdomain.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Potential applications where available hydrocarbon fuels are preferred include stationary commercial power, mobile electrical power for utility work trucks, over the road trucks, and larger boats.
  • Fuel Cell Reseach and Development 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC cumminspower.com [Source type: Reference]

.Other oxidants include chlorine and chlorine dioxide.^ Oxygen from air, chlorine and chlorine dioxide can act as oxidants.
  • Fuel Cells in Cars - Details of How, Where and Why the Fuel Cell is Being Used 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.whatgas.com [Source type: Reference]

[2]

Contents

Design

.Fuel cells come in many varieties; however, they all work in the same general manner.^ Fuel cell, hydrogen fuel cell, fuel cell battery, hydrogen fuel cell battery, fuel cell generator...
  • Fuel Cells - Fuel Cells and more 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although there are many types of fuel cell, they all work in essentially the same way (Figure 1) .
  • Fuel Cells - tech - 16 June 2001 - New Scientist 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: News]

^ Top How do fuel cells work?
  • A Basic Overview of Fuel Cell Technology 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC americanhistory.si.edu [Source type: Reference]

.They are made up of three segments which are sandwiched together: the anode, the electrolyte, and the cathode.^ This electrolyte is sandwiched between two “electrodes.” Like a car battery, a fuel cell has two electrodes: a positive electrode (the cathode) and a negative electrode (the anode).Unlike a car battery, however, the electrodes in the fuel cell contain special metals called “catalysts” that speed the rate of the electrochemical reaction.

^ The cathode and anode are typically made from carbon, with a layer of platinum, which serves as a catalyst to speed up the separation of electrons from hydrogen atoms.
  • Science News for Kids: Feature: Boosting Fuel Cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.sciencenewsforkids.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As with a battery, the fuel cell consists of an anode, a cathode, precious metal catalysts (usually platinum) and a special polymer membrane that doubles as the electrolyte.
  • Fuel cell is 169 years old 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.canada.com [Source type: News]

.Two chemical reactions occur at the interfaces of the three different segments.^ Engineering the structure of these interfaces is also required to obtain a long three-phase boundary and maximize the number of sites where the electrochemical reactions take place.
  • Energy Research Group at Penn // Registration: FUEL CELLS: Materials, Challenges and Breakthroughs, 9/26/09 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.energy.upenn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The system of energy used in this booklet is based on a plural energy system where all the different types of energy are two word forms such as chemical energy.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Thus, in the electrochemical reaction scheme, the overall reaction occurs as two partial reactions spatially separated at two different electrodes immersed into the electrolyte solution.
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The net result of the two reactions is that fuel is consumed, water or carbon dioxide is created, and an electrical current is created, which can be used to power electrical devices, normally referred to as the load.^ Cells that use fossil fuels produce water and carbon dioxide as waste products.
  • Fuel Cells - tech - 16 June 2001 - New Scientist 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: News]

^ The byproducts of the reaction are merely water and a little carbon dioxide."
  • Fuel cells are due next year - The Inquirer 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.theinquirer.net [Source type: General]

^ A fuel cell is a device that generates electricity by a chemical reaction.
  • A Basic Overview of Fuel Cell Technology 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC americanhistory.si.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.iit.edu [Source type: Reference]

.At the anode a catalyst oxidizes the fuel, usually hydrogen, turning the fuel into a positively charged ion and a negatively charged electron.^ At the anode the hydrogen gas is electrochemically dissociated into hydrogen ions (H + ) and free electrons (e - ).

^ The hydrogen fuel is fed into the anode (a negative electrode that repels electrons) of the fuel cell.
  • Energy Studies - How Fuel Cell Works 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC intraweb.stockton.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Fuel cells rely on hydrogen for its electrons.

.The electrolyte is a substance specifically designed so ions can pass through it, but the electrons cannot.^ The electrons migrate through the bipolar plate while the ions diffuse through the electrolyte.
  • Fuel Cell background information 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC paws.kettering.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These ions pass through an electrolyte to the anode.

^ Meanwhile, the hydrogen ions are small enough to pass through the membrane where, again with the help of a catalyst, they combine with the oxygen and electrons (returning from the motor) on the cathode side of the cell to produce water.
  • Fuel cell is 169 years old 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.canada.com [Source type: News]

.The freed electrons travel through a wire creating the electrical current.^ The electrons travel through an external circuit creating electricity and return to the cathode.
  • DOE - Fossil Energy: Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Technology 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.fossil.energy.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is this flow of electrons through a circuit that creates electricity.

^ The negatively charged electrons provide the current through wires to do work.
  • A Basic Overview of Fuel Cell Technology 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC americanhistory.si.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.iit.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The ions travel through the electrolyte to the cathode.^ Oxygen comes through the cathode side, fuel through the anode side; the two react in the electrolyte and form water and carbon dioxide as a waste products, depending on the fuel type.
  • Technology Review: A Cool Micro Fuel Cell 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the case of PEMFC and PAFC , positively charged ions move through the electrolyte across a voltage to produce electric power.
  • Distributed Energy Resources Guide: equipment - Fuel Cells 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.energy.ca.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) use a membrane that works in the opposite direction from PEM fuel cells, passing oxygen ions from the cathode through a solid membrane to the anode side of the fuel cell.
  • Fuel Cells in a Nutshell (Energy Priorities) 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC energypriorities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Once reaching the cathode, the ions are reunited with the electrons and the two react with a third chemical, usually oxygen, to create water or carbon dioxide.^ In the cathode compartment electrons combine with ions and oxygen to form water and close the circuit.

^ Once the electrons reach the cathode, the hydrogen and oxygen bond to form water .
  • Fuel cell@Everything2.com 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Reference]

^ At the cathode, oxygen is dissociated and reacted with the protons to form water .
  • Fuel cell@Everything2.com 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Reference]

A block diagram of a fuel cell
The most important design features in a fuel cell are:
  • The electrolyte substance. .The electrolyte substance usually defines the type of fuel cell.
  • The fuel that is used.^ Type of fuel used .
    • Fuel Cells in Cars - Details of How, Where and Why the Fuel Cell is Being Used 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.whatgas.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Top Different types of fuel cells.
    • A Basic Overview of Fuel Cell Technology 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC americanhistory.si.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells The molten carbonate fuel cell uses a molten carbonate salt as the electrolyte.

    .The most common fuel is hydrogen.
  • The anode catalyst, which breaks down the fuel into electrons and ions.^ At the anode the hydrogen gas is electrochemically dissociated into hydrogen ions (H + ) and free electrons (e - ).

    ^ The most common, but expensive, catalyst is platinum.
    • Fuel Cells Gearing Up To Power Auto Industry 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: News]

    ^ The hydrogen fuel is fed into the anode (a negative electrode that repels electrons) of the fuel cell.
    • Energy Studies - How Fuel Cell Works 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC intraweb.stockton.edu [Source type: Reference]

    .The anode catalyst is usually made up of very fine platinum powder.
  • The cathode catalyst, which turns the ions into the waste chemicals like water or carbon dioxide.^ The cathode and anode are typically made from carbon, with a layer of platinum, which serves as a catalyst to speed up the separation of electrons from hydrogen atoms.
    • Science News for Kids: Feature: Boosting Fuel Cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.sciencenewsforkids.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ At the anode, hydrogen reacts with ions to produce water, carbon dioxide, and electrons.

    ^ CO - carbon monoxide CO 2 - carbon dioxide CO 3 = - carbonate ion .

    The cathode catalyst is often made up of nickel.
.
A typical fuel cell produces a voltage from 0.6 V to 0.7 V at full rated load.
^ What fuels do fuel cells use to produce electricity?
  • FuelCellStore.com - Fuel Cells, Education, Science Kits, Components and Hydrogen 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.fuelcellstore.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The efficiency of a fuel cell is proportional to the voltage.
  • Fuel Cells in Cars - Details of How, Where and Why the Fuel Cell is Being Used 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.whatgas.com [Source type: Reference]

^ All fuel cells produce heat.
  • Fuel cells in Australia — EcoGeneration — The magazine for Australia's clean energy industry 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC ecogeneration.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Voltage decreases as current increases, due to several factors:
.
  • Activation loss
  • Ohmic loss (voltage drop due to resistance of the cell components and interconnects)
  • Mass transport loss (depletion of reactants at catalyst sites under high loads, causing rapid loss of voltage).^ Ohmic polarization is caused by electrical losses in the cell.
    • Fuel Cell background information 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC paws.kettering.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Furthermore, both stationary and portable fuel cells offer the potential for reduced permitting and site rules due to their low to zero emission operation.
    • Energy Studies - How Fuel Cell Works 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC intraweb.stockton.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ These losses result in a cell voltage (V) that is less than its ideal potential, E (V = E - Losses).

    [3]
.To deliver the desired amount of energy, the fuel cells can be combined in series and parallel circuits, where series yields higher voltage, and parallel allows a higher current to be supplied.^ To create enough voltage , the cells are layered and combined in Series and parallel circuits to form a fuel cell stack .
  • PowerPedia:Fuel cell - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fuel cells are direct energy converters.
  • Fuel Cell Basics 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fuel cells continue to produce energy as long as fuel is supplied to the cell.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC ecmweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such a design is called a fuel cell stack.^ Fuel cell design issues .
  • PowerPedia:Fuel cell - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fuel-cell stacks and power plants .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A fuel cell can be designed to operate reversibly.
  • fuel cell -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Further, the cell surface area can be increased, to allow stronger current from each cell.^ The current is managed by increasing the active area of individual cells.

^ Increasing the number of cells in a stack increases the voltage, while increasing the surface area of the cells increases the current.
  • Arbor Scientific - Coolstuff Newsletter - Fuel Cell Technology 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.arborsci.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scientists are currently exploring corrosion-resistant materials for components as well as fuel cell designs that increase cell life without decreasing performance.
  • HFCIT Fuel Cells: Types of Fuel Cells 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.eere.energy.gov [Source type: Reference]
  • FCT Fuel Cells: Types of Fuel Cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: Reference]
  • Fuel cells - Encyclopedia of Earth 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Reference]
  • all about fuel-cell-heating 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC fuel-cell-heating.com [Source type: Reference]

Proton exchange fuel cells

.In the archetypal hydrogen–oxygen proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) design, a proton-conducting polymer membrane, (the electrolyte), separates the anode and cathode sides.^ Hydrogenics Corporation designs, develops and manufactures proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell automated test stations.
  • SRI/Socially Responsible Stocks: Fuel Cells Companies 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC michaelbluejay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fuel cell will begin to produce both hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis.
  • How to Make a Fuel Cell-Powered Car | Popular Science 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.popsci.com [Source type: General]

^ Solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells Development of fuel cells .
  • fuel cell -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.This was called a "solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell" (SPEFC) in the early 1970s, before the proton exchange mechanism was well-understood.^ Solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells Development of fuel cells .
  • fuel cell -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Reformers for proton exchange membranes (the heart of the fuel cell, also called polymer electrolyte membranes) are bulky and expensive.
  • How ready is the fuel cell? 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC urgentcomm.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A Proton Exchange Membrane type fuel cell (PEM).
  • fuel cells to the rescue 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.baycrossings.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(Notice that "polymer electrolyte membrane" and "proton exchange mechanism" result in the same acronym.^ PEM stands for Proton Exchange Membrane, or sometimes Polymer Electrolyte Membrane .
  • BPA - Energy Efficiency | PEM Fuel Cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.bpa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The different types of fuel cells are; polymer electrolyte membrane or proton exchange membrane (PEM), molten carbonate (MCFC), phosphoric acid (PAFC) and the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC).
  • FuelCellStore.com - Fuel Cells, Education, Science Kits, Components and Hydrogen 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.fuelcellstore.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The protons and electrons are then recombined with oxygen to make water, and as this water is removed, more protons are pulled through the electrolyte to continue driving the reaction and resulting in further power production.
  • Distributed Energy Resources Guide: equipment - Fuel Cells 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.energy.ca.gov [Source type: Academic]

)
.On the anode side, hydrogen diffuses to the anode catalyst where it later dissociates into protons and electrons.^ At the anode the hydrogen gas is electrochemically dissociated into hydrogen ions (H + ) and free electrons (e - ).

^ Hydrogen gas is fed into the anode side of the cell where it reacts with the catalyst.
  • Fuel cell is 169 years old 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.canada.com [Source type: News]

^ A catalyst at the anode separates the hydrogen into positively charged hydrogen ions and electrons.
  • How ready is the fuel cell? 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC urgentcomm.com [Source type: Reference]

.These protons often react with oxidants causing them to become what is commonly referred to as multi-facilitated proton membranes.^ The often-overlooked performance compromises implicit in certain advanced technologies, such as high-temperature proton-exchange membranes will be explored.
  • Energy Research Group at Penn // Registration: FUEL CELLS: Materials, Challenges and Breakthroughs, 9/26/09 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.energy.upenn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These results can be regarded as very promising since they show that fundamentally a proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell can be operated for several years.
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Spurred by a catalyst, favorable chemistry causes the hydrogen to oxidize into hydrogen protons and give up its electrons to the neighboring electrode, which thereby becomes the anode.

.The protons are conducted through the membrane to the cathode, but the electrons are forced to travel in an external circuit (supplying power) because the membrane is electrically insulating.^ The electrons cannot pass through this membrane and instead flow through an external circuit in the form of DC electricity.
  • Fuel Cell Technology | Whole Building Design Guide 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.wbdg.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This membrane conducts only protons.

^ The protons flow through the electrode while the electrons travel through the external circuit and provide electrical power.
  • Fuel Cell Basics 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Academic]

.On the cathode catalyst, oxygen molecules react with the electrons (which have traveled through the external circuit) and protons to form water — in this example, the only waste product, either liquid or vapor.^ In this example, the only waste product is water vapor and/or liquid water .
  • PowerPedia:Fuel cell - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The only waste is pure, drinkable water.
  • Directory:Fuel Cells - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the cathode compartment electrons combine with ions and oxygen to form water and close the circuit.

.In addition to this pure hydrogen type, there are hydrocarbon fuels for fuel cells, including diesel, methanol (see: direct-methanol fuel cells and indirect methanol fuel cells) and chemical hydrides.^ I find the direct methanol conversion fuel cells to be very attractive.
  • EV WORLD: Fuel Cell Efficiency: A Reality Check 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.evworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fuel cells require hydrogen for fuel.
  • The Promise of the Fuel Cell-Powered Future : Chelsea Green 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.chelseagreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fuel cells are direct energy converters.
  • Fuel Cell Basics 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Academic]

.The waste products with these types of fuel are carbon dioxide and water.^ The waste product with these types of fuel is carbon dioxide .
  • PowerPedia:Fuel cell - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Molten carbonate fuel cell: These cells are perhaps the most likely to be used on a large scale to produce electricity and replace oil or coal fired plants.
  • Fuel cell@Everything2.com 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The byproducts of the reaction eventually recombine with the electrons to form water and carbon dioxide.
  • Start-up redesigns fuel cells - CNET News 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

Construction of a high temperature PEMFC: Bipolar plate as electrode with in-milled gas channel structure, fabricated from conductive plastics (enhanced with carbon nanotubes for more conductivity); Porous carbon papers; reactive layer, usually on the polymer membrane applied; polymer membrane.
.
Condensation of water produced by a PEMFC on the air channel wall.
^ DMFCs are being developed to replace batteries for portable electronic devices and they typically work by mixing methanol with air and water to produce electrical power.
  • Toshiba shows fuel cell prototype | Hardware - InfoWorld 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.infoworld.com [Source type: General]

^ DMFCs produce electricity from a reaction between methanol, water, and air.
  • MTI shows methanol fuel cell prototypes | Hardware - InfoWorld 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.infoworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Meanwhile, as oxygen from air flows into the fuel cell cathode, another catalyst helps the oxygen, protons, and electrons combine to produce pure water and heat.
  • Fuel Cell Technology | Whole Building Design Guide 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.wbdg.org [Source type: Academic]

.The gold wire around the cell ensures the collection of electric current.^ Power Conditioning Subsystem The fuel cell generates direct current electricity, which must be conditioned before being used within a DG application.

^ The current school of thought indicates that the electricity around the skin of the ship probably ignited the skin.
  • FuelCellStore.com - Fuel Cells, Education, Science Kits, Components and Hydrogen 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.fuelcellstore.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Fuel cells are an entirely different approach to the production of electricity than traditional prime mover technologies, and are currently in the early stages of development.

[4]
.The materials used in fuel cells differ by type.^ Each type uses different materials and operates at a different temperature.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Fuel Cell Materials II-32 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The different fuel cell types share certain important characteristics.

.In a typical membrane electrode assembly (MEA), the electrode–bipolar plates are usually made of metal, nickel or carbon nanotubes, and are coated with a catalyst (like platinum, nano iron powders or palladium) for higher efficiency.^ He used porous gas- diffusion electrodes made of nickel powder.
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Anodes are typically made of nickel.

^ The platinum alloys used as a catalyst in the carbon-based electrodes are expensive.

.Carbon paper separates them from the electrolyte.^ Carbon paper separates them from the electrolyte.
  • PowerPedia:Fuel cell - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.The electrolyte could be ceramic or a membrane.^ The electrolyte could fuel-cell-heating, hydrogen-heating be ceramic or a membrane.

Proton exchange membrane fuel cell design issues

  • Costs. .In 2002, typical fuel cell systems cost US$1000 per kilowatt of electric power output.^ Fuel-cell stacks and power plants .
    • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A typical phosphoric acid fuel cell costs between $4,000 and $4,500 per kilowatt to operate.
    • Fuel cells - Encyclopedia of Earth 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Fuel cells powered by hydrogen are delicate systems.
    • Closed System Opens Way for More Practical Fuel Cell: Scientific American 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.scientificamerican.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In 2009, the Department of Energy reported that 80-kW automotive fuel cell system costs in volume production (projected to 500,000 units per year) are $61 per kilowatt[5] .^ Product focus is on PEM Regenerative Fuel Cell (RFC) systems.
    • Google Directory - Science > Technology > Energy > Devices > Fuel Cells 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC directory.google.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Google Directory - Science > Technology > Energy > Devices > Fuel Cells 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC directory.google.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A typical phosphoric acid fuel cell costs between $4,000 and $4,500 per kilowatt to operate.
    • Fuel cells - Encyclopedia of Earth 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Ford also has the HySeries fuel-cell system.
    • Fuel cell is 169 years old 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.canada.com [Source type: News]

    The goal is $35 per kilowatt. .In 2008 UTC Power has 400 kW stationary fuel cells for $1,000,000 per 400 kW installed costs.^ Fuel-cell stacks and power plants .
    • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Stationary power is the most mature application for fuel cells.
    • Fuel cells - Encyclopedia of Earth 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ A 200 kW phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant built by UTC Fuel Cells.

    .The goal is to reduce the cost in order to compete with current market technologies including gasoline internal combustion engines.^ Many researches have been going on to produce efficient, clean and fuel flexible cells for internal combustion engines.
    • Fuel Cells Manufacturers, Automobile Fuel Cells, Automotive Fuel Cells, Fuel Cells Supplier 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.automotive-online.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Currently the costs for automotive internal combustion engine power plants are about $25-$35/kW; for transportation applications, a fuel cell system needs to cost $30/kW for the technology to be competitive.
    • Fuel cells - Encyclopedia of Earth 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Or in the likely fact that when and if these fuel cell powered (and hybridized with an internal combustion engine) electric autos do hit the road, most of them will run on ordinary gasoline.
    • Fuel Cells 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.ecoworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Many companies are working on techniques to reduce cost in a variety of ways including reducing the amount of platinum needed in each individual cell.^ ACAL says its FlowCath system “replaces the standard and expensive platinum cathode found in conventional fuel cells with a liquid non-precious metal catalyst system.” This, the company says, not only reduces the cost of the cell, but also humidifies the membrane naturally, eliminating the need for additional hydration systems.

    ^ Despite a drastic decrease of the amount of platinum used on the electrodes of these fuel cells, the price of the platinum catalysts is still considerable.
    • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ During charging, electrical work is done on the cell to provide the free energy needed to force the reaction in the non-spontaneous direction.
    • Chem1 Electrochemistry: batteries and fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.chem1.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Ballard Power Systems have experiments with a catalyst enhanced with carbon silk which allows a 30% reduction (1 mg/cm² to 0.7 mg/cm²) in platinum usage without reduction in performance.^ Ballard Power Systems have experiments with a catalyst enhanced with carbon silk which allows a 30% reduction (1 mg/cm² to 0.7 mg/cm²) in platinum usage without reduction in performance.
    • PowerPedia:Fuel cell - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The cathode and anode are typically made from carbon, with a layer of platinum, which serves as a catalyst to speed up the separation of electrons from hydrogen atoms.
    • Science News for Kids: Feature: Boosting Fuel Cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.sciencenewsforkids.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The electrode/bipolar plates are usually made of metal, nickel or carbon nanotubes, and are coated with a catalyst (like platinum or palladium) for higher efficiency.

    [6] .Monash University, Melbourne uses PEDOT as a cathode.^ The matrix universally used to retain the acid is silicon carbide (1), and the electrocatalyst in both the anode and cathode is Pt.

    [7]
  • .
  • The production costs of the PEM (proton exchange membrane).^ The production costs of the PEM (proton exchange membrane).
    • PowerPedia:Fuel cell - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Proton exchange membrane fuel cell .
    • PowerPedia:Fuel cell - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The different types of fuel cells are; polymer electrolyte membrane or proton exchange membrane (PEM), molten carbonate (MCFC), phosphoric acid (PAFC) and the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC).
    • FuelCellStore.com - Fuel Cells, Education, Science Kits, Components and Hydrogen 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.fuelcellstore.com [Source type: Reference]

    .The Nafion membrane currently costs $565.92/m².^ The Nafion® membrane currently costs €400/m².
    • PowerPedia:Fuel cell - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

    .In 2005 Ballard Power Systems announced that its fuel cells will use Solupor, a porous polyethylene film patented by DSM.^ Fuel-cell stacks and power plants .
    • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The U.S. space program has used fuel cells to power spacecraft for decades.

    ^ The fuel cell "stack" is the principle component of a fuel cell power system.
    • Fuel Cell Technology | Whole Building Design Guide 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.wbdg.org [Source type: Academic]

    [8][9]
  • .
  • Water and air management[10] (in PEMFCs).^ Water management (in PEMFCs).
    • PowerPedia:Fuel cell - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ One of the bigger companies is using Solupor (a porous polyethylene film) Water management (in PEMFCs).

    ^ Air, Thermal, and Water Management.
    • Fuel cells - Encyclopedia of Earth 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Reference]

    .In this type of fuel cell, the membrane must be hydrated, requiring water to be evaporated at precisely the same rate that it is produced.^ A Proton Exchange Membrane type fuel cell (PEM).
    • fuel cells to the rescue 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.baycrossings.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Decomposition of water in the fuel cell.
    • Thames & Kosmos > Products > Fuel Cell Car & Experiment Kit 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.thamesandkosmos.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Are the gases produced at the same rate at each electrode?
    • Arbor Scientific - Coolstuff Newsletter - Fuel Cell Technology 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.arborsci.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .If water is evaporated too quickly, the membrane dries, resistance across it increases, and eventually it will crack, creating a gas "short circuit" where hydrogen and oxygen combine directly, generating heat that will damage the fuel cell.^ When burned (or combined) with pure oxygen, the only by products are heat and water.

    ^ As hydrogen and oxygen flow through a fuel cell, they generate electricity and produce water.
    • Science News for Kids: Feature: Boosting Fuel Cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.sciencenewsforkids.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In \"combined heat and power\" applications, a fuel fuel-cell-heating, hydrogen-heating cell is placed in a location where heat is also needed.

    .If the water is evaporated too slowly, the electrodes will flood, preventing the reactants from reaching the catalyst and stopping the reaction.^ If the water is evaporated too slowly, the electrodes will flood, preventing the reactants from reaching the catalyst and stopping the reaction.

    ^ The electrodes are made of porous carbon plates which are laced with a catalyst...which is a substance that accelerates chemical reactions.
    • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Concentration Polarization: As a reactant is consumed at the electrode by electrochemical reaction, there is a loss of potential due to the inability of the surrounding material to maintain the initial concentration of the bulk fluid.

    .Methods to manage water in cells are being developed like electroosmotic pumps focusing on flow control.^ A PEM fuel cell system is a power generator that produces electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen and oxygen with the principal by-products being heat and water.
    • SRI/Socially Responsible Stocks: Fuel Cells Companies 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC michaelbluejay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This is the most commercially developed type of fuel cell and is being used in hotels, hospitals, and office buildings.

    ^ Fuel cells capable of powering automobiles and buses have been and are being developed.

    .Just as in a combustion engine, a steady ratio between the reactant and oxygen is necessary to keep the fuel cell operating efficiently.
  • Temperature management.^ High-temperature fuel cells .
    • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A fuel cell can be designed to operate reversibly.
    • fuel cell -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Just as in a combustion engine, a steady ratio between the reactant and oxygen is necessary to keep the fuel cell operating efficiently.

    .The same temperature must be maintained throughout the cell in order to prevent destruction of the cell through thermal loading.^ The same temperature must be fuel-cell-heating, hydrogen-heating maintained throughout the cell in order to prevent destruction of the cell through thermal loading.

    ^ Because of the insulating nature of the electrolyte, the anions transfer through the electrolyte to the cathode side of the cell while the electrons are conducted to the current collectors and through a load to do work.
    • Fuel Cell background information 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC paws.kettering.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ THERMAL TEMPERATURE AND CHEMICAL TEMPERATURE Fig 8 Virtual photons are closely coupled and real photons travel alone through space A fuel cell creates electricity, which is a form of external energy, directly from the energy in chemical fuels without an intermediate conversion into thermal energy.
    • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

    .This is particularly challenging as the 2H2 + O2 -> 2H2O reaction is highly exothermic, so a large quantity of heat is generated within the fuel cell.
  • Durability, service life, and special requirements for some type of cells.^ Durability, service life , and special requirements for some type of cells.
    • PowerPedia:Fuel cell - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ There is, however, some degradation during the service life of the fuel cell.
    • How ready is the fuel cell? 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC urgentcomm.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Fuel cell, hydrogen fuel cell, fuel cell battery, hydrogen fuel cell battery, fuel cell generator...
    • Fuel Cells - Fuel Cells and more 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Stationary fuel cell applications typically require more than 40,000 hours of reliable operation at a temperature of -35 °C to 40 °C (-31 °F to 104 °F), while automotive fuel cells require a 5,000 hour lifespan (the equivalent of 150,000 miles) under extreme temperatures.^ High-temperature fuel cells .
    • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ For transportation applications, fuel cell power systems will be required to achieve the same level of durability and reliability of current automotive engines, i.e., 5,000 hour lifespan (150,000 miles equivalent), and the ability to function over the full range of vehicle operating conditions (40°C to 80°C).
    • Fuel cells - Encyclopedia of Earth 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ More information of fuel cell technology .
    • Hydrogen fuel cell technology 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.culturechange.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Current service life is 7,300 hours under cycling conditions.^ The PEM stack has an estimated service life of 4,000 hours if operated in a vehicle.
    • How ready is the fuel cell? 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC urgentcomm.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Very important parameters of fuel cells are their open-circuit voltage U o and their operating voltage U i as observed under given conditions (at a given operating current).
    • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The same is true for a 300-passenger aircraft guided by an alcohol-impaired pilot attempting to land under minimum-visibility conditions.
    • Fuel Cells for Breath Alcohol Testing and the Need for Blood Alcohol Testing 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.intox.com [Source type: Academic]

    [11] Automotive engines must also be able to start reliably at -30 °C (-22 °F) and have a high power to volume ratio (typically 2.5 kW per liter).
  • Limited carbon monoxide tolerance of the cathode.

High temperature fuel cells

SOFC

.A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is extremely advantageous “because of a possibility of using a wide variety of fuel” [12].^ Solid Oxide Fuel Cells are precision electrochemical reactors...
  • Fuel Cells - Fuel Cells and more 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Use a variety of fuels .
  • Fuel Cell Markets - Advantages & Benefits of Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Technologies 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.fuelcellmarkets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The solid oxide fuel cell .
  • How ready is the fuel cell? 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC urgentcomm.com [Source type: Reference]

.Unlike most other fuel cells which only use hydrogen, SOFCs can run on hydrogen, butane, methanol, and other petroleum products.^ Hydrogen technology, fuel cells and solar products.
  • Google Directory - Science > Technology > Energy > Devices > Fuel Cells 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC directory.google.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Google Directory - Science > Technology > Energy > Devices > Fuel Cells 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC directory.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Using hydrogen as fuel: .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Direct-methanol fuel cell .
  • PowerPedia:Fuel cell - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

The different fuels each have their own chemistry.
.For methanol fuel cells, on the anode side, a catalyst breaks methanol and water down to form carbon dioxide, hydrogen ions, and free electrons.^ At the anode the hydrogen gas is electrochemically dissociated into hydrogen ions (H + ) and free electrons (e - ).

^ Cells that use fossil fuels produce water and carbon dioxide as waste products.
  • Fuel Cells - tech - 16 June 2001 - New Scientist 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: News]

^ Direct-methanol fuel cell .
  • PowerPedia:Fuel cell - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.The hydrogen ions move across the electrolyte to the cathode side, where they react with oxygen to create water.^ The stack contains hydrogen, oxygen and water.
  • How ready is the fuel cell? 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC urgentcomm.com [Source type: Reference]

^ At the cathode, oxygen is dissociated and reacted with the protons to form water .
  • Fuel cell@Everything2.com 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The hydrogen’s proton (or positive ion) travels across the membrane electrolyte to the cathode where it retrieves its electron and combines with oxygen to form water.

.A load connected externally between the anode and cathode completes the electrical circuit.^ The electrons flow out of the anode through an external electrical circuit.

^ This electrolyte carries electrically charge particles between the cathode and anode.

^ When the circuit is closed through the external device, the partial reactions proceed and the external electric current is maintained continuously, as long as the reacting gases are supplied to the electrodes.
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

Below are the chemical equations for the reaction:
Anode Reaction: CH3OH + H2O → CO2 + 6H+ + 6e-
Cathode Reaction: 3/2 O2 + 6H+ + 6e- → 3H2O
Overall Reaction: CH3OH + 3/2 O2 → CO2 + 2H2O + electrical energy
.At the anode SOFCs can use nickel or other catalysts to break apart the methanol and create hydrogen ions and CO2. A solid called yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is used as the electrolyte.^ Use to create page breaks.
  • Energy Department Cuts Funding for Fuel Cell Cars | Hybrid Cars 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.hybridcars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States government and several state governments , most notably California, have launched programs to encourage the development and use of hydrogen fuel cells in transportation and other applications.
  • fuel cell -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Electron barrier: An electron-microscope image of yttria-stabilized zirconia, a common electrolyte material for solid-oxide fuel cells.
  • Technology Review: Improving Fuel Cells for Cars 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

.Like all fuel cell electrolytes YSZ is conductive to ions, allowing them to pass from the anode to cathode, but is non-conductive to electrons.^ The electrolyte is specifically made to conduct ions to the other pole of the fuel cell but not electrons.

^ Hydroxyl ions (OH-) migrate from the cathode to the anode in these fuel cells.

^ At high temperatures, the salts melt and conduct ions from the cathode to the anode.

YSZ is a durable solid and is advantageous in large industrial systems. .Although YSZ is a good ion conductor, it only works at very high temperatures.^ The material also exhibits high ionic conductivity at relatively low temperatures of 500-700 °C. A paper on their work appears in the 2 Oct issue of the journal Science .

^ So, many types of fuel cells can run efficiently at low temperatures while at the same time converting very high temperature energy.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Although the high temperature allows carbon in the cell, sulfur can poison the cell in small quantities (~1ppm).
  • Fuel Cell background information 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC paws.kettering.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The standard operating temperature is about 950oC [13].^ PEM fuel cells operate at low temperatures (about 175º F), which makes them suitable for use in portable devices, cars, and homes.

^ The system requires high operating temperatures (about 1,000°C).
  • How ready is the fuel cell? 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC urgentcomm.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The PEMFC uses a solid polymer electrolyte and operates at low temperatures, about that of boiling water.

.Running the fuel cell at such a high temperature easily breaks down the methane and oxygen into ions.^ High-temperature fuel cells .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These high-temperature fuel cells have a number of advantages.
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Low-temperature fuel cells .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

.A major disadvantage of the SOFC, as a result of the high heat, is that it “places considerable constraints on the materials which can be used for interconnections” [13].^ In this case, the heat evolving at high temperatures during the operation of the high-temperature fuel cell can be used for the reforming reaction, thus increasing the overall efficiency of the fuel utilization.
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Surplus heat from the high operating temperature gives an opportunity to use waste heat to make steam for space heating, industrial processing, or in a steam turbine to make more electricity.

^ Removing sulfur from SOFC fuel cells has been a problem because they operate at temperatures that are too high for sorbents used in PEM fuel cells.

.Another disadvantage of running the cell at such a high temperature is that other unwanted reactions may occur inside the fuel cell.^ High-temperature fuel cells .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These high-temperature fuel cells have a number of advantages.
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Two main electrochemical reactions occur in a fuel cell.
  • Fuel Cell background information 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC paws.kettering.edu [Source type: Academic]

.It is common for carbon dust, graphite, to build up on the anode, preventing the fuel from reaching the catalyst.^ At the anode, hydrogen fuel enters a reaction site and is broken into ions and electrons through the use of the catalyst.
  • Fuel Cell background information 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC paws.kettering.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ If the water is evaporated too slowly, the electrodes will flood, preventing the reactants from reaching the catalyst and stopping the reaction.
  • PowerPedia:Fuel cell - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]
  • all about fuel-cell-heating 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC fuel-cell-heating.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Liquid water hydrates the membrane and increases its protonic conductivity, but may also flood the catalyst layer pores, preventing oxygen from reaching the catalyst layers.

.Much research is currently being done to find alternatives to YSZ that will carry ions at a lower temperature.^ At Stony Brook, much of the research will focus on ongoing projects with lithium ion batteries, including their use in transportation and diagnostics, said Stony Brook professor Clare Grey.
  • Fuel Cells | FuelCellsWorks 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC fuelcellsworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scientists are currently exploring the potential for developing lower-temperature SOFCs operating at or below 800°C that have fewer durability problems and cost less.
  • Fuel cells - Encyclopedia of Earth 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The sulfuric acid electrolyte becomes quite viscous when the temperature is low, inhibiting the flow of ions between the plates and reducing the current that can be delivered.
  • Chem1 Electrochemistry: batteries and fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.chem1.com [Source type: Academic]

MCFC

.Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) operate in a similar manner, except the electrolyte consists of liquid (molten) carbonate, which is a negative ion and an oxidizing agent.^ Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) 13.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A fuel cell can be designed to operate reversibly.
  • fuel cell -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells The molten carbonate fuel cell uses a molten carbonate salt as the electrolyte.

.Because the electrolyte loses carbonate in the oxidation reaction, the carbonate must be replenished through some means.^ Gases must diffuse through the electrode leaving behind any impurities which may disrupt the reaction while liquid produced at the surface of the electrolyte, or added through humidification must be either added to the electrolyte for hydration, or drawn away from the reaction sites so as not to block reaction sites.
  • Fuel Cell background information 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC paws.kettering.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The electrolyte is flanked by porous graphite carbon coated with Teflon to allow gases to the reaction sites, but not allow the liquid electrolyte out.
  • Fuel Cell background information 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC paws.kettering.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Because of the insulating nature of the electrolyte, the anions transfer through the electrolyte to the cathode side of the cell while the electrons are conducted to the current collectors and through a load to do work.
  • Fuel Cell background information 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC paws.kettering.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This is often performed by recirculating the carbon dioxide from the oxidation products into the cathode where it reacts with the incoming air and reforms carbonate.^ On the anode side, natural gas is first ejected into a reforming chamber where it draws waste thermal energy from the stack and is converted into hydrogen and carbon monoxide.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Cells that use fossil fuels produce water and carbon dioxide as waste products.
  • Fuel Cells - tech - 16 June 2001 - New Scientist 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: News]

^ On the cathode side, air is first blown into a heat exchanger where it reaches nearly operating temperature.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

.Unlike proton exchange fuel cells, the catalysts in SOFCs and MCFCs are not poisoned by carbon monoxide, due to much higher operating temperatures.^ High-temperature fuel cells .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) 13.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Fuel cells are much lighter.
  • Fuel Cell Store Blog » 2008» June 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC blog.fuelcellstore.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because the oxidation reaction occurs in the anode, direct utilization of the carbon monoxide is possible.^ Limited carbon monoxide tolerance of the anode.
  • PowerPedia:Fuel cell - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ On the anode side, natural gas is first ejected into a reforming chamber where it draws waste thermal energy from the stack and is converted into hydrogen and carbon monoxide.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Fuel cell converts waste to power - Gold nanotubes used to catalyze a chemical reaction that extracts energy from fuel cell waste product carbon monoxide.
  • Directory:Fuel Cells - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also, steam produced by the oxidation reaction can shift carbon monoxide and steam reform hydrocarbon fuels inside the anode.^ Molten-carbonate fuel-cell reactions .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrocarbon fuels must be reformed carefully.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Then a "shift reaction" changes the carbon monoxide and water to carbon dioxide and hydrogen.

.These reactions can use the same catalysts used for the electrochemical reaction, eliminating the need for an external fuel reformer.^ Within the fuel cell stacks specifically, there is a catalyst that helps the electro-chemical reaction take place, and the catalyst is platinum -- which is expensive.
  • Fuel Cells Becoming Reality 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC autos.aol.com [Source type: News]

^ [Type 212 submarine]]s use fuel cells to remain submerged for weeks without the need to surface.
  • PowerPedia:Fuel cell - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Steam reforming uses thermal energy to separate hydrogen from the carbon components in methane and methanol, and involves the reaction of these fuels with steam on catalytic surfaces.

.MCFC can be used for reducing the CO2 emission from coal fired power plants[14] as well as gas turbine power plants.^ Molten carbonate fuel cell: These cells are perhaps the most likely to be used on a large scale to produce electricity and replace oil or coal fired plants.
  • Fuel cell@Everything2.com 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Mr Dow says his company’s technology could play a big part in reducing Victoria’s greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Fuel Cells | FuelCellsWorks 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC fuelcellsworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The funding will support development of zero-emission hydrogen combustion power generation systems; development of innovative hydrogen production technologies and coal and biomass power generation systems; as well as innovative hydrogen accumulation systems, the company said.
  • Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Economy News 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.fuelcellstocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15]

History

Sketch of William Grove's 1839 fuel cell
.The principle of the fuel cell was discovered by German scientist Christian Friedrich Schönbein in 1838 and published in one of the scientific magazines of the time.^ Principle of PEM fuel cell .

^ The principle of the fuel cell was discovered by German scientist Christian Friedrich Schönbein in 1838 and published in the January 1839 edition of the "Philosophical Magazine".
  • PowerPedia:Fuel cell - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The fuel cell concept was developed in 1839 by Sir William Grove, a Welsh judge and scientist.
  • How ready is the fuel cell? 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC urgentcomm.com [Source type: Reference]

[16] .Based on this work, the first fuel cell was demonstrated by Welsh scientist and barrister Sir William Robert Grove in the February 1839 edition of the Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science[17] and later sketched, in 1842, in the same journal.^ A Welsh physicist, William Grove, developed a working device in 1843.
  • Fuel Cells ( Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Methanol Fuel Cells) Definition 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The fuel cell concept was developed in 1839 by Sir William Grove, a Welsh judge and scientist.
  • How ready is the fuel cell? 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC urgentcomm.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The fuel cell’s operation is based on the reversibility of an electrochemical process, first witnessed in 1839 by British physicist William Grove.
  • Arbor Scientific - Coolstuff Newsletter - Fuel Cell Technology 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.arborsci.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] .The fuel cell he made used similar materials to today's phosphoric-acid fuel cell.^ The phosphoric acid fuel cell can also be used in large vehicles, such as buses.

^ Fuel Cell Materials II-32 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The phosphoric acid fuel cell is considered the "first generation" of modern fuel cells.
  • Fuel cells - Encyclopedia of Earth 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Reference]

.In 1955, W. Thomas Grubb, a chemist working for the General Electric Company (GE), further modified the original fuel cell design by using a sulphonated polystyrene ion-exchange membrane as the electrolyte.^ Fuel cell design issues .
  • PowerPedia:Fuel cell - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ How does a Fuel Cell Generate Electricity?
  • FuelCellStore.com - Fuel Cells, Education, Science Kits, Components and Hydrogen 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.fuelcellstore.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Towards the end of the 1950s, Thomas Grubb and Leonard Niedrach at General Electric developed a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell using a proton - conducting solid ion-exchange membrane as electrolyte .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Three years later another GE chemist, Leonard Niedrach, devised a way of depositing platinum onto the membrane, which served as catalyst for the necessary hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions.^ Hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction in an individual fuel cell .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ More than a century later in the 1950s, the American scientists Thomas Grubb and Leonard Niedrach improved on the design by incorporating an ion-exchange membrane and making use of hydrogen as the fuel source.
  • Fuel Cells ( Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Methanol Fuel Cells) Definition 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In acidic solutions, the only practical catalyst is platinum (or other metals of the platinum group) for enhancing the electrochemical reactions on both the hydrogen and the oxygen electrodes.
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This became known as the 'Grubb-Niedrach fuel cell'. GE went on to develop this technology with NASA and McDonnell Aircraft, leading to its use during Project Gemini.^ Fuel cells are a type of technology that use hydrogen to produce useful energy.

^ Fuel Cell Developers - list of fuel cell developers.
  • Directory:Fuel Cells - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ABSTRACT Fuel cells are an old technology.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

.This was the first commercial use of a fuel cell.^ First commercial alkaline dry cell.
  • Chem1 Electrochemistry: batteries and fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.chem1.com [Source type: Academic]

^ What fuels do fuel cells use to produce electricity?
  • FuelCellStore.com - Fuel Cells, Education, Science Kits, Components and Hydrogen 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.fuelcellstore.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) technology was the first to be commercialized.

.It wasn't until 1959 that British engineer Francis Thomas Bacon successfully developed a 5 kW stationary fuel cell.^ Fuel cell - Francis Bacon (UK) .
  • Chem1 Electrochemistry: batteries and fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.chem1.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The first practical fuel cell was developed by British engineer Francis Bacon (1904-1992).
  • Chem1 Electrochemistry: batteries and fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.chem1.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Francis Thomas Bacon began experimenting with alkali fuel cells in Britain in the 1930s.

.In 1959, a team led by Harry Ihrig built a 15 kW fuel cell tractor for Allis-Chalmers which was demonstrated across the US at state fairs.^ In 1959 he worked with Allis-Chalmers to demonstrate successful fuel cell use in a farm tractor.

^ In 1959, a team led by Harry Ihrig built a 15 kW fuel cell tractor for Allis-Chalmers which was demonstrated across the US at state fairs.
  • PowerPedia:Fuel cell - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ United States, Germany, Japan, United Kingdom and Canada are the leading markets in the world meeting around four fifths of fuel cells demand.
  • Fuel Cells Manufacturers, Automobile Fuel Cells, Automotive Fuel Cells, Fuel Cells Supplier 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.automotive-online.com [Source type: Reference]

.This system used potassium hydroxide as the electrolyte and compressed hydrogen and oxygen as the reactants.^ Potassium hydroxide is used as the electrolyte for this reaction.
  • Fuel cell@Everything2.com 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Alkaline Fuel Cells The alkaline fuel cell uses an alkaline electrolyte such as potassium hydroxide.

^ This system uses hydrogen as it is produced ...
  • Water Fuel Cell Technologies, Water Fuel Cell Technology, water fuel cell car conversion kit, water fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC waterfuelcelltech.com [Source type: General]

.Later in 1959, Bacon and his colleagues demonstrated a practical five-kilowatt unit capable of powering a welding machine.^ Later in 1959, Bacon and his colleagues demonstrated a practical five-kilowatt unit capable of powering a welding machine.
  • PowerPedia:Fuel cell - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They have already demonstrated lower consumption of natural fuels per unit of power generated and lower emission of greenhouse gases and other harmful products.
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The future plan for the Kettering fuel cell laboratory is to produce, or test a five kilowatt fuel cell which would be connected to an electric motor and a dynamometer for power testing.
  • Fuel Cell background information 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC paws.kettering.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In the 1960s, Pratt and Whitney licensed Bacon's U.S. patents for use in the U.S. space program to supply electricity and drinking water (hydrogen and oxygen being readily available from the spacecraft tanks).^ It supplies electricity by combining hydrogen and oxygen electrochemically without combustion.
  • Directory:Fuel Cells - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 1960s, Pratt and Whitney licensed Bacon's U.S. patents for use in the U.S. space program to supply electricity and drinking water (hydrogen and oxygen being readily available from the spacecraft tanks).
  • PowerPedia:Fuel cell - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The U.S. space program has used fuel cells to power spacecraft for decades.

.United Technologies Corporation's UTC Power subsidiary was the first company to manufacture and commercialize a large, stationary fuel cell system for use as a co-generation power plant in hospitals, universities and large office buildings.^ Fuel-cell stacks and power plants .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This is the most commercially developed type of fuel cell and is being used in hotels, hospitals, and office buildings.

^ The technology is designed to generate hydrogen from biodiesel and other liquid fuels for use in fuel cell-powered vehicles.
  • Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Economy News 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.fuelcellstocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.UTC Power continues to market this fuel cell as the PureCell 200, a 200 kW system (although soon to be replaced by a 400 kW version, expected for sale in late 2009).^ Fuel-cell stacks and power plants .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Fuel cell/battery hybrid power system for vehicle .
  • Fuel cell power supply system (US6649289) 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.delphion.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fuel cell/battery hybrid system .
  • Fuel cell power supply system (US6649289) 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.delphion.com [Source type: Academic]

[19] .UTC Power continues to be the sole supplier of fuel cells to NASA for use in space vehicles, having supplied the Apollo missions,[20] and currently the Space Shuttle program, and is developing fuel cells for automobiles, buses, and cell phone towers; the company has demonstrated the first fuel cell capable of starting under freezing conditions with its proton exchange membrane automotive fuel cell.^ The phosphoric acid fuel cell can also be used in large vehicles, such as buses.

^ Fuel-cell stacks and power plants .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Proton Power gets first fuel cell order .
  • Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Economy News 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.fuelcellstocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Types of fuel cells

Fuel cell name Electrolyte Qualified power (W) Working temperature (°C) Efficiency (cell) Efficiency (system) Status Cost (USD/W)
Metal hydride fuel cell Aqueous alkaline solution
0 > -20
(50% Ppeak @ 0°C)


Commercial / Research
Electro-galvanic fuel cell Aqueous alkaline solution
39 < 40

Commercial / Research
Direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) Polymer membrane (ionomer) 49 < 50 W 39 < 40

Commercial / Research
Zinc-air battery Aqueous alkaline solution
39 < 40
Mass production
Microbial fuel cell Polymer membrane or humic acid
39 < 40

Research
Upflow microbial fuel cell (UMFC)
39 < 40

Research
Regenerative fuel cell Polymer membrane (ionomer)
49 < 50

Commercial / Research
Direct borohydride fuel cell Aqueous alkaline solution
70

Commercial
Alkaline fuel cell Aqueous alkaline solution 10000 10 – 100 kW 79 < 80 65% 60–70% 62% Commercial / Research
Direct methanol fuel cell Polymer membrane (ionomer) 0.1 100 mW – 1 kW 105 90–120 25% 20–30% 15% 10–20% Commercial / Research
Reformed methanol fuel cell Polymer membrane (ionomer) 5 5 W – 100 kW 200 250–300 (Reformer)
125–200 (PBI)
55% 50–60% 33% 25–40% Commercial / Research
Direct-ethanol fuel cell Polymer membrane (ionomer) 0 < 140 mW/cm² 26 > 25
? 90–120


Research
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell Polymer membrane (ionomer) 100 100 W – 500 kW 125 50–120 (Nafion)
125–220 (PBI)
60% 50–70% 40% 30–50% Commercial / Research 30–35
RFC - Redox Liquid electrolytes with redox shuttle and polymer membrane (Ionomer) 1000 1 kW – 10 MW


Research
Phosphoric acid fuel cell Molten phosphoric acid (H3PO4) 999999 < 10 MW 175 150-200 55% 40% 40%
Co-Gen: 90%
Commercial / Research 4–4.50
Molten carbonate fuel cell Molten alkaline carbonate 100000000 100 MW 625 600-650 55% 47% Commercial / Research
Tubular solid oxide fuel cell (TSOFC) O2--conducting ceramic oxide 99999999 < 100 MW 975 850-1100 63% 60–65% 57% 55–60% Commercial / Research
Protonic ceramic fuel cell H+-conducting ceramic oxide
700

Research
Direct carbon fuel cell Several different
775 700-850 80% 70% Commercial / Research
Planar Solid oxide fuel cell O2--conducting ceramic oxide 99999999 < 100 MW 975 850-1100 63% 60–65% 57% 55–60% Commercial / Research
Enzymatic Biofuel Cells Any that will not denature the enzyme
39 < 40

Research

Efficiency

Fuel cell efficiency

.The efficiency of a fuel cell is dependent on the amount of power drawn from it.^ Fuel-cell stacks and power plants .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The delivery constitutes a collaboration agreement between H2 Logic & Think Technology on developing and commercialising high efficient and zero emission hydrogen powered fuel cell electric city cars.
  • Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Economy News 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.fuelcellstocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Speed: 80 mph; range: 100 miles; 0-60 in 12 sec; 6 kW fuel cell can be removed for other power generation uses.
  • Directory:Fuel Cells - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Drawing more power means drawing more current, which increases the losses in the fuel cell.^ Fuel-cell stacks and power plants .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Fuel cells for electric power production 7.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Without the infrastructure to support hydrogen distribution and storage, current fuel cell systems are too inefficient, too large and too expensive for most applications.

.As a general rule, the more power (current) drawn, the lower the efficiency.^ They have already demonstrated lower consumption of natural fuels per unit of power generated and lower emission of greenhouse gases and other harmful products.
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The operating temperature of 600-650C is lower than the SOFC. It is considerably more efficient that the PAFC. It already has the advantage of reforming inside the stack.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ While it has a lower real efficiency than the MCFC or SOFC, its lower operating temperature of 160-220C was considered more ideal for small and midsize powerplants.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

.Most losses manifest themselves as a voltage drop in the cell, so the efficiency of a cell is almost proportional to its voltage.^ A simple second law analysis shows where the loss of efficiency in different fuel cells occurs.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For this reason, almost all large carmakers are now beginning to explore the possibility of producing efficient and convenient fuel-cell vehicles.
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It can be readily seen why the SOFC is the most desirable fuel cell of the three for ultimate efficiency in a fuel cell gas turbine powerplant.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

.For this reason, it is common to show graphs of voltage versus current (so-called polarization curves) for fuel cells.^ Without the infrastructure to support hydrogen distribution and storage, current fuel cell systems are too inefficient, too large and too expensive for most applications.

^ Table 2: Large Stationary Fuel Cell Systems Installed Worldwide: 2000-2004 (Units) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-8 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A simple second law analysis shows where the loss of efficiency in different fuel cells occurs.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

.A typical cell running at 0.7 V has an efficiency of about 50%, meaning that 50% of the energy content of the hydrogen is converted into electrical energy; the remaining 50% will be converted into heat.^ BACKGROUND Fuel cells convert the chemical energy of fuels directly into electricity.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), an electrochemical reaction, directly and very efficiently, converts fuel energy into electricity and heat.

^ Fuel cells directly convert chemical energy into electric energy.

.(Depending on the fuel cell system design, some fuel might leave the system unreacted, constituting an additional loss.^ Fuel Cell Systems II-23 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ H2 Logic to deliver fuel cell systems for TH!NK cars .
  • Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Economy News 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.fuelcellstocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Without the infrastructure to support hydrogen distribution and storage, current fuel cell systems are too inefficient, too large and too expensive for most applications.

)
.For a hydrogen cell operating at standard conditions with no reactant leaks, the efficiency is equal to the cell voltage divided by 1.48 V, based on the enthalpy, or heating value, of the reaction.^ Researchers in Switzerland have demonstrated more-efficient water-splitting solar cells based on a cheap, abundant, and long-lasting material: rust.
  • Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Economy News 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.fuelcellstocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the low-temperature fuel cells, even small amounts of certain impurities (such as carbon monoxide in hydrogen) will deactivate the platinum catalyst by adsorbing on the surface, leading to a substantial lowering of the operating efficiency.
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In this case, the heat evolving at high temperatures during the operation of the high-temperature fuel cell can be used for the reforming reaction, thus increasing the overall efficiency of the fuel utilization.
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

.For the same cell, the second law efficiency is equal to cell voltage divided by 1.23 V. (This voltage varies with fuel used, and quality and temperature of the cell.^ High-temperature fuel cells .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Low-temperature fuel cells .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Fuel Cell Systems II-23 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

) .The difference between these numbers represents the difference between the reaction's enthalpy and Gibbs free energy.^ Caloric energy...is a term which represents the amount of internal energy that will flow between two reservoirs.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Internal energy is logically divided up between different types that are the most used.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This represents the average collision energy between molecules.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

.This difference always appears as heat, along with any losses in electrical conversion efficiency.^ In solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), an electrochemical reaction, directly and very efficiently, converts fuel energy into electricity and heat.

^ Not only is electricity produced at a higher efficiency than in any conventional power plant and the waste heat recovered and used, but the not insignificant distribution losses are eliminated .

^ A simple second law analysis shows where the loss of efficiency in different fuel cells occurs.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

.Fuel cells do not operate on a thermal cycle.^ A co-operation and co-ordination of European railways could prepare a common view on fuel cells and set the basis for a later introduction.

^ The gas turbine makes it possible to operate the fuel cell at increased gas pressure, which makes it more efficient.

^ In this case, the heat evolving at high temperatures during the operation of the high-temperature fuel cell can be used for the reforming reaction, thus increasing the overall efficiency of the fuel utilization.
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

.As such, they are not constrained, as combustion engines are, in the same way by thermodynamic limits, such as Carnot cycle efficiency.^ Today however gas turbine combined cycle powerplants are about the most efficient type of engine available.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The internal combustion Otto or Diesel cycle engine has been used in automobiles for 100 years.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The carmakers were thus forced to find ways to replace internal-combustion engines by other power units.
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

[21] .At times this is misrepresented by saying that fuel cells are exempt from the laws of thermodynamics, because most people think of thermodynamics in terms of combustion processes (enthalpy of formation).^ Internal or external fuel-processing systems are necessary to enable use of hydrocarbon fuels in most low-temperature fuel cells (direct-methanol fuel cells are one exception) or to enable use of complex hydrocarbon fuels in high-temperature fuel cells.

^ Hydrogen Fuel Can Hydrogen Fuel Cells Effectively Replace Gasoline Many people wonder if hydrogen fuel cells can effectively replace gasoline engines.

^ Without the infrastructure to support hydrogen distribution and storage, current fuel cell systems are too inefficient, too large and too expensive for most applications.

.The laws of thermodynamics also hold for chemical processes (Gibbs free energy) like fuel cells, but the maximum theoretical efficiency is higher (83% efficient at 298K [22] in the case of hydrogen/oxygen reaction) than the Otto cycle thermal efficiency (60% for compression ratio of 10 and specific heat ratio of 1.4).^ It is this extremely high chemical temperature that allows the fuel cell to be theoretically so efficient.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Hydrogen Fuel-Celled Vehicles and the future.

^ This would result in a higher efficiency than what the fuel cell can achieve by itself.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

Comparing limits imposed by thermodynamics is not a good predictor of practically achievable efficiencies. .Also, if propulsion is the goal, electrical output of the fuel cell has to still be converted into mechanical power with the corresponding inefficiency.^ BACKGROUND Fuel cells convert the chemical energy of fuels directly into electricity.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Fuel-cell stacks and power plants .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The electricity must be converted into mechanical power using an electric motor.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

.In reference to the exemption claim, the correct claim is that the "limitations imposed by the second law of thermodynamics on the operation of fuel cells are much less severe than the limitations imposed on conventional energy conversion systems".[23] Consequently, they can have very high efficiencies in converting chemical energy to electrical energy, especially when they are operated at low power density, and using pure hydrogen and oxygen as reactants.^ BACKGROUND Fuel cells convert the chemical energy of fuels directly into electricity.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ High-temperature fuel cells .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It is this extremely high chemical temperature that allows the fuel cell to be theoretically so efficient.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

.It should be underlined that fuel cell (especially high temperature) can be used as a heat source in conventional heat engine (gas turbine system).^ High-temperature fuel cells .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These high-temperature fuel cells have a number of advantages.
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Fuel cells vs heat engines 18.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

.In this case the ultra high efficiency is predicted (above 70%).^ Efficiencies of the DMFC are much higher and predicted efficiencies in the future may be as high as 40% [6] for a DC automobile powerplant.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In this case, the heat evolving at high temperatures during the operation of the high-temperature fuel cell can be used for the reforming reaction, thus increasing the overall efficiency of the fuel utilization.
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

[24][25]

In practice

.For a fuel cell operating on air (rather than bottled oxygen), losses due to the air supply system must also be taken into account.^ Fuel Cell Systems II-23 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ HydroGen Corporation (OTCBB: HYDG), a manufacturer of multi-megawatt air-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) systems, today announced the completion of its 2.5-kilowatt PAFC test facility and successful operation of a 2.5-kilowatt fuel cell stack at full-rated capacity.
  • Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Economy News 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.fuelcellstocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BACKGROUND Fuel cells convert the chemical energy of fuels directly into electricity.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

This refers to the pressurization of the air and dehumidifying it. This reduces the efficiency significantly and brings it near to that of a compression ignition engine. .Furthermore fuel cell efficiency decreases as load increases.^ It is this extremely high chemical temperature that allows the fuel cell to be theoretically so efficient.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), an electrochemical reaction, directly and very efficiently, converts fuel energy into electricity and heat.

^ Johann-Dietrich Wörner, Chairman of DLR Executive Board commented: "Fuel cell technology provides an improvement in fuel efficiency for aircraft, minimising environmental pollution and increasing comfort and safety."
  • Directory:Fuel Cells - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The tank-to-wheel efficiency of a fuel cell vehicle is about 45% at low loads and shows average values of about 36% when a driving cycle like the NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) is used as test procedure.^ Fuel Cell Vehicles III-73 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fuel-cell plants for electric vehicles .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Low-temperature fuel cells .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

[26] The comparable NEDC value for a Diesel vehicle is 22%. .In 2008 Honda released a car (the Honda FCX Clarity) with fuel stack claiming a 60% tank-to-wheel efficiency.^ The AIADA newsletter reported that Honda has said it will put a fuel-cell vehicle into limited production in 2008, which company insiders have said will closely resemble the space-age FCX Concept, reports The Detroit Free Press.
  • Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Economy News 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.fuelcellstocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Employ Honda Clarity FCX Fuel Cell Car Rolls Off Production Lines According to news reports from the Associated Press and from Honda press releases, the Honda Clarity FCX rolled off production lines Monday and is bound for markets in the US and Japan.

^ Golf Cart Batteries Honda Debuts All-New FCX Clarity Advanced Fuel Cell Vehicle A news from the world of carbon emissions and global warming about hydrogen-fueled cars By sdkrdk   |  Published 12/8/2007 More topics: Emissions Standards .

[27]
.It is also important to take losses due to fuel production, transportation, and storage into account.^ Mercedes Launches its First Ever Production Fuel Cell Vehicle - The B-Class F-cell is taking on a pioneering role as the world’s first fuel cell powered automobile to be produced under series production conditions.
  • Directory:Fuel Cells - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fuel cell vehicles running on compressed hydrogen may have a power-plant-to-wheel efficiency of 22% if the hydrogen is stored as high-pressure gas, and 17% if it is stored as liquid hydrogen.^ High-temperature fuel cells .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Fuel-cell stacks and power plants .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrogen is however a difficult fuel to store.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

[28] .In addition to the production losses, over 70% of US' electricity used for hydrogen production comes from thermal power, which only has an efficiency of 33% to 48%, resulting in a net increase in carbon dioxide production by using hydrogen in vehicles[citation needed].^ Fuel cells for electric power production 7.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The ground-breaking technology will use wind power to separate hydrogen from water and store that hydrogen in special containers so it can be used later to generate electricity.
  • Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Economy News 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.fuelcellstocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because this process is only 65% efficient when storage losses are considered, this results in a loss of efficiency compared to using the natural gas in a SOFC. Producing hydrogen by electrolysis is generally even less efficient because the electricity is generated by a gas turbine which is no more than 57% efficient.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

.Fuel cells cannot store energy like a battery, but in some applications, such as stand-alone power plants based on discontinuous sources such as solar or wind power, they are combined with electrolyzers and storage systems to form an energy storage system.^ Fuel-cell stacks and power plants .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ GENEPAC-based fuel cell system beneath the hood.

^ Fuel Cell Energy Sources II-33 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

.The overall efficiency (electricity to hydrogen and back to electricity) of such plants (known as round-trip efficiency) is between 30 and 50%, depending on conditions.^ The delivery constitutes a collaboration agreement between H2 Logic & Think Technology on developing and commercialising high efficient and zero emission hydrogen powered fuel cell electric city cars.
  • Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Economy News 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.fuelcellstocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Figure 12 shows the number of such plants constructed every year between 1996 and 2007, as well as the electric power added every year (in megawatts per year).
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The basic idea of such hybrid plants is the highly efficient coordination of the gas and heat flows entering and leaving the two components of such combined power plants.
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

[29] .While a much cheaper lead-acid battery might return about 90%, the electrolyzer/fuel cell system can store indefinite quantities of hydrogen, and is therefore better suited for long-term storage.^ Hydrogen is however a difficult fuel to store.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Hydrogen Fuel-Celled Vehicles and the future.

^ Therefore hydrogen and alcohol cost about the same to produce and store.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

.Solid-oxide fuel cells produce exothermic heat from the recombination of the oxygen and hydrogen.^ Hydrogen Fuel-Celled Vehicles and the future.

^ Solid-oxide fuel-cell reactions .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Schematic layout of a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

The ceramic can run as hot as 800 degrees Celsius. .This heat can be captured and used to heat water in a micro combined heat and power (m-CHP) application.^ The ground-breaking technology will use wind power to separate hydrogen from water and store that hydrogen in special containers so it can be used later to generate electricity.
  • Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Economy News 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.fuelcellstocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the benefits of deregulation is that it could promote CHP...combined heat and power, also known as cogeneration.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Not only is electricity produced at a higher efficiency than in any conventional power plant and the waste heat recovered and used, but the not insignificant distribution losses are eliminated .

.When the heat is captured, total efficiency can reach 80-90% at the unit, but does not consider production and distribution losses.^ Capture of 90 percent or more of the system's CO2 emissions Cost of $400 per kilowatt, exclusive of the coal gasification unit and CO2-separation subsystems.

^ Not only is electricity produced at a higher efficiency than in any conventional power plant and the waste heat recovered and used, but the not insignificant distribution losses are eliminated .

^ Many consider that the benefits of storing a liquid fuel more than offset this loss of efficiency.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

.CHP units are being developed today for the European home market.^ General Motors is following the lead made by Honda ( previous post ) by developing a home hydrogen refueling unit.

^ (AIM: CFU) entered into an agreement with Gaz de France and De Dietrich Thermique to develop a micro combined heat and power (CHP) unit for the French residential market.
  • Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Economy News 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.fuelcellstocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Fuel cell applications

Type 212 submarine with fuel cell propulsion of the German Navy in dry dock

Power

.Fuel cells are very useful as power sources in remote locations, such as spacecraft, remote weather stations, large parks, rural locations, and in certain military applications.^ Fuel-cell stacks and power plants .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Fuel Cell Applications II-38 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Solid-fuel power source.
  • Directory:Fuel Cells - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A fuel cell system running on hydrogen can be compact and lightweight, and have no major moving parts.^ Fuel Cell Systems II-23 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacons stack of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells, 1960 (From Varta Fachbuchreihe, Band 6).
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Maxell - 10 W fuel cell for portable electronics with hydrogen generating system by the reaction of aluminum and water, has power density 5 times higher than direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC).
  • Directory:Fuel Cells - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because fuel cells have no moving parts and do not involve combustion, in ideal conditions they can achieve up to 99.9999% reliability.^ I would like to see fuel cells used in vehicles, but my idea is to use them in a different way than they are used presently.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ They’ve been testing out the fuel cells with intent to demonstrate just how much energy their battery can get over Li-Ion power packs.
  • Directory:Fuel Cells - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This would result in a higher efficiency than what the fuel cell can achieve by itself.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

[30] This equates to around one minute of down time in a two year period.
.Since electrolyzer systems do not store fuel in themselves, but rather rely on external storage units, they can be successfully applied in large-scale energy storage, rural areas being one example.^ Without the infrastructure to support hydrogen distribution and storage, current fuel cell systems are too inefficient, too large and too expensive for most applications.

^ Directory:Fuel Cells - PESWiki PESWiki.com -- Pure Energy Systems Wiki: Finding and facilitating breakthrough clean energy technologies.
  • Directory:Fuel Cells - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Table 2: Large Stationary Fuel Cell Systems Installed Worldwide: 2000-2004 (Units) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-8 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

.In this application, batteries would have to be largely oversized to meet the storage demand, but fuel cells only need a larger storage unit (typically cheaper than an electrochemical device).^ Fuel Cell Applications II-38 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Such fuel cells are not much different than batteries in construction.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Hydrogen ISNT a fuel, its an energy storage device (like a battery).
  • Energy Department Cuts Funding for Fuel Cell Cars | Hybrid Cars 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.hybridcars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

One such pilot program is operating on Stuart Island in Washington State. .There the Stuart Island Energy Initiative[31] has built a complete, closed-loop system: Solar panels power an electrolyzer which makes hydrogen.^ The combined-cycle DFC/T system has the same ultra-clean emissions profile of FuelCell Energy's Direct FuelCell(R) (DFC(R)) power plants.

^ Of course if hydrogen would be made from the electricity produced by solar panels or fusion powerplants, the situation would be somewhat different.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In each subsystem there are inefficiencies involved that reduce the clausius energy that is left in the system.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

.The hydrogen is stored in a 500 gallon tank at 200 PSI, and runs a ReliOn fuel cell to provide full electric back-up to the off-the-grid residence.^ Hydrogen is however a difficult fuel to store.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Hydrogen Fuel-Celled Vehicles and the future.

^ Fuel-cell plants for electric vehicles .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

Cogeneration

Configuration of components in a fuel cell car.
.Micro combined heat and power (MicroCHP) systems such as home fuel cells and cogeneration for office buildings and factories are in mass production phase.^ Fuel Cell Systems II-23 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fuel cells for electric power production 7.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The fuel cell stack, is invisioned to be a fundamental building block of micro-power generation products aimed at a variety of uses ranging from domestic Combined Heat and Power (CHP) to off-grid applications and auxiliary power units (APU) in the transport sector, capable of generating between 1kWe and 25kWe.

.The system generates constant electric power (selling excess power back to the grid when it is not consumed), and at the same time produces hot air and water from the waste heat.^ The fuel cell, which produces electrical energy from oxygen and hydrogen, allows the new submarine to cruise under water for up to three weeks without resurfacing.

^ Maxell - 10 W fuel cell for portable electronics with hydrogen generating system by the reaction of aluminum and water, has power density 5 times higher than direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC).
  • Directory:Fuel Cells - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PESWiki ; June 22, 2009) Water > Desalination > Process to clean wastewater also produces electricity and desalinates water - An international team of researchers has proven a process that cleans wastewater can also remove 90 percent of salt from brackish water or seawater while generating electricity.
  • Directory:Fuel Cells - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.MicroCHP is usually less than 5 kWe for a home fuel cell or small business.^ Report from Small Fuel Cells 2005 .

^ I would like to see fuel cells used in vehicles, but my idea is to use them in a different way than they are used presently.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Fuel Cell Marketplace - fuel cell opportunities, products, industry directory, news & more; weekly newsletter, latest business and tech news, independent analysis.
  • Directory:Fuel Cells - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32] .A lower fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency is tolerated (typically 15-20%), because most of the energy not converted into electricity is utilized as heat.^ BACKGROUND Fuel cells convert the chemical energy of fuels directly into electricity.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), an electrochemical reaction, directly and very efficiently, converts fuel energy into electricity and heat.

^ The goal of this research project is to convert up to 70% of the fuel energy into electricity.

.Some heat is lost with the exhaust gas just as in a normal furnace, so the combined heat and power efficiency is still lower than 100%, typically around 80%.^ Speed: 80 mph; range: 100 miles; 0-60 in 12 sec; 6 kW fuel cell can be removed for other power generation uses.
  • Directory:Fuel Cells - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The operating temperature of 600-650C is lower than the SOFC. It is considerably more efficient that the PAFC. It already has the advantage of reforming inside the stack.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ One of the benefits of deregulation is that it could promote CHP...combined heat and power, also known as cogeneration.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

.In terms of exergy however, the process is inefficient, and one could do better by maximizing the electricity generated and then using the electricity to drive a heat pump.^ One of the benefits of deregulation is that it could promote CHP...combined heat and power, also known as cogeneration.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Society has however held on to the wonders of having a hydrogen economy, where hydrogen would be used for everything from generating electric power to heating homes and powering industry.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ CHP could conserve fuel by utilizing the thermal energy that is produced as a result of generating electricity.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

.Phosphoric-acid fuel cells (PAFC) comprise the largest segment of existing CHP products worldwide and can provide combined efficiencies close to 90%[33] (35-50% electric + remainder as thermal) Molten-carbonate fuel cells have also been installed in these applications, and solid-oxide fuel cell prototypes exist.^ Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) 13.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Molten-carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Fuel-cell plants for electric vehicles .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

Hydrogen transportation and refueling

The world's first certified Fuel Cell Boat (HYDRA), in Leipzig/Germany
Toyota FCHV PEM FC fuel cell vehicle.
Mercedes-Benz (Daimler AG) Citaro fuel cell bus on Aldwych, London.
Element One fuel cell vehicle.
Toyota's FCHV-BUS at the Expo 2005.
.The GM 1966 Electrovan was the automotive industry's first attempt at an automobile powered by a hydrogen fuel cell.^ Fuel-cell stacks and power plants .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Automotive Fuel Cells II-48 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report related to the Fuel cells industry is available in its catalogue.
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

.The Electrovan, which weighed more than twice as much as a normal van, could travel up to 70 mph for 30 seconds.^ I heard ofa hybrid car of diesel and electricity w/ regenarative braking by a French car company (sorry can't remeber which brand) but also heard that diesel+electricity is much more expensive than gas+electricity .
  • Energy Department Cuts Funding for Fuel Cell Cars | Hybrid Cars 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.hybridcars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to its temperature and heat limitations, Nafion is also much more expensive to produce than the new membrane, Wiesner said, adding that membranes make up as much as 40 percent of the overall cost of fuel cells.

^ The Hyrban has a top speed of 50 mph (80 km/h), can accelerate from 0 - 30 mph in 5.5 seconds, and has a range of more than 200 miles (320 km).

[26][34]
.The 2001 Chrysler Natrium used its own on-board hydrogen processor.^ The H-Racer uses a real fuel cell and its own on-board hydrogen storage system.
  • Directory:Fuel Cells - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On top of that, hydrogen requires bulky and heavy tanks on board the vehicle in order to carry a useful amount.
  • Energy Department Cuts Funding for Fuel Cell Cars | Hybrid Cars 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.hybridcars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It produces hydrogen for the fuel cell by reacting sodium borohydride fuel with Borax, both of which Chrysler claimed were naturally occurring in great quantity in the United States.^ Hydrogen Fuel-Celled Vehicles and the future.

^ The fuel cell, which produces electrical energy from oxygen and hydrogen, allows the new submarine to cruise under water for up to three weeks without resurfacing.

^ Bacons stack of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells, 1960 (From Varta Fachbuchreihe, Band 6).
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

[35] .The hydrogen produces electric power in the fuel cell for near-silent operation and a range of 300 miles without impinging on passenger space.^ Fuel-cell stacks and power plants .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Fuel-cell plants for electric vehicles .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Bus with electric fuel-cell power plant (from the UTC website).
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Chrysler also developed vehicles which separated hydrogen from gasoline in the vehicle, the purpose being to reduce emissions without relying on a nonexistent hydrogen infrastructure and to avoid large storage tanks.^ Without the infrastructure to support hydrogen distribution and storage, current fuel cell systems are too inefficient, too large and too expensive for most applications.

^ Although studies widely agree that widespread deployment of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and the associated infrastructure would reduce air pollutant emissions from the transportation sector, the extent to which air quality in an urban airshed will be affected by these reductions is a more complex matter than simply quantifying emissions.

^ To address that, researchers at the University of California, Irvine have developed a new tool—spatially and temporally resolved energy and environment tool” (STREET)—to characterize the pollutant and GHG emissions associated with a comprehensive hydrogen supply infrastructure and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles at a high level of geographic and temporal resolution.

[36]
.The first public hydrogen refueling station was opened in Reykjavík, Iceland in April 2003. This station serves three buses built by DaimlerChrysler that are in service in the public transport net of Reykjavík.^ UPS Hits the Hydrogen Highway - United Parcel Service (UPS) road testing three Dodge Sprinters, a medium-duty fuel cell vehicle manufactured by DaimlerChrysler.
  • Directory:Fuel Cells - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (NasdaqNM: FCEL ), have commenced construction on an advanced hydrogen energy demonstration station designed to address industrial and transportation applications.

^ For example, the cost of one station for refueling hydrogen vehicles would pay for ALL if the electric charging stations in a State like California.
  • Energy Department Cuts Funding for Fuel Cell Cars | Hybrid Cars 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.hybridcars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The station produces the hydrogen it needs by itself, with an electrolyzing unit (produced by Norsk Hydro), and does not need refilling: all that enters is electricity and water.^ The fuel cell, which produces electrical energy from oxygen and hydrogen, allows the new submarine to cruise under water for up to three weeks without resurfacing.

^ March 19, 2008) Waste Water Plus Bacteria Make Hydrogen Fuel - Bacteria that feed on vinegar and waste water zapped with a shot of electricity could produce a clean hydrogen fuel to power vehicles that now run on petroleum.
  • Directory:Fuel Cells - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A metal catalyst and water in the unit react to produce hydrogen gas, which is then supplied to the fuel cell for energy production.
  • Directory:Fuel Cells - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Royal Dutch Shell is also a partner in the project. .The station has no roof, in order to allow any leaked hydrogen to escape to the atmosphere.^ Hydrogen generators are small and can be placed on the roofs of fuel stations thereby eliminating the need for a distribution network for the gas.
  • Energy Department Cuts Funding for Fuel Cell Cars | Hybrid Cars 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.hybridcars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 2003 President George Bush proposed the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative (HFI), which was later implemented by legislation through the 2005 Energy Policy Act and the 2006 Advanced Energy Initiative.^ The fuel cell, which produces electrical energy from oxygen and hydrogen, allows the new submarine to cruise under water for up to three weeks without resurfacing.

^ By the time the hydrogen has been delivered to the fuel cell for conversion to electricity, then, a significant amount of energy has been lost to these processes.

^ Alternate Energy World's Largest Hydrogen Fuel Cell Test The world's largest real world test of Hydrogen Powered Cars to get underway in September,2007.

.These aimed at further developing hydrogen fuel cells and its infrastructure technologies with the ultimate goal to produce commercial fuel cell vehicles by 2020. By 2008, the U.S. had contributed 1 billion dollars to this project.^ Hydrogen Fuel-Celled Vehicles and the future.

^ Fuel Cell Vehicles III-73 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fuel-cell plants for electric vehicles .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

[37]
.In May 2009, however, the Obama Administration announced that it will "cut off funds" for the development of fuel cell hydrogen vehicles, since other vehicle technologies will lead to quicker reduction in emissions in a shorter time.^ Fuel Cell Vehicles III-73 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fuel-cell plants for electric vehicles .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Fuel Cell Developers - list of fuel cell developers.
  • Directory:Fuel Cells - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The US Secretary of Energy explained that hydrogen vehicles "will not be practical over the next 10 to 20 years", and also mentioned the challenges involved in the development of the required infrastructure to distribute hydrogen fuel.^ California Air Resources Board Chairman Mary Nichols met with US Energy Secretary Steven Chu in May and followed up that meeting with a letter, urging the continuation of funding to support research, development and deployment of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.

^ To address that, researchers at the University of California, Irvine have developed a new tool—spatially and temporally resolved energy and environment tool” (STREET)—to characterize the pollutant and GHG emissions associated with a comprehensive hydrogen supply infrastructure and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles at a high level of geographic and temporal resolution.

^ North America will likely generate much of its electricity by burning fossil fuel for the next 10-40 years.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

.Nevertheless, the U.S. government will continue to fund research related to stationary fuel cells.^ Continue reading "PEM Fuel Cells" » .

^ Stationary Fuel Cells II-45 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Continue reading "Microbial Fuel Cells " » .

[38] The National Hydrogen Association and the U.S. Fuel Cell Council criticized this decision arguing that "...the cuts proposed in the DOE hydrogen and fuel cell program threaten to disrupt commercialization of a family of technologies that are showing exceptional promise and beginning to gain market traction."[39]
.In 2005 the British firm Intelligent Energy produced the first ever working hydrogen run motorcycle called the ENV (Emission Neutral Vehicle).^ PRNewswire ; June 14, 2005) World's First Fuel-Cell Motorcycle - Bike rolled out Thursday by the British company Intelligent Energy has a 6kW (8 hp) electric motor, top speed of 50 mph (80kph), a range of 100 miles (160km).
  • Directory:Fuel Cells - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fuel cell, which produces electrical energy from oxygen and hydrogen, allows the new submarine to cruise under water for up to three weeks without resurfacing.

^ On the anode side, natural gas is first ejected into a reforming chamber where it draws waste thermal energy from the stack and is converted into hydrogen and carbon monoxide.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

.The motorcycle holds enough fuel to run for four hours, and to travel 100 miles in an urban area, at a top speed of 50 miles per hour.^ It has a range of approximately 100 miles and a top speed of 85 mph.
  • Directory:Fuel Cells - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Speed: 80 mph; range: 100 miles; 0-60 in 12 sec; 6 kW fuel cell can be removed for other power generation uses.
  • Directory:Fuel Cells - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If we couple this with a hybrid, then you have the hydrogen car that gets 50-60 miles per gallon.
  • Energy Department Cuts Funding for Fuel Cell Cars | Hybrid Cars 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.hybridcars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40] .In 2004 Honda developed a fuel-cell motorcycle which utilized the Honda FC Stack.^ Fuel-cell stacks and power plants .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Fuel Cell Developers - list of fuel cell developers.
  • Directory:Fuel Cells - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One bright spot appears to be the fuel cells developed by Honda.

[41][42]
.The Type 212 submarines of the German and Italian navies use fuel cells to remain submerged for weeks without the need to surface.^ This is the type of fuel cell that has been used in space missions for some time.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Types of fuel cells 6.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The fuel cell, which produces electrical energy from oxygen and hydrogen, allows the new submarine to cruise under water for up to three weeks without resurfacing.

.Boeing researchers and industry partners throughout Europe conducted experimental flight tests in February 2008 of a manned airplane powered only by a fuel cell and lightweight batteries.^ Fuel cells for electric power production 7.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Unlike battery systems, fuel cell systems have separate energy storage and power generation components, making them well-suited for backup power applications.

^ GE (NYSE: GE) has announced a $13 million research partnership with the Federal Transit Administration, Ballard Power Systems and A123 Systems to develop a lightweight, battery dominant zero emissions hybrid fuel cell bus.

.The Fuel Cell Demonstrator Airplane, as it was called, used a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell/lithium-ion battery hybrid system to power an electric motor, which was coupled to a conventional propeller.^ Fuel-cell stacks and power plants .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Proton Motor supplied the propulsion system.

^ The electricity must be converted into mechanical power using an electric motor.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

[43]
.In 2007, the Revolve Eco-Rally (launched by HRH Prince of Wales) demonstrated several fuel cell vehicles on British roads for the first time, driven by celebrities and dignitaries from Brighton to London's Trafalgar Square.^ Fuel Cell Vehicles III-73 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fuel-cell plants for electric vehicles .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Equinox fuel cell vehicle.

.May 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Fuel cell powered race vehicles, designed and built by university students from around the world, competed in the world's first hydrogen race series called the 2008 Formula Zero Championship, which began on August 22, 2008 in Rotterdam, the Netherlands.^ Fuel-cell stacks and power plants .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrogen Fuel-Celled Vehicles and the future.

^ Fuel Cell Vehicles III-73 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

More races are planned for 2009 and 2010. After this first race, Greenchoice Forze from the university of Delft (The Netherlands) became leader in the competition. .Other competing teams are Element One (Detroit), HerUCLAs (LA), EUPLAtecH2 (Spain), Imperial Racing Green (London) and Zero Emission Racing Team (Leuven).^ The organisers hope that 'Formula Zero,' like Formula 1, can become a forum for competing technology as much as anything else, helping green consumer cars to become better.
  • Directory:Fuel Cells - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The world's first Fuel Cell Boat HYDRA used an AFC system with 6.5 kW net output.^ Alkaline fuel cells (AFC) .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) 14.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Fuel Cell Systems II-23 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

.In 2003, the world's first propeller driven airplane to be powered entirely by a fuel cell was flown (the first fuel cell powered aircraft was the Space Shuttle).^ Fuel-cell stacks and power plants .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Fuel cells for electric power production 7.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Speed: 80 mph; range: 100 miles; 0-60 in 12 sec; 6 kW fuel cell can be removed for other power generation uses.
  • Directory:Fuel Cells - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The fuel cell was a unique FlatStackTM stack design which allowed the fuel cell to be integrated with the aerodynamic surfaces of the plane.^ Fuel-cell stacks and power plants .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacons stack of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells, 1960 (From Varta Fachbuchreihe, Band 6).
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It is this extremely high chemical temperature that allows the fuel cell to be theoretically so efficient.
  • The Future of Fuel Cells...Ben Wiens...innovation consultant...innovating through synergy...value innovation, solid, oxide, polymer, electrolyte, direct, methanol, phosphoric, acid, alkaline, molten, carbonate, alcohol, natural, gas, automobile, bus, catalyst, carnot, chp, cogeneration, efficiency, electric, gasoline, hydrogen, monoxide, carbon, poison, siemens, westinghouse, global, ballard, toyota, nissan, science, transportation, power 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.benwiens.com [Source type: Reference]

[44]
.The California Hydrogen Highway is an initiative by the California Governor to implement a series of hydrogen refueling stations along that state.^ Members are operating more fuel cell vehicles and hydrogen fueling stations in California than any other region in the world.
  • Directory:Fuel Cells - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, the cost of one station for refueling hydrogen vehicles would pay for ALL if the electric charging stations in a State like California.
  • Energy Department Cuts Funding for Fuel Cell Cars | Hybrid Cars 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.hybridcars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is already a battery free electric infrastructure (buses and trains) in many cities that is much more viable than the almost 1 hydrogen highway in California.
  • Energy Department Cuts Funding for Fuel Cell Cars | Hybrid Cars 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.hybridcars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These stations are used to refuel hydrogen vehicles such as fuel cell vehicles and hydrogen combustion vehicles.^ Using hydrogen as fuel: .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrogen Fuel-Celled Vehicles and the future.

^ Fuel Cell Vehicles III-73 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

.As of July 2007 California had 179 fuel cell vehicles and twenty five stations were in operation,[45] and ten more stations have been planned for assembly in California.^ Hydrogen Fuel-Celled Vehicles and the future.

^ Fuel Cell Vehicles III-73 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fuel-cell plants for electric vehicles .
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

.However, there have already been three hydrogen fueling stations decommissioned.^ The fuel cell, which produces electrical energy from oxygen and hydrogen, allows the new submarine to cruise under water for up to three weeks without resurfacing.

^ The challenges to the success of hydrogen as a vehicular fuel are OVERWHELMING. There just does not appear to be light at the end of this tunnel after many years and billions of dollars invested.
  • Energy Department Cuts Funding for Fuel Cell Cars | Hybrid Cars 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.hybridcars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While I have no problem with hydrogen of fuel cells, there is no foreseeable way to economically use them in consumer automobiles.
  • Energy Department Cuts Funding for Fuel Cell Cars | Hybrid Cars 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.hybridcars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46]
South Carolina also has a hydrogen freeway in the works. .There are currently two hydrogen fueling stations, both in Aiken and Columbia, SC. Additional stations are expected in places around South Carolina such as Charleston, Myrtle Beach, Greenville, and Florence.^ There is a distinction between the two, but both require the hydrogen infrastructure so I understand why there is some minor confusion sometimes.
  • Energy Department Cuts Funding for Fuel Cell Cars | Hybrid Cars 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.hybridcars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Without the infrastructure to support hydrogen distribution and storage, current fuel cell systems are too inefficient, too large and too expensive for most applications.

^ The challenges to the success of hydrogen as a vehicular fuel are OVERWHELMING. There just does not appear to be light at the end of this tunnel after many years and billions of dollars invested.
  • Energy Department Cuts Funding for Fuel Cell Cars | Hybrid Cars 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.hybridcars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to the South Carolina Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Alliance, the Columbia station has a current capacity of 120 kg a day, with future plans to develop on-site hydrogen production from electrolysis and reformation.^ Fuel Cell Developers - list of fuel cell developers.
  • Directory:Fuel Cells - PESWiki 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fuel cell, which produces electrical energy from oxygen and hydrogen, allows the new submarine to cruise under water for up to three weeks without resurfacing.

^ Without the infrastructure to support hydrogen distribution and storage, current fuel cell systems are too inefficient, too large and too expensive for most applications.

The Aiken station has a current capacity of 80 kg. .There is extensive funding for Hydrogen fuel cell research and infrastructure in South Carolina.^ Hydrogen Fuel-Celled Vehicles and the future.

^ Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report related to the Fuel cells industry is available in its catalogue.
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The fuel cell, which produces electrical energy from oxygen and hydrogen, allows the new submarine to cruise under water for up to three weeks without resurfacing.

.The University of South Carolina, a founding member of the South Carolina Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Alliance, received 12.5 million dollars from the Department of Energy for its Future Fuels Program.^ Hydrogen Fuel-Celled Vehicles and the future.

^ Hydrogen Cars The Future - Hydrogen Fuel Cell Cars Overview on hydrogen fuel cell cars and the importance of converting.

^ March 22, 2007 at 12:01 AM in Fuel Cells , Hydrogen .

[47]
.Japan also has a hydrogen highway, as part of the Japan hydrogen fuel cell project.^ The fuel cell, which produces electrical energy from oxygen and hydrogen, allows the new submarine to cruise under water for up to three weeks without resurfacing.

^ Bacons stack of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells, 1960 (From Varta Fachbuchreihe, Band 6).
  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia � Fuel cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC electrochem.cwru.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Without the infrastructure to support hydrogen distribution and storage, current fuel cell systems are too inefficient, too large and too expensive for most applications.

.Twelve hydrogen fueling stations have been built in 11 cities in Japan.^ It is highly probable they they would be use in those areas, at least in part, because there are some hydrogen fueling stations located in those areas.

^ November 11, 2006 at 03:33 PM in Fuel Cell Vehicles , Fuel Cells , Hydrogen .

^ Table 5: Global Hydrogen Fuel Stations By Region/ Country- USA, Germany, Europe (excluding Germany), Japan, and Others: Recent Past Data for 2003 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-34 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

Canada, Sweden and Norway also have hydrogen highways implemented.
.There are numerous prototype or production cars and buses based on fuel cell technology being researched or manufactured by motor car manufacturers.^ Fuel Cell Technologies II-22 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report related to the Fuel cells industry is available in its catalogue.
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One of the barriers to more widespread adoption and use of fuel-cell technology is the high cost of their manufacture.

.In 2008, Honda released a hydrogen vehicle, the FCX Clarity.^ Then consider the following quote from Edmunds.com on the Honda FCX hydrogen fuel cell vehicle: .
  • Energy Department Cuts Funding for Fuel Cell Cars | Hybrid Cars 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.hybridcars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Meanwhile there exist also other examples of bikes[48] and bicycles[49] with a hydrogen fuel cell engine.^ Automotive Fuel Cells II-48 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The fuel cell, which produces electrical energy from oxygen and hydrogen, allows the new submarine to cruise under water for up to three weeks without resurfacing.

^ Without the infrastructure to support hydrogen distribution and storage, current fuel cell systems are too inefficient, too large and too expensive for most applications.

.A few companies are conducting hydrogen fuel cell research and practical fuel cell bus trials.^ Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report related to the Fuel cells industry is available in its catalogue.
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The fuel cell, which produces electrical energy from oxygen and hydrogen, allows the new submarine to cruise under water for up to three weeks without resurfacing.

^ Without the infrastructure to support hydrogen distribution and storage, current fuel cell systems are too inefficient, too large and too expensive for most applications.

.Daimler AG, with thirty-six experimental units powered by Ballard Power Systems fuel cells completing a successful three-year trial, in eleven cities, in January 2007. [50][51] There are also fuel cell powered buses currently active or in production, such as a fleet of Thor buses with UTC Power fuel cells in California, operated by SunLine Transit Agency.^ January 17, 2007 at 11:09 PM in Fuel Cells .

^ Fuel Cell Systems II-23 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ January 13, 2007 at 12:07 AM in Fuel Cells .

[52] .The Fuel Cell Bus Club is a global cooperative effort in trial fuel cell buses.^ These included buses powered by fuel cells or hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines, as well as a variety of fueling and related technologies.

^ The models were the Shenchi Brand 4-seat battery-electric car; the Shenchi Brand 11-seat fuel cell vehicle; the Shanghai Brand fuel cell car; the Shanghai Brand hybrid; the Buick LaCrosse hybrid; and the UNDP fuel cell bus.

^ Table 8: Number of Fuel Cell Buses Operating Worldwide (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-42 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

.The first Brazilan hydrogen fuel cell bus prototype will begin operation in São Paulo during the first semester of 2009. The hydrogen bus was manufactured in Caxias do Sul and the hydrogen fuel will be produced in São Bernardo do Campo from water through electrolysis.^ Hydrogen Fuel-Celled Vehicles and the future.

^ All fuel-cell types can operate on hydrogen.

^ The fuel cell, which produces electrical energy from oxygen and hydrogen, allows the new submarine to cruise under water for up to three weeks without resurfacing.

The program, called "Ônibus Brasileiro a Hidrogênio" (Brazilian Hydrogen Autobus), includes three additional buses.[53][54]

Other applications

.
  • Providing power for base stations or cell sites[55][56]
  • Off-grid power supply
  • Distributed generation
  • Fork Lifts
  • Emergency power systems are a type of fuel cell system, which may include lighting, generators and other apparatus, to provide backup resources in a crisis or when regular systems fail.^ For example, battery producers and companies that provide remote or emergency power systems, such as diesel generators, may see competition from fuel cells.

    ^ Fuel Cell Systems II-23 .
    • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ May 03, 2007 at 11:55 PM in Fuel Cells .

    .They find uses in a wide variety of settings from residential homes to hospitals, scientific laboratories, data centers[57], telecommunication[58] equipment and modern naval ships.
  • An uninterrupted power supply (UPS) provides emergency power and, depending on the topology, provide line regulation as well to connected equipment by supplying power from a separate source when utility power is not available.^ Should fuel cells find wide use, they would represent a new market for materials suppliers, equipment manufacturers, and even companies with software for process simulation and control.

    ^ For example, battery producers and companies that provide remote or emergency power systems, such as diesel generators, may see competition from fuel cells.

    ^ Hydrogen Fuel Cell Energy Independence: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Are Not the Answer Every fuel cell car depends on a battery and electric motor for traction power, but also depends on carrying a supply of Hydrogen gas.

    .Unlike a standby generator, it can provide instant protection from a momentary power interruption.
  • Base load power plants
  • Electric and hybrid vehicles.
  • Notebook computers for applications where AC charging may not be available for weeks at a time.
  • Portable charging docks for small electronics (e.g.^ Emission Test Reasons to Buy an Alternative Fuel Vehicle Article is about alternative fuel sources; such as electric/gasoline which is called hybrid, fuel cell, and natural gas.

    ^ Development of fuel cell technologies, fabrication processes, and manufacturing infrastructure and capabilities for scale-up of solid oxide fuel cell stacks for large, multi-megawatt base-load power generation plants.

    ^ No one in their right mind would do that--if your alternative is to just string a power line from zero-carbon electricity and charge a battery onboard a car," .

    a belt clip that charges your cell phone or PDA).
  • Smartphones with high power consumption due to large displays and additional features like GPS might be equipped with micro fuel cells.
  • Small heating appliances [59]

Market structure

.Not all geographic markets are ready for SOFC powered m-CHP appliances.^ Membrane manufacturers, catalyst companies, and suppliers of specialized components, such as power electronics, may all see new markets emerge for their products.

.Currently, the regions that lead the race in Distributed Generation and deployment of fuel cell m-CHP units are the EU and Japan.^ Table 2: Large Stationary Fuel Cell Systems Installed Worldwide: 2000-2004 (Units) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-8 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, battery producers and companies that provide remote or emergency power systems, such as diesel generators, may see competition from fuel cells.

^ IdaTech Secures CERDEC Contract for Developing Tactical Fuel cell Generator II-82 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

[60]

Fuel cell economics

.Use of hydrogen to fuel vehicles would be a critical feature of a hydrogen economy.^ Hydrogen Fuel-Celled Vehicles and the future.

^ While researching the previous post on the Honda micro CHP system I came across this information on hydrogen storage in their fuel cell vehicle.

^ Provide a product that can be fuel flexible to facilitate the transition to the hydrogen economy.

.A fuel cell and electric motor combination is not directly limited by the Carnot efficiency of an internal combustion engine.^ Carnot Efficiency and Fuel Cells II-18 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fuel cells produce electricity with greater efficiency, less noise, and far less pollution than combustion technologies do because the cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy.

^ The fuel cell, which produces electrical energy from oxygen and hydrogen, allows the new submarine to cruise under water for up to three weeks without resurfacing.

.Low temperature fuel cell stacks proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) use a platinum catalyst.^ Consisting of a stacked proton exchange membrane (PEM), catalyst, and electrodes, MEAs are the core of a fuel cell.

^ In the HTFC protons are exchanged via phosphoric acid.

^ Internal or external fuel-processing systems are necessary to enable use of hydrocarbon fuels in most low-temperature fuel cells (direct-methanol fuel cells are one exception) or to enable use of complex hydrocarbon fuels in high-temperature fuel cells.

.Impurities create catalyst poisoning (reducing activity and efficiency) in these low-temperature fuel cells, thus high hydrogen purity or higher catalyst densities are required.^ Hydrogen Fuel-Celled Vehicles and the future.

^ Internal or external fuel-processing systems are necessary to enable use of hydrocarbon fuels in most low-temperature fuel cells (direct-methanol fuel cells are one exception) or to enable use of complex hydrocarbon fuels in high-temperature fuel cells.

^ The fuel cell, which produces electrical energy from oxygen and hydrogen, allows the new submarine to cruise under water for up to three weeks without resurfacing.

[61] .Although there are sufficient platinum resources for future demand[62], most predictions of platinum running out and/or platinum prices soaring do not take into account effects of reduction in catalyst loading and recycling.^ Fuel Economy What's Next: Demand for New Alternative Fuel Vehicles How increased gas prices changes how we use our cars and the new demand for alternative transportation and vehicles that run on alternative fuel.

.Recent research at Brookhaven National Laboratory could lead to the replacement of platinum by a gold-palladium coating which may be less susceptible to poisoning and thereby improve fuel cell lifetime considerably.^ A team of researchers from MIT, the Japan Institute of Science and Technology, and Brookhaven National Laboratory have found that changing the surface texture of platinum used in a methanol fuel cell electrode—specifically, creating nano surface steps instead of using a smooth surface—can significantly increase the catalytic activity.

^ A team of scientists at the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory, in collaboration with researchers from the University of Delaware and Yeshiva University, has developed a new ternary (Pt/Rh/SnO 2 ) electrocatalyst that could make direct ethanol fuel cells feasible.

^ A team from Cornell University and Brookhaven National Laboratory has devised a new class of core-shell electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells, consisting of a platinum (Pt) monolayer shell and ordered intermetallic compound cores.

[63] Another method would use iron and sulphur instead of platinum. This is possible through an intermediate conversion by bacteria. .This would lower the cost of a fuel cell substantially (as the platinum in a regular fuel cell costs around $1500, and the same amount of iron costs only around $1.50).^ By the time the hydrogen has been delivered to the fuel cell for conversion to electricity, then, a significant amount of energy has been lost to these processes.

^ The advantage is that the enzymes are a cheap and renewable alternative to expensive platinum catalysts normally used in fuel cells.

^ The fuel cell is expected to produce 2 kilowatts of power — enough to power a household — and the technology would eventually be applied in other breweries and wineries owned by Foster's.

The concept is being developed by a coalition of the John Innes Centre and the University of Milan-Bicocca.[64]
.Current targets for a transport PEM fuel cells are 0.2 g/kW Pt – which is a factor of 5 decrease over current loadings – and recent comments from major original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) indicate that this is possible.^ Should fuel cells find wide use, they would represent a new market for materials suppliers, equipment manufacturers, and even companies with software for process simulation and control.

^ One of the barriers to more widespread adoption and use of fuel-cell technology is the high cost of their manufacture.

^ Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) cells, widely studied for such mobile applications, generally use carbon-supported platinum (Pt/C) catalysts at the electrodes.

.Recycling of fuel cells components, including platinum, will conserve supplies.^ These included buses powered by fuel cells or hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines, as well as a variety of fueling and related technologies.

^ Nuvera Fuel Cells and QuestAir Technologies Enter into Supply Agreement II-79 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Left .High-resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy image of platinum nanoparticles on a fuel cell electrode.

.High-temperature fuel cells, including molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC's) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's), do not use platinum as catalysts, but instead use cheaper materials such as nickel and nickel oxide.^ Fuel Cell Materials II-32 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Researchers at Georgia Tech have developed a new ceramic material for use in a solid oxide fuel cell that resists deactivation by carbon buildup (coking) from hydrocarbon fuels or by sulfur contamination (poisoning)—two of the most vexing problems facing SOFCs.

^ One of the barriers to more widespread adoption and use of fuel-cell technology is the high cost of their manufacture.

.They also do not experience catalyst poisoning by carbon monoxide, and so they do not require high-purity hydrogen to operate.^ Removing sulfur from SOFC fuel cells has been a problem because they operate at temperatures that are too high for sorbents used in PEM fuel cells.

^ They need only hydrogen, oxygen from the air, and water to operate and do not require corrosive fluids like some fuel cells.

^ In operation, hydrogen or carbon monoxide (CO) in the fuel stream reacts with oxide ions (O=) from the electrolyte to produce water or CO2 and to deposit electrons into the anode.

.They can use fuels with an existing and extensive infrastructure, such as natural gas, directly, without having to first reform it externally to hydrogen and CO followed by CO removal.^ It is significant that the SOFC can use CO as well as hydrogen as its direct fuel.

^ Fossil Fuel Water for Gas by extracting hydrogen from water, we can use water for gas.

^ Emission Test Reasons to Buy an Alternative Fuel Vehicle Article is about alternative fuel sources; such as electric/gasoline which is called hybrid, fuel cell, and natural gas.

Research and development

.
  • August 2005: Georgia Institute of Technology researchers use triazole to raise the operating temperature of PEM fuel cells from below 100 °C to over 125 °C, claiming this will require less carbon-monoxide purification of the hydrogen fuel.^ Hydrogen Fuel-Celled Vehicles and the future.

    ^ Continue reading "PEM Fuel Cells" » .

    ^ Fuel Cell Technologies II-22 .
    • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

    [65]
  • 2008 .Monash University, Melbourne uses PEDOT as a cathode.^ The matrix universally used to retain the acid is silicon carbide (1), and the electrocatalyst in both the anode and cathode is Pt.

    [66]
  • 2009 Researchers at the University of Dayton, in Ohio, have shown that arrays of vertically grown carbon nanotubes could be used as the catalyst in fuel cells[67].
  • 2009: Y-Carbon has begun to develop a carbide-derived-carbon-based ultracapacitor with high energy density which may lead to improvements in fuel cell technology[68][69].
  • 2009: A nickel bisdiphosphine-based catalyst for fuel cells is demonstrated[70].

See also

References

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  60. ^ "m-CHP". Cfcl.com.au. http://www.cfcl.com.au/Content.aspx?PageID=214. Retrieved 2009-09-21. 
  61. ^ Faur-Ghenciu, Anca (April/May 2003) (PDF). Fuel Processing Catalysts for Hydrogen Reformate Generation for PEM Fuel Cells. FuelCell Magazine. http://www.fuelcell-magazine.com/eprints/free/johnsonmattheyapril03.pdf. Retrieved 2007-05-27. 
  62. ^ International Platinum Group Metals Association-FAQ
  63. ^ Johnson, R. Colin (2007-01-22). "Gold is key to ending platinum dissolution in fuel cells". EETimes.com. http://www.eetimes.com/news/latest/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=196901214. Retrieved 2007-05-27. 
  64. ^ Replacement of platinum by iron-sulpher
  65. ^ "Chemical Could Revolutionize Polymer Fuel Cells". Georgia Institute of Technology. 2005-08-24. http://www.gatech.edu/newsroom/release.html?id=618. Retrieved 2007-05-27. 
  66. ^ Online, Science (2008-08-02). "2008 - Cathodes in fuel cells". Abc.net.au. http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/08/02/2322139.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-21. 
  67. ^ Cheaper fuel cells
  68. ^ Lane, K. (2009, September). Y-carbon? because it has so many applications!. NanoMaterials Quarterly, Retrieved from http://www.y-carbon.us/Portals/0/docs/Media/Newsletter_september_2009.pdf
  69. ^ Savage, N. (2009, October). Nanoporous carbon could help power hybrid cars. Technology Review, 112(5), 51, Retrieved from http://www.y-carbon.us/Portals/0/docs/Media/TR35.pdf
  70. ^ Bio-inspired catalyst design could rival platinum

Further reading

  • Vielstich, W., et al. (eds.) (2009). .Handbook of fuel cells: advances in electrocatalysis, materials, diagnostics and durability. 6 vol.^ Fuel Cell Materials II-32 .
    • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ However, the chemical reactions that create the electricity are more efficient at high temperatures, so it would be a big improvement for fuel cell technology to make this advance.” .

    ^ The hydrogen fuel cell electrolyte or more commonly the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) is a material that looks something like ordinary kitchen plastic wrap.

    Hoboken: Wiley, 2009.

External links


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

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  • Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.iit.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ You'll also learn how to set up an entire gas processing system, and where to find parts and materials everything you need for an experimental stationary unit that will give you a solid base for building and operating systems for larger power needs.
  • Build a Solar Hydrogen Fuel Cell System by Phillip Hurley 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.goodideacreative.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You’ll also learn about the most common fuel cell, which is powered by hydrogen gas, as well as how it fulfills its function.
  • BrainPOP | Science | Learn about Fuel Cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.brainpop.com [Source type: General]

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^ If you have artifacts, photos, documents, or other materials that would help to improve our understanding of these devices be sure to respond to the questionnaire:   .
  • Collecting the History of Alkali Fuel Cells 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC fuelcells.si.edu [Source type: Reference]

.This will help you find materials such as information, media and quotations on which to base the development of "Fuel cell" as an educational resource.^ Fuel Cell Materials II-32 .
  • Focus on the World Fuel Cells Market - Business News - redOrbit 22 September 2009 22:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A fuel cell is a battery that you can refuel.
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  • fuel cell -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

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  • Hydrogen Diaphragm Compressors for Refueling Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles, Buses, Cylinders, Tube Trailers and for power generation 15 January 2010 6:51 UTC www.pdcmachines.com [Source type: Reference]

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Wikipedia-logo.png .Run a search on Fuel cell at Wikipedia.^ Search volume for fuel cell .

^ The fuel cell itself runs on external fuel.
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See also

w:Fuel cells
w:Hydrogen storage
w:Reformed methanol fuel cell

Simple English

A Fuel cell converts the element hydrogen into electricity by chemically mixing it with oxygen, from which results water. It is like a battery that is constantly fed with fuel. It is an important part of the hydrogen economy. Note, though, that, unlike oil, hydrogen is not found in nature and is not an energy source, but an energy carrier. It has to be produced first, and if this is done by burning fossil fuels, it does not help against climate change . But, the hydrogen fuel cell will help against climate change in future, because scientists are trying to find new ways to make hydrogen without using fossil fuels. . The actual fuel cell stack is the layered bi-cubic structure in the center of the image]]

Contents

How to get energy

Water is a molecule that consists of one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms. It takes energy when separating into oxygen and hydrogens. And it releases energy when they are put back together. A fuel cell does the latter. Hydrogen (the energy source) and oxygen (which can come in the form of plain air) are put into the fuel cell, separated by a screen that will only let positively charged hydrogen (H+) through to the oxygen (O). At the hydrogen side, a metal plate helps the electrons of the hydrogen atoms to split off (it acts as a catalyst). The now positively charged hydrogen atoms pass through the screen, while the electrons enter an electric circuit. This produces the electricity required. At the other end of the electrical circuit, it connects to the oxygen side, where the electrons then combine with the positively charged hydrogen and the oxygen to form water (which then comes out the exhaust pipe). These three (H+, O and electrons) 'want' to combine and thus 'pull' the electrons through the electric circuit, which then creates the desired energy.

Efficiency

Fuel cells make electricity by reacting oxygen and hydrogen. Efficiency is very good(about 40~60%). They have a maximum efficiency of 80% if exhausting heat is used during reacting process. Also, Fuel cells can use various fuels, for example, natural gas, methanol, LPG(Liquid Petroleum Gas), naphtha, kerosene etc. This is because it is easy, not only to gain energy sources, but to not burn a fuel source as well. Fuel cell technology is one of the future energy sources that will play a part in environmental conservation.

Feature

The general features of fuel cells are that, firstly, it is possible to develop higher efficiency cells. Just like a silicon computer chip, there is almost no end to how far this can be streamlined and made into very energy efficient energy source. Because of its higher efficiency than caloric power generation, fuel cells can reduce the price of caloric energy sources. Furthermore, the emission of NOx, and CO2(carbon dioxide), makes it respectively 1/38 and 1/3 lower than coal or caloric power generation. As for noise, fuel cells tend to be very quiet.

Secondly, it is advantageous to determine the location. It can be located in the center of a city. So a fuel cell plant is economically provided with energy.

Fuel cells can be classified by a type of inner electrolyte. For instance, phosphoric acid fuel cells are for low temperatures. It is used in cell phones and automobile power supplies that require high currents because it is much safer. Alkali fuel cells usually consist of K(OH)2(pottasium hydroxide). Methanol fuel cells are used by reacting methanol electrochemistrically. This type of fuel cell is a better choice for simpler system. But methanol fuel cells have low output densitied as its reacting rate is slow.

Types of Fuel Cells

Phosphoric Acid fuel cell (PAFC) - Phosphoric acid fuel cells are commercially available today.

Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEM) - These fuel cells operate at relatively low temperatures (about 175°F), have high power density, can vary their output quickly to meet shifts in power demand, and are suited for applications, such as in automobiles, where quick startup is required.

Molten Carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), Solid Oxide fuel cell (SOFC), Alkaline fuel cell (AFC),Direct Methanol fuel cell (DMFC), Regenerative fuel cell , Zinc Air fuel cell (ZAFC) , Protonic Ceramic fuel cell (PCFC), Microbial fuel cell (MFC)

Applications

There are many uses for fuel cells — right now, all of the major automakers are working to commercialize a fuel cell car. Fuel cells are powering buses, boats, trains, planes, scooters, forklifts, even bicycles. There are fuel cell-powered vending machines, vacuum cleaners and highway road signs. Miniature fuel cells for cellular phones, laptop computers and portable electronics are on their way to market. Hospitals, credit card centers, police stations, and banks are all using fuel cells to provide power to their facilities. Wastewater treatment plants and landfills are using fuel cells to convert the methane gas they produce into electricity. Telecommunications companies are installing fuel cells at cell phone, radio and 911 towers. The possibilities are endless.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 20, 2010

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