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Fulda
Castle of Fulda
Castle of Fulda
Coat of arms of Fulda
Fulda is located in Germany
Fulda
Coordinates 50°33′3″N 9°40′31″E / 50.55083°N 9.67528°E / 50.55083; 9.67528
Administration
Country Germany
State Hesse
Admin. region Kassel
District Fulda
Lord Mayor Gerhard Möller (CDU)
Basic statistics
Area 104.04 km2 (40.17 sq mi)
Elevation 261 m  (856 ft)
Population 63,958  (31 December 2005)
 - Density 615 /km2 (1,592 /sq mi)
Founded 744
Other information
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Licence plate FD
Postal codes 36001–36043
Area code 0661
Website www.fulda.de
Location of the town of Fulda within Fulda district
Map

Fulda (German pronunciation: [ˈfʊlda]) is a city in Hesse, Germany; it is located on the river Fulda and is the administrative seat of the Fulda district (Kreis).

Contents

History

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Early Middle Ages

The Benedictine monastery of Fulda was founded in 744 by Saint Sturm, a disciple of Saint Boniface, as one of Boniface's outposts in the reorganization of the church in Germany. It later served as a base from which missionaries could accompany Charlemagne's armies in their political and military campaign to fully conquer and convert pagan Saxony.

The initial grant for the abbey was signed by Carloman, the son of Charles Martel. The support of the Mayors of the Palace and later, the early Pippinid and Carolingian rulers, was important to Boniface's success. Fulda also received support from many of the leading families of the Carolingian world. Sturm, whose tenure as abbot lasted from 747 until 779, was most likely related to the Agilolfing dukes of Bavaria. Fulda also received large and constant donations from the Etichonids, a leading family in Alsatia, and the Conradines, predecessors of the Salian Holy Roman Emperors. Under Sturm, the donations Fulda received from these and other important families helped in the establishment of daughter houses Johannesberg and Petersberg near Fulda.

St Boniface baptizing and being martyred, from the Sacramentary of Fulda,

After his martyrdom by the Frisians, the relics of Saint Boniface were brought back to Fulda. Because of the stature this afforded the monastery, the donations increased, and Fulda could establish daughter houses further away, for example in Hameln. Meanwhile Saint Lullus, successor of Boniface as archbishop of Mainz, tried to absorb the abbey into his archbishopric, but failed. This was one reason that he founded Hersfeld Abbey, to limit the attempts of the enlargement of Fulda.

Between 790 and 819 the community rebuilt the main monastery church to more fittingly house the relics. They based their new basilica on the original 4th-century (since demolished) Old Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome, using the transept and crypt plan of that great pilgrimage church to frame their own saint as the "Apostle to the Germans". The crypt of the original abbey church still holds those relics, but the church itself has been subsumed into a Baroque renovation. A small, 9th century chapel remains standing within walking distance of the church, as do the foundations of a later women's abbey.

The great scholar Rabanus Maurus was abbot from 822 to 842.

From its foundation, the abbey Fulda and its territory was based on an Imperial grant, and therefore was a sovereign principality subject only to the German emperor. Fulda was made a bishopric in 1752 and the prince-abbots were given the additional title of prince-bishop. The prince-abbots (and later prince-bishops) ruled Fulda and the surrounding region until the bishopric was forcibly dissolved by Napoleon in 1802.

The city went through a baroque building campaign in the 18th century, resulting in the current “Baroque City” status. This included a remodel of the Dom (Cathedral) of Fulda (1704-1712) and of the Stadtschloss (Castle-Palace, 1707-1712) by Johann Dientzenhofer. The city parish church, St. Blasius, was built between 1771–1785.

In1764 a porcelain factory was started in Fulda under Prince-Bishop, Prince-Abbot Heinrich von Bibra , but shortly after his death it was closed down in 1789 by his successor, Prince-Bishop, Prince-Abbot Adalbert von Harstall. Because of its quality and rarity, this porcelain is much prized by collectors.

Cathedral of Fulda.
Looking east toward Fulda over the rich farmlands.
Statue of Saint Boniface (1830) at Fulda, Germany
Fulda, c. 1830
Weser river watershed, showing Fulda River and the city of Fulda.

Cold War importance

Fulda lends its name to the Fulda Gap, a traditional east-west invasion route used by Napoleon and others. During the Cold War, the former East/West German border passed just east of Fulda, and large Soviet and East German forces were stationed in the area as it was considered to be a potential invasion route for Communist forces.

The U.S. Army stationed the 14th and later the 11th Armored Cavalry Regiments in the city and surrounding areas as the screening force for the U.S. V Corps.

International relations

Twin towns — sister cities

Fulda is twinned with:

People

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Fulda is a small city about an hour away from Frankfurt by train in Central Germany. It has a nice small-town feel, and manages to have good tourist resources without feeling touristy. The more laid-back feeling here is a nice change from nearby Frankfurt.

Fulda Hbf
Fulda Hbf

On the train to Berlin Ostbahnhof, Fulda is the first stop. The ride is about an hour and a half. It is a reasonable journey also from Munich and has an excellent ICE connection to Frankfurt (hourly).

Get around

You'll arrive at Fulda's central train station. If you're on foot, you'll probably want to go downstairs from the train station, as doing so will funnel you towards the major sites, hotels, the tourist office and the downtown. If you stay upstairs and cross the street you will reach the bus terminal which is very close.

Unless you have a lot of luggage, or don't care for walking you won't any transportation as the town is fairly compact. If you do want transportation however, you can catch some city busses at the central train station, or a taxi. Both are available on the road outside the upstairs of the train station.

See

Fulda's architecture mostly escaped the baroquization that took over much of Europe. The lack of decoration makes the buildings gives the eyes a rest from the ornateness of other cities.

  • Stadtschloss (1706) - Head out of the bottom of the train station and go straight for 5 blocks, turn right and head about three blocks. You will be able to see it. Buildings open: M/T/Th 8:30-12:30, 14:00-16:00, W/F 8:30-12:30. Grounds (exact times unsure) morning The castle used to used by the princes of the region, but is now the seat of local government and other services, including the police station. The gardens are very nicely taken care of, and there are benches scattered throughout.
  • Church/Cloister/Monastery - Church and other buildings from around the same time as the castle. If you like old churches, and want one that's not baroque, this one is nice.

Do

The tourist's office is open M-F 8:30-18:00, Sat/Sun/Holidays 10:00-14:00. It's address is Bonifatius Platz, 1. To get there from the train station, exit through the downstairs of the station, and go straight about 6 blocks. There is a tourist computer-terminal available for extended hours with hotel, sights, and other tourist information.

  • City celebration (Bahnhofs Fest) - The last weekend of May is always a party right outside the train station. The surrounding blocks are filled with food and snack stands, carnival games, souvenirs, etc. Live bands start playing around 20:00.
  • Internet cafe - $3.00/hour, M-F 6:00-24:00, Sat/Sun 0:00-24:00 internet cafe/interactive games shop is on the top level of the train station.

We also know that there are also a few people who just love to shop ;) and for those lucky people Fulda is actually a great place to go to if you want to get a look of the German highstreet shopping scene. In Fulda you have Galleria Kaufhof, Karstadt, and Muller which are all major German retail stores.

Eat

If you head towards the tourist office, you can turn left on either of the last two streets to find several smaller restaurants at various levels of price and formality. Most have outdoor seating weather permitting. The plaza where the tourist office is located also has several restaurants.

  • Cafe Palais - Bonifatius Platz, 1 Cafe shares an entrance with the tourist office. The tourist computer kiosk is actually in this cafe's lobby. This place looks a lot more relaxed than the bar/restaurants across the plaza.
  • Grocery store - Upstairs in the train station is a grocery store with good prices. There is no fresh fruit, or bakery style bread, but it's open till at least 23:00. Also caries basic amenities.

Sleep

Check the tourist site for hotel listings and phone numbers

Get out

There are several transport methods from Fulda to other cities in Germany or even in Europe.

You could take the train and go to regional cities such as Frankfurt am Main, or Kassel with a Hessen-Ticket which are reasonably cheap (€30 for 5 people for the whole of Hessen Bundesland). You can go further afield with the Inter-City or the Inter-City Express. From Fulda Hauptbahnhof you can go as far as Vienna, Milan, Rome, Paris, Strasbourg and many more cities in Europe. You can also go to Prague from Fulda also. If you wanted to depart from Frankfurt Airport you could also get the train from Fulda.

Fulda also has a bus station so you can go to local villages from the city of Fulda if you are only visiting the city on a day trip. You can get tickets quickly and easily from the Fahrkarten Automat (automatic ticket machines) you will also find these at Fulda's Hauptbahnhof.

If you have rented a car already Fulda is near an Autobahn to Frankfurt and if you go around the city there is a road off for Munich, Koln and more cities. It is approximately 1 hr and a half to Frankfurt if you are looking to see the sights and it is about the same distance to Kassel in the northern part of the state from the city of Fulda.

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

FULDA, a town and episcopal see of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, between the Rhon and the VogelGebirge, 69 m. N.E. from Frankfort-on-Main on the railway to Bebra. Although irregularly built the town is pleasantly situated, and contains two fine squares, on one of which stands a fine statue of St Boniface. The present cathedral was built at the beginning of the 18th century on the model of St Peter's at Rome, but it has an ancient crypt, which contains the bones of St Boniface and was restored in 1892. Opposite the cathedral is the former monastery of St Michael, now the episcopal palace. The Michaelskirche, attached to it, is a small round church built, in imitation of the Holy Sepulchre, in 822 and restored in 1853. Of other buildings may be mentioned the Library, with upwards of 80,000 printed books and many valuable MSS., the stately palace with its gardens and orangery, the former Benedictine nunnery (founded 1625, and now used as a seminary), and the Minorite friary (1238) now used as a furniture warehouse. Among the secular buildings are the fine Schloss, the Bibliothek, the town hall and the post office. There are several schools, a hospital founded in the 13th century, and some new artillery barracks. Many industries are carried on in Fulda. These include weaving and dyeing, the manufacture of linen, plush and other textiles and brewing. There are also railway works in the town. A large trade is done in cattle and grain, many markets being held here. Fine views are obtained from several hills in the neighbourhood, among these being the Frauenberg, the Petersberg and the Kalvarienberg.

Fulda owes its existence to its famous abbey. It became a town in 1208, and during the middle ages there were many struggles between the abbots and the townsfolk. During the Peasants' War it was captured by the rebels and during the Seven Years' War by the Hanoverians. It came finally into the possession of Prussia in 1866. From 1734 to 1804 Fulda was the seat of a university, and latterly many assemblies of German bishops have been held in the town.

The great Benedictine abbey of Fulda occupies the place in the ecclesiastical history of Germany which Monte Cassino holds in Italy, St Gall in South Germany, Corvey in Saxony, Tours in France and Iona in Scotland. Founded in 744 at the instigation of St Boniface by his pupil Sturm, who was the first abbot, it became the centre of a great missionary work. It was liberally endowed with land by the princes of the Carolingian house and others, and soon became one of the most famous and wealthy establishments of its kind. About 968 the pope declared that its abbot was primate of all the abbots in Germany and Gaul, and later he became a prince of the Empire. Fulda was specially famous for its school, which was the centre of the theological learning of the early middle ages. Among the teachers here were Alcuin, Hrabanus Maurus, who was abbot from 822 to 842, and Walaf rid Strabo. Early in the 10th century the monastery was reformed by introducing monks from Scotland, who were responsible for restoring in its old strictness the Benedictine rule. Later the abbey lost some of its lands and also its high position, and some time before the Reformation the days of its glory were over. Johann von Henneberg, who was abbot from 5529 to 1541, showed some sympathy with the teaching of the reformers, but the Counter-Reformation made great progress here under Abbot Balthasar von Dernbach. Gustavus Adolphus gave the abbey as a principality to William, landgrave of Hesse, but William's rule only lasted for ten years. In 1752 the abbot was raised to the rank of a bishop, and Fulda ranked as a princebishopric. This was secularized in 1802, and in quick succession it belonged to the prince of Orange, the king of France and the grand-duchy of Frankfort. In 1816 the greater part of the principality was ceded by Prussia to Hesse-Cassel, a smaller portion being united with Bavaria. Sharing the fate of HesseCassel, this larger portion was annexed by Prussia in 1866. In 1829 a new bishopric was founded at Fulda.

For the town see A. Hartmann, Zeitgeschichte von Fulda (Fulda, 1895); J. Schneider, Fiihrer durch die Stadt Fulda (Fulda, 1899) and Chronik von Fulda and dessen Umgebungen (1839). For the history of the abbey see Gegenbaur, Das Kloster Fulda irn Karolinger Zeitalter (Fulda, 1871-1874); Arndt, Geschichte des Hochstifts Fulda (Fulda, 1860); and the Fuldaer Geschichtsblatter (1902 fol.).


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Simple English

Fulda

Fulda
Coordinates 50°33′3″N 9°40′31″E / 50.55083°N 9.67528°E / 50.55083; 9.67528
Administration
Country Germany
State Hesse
Admin. region Kassel
District Fulda
Lord Mayor Gerhard Möller (CDU)
Basic statistics
Area 104.04 km2 (40.17 sq mi)
Elevation 261 m  (856 ft)
Population 63,958  (31 December 2005)
 - Density 615 /km2 (1,592 /sq mi)
Founded 744
Other information
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Licence plate FD
Postal codes 36001–36043
Area code 0661
Website www.fulda.de

Fulda (IPA: [ˈfʊlda]) is a city in Hesse, Germany; it is located on the Fulda River and is the administrative seat of the Fulda district (Kreis).

Contents

History

Early Middle Ages

The Benedictine monastery of Fulda was founded in 744 by Saint Sturm, a disciple of Saint Boniface, when Boniface was reorganising the church in Germany.

From its foundation, the abbey Fulda and its territory was subject only to the German emperor, not to the control of the local lords. Fulda was made a bishopric in 1752 and the prince-abbots were given the additional title of prince-bishop. The prince-abbots (and later prince-bishops) ruled Fulda and the surrounding region until the bishopric was forcibly dissolved by Napoleon in 1802.

1655]]

From 1764 until 1789 Fulda had a porcelain factory. Because of its quality and rarity, it is much prized by collectors. The factory was begun under Prince-Bishop, Prince-Abbot Heinrich von Bibra and closed down shortly after his death by his successor, Prince-Bishop, Prince-Abbot Adalbert von Harstall.

Rulers of Fulda until Secularization

Abbots

  • St. Sturmius 744-779
  • Baugulf 779-802
  • Ratgar 802-817
  • Eigil of Fulda 818-822
  • Rabanus Maurus 822-842
  • Hatto I 842-856
  • Thioto 856-869
  • Sigihart 869-891
  • Huoggi 891-915
  • Helmfried 915-916
  • Haicho 917-923
  • Hiltibert 923-927
  • Hadamar 927-956
  • Hatto II 956-968
  • Werinheri 968-982
  • Branthoh I 982-991
  • Hatto III 991-997
  • Erkanbald 997-1011
  • Branthoh II 1011-1013
  • Poppo 1013-1018, also Abbot of Lorsch (Franconian Babenberger)
  • Richard 1018-1039
  • Sigiwart 1039-1043
  • Rohing 1043-1047
  • Egbert 1047-1058
  • Siegfrid I von Mainz (Sigfried von Eppenstein) 1058-1060
  • Widerad von Eppenstein 1060-1075
  • Ruothart 1075-1096
  • Godefrid 1096-1109
  • Wolfhelm 1109-1114
  • Erlolf of Bergholz 1114-1122
  • Ulrich of Kemnaten 1122-1126
  • Heinrich I of Kemnaten 1126-1132
  • Bertho I of Schlitz 1132-1134
  • Konrad I 1134-1140
  • Aleholf 1140-1148
  • Rugger I 1148
  • Heinrich II of Bingarten 1148-1149
  • Markward I. 1150-1165
  • Gernot of Fulda 1165
  • Hermann 1165-1168
  • Burchard Graf von Nürings 1168-1176
  • Rugger II 1176-1177
  • Konrad II 1177-1192
  • Heinrich III of Kronberg im Taunus 1192-1216
  • Hartmann I 1216-1217
  • Kuno 1217-1221

Prince-Abbots

  • Konrad III von Malkes 1221-1249
  • Heinrich IV von Erthal 1249-1261
  • Bertho II von Leibolz 1261-1271
  • Bertho III von Mackenzell 1271-1272
  • Bertho IV von Biembach 1273-1286
  • Markward II von Bickenbach 1286-1288
  • Heinrich V Graf von Weilnau 1288-1313
  • Eberhard von Rotenstein 1313-1315
  • Heinrich VI von Hohenberg 1315-1353
  • Heinrich VII von Kranlucken 1353-1372
  • Konrad IV Graf von Hanau 1372-1383
  • Friedrich I von Romrod 1383-1395
  • Johann I von Merlau 1395-1440
  • Hermann II von Buchenau 1440-1449
  • Reinhard Graf von Weilnau 1449-1472
  • Johann II Graf von Henneberg-Schleusingen 1472-1513
  • Hartmann I Burggraf von Kirchberg 1513-1521/29
  • Johann III. Graf von Henneberg-Schleusingen 1521/29-1541
  • Philipp Schenk zu Schweinsberg 1541-1550
  • Wolfgang Dietrich von Eusigheim 1550-1558
  • Wolfgang Schutzbar (named Milchling) 1558-1567
  • Philipp Georg Schenk zu Schweinsberg 1567-1568
  • Wilhelm Hartmann von Klauer zu Wohra 1568-1570
  • Balthasar von Dernbach (nanmed Grauel) 1570-1576, 1602-1606
  • Johann Friedrich von Schwalbach 1606-1622
  • Johann Bernhard Schenk zu Schweinsberg 1623-1632
  • Johann Adolf von Hoheneck 1633-1635
  • Hermann Georg von Neuhof (named Ley) 1635-1644
  • Joachim Graf von Gravenegg 1644-1671
  • Cardinal Gustav Adolf (Baden) (Bernhard Gustav Markgraf von Baden-Durlach) 1671-1677
  • Placidus von Droste 1678-1700
  • Adalbert I von Schleifras 1700-1714
  • Konstantin von Buttlar 1714-1726
  • Adolphus von Dalberg 1726-1737
river watershed, showing Fulda River and the city of Fulda.]]Prince-Abbots & Prince-Bishops
  • Amand von Buseck, 1737-1756, Prince-Bishop starting 1752
  • Adalbert II. von Walderdorff 1757-1759
  • Heinrich VIII. von Bibra, 1759-1788
  • Adalbert von Harstall, 1789-1814, Prince-Bishop until 1802

People

  • Adam of Fulda
  • Tobias Sammet
  • Martin Hohmann
  • Ferdinand Braun
  • Sebastian Kehl
  • Marcel Lehmann
  • Franz Kaspar (or Caspar) Lieblein
  • Max Stern
  • Dirk Sauer
  • Father Gereon Goldmann
  • Edguy

Other pages

  • Annales Fuldenses (The Annals of Fulda)
  • Diocese of Fulda
  • Flora fuldensis (The Flowers of Fulda)
  • Ludwig Fulda (Fulda pedigrees)
  • Fulda Symphonic Orchestra
  • Fulda River
  • Fulda (district)
  • Fulda, Minnesota

Other websites

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