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Fujian Province
Chinese : 福建省
Fújiàn Shěng
Min Nan POJ: Hok-kiàn-séng
Abbreviations: simplified Chinese: traditional Chinese:   (pinyin: Mǐn, POJ: Bân)
Fujian is highlighted on this map
Origin of name 福 fú – Fuzhou
建 jiàn – Jian'ou
Administration type Province
Capital
(and largest city)
Fuzhou (Hók-ciŭ)
CPC Ctte Secretary Sun Chunlan
Governor Huang Xiaojing
Area 121,400 km2 (46,900 sq mi) (23rd)
Population (2009)
 - Density
44,096,500[1] (18th)
362 /km2 (940 /sq mi) (14th)
GDP (2008)
 - per capita
CNY 1.08 trillion (12th)
CNY 30,123 (10th)
HDI (2006) 0.795 (medium) (11th)
Ethnic composition Fujianese:

Han – 98%
She – 1%
Hui – 0.3%

Prefecture-level 9 divisions
County-level 85[1] divisions
Township-level* 1107[1] divisions
ISO 3166-2 CN-35
Official website
http://www.fujian.gov.cn
(Simplified Chinese)
Source for population and GDP data:
《中国统计年鉴—2005》 China Statistical Yearbook 2005
ISBN 7503747382
Source for nationalities data:
《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》 Tabulation on nationalities of 2000 population census of China
ISBN 7105054255
*As at December 31, 2004
Template ■ Discussion ■ WikiProject China

About this sound Fujian is a province on the southeast coast of China. Fujian borders Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, and Guangdong to the south. Taiwan lies to the east, across the Taiwan Strait.[2] The name Fujian came from the combination of Fuzhou and Jian'ou, two cities in Fujian, during the Tang Dynasty. It is one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse provinces in China with Han Chinese majority.

Most of Fujian is administered by the People's Republic of China. However, the archipelagos of Kinmen and Matsu are under the control of the Republic of China (Taiwan). Thus, there are two provinces (in the sense of government organizations; PRC's Fujian and ROC's Fujian).

Contents

History

Recent archaeological discoveries demonstrate that Fujian (especially the northern coastal region around Fuzhou) had entered the Neolithic Age by the middle of the 6th millennium BC. From the Keqiutou site (7450–5590 BP), an early Neolithic site in Pingtan Island located about 70 km southeast of Fuzhou, numerous tools made of stones, shells, bones, jades, and ceramics (including wheel-made-ceramics) have been unearthed, together with spinning wheels, a definitive evidence of weaving.

The Tanshishan (昙石山) site (5500–4000 BP) in suburban Fuzhou spans the Neolithic and Chalcolithic Age where semi-underground circular buildings were found in the lower level. The Huangtulun (黄土崙) site (ca.1325 BC), also in suburban Fuzhou, was of the Bronze Age in character.

This area was also the place for the kingdom of Minyue. The word "Mǐnyuè" was derived by combining "Mǐn" (閩/闽; POJ: bân), perhaps an ethnic name and associated with the Chinese word for barbarians (蠻/蛮; pinyin: mán; POJ: bân), and "Yue", after the State of Yue, a Spring and Autumn Period kingdom in Zhejiang Province to the north. This is because the royal family of Yuè fled to Fujian after their kingdom was annexed by the State of Chu in 306 BC. Mǐn is also the name of the main river in this area, but the ethnonym is probably earlier.

Minyue was a de facto kingdom until the emperor of Qin Dynasty, the first unified imperial Chinese state, abolished the status. In the aftermath of the fall of the Qin Dynasty, however, civil war broke out between two warlords, Xiang Yu and Liu Bang; the Minyue king Wuzhu sent his troops to fight side-by-side with Liu Bang, and his gamble paid off. Liu Bang was victorious, and founded the Han Dynasty; in 202 BC he restored Minyue's status as a tributary independent kingdom. Thus Wuzhu was allowed to construct his fortified city in Fuzhou as well as a few locations in the Wuyi Mountains, which have been excavated in recent years. His kingdom extended beyond the borders of contemporary Fujian into eastern Guangdong, eastern Jiangxi, and southern Zhejiang.

After the death of Wuzhu, Minyue maintained its militant tradition and launched several expeditions against their neighboring kingdoms in Guangdong, Jiangxi, and Zhejiang, mostly in the 2nd century BC, only to be stopped by the Han Dynasty. The Han emperor eventually decided to get rid of the potential threat by sending in large forces simultaneously from four directions via land and sea in 111 BC. The rulers in Fuzhou surrendered to avoid a futile fight and destruction; thus the first kingdom in Fujian history came to an abrupt end. Nonetheless, the people of northern Fujian still erect temples in memory of their first kings.

The Han Dynasty collapsed at the end of the 2nd century AD, paving the way for the Three Kingdoms era. Sun Quan, the founder of the Kingdom of Wu, spent nearly twenty years subduing the Shan Yue people, the branch of the Yue people living in mountains.

The first wave of immigration of the noble class arrived in the province in the early 4th century AD when the Western Jin Dynasty collapsed and the north was torn apart by invasions by nomadic peoples from the north, as well as civil war. These immigrants were primarily from eight families in central China: Lin (林), Huang (黄), Chen (陈), Zheng, Zhan (詹), Qiu (邱), He (何), and Hu (胡).[citation needed] The first four remain as the major surnames of modern Fujian.

Nevertheless, isolation from nearby areas owing to rugged terrain contributed to Fujian's relatively backward economy and level of development, despite major population boost from northern China during the "barbarian" invasions. Population density in Fujian remained low compared to the rest of China. Only two commanderies and sixteen counties were established by the Western Jin Dynasty. Like other southern provinces such as Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, and Yunnan, Fujian often served as a destination for exiled prisoners and dissidents at that time.

During the Southern and Northern Dynasties era, the Southern Dynasties reigned south of the Yangtze River, including Fujian.

The Tang Dynasty (618–907) oversaw the next golden age of China. As the Tang Dynasty ended, China was torn apart in the period of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms. During this time, a second major wave of immigration arrived in the safe haven of Fujian, led by general Wang, who set up an independent Kingdom of Min with its capital in Fuzhou. After the death of the founding king, however, the kingdom suffered from internal strife, and was soon swallowed up by Southern Tang, another southern kingdom.[3]

Quanzhou was blooming into a seaport under the reign of the Min Kingdom, and may have been the largest seaport in the Eastern hemisphere. In the early Ming Dynasty, Quanzhou was the staging area and supply depot of Zheng He's naval expeditions. Further development was severely hampered by the sea trade ban of the Ming Dynasty, and the area was superseded by nearby ports of Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Ningbo and Shanghai despite the lifting of the ban in 1550. Large scale piracy by Wokou (Japanese pirates) was eventually wiped out by Chinese military and Japanese authority of Toyotomi Hideyoshi.

Late Ming and early Qing Dynasty symbolized an era of large influx of refugees and another 20 years of sea trade ban under the Kangxi Emperor, a measure intended to counter the refuge Ming government of Koxinga in Taiwan. Incoming refugees, however, did not translate into a major labor force owing to their re-migration into prosperous regions of Guangdong province. In 1689, the Qing dynasty officially incorporated Taiwan into Fujian province. Settlement of Taiwan by Han Chinese followed, and the majority of people in Taiwan are descendants of emigrants from Southern Fujian. After Taiwan was separated into its own province in 1885 and ceded to Japan in 1895, Fujian arrived at its present extent. It was substantially influenced by the Japanese after the Treaty of Shimonoseki of 1895 until the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) of WWII.

Owing to the mountainous landscape, Fujian was the most secluded province of the PRC in eastern China due to the lack of rail and underdeveloped networks of paved roads before the 1950s. The first railway to the province was completed in mid-1950s connecting Xiamen to the rest of the mainland. Despite its secluded location, Fujian has had a strong academic tradition since the Southern Song Dynasty. At the time, north China was occupied by the Jurchen Jin Dynasty, which caused a shift of the cultural center of China to the south, benefiting Fuzhou and other southern cities. In the Chinese Academy of Science and Chinese Academy of Engineering, there are more members from Fuzhou than from any other city.[citation needed] In addition, it should also be pointed out that the slow development of Fujian in its early days has proven a blessing for the province's ecology; today, the province has the highest forest coverage rate and the most diverse biosphere in China whereas central China suffers from severe overpopulation and displays severe signs of soil erosion accompanied by frequent droughts and floods due to lack of forest coverage.

Since the late 1970s, the economy of Fujian along the coast has greatly benefited from its geographic and cultural proximity to Taiwan. In 2003, Xiamen ranked number eight GDP per capita among 659 Chinese cities, ahead of Shanghai and Beijing, while Fuzhou ranked no. 21 (number 4 among 30 provincial capitals).[citation needed] The development has been accompanied by a large influx of population from the over-populated areas in the north and west, and much of the farmland and forest as well as cultural heritage sites such as the temples of king Wuzhu have given way to ubiquitous high-rise buildings, and the government faces a challenge at all levels to sustain development while, at the same time, preserving the unique and vital natural and cultural heritage of Fujian.

Geography

The province is mostly mountainous, and is traditionally described to be "Eight parts mountain, one part water, and one part farmland" (八山一水一分田). The northwest is higher in altitude, with the Wuyi Mountains forming the border between Fujian and Jiangxi. It is the most forested provincial level administrative region in China, with a 62.96% forest coverage rate in 2009 [4]. The highest point of Fujian is Huanggang Peak in the Wuyi Mountains, with an altitude of 2157 m.

The Fujian province faces East China Sea to the east, South China Sea to the south, and the Taiwan Strait to the southeast. The coastline is rugged and has many bays and islands. Major islands include Quemoy (controlled by the Republic of China), Haitan Island, and Nanri Island.

The River Min Jiang and its tributaries cut through much of northern and central Fujian. Other rivers include the Jinjiang River and the Jiulong River. Due to its uneven topography, Fujian has many cliffs and rapids.

Fujian is separated from Taiwan by the 180-km-wide Taiwan Strait. Some of the small islands in the Taiwan Strait are also part of the province. Small parts of the province, namely the islands of Quemoy and Matsu, are under the administration of the Republic of China.

Fujian has a subtropical climate, with warm winters. In January the coastal regions average around 7–10 °C while the hills average 6–8 °C. In the summer, temperatures are high, and the province is threatened by typhoons coming in from the Pacific. Average annual precipitation is 1400–2000 mm.

Infrastructure

The province has worked to improve its infrastructure; adding 166 kilometers of new roads and 155 kilometers of railways.

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Road

There are 54,876 kilometers of highways including 727 kilometers of expressways. The top infrastructure projects in recent years have been the Zhangzhou-Zhaoan Expressway (US$624 million) and the Sanmingshi-Fuzhou expressway (US$1.40 billion). For its 11th five-year plan spanning 2006 to 2010, the province aims to double the length of its expressways to 2,450 kilometers.[5]

Railways

Rail lines connect Fuzhou and Xiamen with the national network. The Fujian section of the Ganzhou-Longyan railway and the Wenzhou-Fuzhou railway, have received an investment of US$465 million and US$596 million respectively. In order to attract Taiwanese investment, the province intends to increase its rail length by 50 percent to 2,500 kilometers.[6]

Air

The major airports are Fuzhou Changle International Airport, Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport, Quanzhou Jinjiang Airport, Nanping Wuyishan Airport and Longyan Airport. Fuzhou is capable of handling 6.5 million passengers annually with a cargo capacity of more than 200,000 tons. The airport offers direct links to 45 destinations including international routes to Japan, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore and Hong Kong.[6]

Major cities:

Administrative divisions

The People's Republic of China controls most of the province, and divides it into nine prefecture-level divisions, all of them prefecture-level cities:

Map # Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Administrative Seat Type
Fujian prfc map.png
1 Fuzhou 福州市 Fúzhōu Shì Gulou District Prefecture-level city
2 Xiamen 厦门市 Xiàmén Shì Siming District Sub-provincial city
3 Longyan 龙岩市 Lóngyán Shì Xinluo District Prefecture-level city
4 Nanping 南平市 Nánpíng Shì Yanping District Prefecture-level city
5 Ningde 宁德市 Nánpíng Shì Jiaocheng District Prefecture-level city
6 Putian 莆田市 Pútián Shì Chengxiang District Prefecture-level city
7 Quanzhou 泉州市 Quánzhōu Shì Fengze District Prefecture-level city
8 Sanming 三明市 Sānmíng Shì Sanyuan District Prefecture-level city
9 Zhangzhou 漳州市 Zhāngzhōu Shì Xiangcheng District Prefecture-level city

All of the prefecture-level cities except Longyan, Sanming, and Nanping are found along the coast.

The nine prefecture-level divisions are subdivided into 85 county-level divisions (26 districts, 14 county-level cities, and 45 counties). Those are in turn divided into 1107 township-level divisions (605 towns, 328 townships, 18 ethnic townships, and 156 subdistricts). Note: these are the official PRC numbers. Thus, Quemoy is included as one of the 45 counties and Matsu as one of the 334 townships.

Quemoy (Jinmen) County is nominally controlled by Quanzhou prefecture-level city, but it is administered in its entirety by the Republic of China. The PRC-administered Lianjiang County, under the jurisdiction of Fuzhou prefecture-level city, nominally includes the Matsu Islands (Mazu), but Matsu is in reality controlled by the Republic of China, which administers Matsu as Lienchiang County (same name Romanized differently). The Wuchiu (Wuqiu) islands are nominally administered in the PRC by the Xiuyu District of the Putian prefecture, but is in reality controlled by the Republic of China, which administers Wuchiu as part of Quemoy County.

See List of administrative divisions of Fujian for a complete list of county-level divisions.

Politics

List of the Secretaries of the CPC Fujian Committee

  • Zhang Dingcheng (张鼎丞): June 1949-October 1954
  • Ye Fei (叶飞): October 1954-June 1958
  • Jiang Yizhen (江一真): acting 1958–1970
  • Han Xianchu (韩先楚): April 1971-December 1973
  • Liao Zhigao (廖志高): December 1974-February 1982
  • Xiang Nan (项南): February 1982-March 1986
  • Chen Guangyi (陈光毅); March 1986-December 1993
  • Jia Qinglin (贾庆林): December 1993-October 1996
  • Chen Mingyi (陈明义): October 1996-December 2000 
  • Song Defu (宋德福): December 2000-February 2004
  • Lu Zhangong (卢展工): February 2004-incumbent

List of Governors

  • Zhang Dingcheng (张鼎丞): August 1949-October 1954  
  • Ye Fei (叶飞): October 1954-January 1959
  • Jiang Yizhen (江一真): October 1959-December 1962
  • Wen Jinshui (魏金水): December 1962-August 1968 
  • Han Xianchu (韩先楚): August 1968-December 1973
  • Liao Zhigao (廖志高): November 1974-December 1979
  • Ma Xingyuan (马兴元): December 1979-January 1983
  • Hu Ping (胡平): January 1983-September 1987
  • Wang Zhaoguo (王兆国): September 1987-November 1990
  • Jia Qinglin (贾庆林): November 1990-April 1994
  • Chen Mingyi (陈明义): April 1994-October 1996
  • He Guoqiang (贺国强): October 1996-August 1999
  • Xi Jinping (习近平): August 1999-October 2002
  • Lu Zhangong (卢展工): October 2002-December 2004
  • Huang Xiaojing (黄小晶): December 2004-incumbent

Economy

Xiamen (Amoy) with old and new buildings.

Fujian is hilly and farmland is sparse. Rice is the main crop, supplemented by sweet potatoes and wheat and barley.[7] Cash crops include sugar cane and rapeseed. Fujian leads the provinces of China in longan production, and is also a major producer of lychees and tea. Seafood is another important product, with shellfish production especially prominent.

Because of the geographic location with Taiwan, Fujian has been considered the frontline of battlefield of potential war between Mainland China and Taiwan. Hence, it received much less investment from Chinese central government and developed much slower than the rest of China before 1978. Since 1978,when China opened to the world, Fujian has received significant investment from overseas Fujianese around the world, Taiwanese and foreign investment. Today, although Fujian is one of the wealthier provinces of China, its GDP per capita is the lowest among China's coastal administrative. divisions.[8]

See also List of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP per capita

Minnan Golden Triangle which includes Xiamen, Quanzhou and Zhangzhou accounts for 40 percent of the GDP of Fujian province.

Fujian province will be the major economic beneficiary of the opening up of direct transport with Taiwan which commenced on December 15, 2008. This includes direct flights from Taiwan to major Fujian cities such as Xiamen and Fuzhou. In addition, ports in Xiamen, Quanzhou and Fuzhou will upgrade their port infrastructure for increased economic trade with Taiwan.[9][9][10]

Fujian is the host of China International Fair for Investment and Trade annually. It is held in Xiamen to promote foreign investment for all of China.

In 2008, Fujian's nominal GDP was 1.0823 trillion yuan (ca.US$155 billion), a rise of 13% from the previous year. It's GDP per capita was 30,123 yuan (ca.US$4,320).[8]

Economic and Technological Development Zones

  • Dongshan Economic and Technology Development Zone
  • Fuzhou Economic & Technical Development Zone
  • Fuzhou Free Trade Zone
  • Fuzhou Hi-Tech Park
  • Fuzhou Taiwan Merchant Investment Area
  • Jimei Taiwan Merchant Investment Area
  • Meizhou Island National Tourist Holiday Resort
  • Wuyi Mountain National Tourist Holiday Resort
  • Xiamen Export Processing Zone
  • Xiamen Free Trade Zone
  • Xiamen Haicang Economic and Technological Development Zone
  • Xiamen Torch New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone (Chinese Version)
  • Xinglin Taiwan Merchant Investment Area

Demographics

Han Chinese make up 98% of the population. Various Fujianese peoples (Min-speaking groups) make up the largest subgroups in Fujian. This includes the Hoklo people, Foochow people, Teochew people and Putian people.

Hakka, a Han Chinese people with its own distinct identity, live in the southwestern parts of the province. Hui'an, also a Han branch with their distinct culture and fashion, populate Fujian's southeast coastline near Chongwu in Hui'an County. The She, scattered over mountainous regions in the north, is the largest minority ethnic group of the province.[11]

Many ethnic Chinese around the world, especially Southeast Asia, trace their ancestry to Fujian. Descendants of Fujian emigrants make up the predominant majority ethnic Chinese populations of Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines. Fujian, especially Fuzhou, is also the major source of Chinese immigrants in the United States.

Culture

Because of its mountainous nature and the numerous waves of migration from central China in the course of history, Fujian is one of the most linguistically diverse places in all Han Chinese areas of China. Local dialects can become unintelligible within 10 km. This is reflected in the expression that "if you drive five miles in Fujian the culture changes, and if you drive ten miles, the language does".[12] Classification of these various dialects has confounded linguists. In general, most dialects of Fujian are put into a broad Min category, then subdivided into Min Bei, Min Dong, Min Zhong, Min Nan, Pu Xian, and Shao Jiang. (The seventh subdivision of Min, Qiong Wen, is not spoken in Fujian.) The Fuzhou dialect is part of Min Dong, but some linguists classify it as Min Bei; the Amoy language is part of Min Nan. Hakka, another subdivision of spoken Chinese, is spoken around Longyan by the Hakka people who live there.

As is true of other provinces, the official language in Fujian is Standard Mandarin, which is used for communication between people of different localities.[12]

Several regions of Fujian have their own form of Chinese opera. Minju (Fujian Opera) is popular around Fuzhou; Gaojiaxi around Jinjiang and Quanzhou; Xiangju around Zhangzhou; Fujian Nanqu throughout the south, and Puxianxi around Putian and Xianyou County.

Fujian cuisine, with an emphasis on seafood, is one of the eight great traditions of Chinese cuisine. It is composed of traditions from various regions, including Fuzhou cuisine and Min Nan cuisine. The most prestigious dish is Fotiaoqiang (literally "Buddha jumps over the wall"), a complex dish making use of many ingredients, including shark fin, sea cucumber, abalone, and Shaoxing wine (a form of "Chinese alcoholic beverage").

Many famous teas originate from Fujian, including oolong, Wuyi Yancha, and Fuzhou jasmine tea. Fujian tea ceremony is an elaborate way of preparing and serving tea. In fact, the English word "tea" is borrowed from Min nan language. (Standard Mandarin and Standard Cantonese pronounce the word as chá.)

Fuzhou bodiless lacquer ware, a famous type of lacquer ware, is noted for using a body of clay and/or plaster to form its shape; the body later removed. Fuzhou is also famous for Shoushan stone carvings.

Tourism

Places of interest include:

Famous people

The province also has a tradition of educational achievement, and has produced many important scholars and statesmen since the time of the Song dynasty, such as:

Miscellaneous topics

Corporations with headquarters in Fujian include:

Professional sports teams in Fujian include:

Education

Colleges and universities

National

Provincial

Private

References

  1. ^ a b c These are the official PRC numbers. Quemoy is included as a county and Matsu as a township.
  2. ^ http://www.1.cn/fujian.asp
  3. ^ Fukien. (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 20, 2008, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/221639/Fujian
  4. ^ http://english.forestry.gov.cn/web/article.do?action=readnew&id=201001211031538926 Forestry in Fujian Province
  5. ^ "China Briefing Business Reports". Asia Briefing. 2009. http://shopping.china-briefing.com/index_eproduct_view.php?products_id=21. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
  6. ^ a b "China Expat city Guide Dalian". China Expat. 2008. http://www.chinaexpat.com/list/88. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
  7. ^ ukien. (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 20, 2008, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/221639/Fujian
  8. ^ a b http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/bizchina/2008-12/19/content_7323066.htm
  9. ^ a b http://www.economist.com/world/asia/displaystory.cfm?story_id=12818200
  10. ^ http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601087&sid=aFZOzHvMdnjY&refer=home
  11. ^ http://www.chinamaps.info/Fujian/Fujian-Demographics.htm
  12. ^ a b French, Howard W. "Uniting China to Speak Mandarin, the One Official Language: Easier Said Than Done." The New York Times. July 10, 2005. Accessed June 13, 2008.
Economic data

External links

Coordinates: 26°33′N 117°51′E / 26.55°N 117.85°E / 26.55; 117.85


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Fujian article)

From Wikitravel

Fujian (福建) [1] is a province in South East China.

Cities

The prefecture-level cities are:

  • Fuzhou, the provincial capital. Population 1.2 million in the city itself, 6.6 million for the prefecture
  • Longyan in the West of Fujian, 192,000 / 2.8 million
  • Nanping up the Min river from Fuzhou, 236,000 / 3 million
  • Ningde on the coast, North of Fuzhou, 125,000 / 3.2 million
  • Putian between Fuzhou and Quanzhou, 170,000 / 3.2 million
  • Quanzhou, a historic port, 330,000 / 6.5 million
  • Sanming up in the mountains, 207,000 / 2.7 million
  • Zhangzhou inland, Southwest of Xiamen, 250,000 / 4.5 million
  • Xiamen, port city and special economic zone, 700,000 / 1.3 million

Smaller cities or towns include:

  • Mawei, Changle and Fuqing, suburbs of Fuzhou
  • Xiapu, on the coast up North near the Zhejiang border
  • Chongwu, a lovely old walled town, with excellent beaches nearby, near Quanzhou
  • Jinjiang, across the river from Quanzhou
  • Jimei, on the mainland opposite Xiamen island
  • Gulang Yu - an island across the narrow strait from downtown Xiamen, no cars or motorcycles, lots of pianos, colonial-era buildings, and tourist shops
  • Meizhou Island - has the primary temple of the sea goddess Mazu. Her annual festival, in spring, brings in hundreds of thousands of visitors, mainly fishermen or sailors from Taiwan and Southeast Asia, the island is also being developed as a more general tourist resort, in Putian
  • Mount Wuyi - a scenic area famous for its tea, beautiful mountains, vigorous rocks and limpid waters
  • Taining Town - a UNESCO Global Geo park near Sanming
  • Yongding County - home to the Hakka earth round houses; fascinating, centuries-old buildings that are home to a whole clan

Understand

Historically, Fujian has been one of the more prosperous and outward-looking provinces of China. In the 1900s, two of China's five treaty ports - Xiamen and Fuzhou - were in Fujian. After the Second World war, however, Fujian's traditional trade with Japan was reduced and her other main customer, Taiwan, was the enemy. Recently, however, Fujian is recovering. Like other coastal provinces, it is now one of the more modern and prosperous areas of China.

Fujian has a higher proportion of Muslims than most areas of Southern China due to the history of trade via the Maritime Silk Road, and quite a few Christians since it was a focus of 19th century missionary activity.

Talk

Today, all educated people in Fujian speak Mandarin. It has been the language of education throughout China since the 1950s and is now the lingua franca in Fujian as everywhere else.

However, Fujian also has dozens of its own dialects. The terrain is mountainous; at one time nearly every valley had its own language. These dialects are usually described with the prefix "Min", where Min is another name for Fujian. These dialects are not mutually intelligible, though they do share certain common features. Generally speaking, the "Min" group of Chinese dialects is the most different from standard Mandarin of all the dialects in China. Minnan has fewer similarities with Mandarin than English has with Dutch.

Among the most important is Minnan Hua, (Southern Min), spoken in Xiamen, Quanzhou, Zhangzhou and surrounding areas. There are slight dialectal variations of Minnan between the three cities; the Xiamen dialect is considered to be the prestige dialect. Many people in Taiwan speak the same language, though they may call it Taiwanese. In Malaysia and Singapore, the same language is called Hokkien (the Minnan word for Fujian). The language of Hainan is related to Minnan, but not mutually intelligible with it.

The Mindong (Eastern Min) or Fuzhou Hua (Fuzhou speech) dialect is spoken in Fuzhou and also has a large number of speakers in the northern coastal areas. In Malaysia and Singapore, it is known as Hokchiu (the Mindong word for Fuzhou). There are variations; the Mindong dialects in Fuzhou and Fu'an, which are only about 4 hours apart by car, are not mutually intelligible.

Other Min dialects include Minbei (Northern Min), Minzhong (Central Min) and Puxian, named for Putian city and the surrounding Xianyou county.

The Hakka (客家 Kèjiā) people in the West of Fujian, and in several other areas of Southern China, came as refugees from one of Northern China's wars some centuries back. Hakka means "guest people". They have their own Hakka language (客家话; Kèjiāhuà), related to Northern dialects rather than to any other Fujian language.

Get in

Fujian is well connected via China's domestic airline, bus, highway and train networks.

The main airports are at Xiamen and Fuzhou; both have flights to Hong Kong as well as many mainland cities. Xiamen also has cheap international connections to Manila, Singapore and Bangkok; see Discount airlines in Asia for details. The scenic Wu Yi Mountain area also has an airport with good domestic connections. Often package deals are available - flights and accommodation, and perhaps a guide, for a fixed price.

Highway and external marine transportation are convenient. Everyday, there are regular tourist buses bound for Shenzhen city. Foreign passenger ships can berth at Mawei Harbor.

Get around

The main mode of intercity travel is by bus. There are trains, but some routes are not convenient because of mountainous terrain. New lines for high speed trains, on a more direct route along the coast, are under construction but will not be in service until at least late 2009. Flying within the province is relatively expensive.

  • The provincial museum is in Fuzhou, in the park beside West Lake (Xi Hu).
  • Mawei, just outside Fuzhou, has a museum commemorating a battle there between the Chinese navy and the French in the 1880s.
  • Xiamen has an Overseas Chinese Museum, located downtown roughly halfway between the ferry terminal and Xiamen University (Xiamen Daxue or Xia Da).
  • Quanzhou, formerly one of the world's great ports, has a Maritime Museum.

Itineraries

One could plan a tour of Fujian devoted to exploring its amazing variety of religious structures. Quanzhou has Qingyuan Mountain, a major Taoist site that attracts visitors from all over China, one of China's oldest mosques, and the world's last Manichean temple. Putian has the Mazu temple. Xiamen, Fuzhou and Quanzhou all have major Buddhist temples, and dozens of smaller temples are scattered around the countryside. Fujian was also a major area of missionary activity in the 19th century and Christian churches abound, mainland China's oldest church is in Xiamen. The original Shaolin Temple, one of China's greatest centers of kung fu, is in Henan, but during one of China's many wars a lot of the monks fled South and founded Southern Shaolin with temples in Quanzhou and Putian.

Eat

Fujian has its own cuisine, largely based on seafood.

  • Fish Ball. also known as the "Yu Yuan," was chopped dried fish, add egg white, mixing flour, some of them add pork or shrimp. Then cooked in boiling water.  edit
  • Wind duck paste. Wind duck paste, is to use sweet potato powder (sweet potato flour) and hacked to pieces of the wind duck, winter bamboo shoots and silk, the film mushrooms, meat, garlic paste mixed with boiled.  edit
  • Tai Chi Taro. is to cook taro nut and pressed into mud, adding sugar, eggs, water and oil. After the taro cool down, people sometimes add chopped kernels, cherry on the surface.It is one of the traditional Fujian’s desserts.  edit
  • Light Cake. It is make with raw material of flour, salt, sesame seeds. The shape of light cake is similar like Donuts. It doesn’t have much taste. In Fuzhou, people usually do not face sesame cake is called "light cake", with the sesame, they called "Fuqing cake.  edit
  • Wonton. is the most common snack in Fujian. The wonton skin is thin, it cooks in a short time. The boiled dumplings would be required in the process of adding cold water 2 times. After cooked, it looks half transparent.  edit
  • Fo Tiao Qiang. means(Buddha jumps over the wall). which is the most famous food in Fujian. It contains dainties of more than 30 kinds: Shark's fin, sea slug, chicken breast, duck, pig's trotters, dried scallop, mushroom, abalone, pigeon egg. with other condiments. It's said that after the dish is cooked, the air is heavy with a strong fragrance. Legend has it that it smelt so good that a monk forgot his vegetarian vows and leapt over the wall to have some, giving rise to its name.  edit

Drink

Fujian is famous for tea (in the 19th century, Fuzhou was China's busiest tea port) and you can get good tea almost anywhere. In fact, the English word "tea" was derived from its Minnan name. Try the tea eggs (茶葉蛋 cháyèdàn), hard boiled eggs cooked in tea, available on streets everywhere.

Like most of China, Fujian has quite a few locations for several large coffee chains, including UBC Coffee (上岛咖啡 shàngdǎo kāfēi), Ming Tien and SPR. It also has some good smaller chains, Blenz, Dawin and King Buck; these are usually cheaper.

As anywhere in China, beer is widely available. Hui Quan is a Fujian brand, a light palatable lager.

  • Tieguanyin Tea. (Name of a Godness)This tea is grown in Songlintou and Yaoyang in the Fujian Province. It is one of the cherished teas grown in Fujian.  edit
  • White Tea:. The white tea is grown in various regions of Fujian including the ShuiJie and Zhenghe counties. The white tea leaves have a unique shape. White tea is a little bit fermented tea with a mild flavor but leaves a sweet taste later.  edit

Stay safe

Like other areas on the Southern coastal, Fujian is prone to typhoons, which occur mostly from July to September. The province is also located on several small fault lines, and so is occasionally hit by earthquakes, though these tend to be minor.

Get out

Neighboring provinces along the coast are Zhejiang to the North and Guangdong to the South. Jiangxi lies inland of Fujian. There are good connections to any of these by road or rail.

This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

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