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Fungi
Fossil range: Early Devonian – Recent (but see text)
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A collage of five fungi (clockwise from top left): a mushroom with a flat, red top with white-spots, and a white stem growing on the ground; a red cup-shaped fungus growing on wood; a stack of green and white moldy bread slices on a plate; a microscopic, spherical grey-colored semitransparent cell, with a smaller spherical cell beside it; a microscopic view of an elongated cellular structure shaped like a microphone, attached to the larger end is a number of smaller roughly circular elements that collectively form a mass around it
.Clockwise from top left: Amanita muscaria, a basidiomycete; Sarcoscypha coccinea, an ascomycete; bread covered in mold; a chytrid; a Penicillium conidiophore.^ Unlike ascomycetes, basidiomycetes, or zygomycetes, chytrids, as they are commonly called, produce flagellated, asexual reproductive cells known as zoospores.
  • Chytrid Fungi Online Isolation Methods 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.botany.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These groups correspond to the five phyla of the Kingdom Fungi and are the ascomycetes (Phylum Ascomycota), basidiomycetes (Phylum Basidiomycota), zygomycetes (Phylum Zygomycota), chytridiomycetes or chytrids (Phylum Chytridiomycota), and Fungi Imperfecti.
  • Taxonomy and Nomenclature 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.doctorfungus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The scarlet cup fungus ( Sarcoscypha coccinea ), a beautiful fungus that grows on moss-covered logs of the Pacific northwest.

Scientific classification
Domain: Eukarya
(unranked): Opisthokonta
Kingdom: Fungi
(L., 1753) R.T. Moore, 1980[1]
Subkingdoms/Phyla/Subphyla[2]
Blastocladiomycota
Chytridiomycota
Glomeromycota
Microsporidia
Neocallimastigomycota
Ascomycota
Pezizomycotina
Saccharomycotina
Taphrinomycotina
Basidiomycota
Agaricomycotina
Pucciniomycotina
Ustilaginomycotina
Entomophthoromycotina
Kickxellomycotina
Mucoromycotina
Zoopagomycotina
.A fungus (pronounced /ˈfʌŋɡəs/) is a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.^ Yeasts, molds, and mushrooms are examples of fungi.
  • Fungi - Encyclopedia of Life 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.eol.org [Source type: Reference]
  • What do fungi, algae, ferns, lichens mushrooms etc. need to live... 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC www.answerbag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yeasts , molds , and mushrooms are examples of fungi.
  • Fungus - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC reid.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fungus - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fungi.eu 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC www.fungi.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Examples of fungi include mushrooms, mold, and yeast.
  • Geometry.Net - Health_Conditions: Fungal Infections 22 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: Academic]

.The Fungi (pronounced /ˈfʌndʒaɪ/ or /ˈfʌŋɡaɪ/) are classified as a kingdom that is separate from plants, animals and bacteria.^ Fungi work along with the Monerans and Protists to decompose the waste and remains of plants and animals.
  • FUNGI 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC leavingbio.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over the past 3 decades the realization has emerged that fungi represent a third group (or kingdom), equivalent to the plants (plant kingdom) and the animals (animal kingdom).
  • AGARICS, BOLETES AND CHANTERELLES - CLASSIFICATION OF FUNGI 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC www.naturewatch.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For years, all fungi were considered part of the Plant Kingdom and frequently referred to as "lower plants".

.One major difference is that fungal cells have cell walls that contain chitin, unlike the cell walls of plants, which contain cellulose.^ All but one group of this phylum has chitin comprising their cell walls.
  • Biological Diversity 4 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cell wall structure and growth: the structure of the fungal cell wall .

^ In contrast to plants and the oomycetes, fu ngal cell walls do not contain cellulose.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.These and other differences show that the fungi form a single group of related organisms, named the Eumycota (true fungi or Eumycetes), that share a common ancestor (a monophyletic group).^ Both of these basidiomycete fungi are parasitic on other organisms.
  • BioMEDIA ASSOCIATES 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.ebiomedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The opalozoan Apusomonas is related to the common ancestor of animals, fungi, and choanoflagellates.
  • The Protistan Origins of Animals and Fungi -- Steenkamp et al. 23 (1): 93 -- Molecular Biology and Evolution 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC mbe.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungi have numerous interactions with other organisms.
  • What is a fungus ? 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.anbg.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.This fungal group is distinct from the structurally similar slime molds (myxomycetes) and water molds (oomycetes).^ Myxomycetes, the slime molds .
  • vPlants - Guide to Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.vplants.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oomycetes, the water molds .
  • vPlants - Guide to Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.vplants.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The true fungi are clearly distinct from the morphologically similar slime molds (myxomycetes) and water molds (oomycetes).
  • Fungi - Encyclopedia of Life 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.eol.org [Source type: Reference]

.The discipline of biology devoted to the study of fungi is known as mycology, which is often regarded as a branch of botany, even though genetic studies have shown that fungi are more closely related to animals than to plants.^ Scientists have determined that fungi are more closely related to human beings and animals than to other plants.
  • Fungi | Gardening Tips | Garden Guides 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.gardenguides.com [Source type: General]

^ Some may even be more closely related to true yeasts than to pezizomycotines .
  • Palaeos Fungi: Ascomycota 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.palaeos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Animals are much less susceptible to parasitic fungi than are plants.
  • Chapter 31 - Fungi | Course-Notes.Org 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.course-notes.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Abundant worldwide, most fungi are inconspicuous because of the small size of their structures, and their cryptic lifestyles in soil, on dead matter, and as symbionts of plants, animals, or other fungi.^ Most other species of fungi are multicellular.
  • Chapter 31 - Fungi | Course-Notes.Org 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.course-notes.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fungi are important because they help to process dead plant and animal matter through decay.

^ Soil-borne fungi are essential for the decay of plant and animal matter.

.They may become noticeable when fruiting, either as mushrooms or molds.^ Some fungi become noticeable when fruiting, either as mushrooms or molds.
  • Fungi - Encyclopedia of Life 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.eol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Fungi may become noticeable when fruiting, either as mushrooms or molds.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ All fungi in the Armillaria genus are known as honey mushrooms, for the yellow-capped and sweet fruiting bodies they produce.
  • Strange but True: The Largest Organism on Earth Is a Fungus: Scientific American 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.scientificamerican.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fungi perform an essential role in the decomposition of organic matter and have fundamental roles in nutrient cycling and exchange.^ They perform an essential role in all ecosystems in decomposing organic matter and are indispensable in nutrient cycling and exchange.
  • Fungi - Encyclopedia of Life 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.eol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ They perform an essential role in the decomposition of organic matter and have fundamental roles in nutrient cycling and exchange.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fertilization hastens decomposition of organic matter.
  • Mushrooms and Other Nuisance Fungi in Lawns Management Guidelines--UC IPM 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.ipm.ucdavis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They have long been used as a direct source of food, such as mushrooms and truffles, as a leavening agent for bread, and in fermentation of various food products, such as wine, beer, and soy sauce.^ They are used for beer and wine fermentations and bread production.
  • Bakery technology - Yeast and sourdough 19 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.classofoods.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Obviously, they can also be used to flavor wines.

^ The Romans used grape must from wine making as bread leavening.

.Since the 1940s, fungi have been used for the production of antibiotics, and, more recently, various enzymes produced by fungi are used industrially and in detergents.^ The hydrolytic enzymes of fungi are useful for a number of industrial processes.
  • FUNGI, 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the 1940s, fungi have been used for the production of antibiotics , and, more recently, various enzymes produced by fungi are used industrially an d in detergents .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ More recently, fungi are being used as sources for antibiotics used in medicine and various enzymes, such as cellulases, pectinases, and proteases, important for industrial use or as active ingredients of detergents.
  • Fungi - Encyclopedia of Life 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.eol.org [Source type: Reference]

.Fungi are also used as biological agents to control weeds and pests.^ Some fungi can be used as biological control agents .
  • Kingdom Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.hutchcc.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ They are often used in biological control of insect pests.
  • Chapter 31 - Fungi | Course-Notes.Org 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.course-notes.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fungi are also used as biological agents to control weeds and pests.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Many species produce bioactive compounds called mycotoxins, such as alkaloids and polyketides, that are toxic to animals including humans.^ Many fungi produce bioactive compounds called mycotoxins, such as alkaloids and polyketides that are toxic to animals including humans.
  • Fungi - Encyclopedia of Life 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.eol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Toxic mold is a type of mold that produces hazardous byproducts, called mycotoxins .
  • Mold & Fungus 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many species of animals, including humans, are susceptible to fungal skin infections.
  • Ringworm a persistent fungus 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.ringworm.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The fruiting structures of a few species contain psychotropic compounds and are consumed recreationally or in traditional spiritual ceremonies.^ The fruiting structures of a few species are consumed recreationally or in traditional ceremonies as a source of psychotropic compounds.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most species produce specialized fruiting bodies called ascocarps whose details of structure help define different species, classes, or orders.
  • Fungi – FREE Fungi information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Fungi research 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Asexual fruiting structure of Aspergillus species, illustrating septate hyphae, conidiophore, vesicle, phialides and conidiospores.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.atsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Fungi can break down manufactured materials and buildings, and become significant pathogens of humans and other animals.^ Fungi can break down manufactured materials and buildings, and become significant pathogens of humans and other animals.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Sex and virulence of human pathogenic fungi".
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some fungi are pathogenic to humans and other animals.
  • Fungi Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Losses of crops due to fungal diseases (e.g.^ Several species of the fungi are significant pathogens of humans and other animals, and losses due to diseases of crops (e.g., rice blast disease) or food spoilage caused by fungi can have a large impact on human food supply and local economies.
  • Fungi - Encyclopedia of Life 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.eol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Losses of crops due to fungal diseases (e.g., rice blast disease ) or food spoilage can have a large impact on human food supplies and local economies.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungi also are important crop parasites, causing loss of food plants, spoilage of food and some infectious diseases.
  • Biological Diversity 4 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.rice blast disease) or food spoilage can have a large impact on human food supplies and local economies.^ Losses of crops due to fungal diseases (e.g., rice blast disease ) or food spoilage can have a large impact on human food supplies and local economies.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Several species of the fungi are significant pathogens of humans and other animals, and losses due to diseases of crops (e.g., rice blast disease) or food spoilage caused by fungi can have a large impact on human food supply and local economies.
  • Fungi - Encyclopedia of Life 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.eol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Fungi can also destroy crops, cause diseases in humans (e.g., candidiasis and ringworm ), and ruin clothing and food with mildew and rot.
  • fungus (biology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.The fungus kingdom encompasses an enormous diversity of taxa with varied ecologies, life cycle strategies, and morphologies ranging from single-celled aquatic chytrids to large mushrooms.^ Life cycle of fungi - Ecology of fungi .
  • fungus (biology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Life cycle of the fungus gnat .
  • Floriculture: Fact Sheets: Pest Management: Fungus Gnats and Shore flies 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.umass.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The yeast cell's life cycle.
  • Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Nature/Fungi - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, little is known of the true biodiversity of Kingdom Fungi, which has been estimated at around 1.5 million species, with about 5% of these having been formally classified.^ There is otherwise little special about them.
  • Skin Fungus 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, mycologists commonly distinguish within the kingdom Fungi —the true .
  • FUNGI, 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, little is known of the true biodiversity of Kingdom Fungi, which has been estimated at around 1.5 million species, with about 5% of these having been formally classified.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Ever since the pioneering 18th and 19th century taxonomical works of Carl Linnaeus, Christian Hendrik Persoon, and Elias Magnus Fries, fungi have been classified according to their morphology (e.g., characteristics such as spore color or microscopic features) or physiology.^ Ever since the pioneering 18th and 19th century taxonomical works of Carl Linnaeus , Christian Hendrik Persoon , and Elias Magnus Fries , fungi have been classified according to their morphology (e.g., characteristics such as spore color or microscopic features) or physiology .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungi can be identified on the basis of a number of macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, including, spore structure, cap shape and colour, presence of gills or tubes, flesh colour, smell and habitat.

^ Extending the use of the binomial system of nomenclature introduced by Carl Linnaeus in his Species plantarum (1753), the Dutch Christian Hendrik Persoon (17611836) established the first classification of mushrooms with such skill so as to be considered a founder of modern mycology.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Advances in molecular genetics have opened the way for DNA analysis to be incorporated into taxonomy, which has sometimes challenged the historical groupings based on morphology and other traits.^ Advances in molecular genetics have opened the way for DNA analysis to be incorporated into taxonomy, which has sometimes challenged the historical groupings based on morphology and other traits.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Prior classification systems of Fungi based primarily on morphology are in need of updating to more accurately reflect phylogenetic relationships as determined by molecular systematics.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other highly consequential microbes such as the microsporidia and the oomycetes commonly elicit reactions such as "I really should look into them sometime."

.Phylogenetic studies published in the last decade have helped reshape the classification of Kingdom Fungi, which is divided into one subkingdom, seven phyla, and ten subphyla.^ A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Phylogenetic studies published in the last decade have helped reshape the classification of Kingdom Fungi, which is divided into one subkingdom , seven phyla , and ten subphyla.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The five-kingdom system has been supplanted by a multiple-kingdom classification, and species traditionally treated as fungi are now distributed across several kingdoms.
  • Fungi – FREE Fungi information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Fungi research 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Etymology

.The English word fungus is directly adopted from the Latin fungus (mushroom), used in the writings of Horace and Pliny.^ Back to top ] The English word fungus is directly adopted from the Latin fungus (mushroom), used in the writings of Horace and Pliny .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Our research at Penn State has shown that blending used mushroom compost with a landscape mulch at about 40 % will greatly suppress artillery fungus sporulation.
  • Artillery Fungus- Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.personal.psu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ QUESTION ] 07/25/2009: Kenneth from Spring Valley, Ca writes: "I see a lot of posts of ACV uses for toenail fungus by soaking the nail.
  • Nail Fungus Remedies on Earth Clinic, Your Source for Natural Cures. 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

[3] .This in turn is derived from the Greek word sphongos/σφογγος ("sponge"), which refers to the macroscopic structures and morphology of mushrooms and molds; the root is also used in other languages, such as the German Schwamm ("sponge"), Schimmel ("mold"), and the French champignon and the Spanish champiñon (which both mean "mushroom").^ Huphe is the Greek word for a web, and mycelium is derived from mukes meaning mushroom.

^ Onychia is derived from Greek and refers to nail.
  • Toe Nail Fungus information at MyFootShop.com! 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.myfootshop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are attracted by other Fungi such as the bright red Fly Agaric mushroom, and the unusual Bird's Nest fungi.

[4] .The use of the word mycology, which is derived from the Greek mykes/μύκης (mushroom) and logos/λόγος (discourse),[5] to denote the scientific study of fungi is thought to have originated in 1836 with English naturalist Miles Joseph Berkeley's publication The English Flora of Sir James Edward Smith, Vol.^ Mycology mycology is the study of fungi.

^ The study of fungi is called mycology.
  • FUNGI, 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Back to top ] The English word fungus is directly adopted from the Latin fungus (mushroom), used in the writings of Horace and Pliny .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

5.
[4]

Characteristics

.Before the introduction of molecular methods for phylogenetic analysis, taxonomists considered fungi to be members of the Plant Kingdom because of similarities in lifestyle: both fungi and plants are mainly immobile, and have similarities in general morphology and growth habitat.^ Back to top ] Before the introduction of molecular methods for phylogenetic analysis, taxonomists considered fungi to be members of the Plant Kingdom , based largely on similarities in lifestyle: both fungi and plants are mainly immobile , and have similarities in general morphology and growth habitat.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Submissions for the collection: Introduction to Kingdom Fungi .
  • Introduction to Kingdom Fungi - a knol by Steven Albee-Scott, Ph.D. 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus both the fungi and the plants flourish because of the association.

.Like plants, fungi often grow in soil, and in the case of mushrooms form conspicuous fruiting bodies, which sometimes bear resemblance to plants such as mosses.^ Fungi are often erroneously said to resemble plants.

^ Mushrooms are fruiting bodies of underground mycelia .

^ It is from such structures that reproductive fruiting bodies are formed.

.The fungi are now considered a separate kingdom, distinct from both plants and animals, from which they appear to have diverged around one billion years ago.^ Both plants and fungi possess a cell wall, a feature absent in the Animal Kingdom .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The fungi are now considered a separate kingdom, distinct from both plants and animals, from which they appear to have diverged around one billion years ago.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ (They protect living plants from the fungi.
  • Mold & Fungus 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6][7] Some morphological, biochemical, and genetic features are shared with other organisms, while others are unique to the fungi, clearly separating them from the other kingdoms:
Shared features:
.
  • With other eukaryotes: As other eukaryotes, fungal cells contain membrane-bound nuclei with chromosomes that contain DNA with noncoding regions called introns and coding regions called exons.^ Fungal cells contain haploid nuclei .
    • Kingdom Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.hutchcc.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Their nucleus like that of other eukaryotic organisms contains a nucleolus and several chromosomes that are bound by a nuclear membrane.
    • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

    ^ With other eukaryotes: As other eukaryotes, fungal cells contain membrane-bound nuclei with chromosomes that contain DNA with noncoding regions called introns and coding regions called exons .
    • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

    .In addition, fungi possess membrane-bound cytoplasmic organelles such as mitochondria, sterol-containing membranes, and ribosomes of the 80S type.^ In addition, fungi possess membrane-bound cytoplasmic organelles such as mitochondria , sterol -containing membranes, and ribosomes of the 80S type.
    • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Hyphae contain nuclei, mitochondria, ribosomes, Golgi and membrane-bound vesicles within a plasma-membrane bound cytoplasm.

    ^ As in other eukaryotic organisms, fungi have mitochondria, 80s ribosomes and centrioles.
    • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

    [8] .They have a characteristic range of soluble carbohydrates and storage compounds, including sugar alcohols (e.g., mannitol), disaccharides, (e.g., trehalose), and polysaccharides (e.g., glycogen, which is also found in animals[9]).
  • With animals: Fungi lack chloroplasts and are heterotrophic organisms, requiring preformed organic compounds as energy sources.^ They have a characteristic range of soluble carbohydrates and storage compounds, including sugar alcohols (e.g., mannitol ), disaccharides , (e.g., trehalose ), and polysaccharides (e.g., g lycogen , which is also found in animals [8 ] ).
    • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Because fungi are more chemically and genetically similar to animals than other organisms, this makes fungal diseases very difficult to treat.
    • Geometry.Net - Science: Fungi 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

    ^ These are not produced at all times since they require extra energy from the organism.
    • Mold & Fungus 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [10]
  • .
  • With plants: Fungi possess a cell wall[11] and vacuoles.^ Fungi have cell walls made of chitin .

    ^ Both plants and fungi possess a cell wall, a feature absent in the Animal Kingdom .
    • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ With plants: Fungi possess a cell wall [10 ] and vacuoles .
    • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

    [12] .They reproduce by both sexual and asexual means, and like basal plant groups (such as ferns and mosses) produce spores.^ Spores can be produced sexually or asexually .
    • Kingdom Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.hutchcc.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ They reproduce by both sexual and asexual means, and like basal plant groups (such as ferns and mosses ) produce spores .
    • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ They are very rarely produce asexual spores.

    .Similar to mosses and algae, fungi typically have haploid nuclei.^ Similar to mosses and algae, fungi typically have haploid nuclei.
    • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Though fungi nuclei are typically haploid , that doesn't stop haploid nuclei from different fungal parents (e.g., mom and dad equivalents) from being present in the same cytoplasm .

    ^ Sac-fungus female-like receiver of haploid nuclei from sac-fungi antheridia (Figure 31.8) .

    [13]
  • .
  • With euglenoids and bacteria: Higher fungi, euglenoids, and some bacteria produce the amino acid L-lysine in specific biosynthesis steps, called the α-aminoadipate pathway.^ With euglenoids and bacteria: Higher fungi, euglenoids, a nd some bacteria produce the amino acid L -lysine in specific biosynthesis steps, called the a-aminoadipate pathway .
    • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "Lysine biosynthesis and metabolism in fungi".
    • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "Th e a-aminoadipate pathway for lysine biosynthesis in fungi".
    • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

    [14][15]
  • .
  • The cells of most fungi grow as tubular, elongated, and thread-like (filamentous) structures and are called hyphae, which may contain multiple nuclei and extend at their tips.^ Both fungi and oomycetes grow as filamentous hyphal cells.
    • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ They grow as thread-like structures, called hyphae.
    • BioMEDIA ASSOCIATES 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.ebiomedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Most fungi grow as hyphae , which are cylindrical, thread-like structures 210 m in diameter and up to several centimeters in length.
    • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Each tip contains a set of aggregated vesicles—cellular structures consisting of proteins, lipids, and other organic molecules—called Spitzenkörper.^ Each tip contains a set of aggregated vesicles cellular structures consisting of proteins , lipids , and other organic moleculescalled Spitzenkrper .
    • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Functional red rice yeast (latin name: Monascus purpureus, other names: Hong Qu, red rice, red yeast) is a substance by fermenting a type of red yeast called Monascus purpureus over organic rice, used...
    • yeast - yeast Suppliers,yeast Exporters 7 January 2010 5:30 UTC www.tradeindia.com [Source type: General]

    ^ With other eukaryotes: As other eukaryotes, fungal cells contain membrane-bound nuclei with chromosomes that contain DNA with noncoding regions called introns and coding regions called exons .
    • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

    [16] .Both fungi and oomycetes grow as filamentous hyphal cells.^ Oomycetes (kingdom Chromista) are distinguished from true fungi by having glucan-cellulose cell walls that only occasionally incorporate small amounts of chitin.
    • Fungi – FREE Fungi information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Fungi research 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Both mold and mildew are fungi, but they are different kinds of fungi that prefer different environments in which to grow.
    • Tag: Fungi - Explore content tagged Fungi on eHow.com 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In most fungi the hyphal growth unit includes the tip cell plus 2 to 3 sub-apical compartments.

    [17] .In contrast, similar-looking organisms, such as filamentous green algae, grow by repeated cell division within a chain of cells.^ In contrast, similar-looking organisms, such as filamentous green algae , grow b y repeated cell division within a chain of cells.
    • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Unipolar cell divisions in the yeast S. cerevisiae lead to filamentous growth: Regulation by starvation and RAS [My Copy] Cell , Vol.
    • CiteULike: Tag yeast [at least 200 articles] 7 January 2010 5:30 UTC www.citeulike.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Knowledge of the genes that the parasite uses to start this lethal cell division may shed light on the mechanisms that cause human tumours to grow.

    [9]
  • .
  • In common with some plant and animal species, more than 60 fungal species display the phenomenon of bioluminescence.^ In common with some plant and animal species, more than 60 fungal species display the phenomenon of bioluminescence .
    • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Certain species may be more common than others.
    • http://www.aerias.org/DesktopModules/ArticleDetail.aspx?articleId=52&spaceid=1&subid=6 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.aerias.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In many ways fungi are more closely related to animals than to plants, and they have been thought to share a common protist ancestor with animals.
    • Fungi Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

    [18]
Unique features:
.
  • Some species grow as single-celled yeasts that reproduce by budding or binary fission.^ Some species grow as single-celled yeasts that reproduce by budding or binary fission .
    • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Yeasts are single-celled but most fungal species are multicellular.

    ^ Some species reproduce only asexually.
    • Chapter 31 - Fungi | Course-Notes.Org 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.course-notes.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Dimorphic fungi can switch between a yeast phase and a hyphal phase in response to environmental conditions.^ Dimorphic fungi can switch between a yeast phase and a hyphal phase in response to environmental conditions.
    • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Fungi are also used extensively by humans: yeasts are responsible for fermentation of beer and bread, and mushroom farming and gathering is a large industry in many countries.
    • Fungi.eu 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC www.fungi.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Studies on fungi similar to Ophiocordyceps show that they need very humid conditions to grow well, and temperatures between 20 and 30 degrees C. .
    • Respect For the Fungus Overlords | The Loom | Discover Magazine 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC blogs.discovermagazine.com [Source type: General]

    [19 ]
  • .
  • The fungal cell wall is composed of glucans and chitin; while the former compounds are also found in plants and the latter in the exoskeleton of arthropods,[20][21] fungi are the only organisms that combine these two structural molecules in their cell wall.^ Fungi have cell walls made of chitin .

    ^ Cell wall structure and growth: the structure of the fungal cell wall .

    ^ The cell wall of fungi consists of chitin, chitosan, glucan, mannan and other components in various combinations.
    • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

    .In contrast to plants and the oomycetes, fungal cell walls do not contain cellulose.^ In contrast to plants and the oomycetes, fu ngal cell walls do not contain cellulose.
    • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The fungal cell wall .

    ^ One major difference is that fungal cells have cell walls that contain chitin , unlike the cell walls of plants, which contain cellulose .
    • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

    [22]
A whitish fan or funnel-shaped mushroom growing at the base of a tree.
Omphalotus nidiformis, a bioluminescent mushroom
.Most fungi lack an efficient system for long-distance transport of water and nutrients, such as the xylem and phloem in many plants.^ Omphalotus nidiformis , a bioluminescent mushroom Most fungi lack an efficient system for long-distance transport of water and nutrients, such as the xylem and phloem in many plants.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The ability of fungi to derive nutrients from decaying matter such as rotting trees is termed saprophytous .

^ Mineral nutrient requirements and ion uptake, water conditions like water related stress, internal transport processes for the manufacture and distribution of nutrients, the role of plant hormones, inhibitors, and phytochromes in the regulation of plant growth and development, must be understood.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

.To overcome these limitations, some fungi, such as Armillaria, form rhizomorphs,[23] that resemble and perform functions similar to the roots of plants.^ Fungi are also important aiders of plant root function, as mycorrizhae .
  • Biological Diversity 4 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These protists are similar to plants.
  • Protista Group 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC students.ncwc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some fungi are parasites of plants.

.Another characteristic shared with plants includes a biosynthetic pathway for producing terpenes that uses mevalonic acid and pyrophosphate as chemical building blocks.^ Characteristics shared with plants also include a biosynthetic pathway for producing terpenes that uses mevalonic acid and pyrophosphate as chemical building blocks .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungi are used extensively to produce industrial chemicals like citric , gluconic , lactic , and malic acids , antibiotics, and even to make stonewashed jeans .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungi are also used to produce industrial chemicals like lactic acid , antibiotics and even to make stonewashed jeans .
  • Fungus - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC reid.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fungus - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fungi.eu 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC www.fungi.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24] .However, plants have an additional terpene pathway in their chloroplasts, a structure fungi do not possess.^ However, plants have an additional terpene pathway in their chloroplasts, a structure fungi do not possess.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, most vascular plants could not grow without the symbiotic fungi, or mycorrhizae , that inhabit their roots and supply essential nutrients.
  • Geometry.Net - Science: Fungi 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

^ However, the cell wall structure of plants and fungi differs considerably, with plant cell walls being made of celluloses and hemi-celluloses, and the fungal cell walls composed mainly of other polysaccharides including chitin, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine.

[25] .Fungi produce several secondary metabolites that are similar or identical in structure to those made by plants.^ Fungi can also produce secondary metabolites as needed.
  • Mold & Fungus 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These fungi produce secondary metabolites, or mycotoxins .
  • Mold & Fungus 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fungi produce several secondary metabolites that are similar or identical in structure to those made by plants.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[24] .Many of the plant and fungal enzymes that make these compounds differ from each other in sequence and other characteristics, which indicates separate origins and evolution of these enzymes in the fungi and plants.^ These fungi come in so many different types that...
  • Tag: Fungi - Explore content tagged Fungi on eHow.com 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ Many of the plant and fungal enzymes that make these compounds differ from each other in sequence and other characteristics, which indicates separate origins and evolution of these enzymes in the fungi and plants.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many fungi are parasites on plants, animals (including humans), and other fungi.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[24][26]

Diversity

.Fungi have a worldwide distribution, and grow in a wide range of habitats, including extreme environments such as deserts or areas with high salt concentrations[27] or ionizing radiation,[28] as well as in deep sea sediments.^ These fungi are distributed worldwide.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungi with high Aw values like to grow in wetter environments.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Back to top ] Fungi have a worldwide distribution, and grow in a wide range of habitats, including extreme environments such as deserts or areas with high salt concentrations [26 ] or ionizing radiation , [27 ] as well as in deep sea sediments.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[29 ] .Some can survive the intense UV and cosmic radiation encountered during space travel.^ Some can survive the intense UV and cosmic radiation encountered during space travel.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The function of some spores is not primarily for dispersal, but to allow the organisms to survive as resistant cells during periods when the conditions of the environment are not conducive to growth.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some are survival spores formed in response to adverse abiotic conditions that can include desiccation, high UV, high/low temperatures or starvation.

[30] .Most grow in terrestrial environments, though several species live partly or solely in aquatic habitats, such as the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a parasite that has been responsible for a worldwide decline in amphibian populations.^ Most grow in terrestrial environments, but several species live partly or solely in aquatic habitats, such as the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis , which has been responsible for a worldwide decline in amphibian populations.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It takes a while but the fungus will not grow in the environment.
  • Toenail Fungus cure : by Ray Sahelian, M.D. Home remedy for toe nail fungus infection 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: General]

^ An alkaline environment encourages the fungus to grow.
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Fungal Infection 22 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This organism spends part of its life cycle as a motile zoospore, enabling it to propel itself through water and enter its amphibian host.^ This organism spends part of its life cycle as a motile zoospore , enabling it to propel itself through water and enter its amphibian host.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Club fungi spend most of their life cycle in the dikaryotic state .

^ Concept 31.2 Fungi produce spores through sexual or asexual life cycles .
  • Chapter 31 - Fungi | Course-Notes.Org 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.course-notes.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31] .Other examples of aquatic fungi include those living in hydrothermal areas of the ocean.^ Although one species of Amanita and various other Fungi possessing a volva are edible, yet the safest plan for those not familiar to them is to avoid all species possessing this organ.
  • botanical.com - A Modern Herbal | Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.botanical.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People who have lived in areas endemic for such fungi may develop, many years later in other parts of the world, an illness related to reactivation of a persistent, latent, fungal infection.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Examples where inoculating with either EM or AM fungi is beneficial when planting a mycorrhizal-dependent crop in an area where native inoculum potential is low: .

[32]
.Around 100,000 species of fungi have been formally described by taxonomists,[33] but the global biodiversity of the fungus kingdom is not fully understood.^ Edited...the estimated 1,500,000 species of fungi on Earth have been described.
  • Fungi Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Around 100,000 species of fungi have been formally described by taxonomists , [32 ] but the true dimension of global fungal diversity is not well understood.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Over 60,000 species of fungi are known.
  • Biological Diversity 4 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34] .On the basis of observations of the ratio of the number of fungal species to the number of plant species in selected environments, the fungal kingdom has been estimated to contain about 1.5 million species.^ Based on observations of the ratio of the number of fungal species to the number of plant species in selected environments, the fungal kingdom has been estimated to contain about 1.5 million species.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Currently the database contains 80,000 fungal taxa on 56,000 vascular plant hosts representing 324,000 unique host-fungus combinations.
  • SMML Fungus-Host Distribution Database 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC nt.ars-grin.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ One drop of fermenting juice can contain five million yeast cells capable of doubling their number every two hours in absolutely perfect conditions.

[35] .In mycology, species have historically been distinguished by a variety of methods and concepts.^ In mycology, species have historically been distinguished using a variety of species concepts.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Classification based on morphological characteristics, such as the size and shape of spores or fruiting structures, has traditionally dominated fungal taxonomy.^ Classification based on morphological characteristics, such as the size and shape of spores or fruiting structures, has traditionally dominated fungal taxonomy.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungi can be identified on the basis of a number of macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, including, spore structure, cap shape and colour, presence of gills or tubes, flesh colour, smell and habitat.

^ Mushroom fruiting bodies occur in many shapes and forms, and certain variations in their morphology underlay the traditional classification scheme for such fungi, which originated in the 19th century but is now obsolete for scientific purposes.
  • FUNGI, 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36] .Species may also be distinguished by their biochemical and physiological characteristics, such as their ability to metabolize certain biochemicals, or their reaction to chemical tests.^ Species may also be distinguished by their biochemical and physiological characteristics, such as their ability to metabolize certain biochemicals, or their reaction to chemical tests .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Use of some medicines that are available over the counter, can cause certain side effects especially for those who are already suffering from liver diseases and can also stimulate an allergic reaction because of some harmful chemicals they may contain.
  • Nail & Toe Nail Fungus Blog - … because you deserve beautiful nails 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC nailflora.com [Source type: General]

^ Around 40 species of fungi and certain bacteria are capable of carrying out chemical reactions that give out light sometimes causing the wood or leaves they attack to become luminous.
  • Frequently Asked Questions About Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC fungus.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The biological species concept discriminates species based on their ability to mate.^ The biological species concept discriminates species based on their ability to mate .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mating experiments between fungal isolates may identify species based on biological species concepts.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Delimiting species in fungi is often difficult, but in Armillaria the biological species concept, based on mating compatibility, has gained wide acceptance.
  • Armillaria gallica, the humongous fungus humungus. Tom Volk's Fungus of the Month for April 2002 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC botit.botany.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The application of molecular tools, such as DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, to study diversity has greatly enhanced the resolution and added robustness to estimates of genetic diversity within various taxonomic groups.^ Phylogenetic studies within the Pezizales.

^ The application of molecular tools, such as DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, to study diversity has greatly enhanced the resolution and added robustness to estimates of genetic diversity within various taxonomic groups.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A recent classification system suggested by nucleic acid (genetic material) comparisons places the fungi with the animals and the plants in an overarching taxonomic group called the eukarya.
  • Fungi Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

[37]

Morphology

Microscopic structures

Microscopic view of several purple-stained cells with two thick, dark purple lines and small dark purple circles near the lines
.
A hypha of Hyaloperonospora parasitica (downy mildew) growing within the leaf tissue of Arabidopsis thaliana.
^ A hypha of Hyaloperonospora parasitica (downy mildew) growing within the leaf tissue of Arabidopsis thaliana .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mycelia are tangled masses of hyphae typically found growing within a fungal food source .

^ "A fungal mycelium grows rapidly, adding as much as a kilometer of hyphae each day as it branches within a food source.

The long structure is the hypha, and the little spheres are haustoria, which extract nutrients from the plant cells.
.Most fungi grow as hyphae, which are cylindrical, thread-like structures 2–10 µm in diameter and up to several centimeters in length.^ All fungi are made up of many thin thread-like structures called hypha e.
  • Fungi.eu 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC www.fungi.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As fungi generally lack hard parts they are rarely found as fossils, but thread-like representatives have been found in Precambrian rocks.
  • Fungi Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When molds and fungi grow on building materials, they inevitably digest the materials, destroying the surfaces and ultimately weakening underlying structures.
  • http://www.aerias.org/DesktopModules/ArticleDetail.aspx?articleId=52&spaceid=1&subid=6 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.aerias.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hyphae grow at their tips (apices); new hyphae are typically formed by emergence of new tips along existing hyphae by a process called branching, or occasionally growing hyphal tips bifurcate (fork) giving rise to two parallel-growing hyphae.^ Hyphae grow by elongation at the tips and also by branching.
  • FUNGI, 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hyphae grow at their tips (apices); new tips typically form by branching from sub-apical hyphal locations or occasionally by bifurcation (forking) of growing tips.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In Sporodinia the branches give rise also to short branches, which meet and fuse their contents to form zygospores.

[38] .The combination of apical growth and branching/forking leads to the development of a mycelium, an interconnected network of hyphae.^ The combination of apical growth and branching/forking leads to the development of a mycelium , an interconnected network of hyphae.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mycelium : a network of numerous hyphae which develop within or along the substrate.
  • Palaeos Fungi: Glossary M 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.palaeos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such fast growth is possible because pr o teins and other materials synthesized by the entire mycelium are channeled by cytoplasmic streaming to the tips of the extending hyphae.

[19 ] .Hyphae can be either septate or coenocytic: septate hyphae are divided into compartments separated by cross walls (internal cell walls, called septa, that are formed at right angles to the cell wall giving the hypha its shape), with each compartment containing one or more nuclei; coenocytic hyphae are not compartmentalized.^ Many other fungi have septations that devide the hyphae into compartments that usually contain one to several nuclei per compartment.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Septate : with more or less regularly occurring cross-walls.
  • Palaeos Fungi: Glossary M 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.palaeos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hyphae are coenocytic, with septa found only where reproductive cells are formed.
  • Chapter 31 - Fungi | Course-Notes.Org 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.course-notes.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39] .Septa have pores that allow cytoplasm, organelles, and sometimes nuclei to pass through; an example is the dolipore septum in the fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota.^ Septate hyphae have "walls" between their cells, called septa, though these septa have holes that allow cytoplasm, organelles, and sometimes nuclei to pass through.
  • Fungi.eu 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC www.fungi.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Septa typically possess pores through which cytoplasm can flow .

^ Septa have pores , such as the dolipore septa in the basidiomycetes that allow cytoplasm , organelles , and sometimes nuclei to pass through.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[40] .Coenocytic hyphae are essentially multinucleate supercells.^ Coenocytic hyphae are essentially multinucleate supercells.
  • Fungi.eu 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC www.fungi.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[41]
.Many species have developed specialized hyphal structures for nutrient uptake from living hosts; examples include haustoria in plant-parasitic species of most fungal phyla, and arbuscules of several mycorrhizal fungi, which penetrate into the host cells to consume nutrients.^ The long structure is the hypha, and the little spheres are haustoria , which extract nutrients from the plant cells.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Basidiomycotina includes many fungi that live in association with plants.

^ Most other species of fungi are multicellular.
  • Chapter 31 - Fungi | Course-Notes.Org 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.course-notes.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42]
.Although fungi are opisthokonts—a grouping of evolutionarily related organisms broadly characterized by a single posterior flagellum—all phyla except for the chytrids have lost their posterior flagella.^ Although fungi are part of the opisthokont cladea grouping of evolutionarily related organisms broadly characterized by a single posterior flagellum all phyla except for the chytrids have lost their posterior flagella.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Moreover, the common occurrence of a single flagellum in chytrids, some ichthyosporeans, animals, and choanoflagellates suggests that the Nuclearia + Fungi ancestor also possessed a flagellum, which was subsequently lost in all fungi except chytrids.
  • The Protistan Origins of Animals and Fungi -- Steenkamp et al. 23 (1): 93 -- Molecular Biology and Evolution 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC mbe.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungi, animals, and other heterotrophic protist-like organisms such as choanoflagellates and Mesomycetozoea are now considered part of the larger group termed opisthokonts (Cavalier-Smith, 1987) in reference to the posterior flagellum.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

[43] .Fungi are unusual among the eukaryotes in having a cell wall that, in addition to glucans (e.g., β-1,3-glucan) and other typical components, also contains the biopolymer chitin.^ Fungi have cell walls made of chitin .

^ The cell wall of fungi consists of chitin, chitosan, glucan, mannan and other components in various combinations.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungi are unusual among the eukaryotes in having a cell wall of chitin .
  • Fungi.eu 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC www.fungi.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44]

Macroscopic structures

.Fungal mycelia can become visible to the naked eye, for example, on various surfaces and substrates, such as damp walls and on spoilt food, where they are commonly called mold.^ They also infect several commercially important animal species such as bees, silk worms, and salmon, and various domesticated mammals.

^ Several groups of ants cultivate various fungi in the Agaricales as their primary food source, while ambrosia beetles cultivate various kinds of fungi in the bark of trees that they infest.
  • Fungi.eu 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC www.fungi.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When molds and fungi grow on building materials, they inevitably digest the materials, destroying the surfaces and ultimately weakening underlying structures.
  • http://www.aerias.org/DesktopModules/ArticleDetail.aspx?articleId=52&spaceid=1&subid=6 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.aerias.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mycelia grown on solid agar media in laboratory petri dishes are usually referred to as colonies.^ Armillaria ostoyae Fungal mycelia can become visible macroscopically, for example, as concentric rings on various surfaces, such as damp walls, and on other substrates, such as spoilt food, and are commonly and generically called mold (British spelling , mould); mycelia grown on solid agar media in laboratory petri dishes are usually referred to as colonies, exhibiting characteristic macroscopic growth shapes and colors, due to spores or pigmentation .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The agar solution is then poured into the petri dishes.
  • Yeast Information and Technique Resource 7 January 2010 5:30 UTC hbd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Often Petri dishes are used, but the media is level, and hence the term slant is not always appropriate.
  • Yeast Information and Technique Resource 7 January 2010 5:30 UTC hbd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These colonies can exhibit growth shapes and colors (due to spores or pigmentation) that can be used as diagnostic features in the identification of species or groups.^ The colonies have a round, smooth,slightly domed shape, with a clearly defined border, and blue coloration.
  • Moulds and yeasts 17 September 2009 2:34 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Armillaria ostoyae Fungal mycelia can become visible macroscopically, for example, as concentric rings on various surfaces, such as damp walls, and on other substrates, such as spoilt food, and are commonly and generically called mold (British spelling , mould); mycelia grown on solid agar media in laboratory petri dishes are usually referred to as colonies, exhibiting characteristic macroscopic growth shapes and colors, due to spores or pigmentation .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Finally those who have fingernail fungus, avoid using any nail polish as most colored nail polish covers up the fingernail, causing or encouraging fungus growth.
  • Nail Fungus Remedies on Earth Clinic, Your Source for Natural Cures. 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

[45] .Some individual fungal colonies can reach extraordinary dimensions and ages as in the case of a clonal colony of Armillaria ostoyae, which extends over an area of more than 900 ha, with an estimated age of nearly 9,000 years.^ Using this method, some individual lichen colonies have been estimated to be 9000 years old.

^ More than 20,000 products.
  • Brewers Yeast Good For - Shop Smarter.com 15 September 2009 4:41 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

^ Some individual fungal colonies can grow to a very large size and mass, in some cases reaching extraordinary dimensions and ages as in the case of a clonal colony of Armillaria ostoyae , which extends over an area of more than 900 ha , with an estimated age of nearly 9,000 years.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[46]
.The apothecium—a specialized structure important in sexual reproduction in the ascomycetes—is a cup-shaped fruiting body that holds the hymenium, a layer of tissue containing the spore-bearing cells.^ It is from such structures that reproductive fruiting bodies are formed.

^ Sexual reproduction in basidiomycetes is similar to that of ascomycetes.
  • Fungi.eu 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC www.fungi.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the ascomycetes, a specialized structure important in sexual reproduction is the apothecium , a cup-shaped structure that holds the hymenium , a layer of tissue containing the spore-bearing cells.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[47] .The fruiting bodies of the basidiomycetes and some ascomycetes can sometimes grow very large, and many are well-known as mushrooms.^ Mushrooms are fruiting bodies of underground mycelia .

^ Many of the fruiting bodies also have a stalk.

^ Many fungi have fruiting bodies e.g.

Growth and physiology

.The growth of fungi as hyphae on or in solid substrates or as single cells in aquatic environments is adapted for the efficient extraction of nutrients, because these growth forms have high surface area to volume ratios.^ Hyphae are specifically adapted for growth on solid surfaces, and to invade substrates and tissues.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Back to top ] The growth of fungi as filamentous hyphae on or in solid substrates or as single cells in aquatic environments is adapted for the efficient extraction of nutrients, because these growth forms have high surface area to volume ratios .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Yeasts are single-celled fungi.
  • Chapter 31 - Fungi | Course-Notes.Org 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.course-notes.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48] .Hyphae are specifically adapted for growth on solid surfaces, and to invade substrates and tissues.^ Hyphae are specifically adapted for growth on solid surfaces, and to invade substrates and tissues.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Back to top ] The growth of fungi as filamentous hyphae on or in solid substrates or as single cells in aquatic environments is adapted for the efficient extraction of nutrients, because these growth forms have high surface area to volume ratios .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ More generally, a mass or matrix of vegetative hyphae, with or without tissue of the host or substrate, in or on which spores are produced.
  • Palaeos Fungi: Glossary M 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.palaeos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49] .They can exert large penetrative mechanical forces; for example, the plant pathogen Magnaporthe grisea forms a structure called an appressorium which evolved to puncture plant tissues.^ They can exert large penetrative mechanical forces; for example, the plant pathogen Magnaporthe grisea forms a structure called an appressorium which evolved to puncture plant tissues.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Parasitic fungi absorb nutrients from the body fluids of its host, and parasites of plants may produce specialized hyphae called haustoria that penetrate a plants cell wall and lie against the plasma membrane, where they can both absorb food.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC faculty.unlv.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These usually are species that produce large numbers of spores, and examples include many species pathogenic on agricultural crops and trees.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

[50] .The pressure generated by the appressorium, directed against the plant epidermis, can exceed 8 MPa (80 bars).^ The pressure generated by the appressorium, directed against the plant epidermis , can exceed 8 MPa (80& #160;bars ).
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The mechanical pressure exerted by the appressorium is generated from physiological processes that increase intracellular turgor by producing osmolytes such as glycerol .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They generate humus soils and facilitate multi-directional transfer of nutrients between plants.
  • Andy's northern Ontario Alien Wildflowers - Mushroom or Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.ontariowildflower.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50] .The filamentous fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus uses a similar structure to penetrate the eggs of nematodes.^ The filamentous fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus uses a similar structure to penetrate the eggs of plant-parasitic nematodes .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The latter fungus is useful to humans as a leavening agent in bread as well as brewing of beer and similar alcoholic beverages.
  • Biological Diversity 4 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some carnivorous fungi , like Paecilomyces lilacinus , are predators of nematodes , which they capture using an array of specialized structures such as constricting rings or adhesive nets.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[51]
Time-lapse photography sequence of a peach becoming progressively discolored and disfigured
.Mold covering a decaying peach.^ Mold covering a decaying peach.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

The frames were taken approximately 12 hours apart over a period of six days.
.The mechanical pressure exerted by the appressorium is generated from physiological processes that increase intracellular turgor by producing osmolytes such as glycerol.^ The mechanical pressure exerted by the appressorium is generated from physiological processes that increase intracellular turgor by producing osmolytes such as glycerol .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The pressure generated by the appressorium, directed against the plant epidermis , can exceed 8 MPa (80& #160;bars ).
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, some varieties of fungi form polysaccharides and polyhydroxy alcohol such as mannitol and GLYCEROL. Proteins and fats are produced in abundance by some fungi.
  • FUNGI, 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52] .Morphological adaptations such as these are complemented by hydrolytic enzymes secreted into the environment to digest large organic molecules—such as polysaccharides, proteins, lipids, and other organic substrates—into smaller molecules that may then be absorbed as nutrients.^ They are heterotrophic and digest their food externally, absorbing nutrient molecules into their cells.
  • Fungi.eu 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC www.fungi.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fungi feed by secreting hydrolytic enzymes into their local environment.

^ Morphological adaptations such as these are complemented by hydrolytic enzymes secreted into the environment to digest large organic moleculessuch as polysaccharides , proteins , lipids , and other organic substratesinto smaller molecules that may then be absorbed as nutrients.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[53][54][55] .The vast majority of filamentous fungi grow in a polar fashion—i.e., by extension into one direction—by elongation at the tip (apex) of the hypha.^ Hyphae grow by elongation at the tips and also by branching.
  • FUNGI, 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the vast majority of filamentous (hypha-forming) fungi grow in a polar or directional fashion by extension at the tip of the hypha, [56 ] intercalary extension as in the case of some endophytic fungi, [57 ] or by volume expansion during the development of mushroom stipes and other large organs [58 ] are alternative forms of growth.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Micheli not only observed spores, but showed that under the proper conditions, they could be induced into growing into the same species of fungi from which they originated.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[56] .Alternative forms of fungal growth include intercalary extension (i.e., by longitudinal expansion of hyphal compartments that are below the apex) as in the case of some endophytic fungi,[57] or growth by volume expansion during the development of mushroom stipes and other large organs.^ While the vast majority of filamentous (hypha-forming) fungi grow in a polar or directional fashion by extension at the tip of the hypha, [56 ] intercalary extension as in the case of some endophytic fungi, [57 ] or by volume expansion during the development of mushroom stipes and other large organs [58 ] are alternative forms of growth.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mushrooms and other fungi : their form and colour /by H. Kleijn ; with 94 colour photos.

^ Around 100,000 species of fungi are divided into five phyla, based largely on the characteristics of their reproductive organs.
  • Geometry.Net - Science: Fungi 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

[58] .Growth of fungi as multicellular structures consisting of somatic and reproductive cells—a feature independently evolved in animals and plants[59]—has several functions, including the development of fruiting bodies for dissemination of sexual spores (see above) and biofilms for substrate colonization and intercellular communication.^ Both plants and fungi possess a cell wall, a feature absent in the Animal Kingdom .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is from such structures that reproductive fruiting bodies are formed.

^ It differs in many aspects from sexual reproduction in animals or plants.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[60]
.Traditionally, the fungi are considered heterotrophs, organisms that rely solely on carbon fixed by other organisms for metabolism.^ These fungi are pretty unique because, unlike the other light-emitting organisms, fungi don't walk, swim, or fly.

^ Because fungi are more chemically and genetically similar to animals than other organisms, this makes fungal diseases very difficult to treat.
  • Geometry.Net - Science: Fungi 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

^ The fossil record shows that fungi were present in Antarctica, as is the case for other organisms with Gondwanan distributions.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

.Fungi have evolved a high degree of metabolic versatility that allows them to use a diverse range of organic substrates for growth, including simple compounds such as nitrate, ammonia, acetate, or ethanol.^ Fungi have evolved a remarkable metabolic versatility that allows them to use a diverse range of organic substrates for growth, including simple compounds such as nitrate , ammonia , acetate , or ethanol .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition a number of fungi are used in the processing and flavoring of foods (baker's and brewer's yeasts, Penicillia in cheese-making) and in production of antibiotics and organic acids.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ WHAT IS FUNGUS? (n) fungus (an organism of the kingdom Fungi lacking chlorophyll and feeding on organic matter; ranging from unicellular or multicellular organisms to spore-bearing syncytia) .
  • Nail Fungus Cures - Toenail Fungus Treatments, Nail Fungus Pictures 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.nailfunguscure.org [Source type: General]

[61][62] .For some species it has been shown that the pigment melanin may play a role in extracting energy from ionizing radiation, such as gamma radiation; however, this form of "radiotrophic" growth has only been described for a few species, the effects on growth rates are small, and the underlying biophysical and biochemical processes are not known.^ Some species reproduce only asexually.
  • Chapter 31 - Fungi | Course-Notes.Org 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.course-notes.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has long been known that some foods have an effect on the growth of yeast.

^ Some species form relationships with bacteria.
  • Paramecium - www.101science.com 22 September 2009 20:18 UTC www.101science.com [Source type: Academic]

[28] .The authors speculate that this process might bear similarity to CO2 fixation via visible light, but instead utilizing ionizing radiation as a source of energy.^ This process might bear similarity to CO 2 fixation via anaplerotic reactions using visible light , but instead utilizing ionizing radiation as a source of energy.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some of these volatile compounds are produced continually as the fungus consumes its energy source during primary metabolic processes.
  • Mold & Fungus 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead of " rubbing the bevel " as is the usual process for light cuts, try " floating the bevel" instead.
  • Hilton Handcraft - Spalting, A Fungus Amongus: Spalted Wood Explained 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.hiltonhandcraft.com [Source type: Original source]

[63]

Reproduction

.Fungal reproduction is complex, reflecting the differences in lifestyles and genetic makeup within this kingdom of organisms.^ Back to top ] Polyporus squamosus Fungal reproduction is complex, reflecting the heterogeneity in lifestyles and genetic makeup within this Kingdom of organisms.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Within an ascus, karyogamy combines the two parental genomes, and meiosis forms four genetically different nuclei forming eight ascospores.
  • Chapter 31 - Fungi | Course-Notes.Org 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.course-notes.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fungal kingdom is defined by several featuressome shared with other organisms, others unique to the fungi: .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[64] .It is estimated that a third of all fungi reproduce by different modes of propagation; for example, reproduction may occur in two well-differentiated stages within the life cycle of a species, the teleomorph and the anamorph.^ Life cycle of fungi - Ecology of fungi .
  • fungus (biology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It is estimated that a third of all fungi use more than one type of reproduction, frequently in t wo well-differentiated life cycle stages (the teleomorph and the anamorph ).
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most fungi have both a haploid and diploid stage in their life cycles.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[65] .Environmental conditions trigger genetically determined developmental states that lead to the creation of specialized structures for sexual or asexual reproduction.^ Environmental conditions trigger genetically determined developmental programs that lead to the creation of specialized structures for sexual or asexual reproduction.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Growth and reproduction are life processes, which depend upon different sets of conditions; in the lower organisms external conditions mainly, determine whether growth or reproduction takes place.
  • Role of Fungi in Coffee Plantation Ecology (INeedCoffee.com) 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.ineedcoffee.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The process of growth and reproduction differ in that growth may take place under a wide range of environmental; conditions than reproduction; growth may take place , therefore under conditions which inhibit reproduction and Vegetative growth appears to be mostly a preliminary step for reproduction in that it creates a suitable internal environment for it.
  • Role of Fungi in Coffee Plantation Ecology (INeedCoffee.com) 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.ineedcoffee.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These structures aid reproduction by efficiently dispersing spores or spore-containing propagules.^ These structures aid both reproduction and efficient dispersal of spores or spore-containing propagules .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reproduction in fungi may be asexual or sexual and, in both cases, spores are the structures that are responsible for dispersing progeny to colonize new locations.

^ These (n + n) mycelia grow into visible, above-ground, spore-bearing reproductive structures (called fruiting bodies) that we recognize as puffballs, morels, mushrooms and shelf fungi.

Asexual reproduction

.Asexual reproduction via vegetative spores (conidia) or through mycelial fragmentation is common; it maintains clonal populations adapted to a specific niche, and allows more rapid dispersal than sexual reproduction.^ Asexual reproduction is much less common in basidiomycetes than in ascomycetes.
  • Chapter 31 - Fungi | Course-Notes.Org 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.course-notes.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reproduction in fungi may be asexual or sexual and, in both cases, spores are the structures that are responsible for dispersing progeny to colonize new locations.

^ After their death the fungal growth erupts through the fly cuticle, and dispersal by forcible spore discharge is a source of inoculum for infection of new flies.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

[66] .The "Fungi imperfecti" (fungi lacking the perfect or sexual stage) or Deuteromycota comprise all the species which lack an observable sexual cycle.^ Hindwings are lacking in all species of Microgramme .
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 10] Pests in Excessively Damp Locations< 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.entomology.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the case of the "Fungi imperfecti" or Deuteromycota , which lack a sexual cycle, it is the only means of propagation.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Species Video Images All Home > Fungi (including lichens) List by common name List by scientific name Click on the first letter of the common name.
  • Fungi - sorted by common name - ARKive 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.arkive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fungi - sorted by scientific name - ARKive 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.arkive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[67]

Sexual reproduction

.Sexual reproduction with meiosis exists in all fungal phyla (with the exception of the Glomeromycota).^ Sexual reproduction with meiosis exists in all fungal phyla (with the exception of the Glomeromycota ).
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Differences also exist between fungal groups and can be used to discriminate species based on morphological differences in sexual structures and reproductive strategies.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ See also: List of fungal orders The major phyla (sometimes called divisions) of fungi have been classified based mainly on the characteristics of their sexual reproductive structures.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[68] .It differs in many aspects from sexual reproduction in animals or plants.^ We would effectively be lost under piles, many meters thick, of dead plant and animal remains.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC faculty.unlv.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We would effectively be lost under piles many meters thick, of dead plant and animal remains.

^ Mycorrhizal fungi can often form associations with many different kinds of plants at the same time.

.Differences also exist between fungal groups and can be used to discriminate species by morphological differences in sexual structures and reproductive strategies.^ Differences also exist between fungal groups and can be used to discriminate species based on morphological differences in sexual structures and reproductive strategies.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because of morphological similarities between P. stipitis and C. shehatae , the former was believed to be the teleomorph and the latter the anamorph of closely related species.
  • Genetic Engineering of Xylose Fermenting Yeasts 17 September 2009 2:34 UTC calvin.biotech.wisc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungal Ecology: It has recently been estimated that some 1.5 x 106 species of fungi are thought to exist, with about 80,000 species or only 5% having yet having been described, making the fungi one of the most speciose groups of organisms on the planet.
  • NJ Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.eboehm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[69][70] .Mating experiments between fungal isolates may identify species on the basis of biological species concepts.^ Mating experiments between fungal isolates may identify species based on biological species concepts.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The biological species concept discriminates species based on their ability to mate .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Candida species were identified on the basis of germ-tube production, spore formation in cornmeal agar, and results of biochemical testing.

[70] .The major fungal groupings have initially been delineated based on the morphology of their sexual structures and spores; for example, the spore-containing structures, asci and basidia, can be used in the identification of ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, respectively.^ Asci and basidia are both microscopic structures.

^ Athletes foot and Candida infections are examples of human fungal infections  Food Spoilage It has already been noted that fungi play a major role in recycling organic material.

^ As in most analyses of fungal phylogeny (e.g., Berbee and Taylor 2001 ), a strongly supported grouping of "higher fungi," containing typical ascomycete and basidiomycete clusters, is reconstructed by these data ( fig.
  • The Protistan Origins of Animals and Fungi -- Steenkamp et al. 23 (1): 93 -- Molecular Biology and Evolution 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC mbe.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Some species may allow mating only between individuals of opposite mating type, while others can mate and sexually reproduce with any other individual or itself.^ Some species may allow mating only between individuals of opposite mating type , while others can mate and sexually reproduce with any other individual or itself.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, some Basidiomycota reproduce asexually, and may or may not also reproduce sexually.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some species grow as single-celled yeasts that reproduce by budding or binary fission .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Species of the former mating system are called heterothallic, and of the latter homothallic.^ Species of the former mating system are called heterothallic , and of the latter homothallic .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because of morphological similarities between P. stipitis and C. shehatae , the former was believed to be the teleomorph and the latter the anamorph of closely related species.
  • Genetic Engineering of Xylose Fermenting Yeasts 17 September 2009 2:34 UTC calvin.biotech.wisc.edu [Source type: Academic]

[71]
.Most fungi have both an haploid and diploid stage in their life cycles.^ Most fungi have both a haploid and diploid stage in their life cycles.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ True fungi typically do not have eukaryotic 9 + 2 flagella (called undulipodia) at any stage in their life cycles.

^ The life cycles of most chytrids are poorly studied, but some (Blastocladiomycota) are known to have zygotic meiosis (therefore, alternation between haploid and diploid generations).
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

.In sexually reproducing fungi, compatible individuals may combine by fusing their hyphae together into an interconnected network; this process, anastomosis, is required for the initiation of the sexual cycle.^ Hyphae may separate into arthoconidia.
  • Moulds and yeasts 17 September 2009 2:34 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In sexually reproducing fungi, compatible individuals may combine by fusing their hyphae together into an interconnected network; this process, anastomosis , is required for the initiation of the sexual cycle.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hyphae fusing together (fungi mating = plasmogomy); numbers are in minutes: .

.Ascomycetes and basidiomycetes go through a dikaryotic stage, in which the nuclei inherited from the two parents do not combine immediately after cell fusion, but remain separate in the hyphal cells (see heterokaryosis).^ Ascomycetes and basidiomycetes go through a dikaryotic stage, in which the nuclei inherited from the two parents do not combine immediately after cell fusion, but remain separate in the hyphal cells (see heterokaryosis ).
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ B, After fusion of the two nuclei.

^ Daughter nuclei fuse and the cells separate.
  • Paramecium - www.101science.com 22 September 2009 20:18 UTC www.101science.com [Source type: Academic]

[72]
Microscopic view of numerous translucent or transparent elongated sac-like structures each containing eight spheres lined up in a row
The 8-spored asci of Morchella elata, viewed with phase contrast microscopy
.In ascomycetes, dikaryotic hyphae of the hymenium (the spore-bearing tissue layer) form a characteristic hook at the hyphal septum.^ Other series of modifications arise in which the tissues corresponding to the stroma invest the sporogenous hyphal ends, and thus enclose the spores, asci, basidia, &c., in a cavity.

^ The sporophore is obsolete when the spore-bearing hyphae are not sharply distinct from the mycelium, simple when the constituent hyphae are isolated, and compound when the latter are conjoined.

^ Except for some yeasts and a few other types, ascomycetes have well-developed hyphae, usually with a single nucleus in each hyphal cell.
  • FUNGI, 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During cell division, formation of the hook ensures proper distribution of the newly divided nuclei into the apical and basal hyphal compartments.^ During cell division , formation of the hook ensures proper distribution of the newly divided nuclei in to the apical and basal hyphal compartments.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Prior to the formation of spores there is a fusion of the (+ and -) nuclei within special cells to form diploid (2n) zygotes which undergo meiosis to form the haploid spores.

^ As with the structurally similar hook in the ascomycetes, the clamp connection in the basidiomycetes is required for controlled transfer of nuclei during cell division, to maintain the dika ryotic stage with two genetically different nuclei in each hyphal compartment.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.An ascus (plural asci) is then formed, in which karyogamy (nuclear fusion) occurs.^ An ascus (plural asci ) is then formed, in which karyogamy (nuclear fusion) occurs.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is to be noted that all the forms exhibit the fusion of nuclei in the ascus, so that those with the normal or reduced sexual process described above have two nuclear fusions in their lifehistory.

^ The theory may be put forward that the ordinary forms have been derived from sexual forms like Schizosaccharomyces and Zygosaccharomyces by a loss of sexuality, the sporangium being formed parthenogenetically without any nuclear fusion.

.Asci are embedded in an ascocarp, or fruiting body.^ Asci are embedded in an ascocarp , or fruiting body.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They can be identified from the fruiting bodies which bear the asci and the way in which the asci develop.

^ In the Helvellaceae there is no apothecium but a large irregular fruit body which at maturity bears the asci on its surface.

.Karyogamy in the asci is followed immediately by meiosis and the production of ascospores.^ Karyogamy in the asci is followed immediately by meiosis and the production of ascospores .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Both asci and basidia are technically meiosprangia in which the products of meiosis, meiospores (i.e., ascospores and basidiospores), are formed.
  • NJ Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.eboehm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fungi have a brief diploid stage consisting of two haploid nuclei going through karyogamy and almost immediate entry into meiosis.
  • Introduction to Kingdom Fungi - a knol by Steven Albee-Scott, Ph.D. 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

.After dispersal, the ascospores may germinate and form a new haploid mycelium.^ After dispersal, the ascospores may germinate and form a new haploid mycelium.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reproduction in fungi may be asexual or sexual and, in both cases, spores are the structures that are responsible for dispersing progeny to colonize new locations.

^ These sporangiospores allow the fungus to rapidly disperse and germinate i nto new genetically identical haploid fungal mycelia.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[73]
.Sexual reproduction in basidiomycetes is similar to that of the ascomycetes.^ Sexual reproduction in basidiomycetes is similar to that of the ascomycetes.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Their sexual states (teleomorphs) can be classified among two major fungal classes, the Ascomycetes and the Basidiomycetes.
  • Moulds and yeasts 17 September 2009 2:34 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the ascomycetes, a specialized structure important in sexual reproduction is the apothecium , a cup-shaped structure that holds the hymenium , a layer of tissue containing the spore-bearing cells.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Compatible haploid hyphae fuse to produce a dikaryotic mycelium.^ Compatible haploid hyphae fuse to produce a dikaryotic mycelium.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In glomeromycetes (formerly zygomycetes), haploid hyphae of two individuals fuse, forming a gametangium , a specialized cell structure that becomes a fertile gamete -producing cell.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ At certain times of the year, opposite mating strains (+ and - strains) of subterranean, septate, haploid (n) mycelia fuse together producing dikaryotic (n + n) septate mycelia with two kinds of nuclei (+ and -) in each cell.

.However, the dikaryotic phase is more extensive in the basidiomycetes, often also present in the vegetatively growing mycelium.^ However, the dikaryotic phase is more extensive in the basidiomycetes, often also present in the vegetatively growing mycelium.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For more mobile nutrients such as nitrate, the depletion zone is wide and it is less likely that hyphae grow extensively into the zone that is not influenced by the root alone.

^ My nails are growing back completely normal and seem to be growing faster so I am able to trim them more often.
  • Nail Fungus Remedies on Earth Clinic, Your Source for Natural Cures. 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

.A specialized anatomical structure, called a clamp connection, is formed at each hyphal septum.^ They may form branched chains of cells that attach to their substrate by a root-like structure called a rhizoid.

^ The cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells is distinguished by the presence of different membranous structures called organelles, e.g., mitochondria and chloroplasts, which form the site for different metabolic and other activities.

^ In a special group of fungi (Oomycetes) within the Phycomycetes, cellulose forms the dominant structural component of the cell wall material.

.As with the structurally similar hook in the ascomycetes, the clamp connection in the basidiomycetes is required for controlled transfer of nuclei during cell division, to maintain the dikaryotic stage with two genetically different nuclei in each hyphal compartment.^ During cell division , formation of the hook ensures proper distribution of the newly divided nuclei in to the apical and basal hyphal compartments.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sexual reproduction in basidiomycetes is similar to that of the ascomycetes.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In ascomycetes, cell division is synchronous and a cell wall separates the two nuclei called a dikaryon.
  • Introduction to Kingdom Fungi - a knol by Steven Albee-Scott, Ph.D. 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

[74] .A basidiocarp is formed in which club-like structures known as basidia generate haploid basidiospores after karyogamy and meiosis.^ A basidiocarp is formed in which club-like structures known as basidia generate haploid basidiospores after karyogamy and meiosis.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Prior to the formation of spores there is a fusion of the (+ and -) nuclei within special cells to form diploid (2n) zygotes which undergo meiosis to form the haploid spores.

^ Members of the Basidiomycota , commonly known as the club fungi or basidiomycetes, produce meiospores called basidiospores o n club-like stalks called basidia .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[75] .The most commonly known basidiocarps are mushrooms, but they may also take other forms (see Morphology section).^ The most commonly known basidiocarps are mushrooms, but they may also take other forms (see Morphology section).
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The most commonly eaten mushrooms are the basidiomycetes .
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC faculty.unlv.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Agaricus bisporus , sold as button mushrooms when small or Portobello mushrooms when larger, is a commonly-eaten species, used in salads, soups, and many other dishes.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.In glomeromycetes (formerly zygomycetes), haploid hyphae of two individuals fuse, forming a gametangium, a specialized cell structure that becomes a fertile gamete-producing cell.^ In glomeromycetes (formerly zygomycetes), haploid hyphae of two individuals fuse, forming a gametangium , a specialized cell structure that becomes a fertile gamete -producing cell.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Zygomycetes , a hypha which forms a gametangium and suspensor cell.

^ Compatible haploid hyphae fuse to produce a dikaryotic mycelium.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.The gametangium develops into a zygospore, a thick-walled spore formed by the union of gametes.^ The taxonomy is further divided into suborders based on the presence of: (i) vesicles in the root and formation of chlamydospores (thick wall, asexual spore) borne from subtending hyphae for the suborder Glomineae or (ii) absence of vesicles in the root and formation of auxiliary cells and azygospores (spores resembling a zygospore but developing asexually from a subtending hypha resulting in a distinct bulbous attachment) in the soil for the suborder Gigasporineae.

^ A striking soil fungus called an "earthstar," so named because the outer wall of the spore-bearing body splits open into a star.

^ Fungi with non-septate or irregularly septate hyphae and thick-walled spores were traditionally placed in the phylum Zygomycota.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

.When the zygospore germinates, it undergoes meiosis, generating new haploid hyphae, which may then form asexual sporangiospores.^ When the zygospore germinates, it undergoes meiosis , generating new haploid hyphae, which may then form asexual sporangiospores .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ After dispersal, the ascospores may germinate and form a new haploid mycelium.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Prior to the formation of spores there is a fusion of the (+ and -) nuclei within special cells to form diploid (2n) zygotes which undergo meiosis to form the haploid spores.

.These sporangiospores allow the fungus to rapidly disperse and germinate into new genetically identical haploid fungal mycelia.^ These sporangiospores allow the fungus to rapidly disperse and germinate i nto new genetically identical haploid fungal mycelia.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ After dispersal, the ascospores may germinate and form a new haploid mycelium.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ After their death the fungal growth erupts through the fly cuticle, and dispersal by forcible spore discharge is a source of inoculum for infection of new flies.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

[76]

Spore dispersal

.Both asexual and sexual spores or sporangiospores are often actively dispersed by forcible ejection from their reproductive structures.^ Both asexual and sexual spores or sporangiospores are often actively dispersed by forcible ejection from their reproductive structures.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These structures aid both reproduction and efficient dispersal of spores or spore-containing propagules .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sexual reproduction as above, asexual by sporangia or conidia or both: Mucoraceae.

.This ejection ensures exit of the spores from the reproductive structures as well as travelling through the air over long distances.^ This ejection ensures exit of the spores from the reproductive structures as well as travelling through the air over long distances.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reproduction in fungi may be asexual or sexual and, in both cases, spores are the structures that are responsible for dispersing progeny to colonize new locations.

^ In general, a high level of moisture facilitates the germination of spores and other reproductive structures of the fungus.
  • Role of Fungi in Coffee Plantation Ecology (INeedCoffee.com) 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.ineedcoffee.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A brown, cup-shaped fungus with several greyish disc-shaped structures lying within
The bird's nest fungus Cyathus stercoreus
.Specialized mechanical and physiological mechanisms, as well as spore surface structures (such as hydrophobins), enable efficient spore ejection.^ The bird's nest fungus Cyathus stercoreus Specialized mechanical and physiological mechanisms as well as spore-surface structures, such as hydrophobins , enable efficient spore ejection.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This ejection ensures exit of the spores from the reproductive structures as well as travelling through the air over long distances.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Both asexual and sexual spores or sporangiospores are often actively dispersed by forcible ejection from their reproductive structures.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[77] .For example, the structure of the spore-bearing cells in some ascomycete species is such that the buildup of substances affecting cell volume and fluid balance enables the explosive discharge of spores into the air.^ For example, the structure of the spore-bearing cells in some ascomycete species is such that the buildup of substances affecting cell volume and fluid balance enables the explosive discharge of spores into the air.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Prior to the formation of spores there is a fusion of the (+ and -) nuclei within special cells to form diploid (2n) zygotes which undergo meiosis to form the haploid spores.

^ Some carnivorous fungi , like Paecilomyces lilacinus , are predators of nematodes , which they capture using an array of specialized structures such as constricting rings or adhesive nets.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[78] .The forcible discharge of single spores termed ballistospores involves formation of a small drop of water (Buller's drop), which upon contact with the spore leads to its projectile release with an initial acceleration of more than 10,000 g;[79] the net result is that the spore is ejected 0.01–0.02 cm, sufficient distance for it to fall through the gills or pores into the air below.^ Note the apical pore through which a cloud of dark spores are released.

^ It is from these gills that spores are released.

^ Molds are fungi that reproduce by releasing tiny spores into the air.
  • Mold & Fungus 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[80] .Other fungi, like the puffballs, rely on alternative mechanisms for spore release, such as external mechanical forces.^ Other fungi, like the puffballs , rely on alternative mechanisms for spore release, such as external mechanical forces.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other fungi produce secondary metabolites such as aflatoxins that may be potent toxins and carcinogens in food of birds, fish, humans, and other mammals.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The problems seem to arise from the spores of the fungi causing respiratory problems especially for those with preexisting conditions such as asthma or certain allergies.
  • Hilton Handcraft - Spalting, A Fungus Amongus: Spalted Wood Explained 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.hiltonhandcraft.com [Source type: Original source]

.The bird's nest fungi use the force of falling water drops to liberate the spores from cup-shaped fruiting bodies.^ Fruiting body of the scarlet cup fungus.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The bird's nest fungi use the force of falling water drops to liberate the spores from cup-shaped fruiting bodies.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Any water used for people with compromised immune systems must also be sterile since pathogenic fungi are a serious risk for such people.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[81] .Another strategy is seen in the stinkhorns, a group of fungi with lively colors and putrid odor that attract insects to disperse their spores.^ Another strategy is seen in the stinkhorns , a group of fungi with lively colors and putrid odor that attract insects to disperse their spores.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The hymenium supports the basidia during sporulation and is designed to maximize the ability of fungi to disperse spores (Moore 1998).
  • Introduction to Kingdom Fungi - a knol by Steven Albee-Scott, Ph.D. 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungal spores are also a cause of allergies , and fungi from different taxonomic groups can evoke allergic reactions.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[82]

Other sexual processes

.Besides regular sexual reproduction with meiosis, certain fungi, such as those in the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus, may exchange genetic material via parasexual processes, initiated by anastomosis between hyphae and plasmogamy of fungal cells.^ Besides regular sexual reproduction with meiosis, certain fungi, such as those in the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus , may exchange genetic material via parasexual processes, initiated by anastomosis between hyphae and plasmogamy of fungal cells.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Furthermore, persons with immuno-deficiencies are particularly susceptible to disease by genera such as Aspergillus , Candida , Cryptoccocus , [129 ] [149 ] [150 ] Histoplasma , [151 ] and Pneumocystis .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other fungi produce secondary metabolites such as aflatoxins that may be potent toxins and carcinogens in food of birds, fish, humans, and other mammals.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

[83] .The frequency and relative importance of parasexual events is unclear and may be lower than other sexual processes.^ The frequency and relative importance of parasexual events is unclear and may be lower than other sexual processes.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some species may allow mating only between individuals of opposite mating type , while others can mate and sexually reproduce with any other individual or itself.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In sexually reproducing fungi, compatible individuals may combine by fusing their hyphae together into an interconnected network; this process, anastomosis , is required for the initiation of the sexual cycle.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.It is known to play a role in intraspecific hybridization[84] and is likely required for hybridization between species, which has been associated with major events in fungal evolution.^ In: I nsect-fungal associations: Ecology and evolution .

^ It is known to play a role in intraspecific hybridization [83 ] and is likely required for hybridization between species, which has been associated with major events in fungal evolution.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Aspergillus are well-known to play roles in three different clinical settings in man: opportunistic infections, allergic states and toxicoses.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[85]

Evolution

.In contrast to plants and animals, the early fossil record of the fungi is meager.^ Back to top ] Main article: Evolution of fungi In contrast to plants and animals , the early fossil record of the fungi is meager.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Finally, many fungi are notorious for the diseases they cause in plants, animals and man, especially in regard to the difficulty with which they can be controlled by chemical ameliorants.
  • NJ Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.eboehm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fungi are key drivers in the recycling of important chemical elements that, without their activity, would remain forever locked up in dead plant and animal bodies.
  • Role of Fungi in Coffee Plantation Ecology (INeedCoffee.com) 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.ineedcoffee.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Factors that likely contribute to the under-representation of fungal species among fossils include the nature of fungal fruiting bodies, which are soft, fleshy, and easily degradable tissues and the microscopic dimensions of most fungal structures, which therefore are not readily evident.^ Factors that likely contribute to the under-r epresentation of fungal species among fossils include the nature of fungal fruiting bodies , which are soft, fleshy, and easily degradable tissues and the microscopic dimensions of most fungal structures, which therefore are not readily evident.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most biologists have seen dense filamentous fungal colonies growing on rich nutrient agar plates, but in nature the filaments can be much longer and the colonies less dense.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungal fossils are difficult to distinguish from those of other microbes, and are most easily identified when they resemble extant fungi.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Fungal fossils are difficult to distinguish from those of other microbes, and are most easily identified when they resemble extant fungi.^ Fungal fossils are difficult to distinguish from those of other microbes, and are most easily identified when they resemble extant fungi.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Factors that likely contribute to the under-r epresentation of fungal species among fossils include the nature of fungal fruiting bodies , which are soft, fleshy, and easily degradable tissues and the microscopic dimensions of most fungal structures, which therefore are not readily evident.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungal infections are not commonly contagious nor do they spread easily between people.
  • Toenail and Nail Fungus Treatments and Remedies for Onychomycosis and Fungal Infection 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.nail-fungus-treatment.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[86] .Often recovered from a permineralized plant or animal host, these samples are typically studied by making thin-section preparations that can be examined with light microscopy or transmission electron microscopy.^ Often recovered from a permineralized plant or animal host, these samples are typically studied by making thin-section preparations that can be examined with light microscopy or transmission electron microscopy .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Compression fossils are studied by dissolving the surrounding matrix with acid and then using light or scanning electron microscopy to examine surface details.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Permalink May 07, 2008 01:44 PM PDT Today, we examine plant and animal cells.

[87] .Compression fossils are studied by dissolving the surrounding matrix with acid and then using light or scanning electron microscopy to examine surface details.^ Compression fossils are studied by dissolving the surrounding matrix with acid and then using light or scanning electron microscopy to examine surface details.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Often recovered from a permineralized plant or animal host, these samples are typically studied by making thin-section preparations that can be examined with light microscopy or transmission electron microscopy .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[88]
.The earliest fossils possessing features typical of fungi date to the Proterozoic eon, some 1,430 million years ago (Ma); these multicellular benthic organisms had filamentous structures with septa, and were capable of anastomosis.^ The earliest fossils possessing features typical of fungi date to the Proterozoic eon, some 1,430 million years ago (Ma ); these multicellular benthic organisms had filamentous structures with septa, and were capable of anastomosis.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Devonian (400 million years ago).

^ The fungal cell wall is composed of glucans and chitin ; while the former compounds are also found in plants and the latter in the exoskeleton of arthropods , [18 ] [19 ] fungi are the only organisms that combine these two structural molecules in their cell wall.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[89] .More recent studies (2009) estimate the arrival of fungal organisms at about 760–1060 Ma on the basis of comparisons of the rate of evolution in closely related groups.^ The fermentation rate is closely related to temperature.
  • Yeast Information and Technique Resource 7 January 2010 5:30 UTC hbd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All molecular studies have shown that microsporidia evolve at an extremely accelerated rate of evolution, making their placement in the Tree of Life difficult.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungal Ecology: It has recently been estimated that some 1.5 x 106 species of fungi are thought to exist, with about 80,000 species or only 5% having yet having been described, making the fungi one of the most speciose groups of organisms on the planet.
  • NJ Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.eboehm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[90] .For much of the Paleozoic Era (542–251 Ma), the fungi appear to have been aquatic and consisted of organisms similar to the extant Chytrids in having flagellum-bearing spores.^ For much of the Paleozoic Era (542251 Ma), the fungi appear to have been aquatic and consisted of organisms similar to the extant Chytrids in having flagellum-bearing spores.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although fungi are part of the opisthokont cladea grouping of evolutionarily related organisms broadly characterized by a single posterior flagellum all phyla except for the chytrids have lost their posterior flagella.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The metabolic pathways in fungi are similar to mammals and other heterotrophic organisms, but their function is turned inside out with all digestive processing on the outside of the cell.
  • Introduction to Kingdom Fungi - a knol by Steven Albee-Scott, Ph.D. 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

[91] .The evolutionary adaptation from an aquatic to a terrestrial lifestyle necessitated a diversification of ecological strategies for obtaining nutrients, including parasitism, saprobism, and the development of mutualistic relationships such as mycorrhiza and lichenization.^ The evolutionary adaptation from an aquatic to a terrestrial lifestyle necessitated a diversification of ecological strategies for obtaining nutrients, including parasitism , saprobism , and the development of mutualistic relationships such as mycorrhiza and lichenization.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If thrush persists, other symptoms may develop, including depression, recurrent cystitis, and fungal infections such as athlete's foot.
  • Fungal Cleanse
    for fungus infections
    22 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.fonoils.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For some mycorrhizae, the extramatrical hyphae produce hydrolytic enzymes, such as proteases and phosphatases, that can have an important impact on organic matter mineralization and nutrient availability.

[92] .Recent (2009) studies suggest that the ancestral ecological state of the Ascomycota was saprobism, and that independent lichenization events have occurred multiple times.^ Recent (2009) studies suggest that the ancestral ecological state of the Ascomycota was saprobism, and that independent lichenization events have occurred multiple times.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ More recent studies (2009) estimate the arrival of fungal organisms at about 7601060 Ma based on comparisons of the rate of evolution in closely related groups.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Multiple origins of lichen symbioses in fungi suggested by SSU rDNA phylogeny.
  • Molecular Phylogeny of Parasitic Zygomycota (Dimargaritales, Zoopagales) Based on Nuclear 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.biology.duke.edu [Source type: Academic]

[93]
.The fungi probably colonized the land during the Cambrian (542–488.3 Ma), long before land plants.^ Molecular evidence for the early colonization of land by fungi and plants.
  • Molecular Phylogeny of Parasitic Zygomycota (Dimargaritales, Zoopagales) Based on Nuclear 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.biology.duke.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The fungi probably colonized the land during the Cambrian (542488.3 Ma), long before land plants.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Recent fossil and molecular evidence suggest that fungi were one of the first land colonizers and many scientists now believe that fungi played a decisive role in the initial colonization of the terrestrial habitat by land plants.
  • NJ Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.eboehm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[94] .Fossilized hyphae and spores recovered from the Ordovician of Wisconsin (460 Ma) resemble modern-day Glomerales, and existed at a time when the land flora likely consisted of only non-vascular bryophyte-like plants.^ Fossilized hyphae and spores recovered from the Ordovician of Wisco nsin (460 Ma) resemble modern-day Glomerales , and existed at a time when the land flora likely consisted of only non-vascular bryophyte -like plants.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Biology of Yeast Cells - Simplified Yeast are a tiny form of fungi or plant-like microorganism (visible only under a microscope) that exist in or on all living matter i.e.

^ The oldest fossil with microscopic features resembling modern-day basidiomycetes is Palaeoancistr us , found permineralized with a fern from the Pennsylvanian.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[95] .Prototaxites, which was probably a fungus or lichen, would have been the tallest organism of the late Silurian.^ Shares of NexMed tanked after the company announced late Tuesday that Novartis would not be submitting an NDA for their partnered nail fungus therapy "at this time."
  • Nail Fungus | LIVESTRONG.COM 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.Fungal fossils do not become common and uncontroversial until the early Devonian (416–359.2 Ma), when they are abundant in the Rhynie chert, mostly as Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota.^ Fossil arbuscular mycorrhizae from the Early Devonian.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungal fossils do not become common and uncontroversial until the early Devonian (416359.2 Ma), when they are abundant in the Rhynie chert , mostly as Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungal fossils are difficult to distinguish from those of other microbes, and are most easily identified when they resemble extant fungi.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[94][96][97] .At about this same time, approximately 400 Ma, the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota diverged,[98] and all modern classes of fungi were present by the Late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian, 318.1–299 Ma).^ At about this same time, approximately 400 Ma, the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota diverged, [97 ] and all modern classes of fungi were present by the Late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian , 318.1299 Ma).
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungal fossil diversity increased throughout the Paleozoic Era (Taylor et al., 1994b) with all modern classes reported in the Pennsylvanian Epoch (320-286 mya).
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Basidiomycota, be modified as a dolipore or which may, in Ascomycota, be associated with Woronin bodies; characteristic of higher fungi (Hawksworth et al.

[99]
.Lichen-like fossils have been found in the Doushantuo Formation in southern China dating back to 635–551 Ma.^ Lichen -like fossils have been found in the Doushantuo Formation in southern China dating back to 635551 Ma.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lichens were a component of the early terrestrial ecosystems, and the estimated age of the oldest terrestrial lichen fossil is 400 Ma; [100 ] this date corresponds to the age of the oldest known sporocarp fossil, a Paleopyrenomycites species found in the Rhynie Chert.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Churchyard lecanactis is a rare lichen that grows in crust-like formations.
  • Fungi - sorted by common name - ARKive 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.arkive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fungi - sorted by scientific name - ARKive 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.arkive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[100] .Lichens were a component of the early terrestrial ecosystems, and the estimated age of the oldest terrestrial lichen fossil is 400 Ma;[101] this date corresponds to the age of the oldest known sporocarp fossil, a Paleopyrenomycites species found in the Rhynie Chert.^ Lichens were a component of the early terrestrial ecosystems, and the estimated age of the oldest terrestrial lichen fossil is 400 Ma; [100 ] this date corresponds to the age of the oldest known sporocarp fossil, a Paleopyrenomycites species found in the Rhynie Chert.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The oldest fossil with microscopic features resembling modern-day basidiomycetes is Palaeoancistr us , found permineralized with a fern from the Pennsylvanian.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Laboulbeniineae are a group of about 150 species of fungi found on insects, especially beetles, and principally known from the researches of Thaxter in America.

[102] .The oldest fossil with microscopic features resembling modern-day basidiomycetes is Palaeoancistrus, found permineralized with a fern from the Pennsylvanian.^ The oldest fossil with microscopic features resembling modern-day basidiomycetes is Palaeoancistr us , found permineralized with a fern from the Pennsylvanian.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fossilized hyphae and spores recovered from the Ordovician of Wisco nsin (460 Ma) resemble modern-day Glomerales , and existed at a time when the land flora likely consisted of only non-vascular bryophyte -like plants.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[103] .Rare in the fossil record are the homobasidiomycetes (a taxon roughly equivalent to the mushroom-producing species of the agaricomycetes).^ Rare in the fossil record are the homobasidiomycetes (a taxon roughly equivalent to the mushroom-producing species of the agaricomycetes ).
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Fossil mushrooms from Miocene and Cretaceous ambers and the evolution of homobasidiomycetes".
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungi reproduce via spores , which are often produced on specialized structures or in fruiting bodies , such as the head of a mushroom.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Two amber-preserved specimens provide evidence that the earliest known mushroom-forming fungi (the extinct species Archaeomarasmius legletti) appeared during the mid-Cretaceous, 90 Ma.^ Based on two amber -preserved specimens, the earliest known mushroom-forming fungi (the extinct species Archaeomarasmius legletti ) appeared during the mid-Cretaceous , 90 Ma.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The cytology of these forms is very little known; Dangeard states that there is a fusion of two nuclei in the chlamydospore, but this requires confirmation .

^ The most commonly known basidiocarps are mushrooms, but they may also take other forms (see Morphology section).
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[104][105]
.Some time after the Permian-Triassic extinction event (251.4 Ma), a fungal spike (originally thought to be an extraordinary abundance of fungal spores in sediments) formed, suggesting that fungi were the dominant life form at this time, representing nearly 100% of the available fossil record for this period.^ Some time after the Permian-Triassic extinction event (251.4 Ma), a fungal spike (originally thought to be an extraordinary abundance of fungal spores in sediments ) formed, suggesting that fungi were the dominant life form at this time, representing nearly 100% of the available fossil record for this period.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungal Ecology: It has recently been estimated that some 1.5 x 106 species of fungi are thought to exist, with about 80,000 species or only 5% having yet having been described, making the fungi one of the most speciose groups of organisms on the planet.
  • NJ Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.eboehm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lamisil Anti Fungal Medicine Lamisil is a commercially produced drug that is widely available and taken as tablet form.
  • Nail Fungus Remedy | Nail Fungus Help 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC acrylicnailfungus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[106] .However, the relative proportion of fungal spores relative to spores formed by algal species is difficult to assess,[107] the spike did not appear worldwide,[108][109 ] and in many places it did not fall on the Permian-Triassic boundary.^ However, the relative proportion of fungal spores relative to spores formed by algal species is difficult to assess, [106 ] the spike did not appear worldwide, [107 ] [108 ] and in many places it did not fall on the Permian-Triassic boundary.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most of the fungal species are capable of producing spores in great masses.
  • Role of Fungi in Coffee Plantation Ecology (INeedCoffee.com) 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.ineedcoffee.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These usually are species that produce large numbers of spores, and examples include many species pathogenic on agricultural crops and trees.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

[110]

Taxonomy

.Even though traditionally included in many botany curricula and textbooks, fungi are now thought to be more closely related to animals than to plants and are placed with the animals in the monophyletic group of opisthokonts.^ Back to top ] Even though traditionally included in many botany curricula and textbooks, fungi are now thought to be more closely related to animals than to plants and are placed with the animals in the monophyletic group of opisthokonts .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many fungi are parasites on plants, animals (including humans), and other fungi.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The discipline of biology devoted to the study of fungi is known as mycology , which is often regarded as a branch of botany , even though geneti c studies have shown that fungi are more closely related to animals than to plants.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[111] .Analyses using molecular phylogenetics support a monophyletic origin of the Fungi.^ Besides molecular phylogenetic data, few traits unite animals and fungi and their proposed protistan allies.
  • The Protistan Origins of Animals and Fungi -- Steenkamp et al. 23 (1): 93 -- Molecular Biology and Evolution 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC mbe.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Besides molecular phylogenetic data, few traits unite animals and fungi with each other, much less with their protistan allies.
  • The Protistan Origins of Animals and Fungi -- Steenkamp et al. 23 (1): 93 -- Molecular Biology and Evolution 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC mbe.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Prior classification systems of Fungi based primarily on morphology are in need of updating to more accurately reflect phylogenetic relationships as determined by molecular systematics.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

[37] .The taxonomy of the Fungi is in a state of constant flux, especially due to recent research based on DNA comparisons.^ The taxonomy of the Fungi is in a state of constant flux, especially due to recent research based on DNA comparisons.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Evolution of nematode-trapping cells of predatory fungi of the Orbiliaceae based on evidence from rRNA-encoding DNA and multiprotein sequences ".
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Laboulbeniineae are a group of about 150 species of fungi found on insects, especially beetles, and principally known from the researches of Thaxter in America.

.These current phylogenetic analyses often overturn classifications based on older and sometimes less discriminative methods based on morphological features and biological species concepts obtained from experimental matings.^ These current phylogenetic analyses often overturn classifications based on older and sometimes less discriminative methods based on morphological features and biological species concep ts obtained from experimental matings .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The biological species concept discriminates species based on their ability to mate .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Phylogenetic species recognition and species concepts in fungi".
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[112]
.There is no unique generally accepted system at the higher taxonomic levels and there are frequent name changes at every level, from species upwards.^ There is no unique generally accepted system at the higher taxonomic levels and there are frequent name changes at every level, from species upwards.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is currently no known way to boost your immune system to make fungal infections less likely.
  • Toenail and Nail Fungus Treatments and Remedies for Onychomycosis and Fungal Infection 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.nail-fungus-treatment.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You wouldn't be expected to know the names of every person in your country so don't expect to memorize all the various species as there are millions of them.
  • Paramecium - www.101science.com 22 September 2009 20:18 UTC www.101science.com [Source type: Academic]

.Efforts among researchers are now underway to establish and encourage usage of a unified and more consistent nomenclature.^ Efforts among researchers are now underway to establish and encourage usage of a unified and more consistent nomenclature .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[37][113] .Fungal species can also have multiple scientific names depending on their life cycle and mode (sexual or asexual) of reproduction.^ Fungal species can also have multiple scientific names depending on their life cycle and mode (sexual or asexual) of reproduction.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Environmental conditions trigger genetically determined developmental programs that lead to the creation of specialized structures for sexual or asexual reproduction.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sexual reproduction by oogonia and antheridia; asexual reproduction by zoospores or conidia.

.Web sites such as Index Fungorum and ITIS list current names of fungal species (with cross-references to older synonyms).^ Web sites such as Index Fungorum and ITIS list current names of fungal species (with cross-references to older synonyms).
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In between the extremes are fungal infections associated with diseases such as diabetes, cancer and other conditions including cross infections amongst humans.
  • Mold & Fungus 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The web site says there will be some changes in early Fall (hope AC/DC isn't what they are referring to...
  • Punknews.org | XM Radio Punk Station Fungus 53 Replaced with 24/7 AC/DC 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.punknews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The 2007 classification of Kingdom Fungi is the result of a large-scale collaborative research effort involving dozens of mycologists and other scientists working on fungal taxonomy.^ The 2007 classification of Kingdom Fungi is the result of a large-scale collaborative research effort involving dozens of mycologists and other scientists working on fungal taxonomy .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Collaborative research in fungal phylogenetics.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The fungal kingdom is defined by several featuressome shared with other organisms, others unique to the fungi: .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[37] .It recognizes seven phyla, two of which—the Ascomycota and the Basidiomycota—are contained within a branch representing subkingdom Dikarya.^ It recognizes seven phyla , two of whichthe Ascomycota and the Basidiomycotaare contained within a branch representing subkingdom Dikarya.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Basidiomycota is one of two large that, together with the Ascomycota , comprise the subkingdom Dikarya (often referred to as the "Higher Fungi" ) within the Kingdom Fungi .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Subkingdom (1): Dikarya Phylum (8): Anamorph · Ascomycota · Basidiomycota · Blastocladiomycota · Chytridiomycota · Glomeromycota · Microsporidia · Zygomycota Species : ZipcodeZoo has pages for 193,639 species and subspecies in the Kingdom Fungi .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

The below cladogram depicts the major fungal taxa and their relationship to opisthokont and unikont organisms. .The lengths of the branches in this tree are not proportional to evolutionary distances.^ The lengths of the branches in this tree are not proportional to evolutionary distances.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Our results, together with the moderate length of the nucleariid branch in phylogenetic trees ( figs.
  • The Protistan Origins of Animals and Fungi -- Steenkamp et al. 23 (1): 93 -- Molecular Biology and Evolution 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC mbe.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

Taxonomic groups

.The major phyla (sometimes called divisions) of fungi have been classified mainly on the basis of characteristics of their sexual reproductive structures.^ See also: List of fungal orders The major phyla (sometimes called divisions) of fungi have been classified based mainly on the characteristics of their sexual reproductive structures.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungi can be identified on the basis of a number of macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, including, spore structure, cap shape and colour, presence of gills or tubes, flesh colour, smell and habitat.

^ Environmental conditions trigger genetically determined developmental programs that lead to the creation of specialized structures for sexual or asexual reproduction.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Currently, seven phyla are proposed: Microsporidia, Chytridiomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Neocallimastigomycota, Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota.^ Currently, seven phyla are proposed: Microsporidia, Chytridiomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Neocallimastigomycota, Neocallimastigomycota, Glo meromycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Recent molecular data and ultrastructural characteristics, however, place the Blastocladiomycota as a sister clade to the Zygomycota, Glomeromycota, and Dikarya (Ascomycota and Basiomycota).
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Subkingdom (1): Dikarya Phylum (8): Anamorph · Ascomycota · Basidiomycota · Blastocladiomycota · Chytridiomycota · Glomeromycota · Microsporidia · Zygomycota Species : ZipcodeZoo has pages for 193,639 species and subspecies in the Kingdom Fungi .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[37]
Microscopic view of a layer of translucent grayish-colored cells, some containing small darkly colored spheres
.
Arbuscular mycorrhiza seen under microscope.
^ Arbuscular mycorrhiza seen under microscope.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

Flax root cortical cells containing paired arbuscules.
.Phylogenetic analysis has demonstrated that the Microsporidia, unicellular parasites of animals and protists, are fairly recent and highly derived endobiotic fungi (living within the tissue of another species).^ Microsporidia are highly specialized intracellular parasites (primarily of animals) that lack mitochondria but have chitin and trehalose in their spores (similar to Fungi).
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The most revolutionary addition to the fungal lineage has occurred with phylogenetic evidence indicating the protist group microsporidia is closely related to Fungi–possibly derived from zygomycetes (Keeling, 2003) or sister to the genus Rozella on the earliest branch in the fungal kingdom (James et al., 2006a).
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It contains less than 200 species, chiefly parasitic on or in algae and other water-plants or animals, of various kinds, or in other fungi, seedlings, pollen and higher plants.

[91][114] .One 2006 study concludes that the Microsporidia are a sister group to the true fungi, that is, they are each other's closest evolutionary relative.^ Dating the evolutionary radiations of the true fungi.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, one of these lineages, Nuclearia , is specifically assigned as the sister taxon to fungi ( figs.
  • The Protistan Origins of Animals and Fungi -- Steenkamp et al. 23 (1): 93 -- Molecular Biology and Evolution 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC mbe.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ More recently the nuclearid amoebae have been demonstrated to be a sister group to the Fungi with strong support (Steenkamp et al., 2006).
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

[115] .Hibbett and colleagues suggest that this analysis does not clash with their classification of the Fungi, and although the Microsporidia are elevated to phylum status, it is acknowledged that further analysis is required to clarify evolutionary relationships within this group.^ Evolutionary relationships within the fungi: analysis of nuclear small subunit rRNA sequences.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Prior classification systems of Fungi based primarily on morphology are in need of updating to more accurately reflect phylogenetic relationships as determined by molecular systematics.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Phylogenetic analysis has demonstrated conclusively that the Microsporidia , unicellular parasites of animals and protists, are fairly recent and highly derived endobiotic fungi (living within the tissue of another species), [113 ] [90 ] [114 ] and they were given phylum status in 2007.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[37]
.The Chytridiomycota are commonly known as chytrids.^ The Chytridiomycota are commonly known as chytrids.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.These fungi are distributed worldwide.^ These fungi are distributed worldwide.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Chytrids produce zoospores that are capable of active movement through aqueous phases with a single flagellum, leading early taxonomists to classify them as protists.^ Chytrids produce zoospores that are capable of active movement through aqueous phases with a single flagellum , leading early taxonomists to classify them as protists .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Molecular phylogenies, inferred from rRNA sequences in ribosomes, suggest that the Chytrids are a basal group divergent from the other fungal phyla, consisting of four major clades with suggestive evidence for paraphyly or possibly polyphyly.^ Molecular phylogenies , inferred from rRNA sequences in ribosomes , suggest that the Chytrids are a basal group divergent from the other fungal phyla, consisting of four major clades with suggestive evidence for paraphyly or possibly polyphyly .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Evolution of nematode-trapping cells of predatory fungi of the Orbiliaceae based on evidence from rRNA-encoding DNA and multiprotein sequences ".
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Previous classifications placed early-diverging fungal groups (non-Ascomycota or Basidiomycota) into two phyla: Chytridiomycota and Zygomycota.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

[91]
.The Blastocladiomycota were previously considered a taxonomic clade within the Chytridiomycota.^ The B lastocladiomycota were previously considered a taxonomic clade within the Chytridiomycota.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Recent molecular data and ultrastructural characteristics, however, place the Blastocladiomycota as a sister clade to the Zygomycota, Glomeromycota, and Dikarya (Ascomycota and Basiomycota).^ Recent molecular data and ultrastructural characteristics, however, place the Blastocladiomycota as a sister clade to the Zygomycota, Glomeromycota, and Dikarya (Ascomycota and Basiomycota).
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungi that were placed in the Zygomycota are now being reassigned to the Glomeromycota, or the subphyla incertae sedis Mucoromycotina , Kickxellomycotina , the Zoopagomycotina and the Entomophthoromycotina .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Subkingdom (1): Dikarya Phylum (8): Anamorph · Ascomycota · Basidiomycota · Blastocladiomycota · Chytridiomycota · Glomeromycota · Microsporidia · Zygomycota Species : ZipcodeZoo has pages for 193,639 species and subspecies in the Kingdom Fungi .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.The blastocladiomycetes are saprotrophs, feeding on decomposing organic matter, and they are parasites of all eukaryotic groups.^ Wines will not go bad sitting three months on their yeast lees, but could go bad sitting on gross lees containing bits of fruit pulp or other decomposing organic matter.

^ The derived nature of the EF-1 insertion is confirmed by its absence from representatives of all the major groups of nonopisthokont eukaryotes ( fig.
  • The Protistan Origins of Animals and Fungi -- Steenkamp et al. 23 (1): 93 -- Molecular Biology and Evolution 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC mbe.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The alignment shown includes representatives of all the major eukaryote and archaeal groups and corresponds to positions 153–238 of the Homo sapiens EF-1 sequence.
  • The Protistan Origins of Animals and Fungi -- Steenkamp et al. 23 (1): 93 -- Molecular Biology and Evolution 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC mbe.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Unlike their close relatives, the chytrids, which mostly exhibit zygotic meiosis, the blastocladiomycetes undergo sporic meiosis.^ Unlike their close relatives, the chytrids, which mostly exhibit zygotic meiosis , the blastocladiomycetes undergo sporic meiosis .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The life cycles of most chytrids are poorly studied, but some (Blastocladiomycota) are known to have zygotic meiosis (therefore, alternation between haploid and diploid generations).
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

[91]
.The Neocallimastigomycota were earlier placed in the phylum Chytridomycota.^ The Neocallimastigomycota were earlier placed in the phylum Chytridomycota.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Members of this small phylum are anaerobic organisms, living in the digestive system of larger herbivorous mammals and possibly in other terrestrial and aquatic environments.^ Members of this small phylum are anaerobic organisms , living in the digestive system of larger herbivorous mammals and possibly in other terrestrial and aquatic environments.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ All of these microscopic organisms live in warm, moist environments, including swimming pools and showers.
  • Toenail and Nail Fungus Treatments and Remedies for Onychomycosis and Fungal Infection 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.nail-fungus-treatment.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most grow in terrestrial environments, but several species live partly or solely in aquatic habitats, such as the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis , which has been responsible for a worldwide decline in amphibian populations.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.They lack mitochondria but contain hydrogenosomes of mitochondrial origin.^ They lack mitochondria but contain hydrogenosomes of mitochondrial origin.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.As the related chrytrids, neocallimastigomycetes form zoospores that are posteriorly uniflagellate or polyflagellate.^ As the rela ted chrytrids, neocallimastigomycetes form zoospores that are posteriorly uniflagellate or polyflagellate.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[37]
.Members of the Glomeromycota form arbuscular mycorrhizae, a form of symbiosis where fungal hyphae invade plant root cells and both species benefit from the resulting increased supply of nutrients.^ "Arbuscular mycorrhiza: the mother of plant root endosymbioses".
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Members of the Glomeromycota form arbuscular mycorrhizas (AMs) with the roots or thalli (e.g.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Coevolution of roots and mycorrhizas of land plants".
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.All known Glomeromycota species reproduce asexually.^ All known Glomeromycota species reproduce asexually.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[68] .The symbiotic association between the Glomeromycota and plants is ancient, with evidence dating to 400 million years ago.^ As the sister group of animals and part of the eukaryotic crown group that radiated about a billion years ago, the fungi constitute an independent group equal in rank to that of plants and animals.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They are among the most primitive insects, having been identified as fossils from the Devonian period, over 400 million years ago, and thus antedating any other known insect fossils (Jeannel, 1960).
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 10] Pests in Excessively Damp Locations< 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.entomology.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[116] .Formerly part of the Zygomycota (commonly known as 'sugar' and 'pin' molds), the Glomeromycota were elevated to phylum status in 2001 and now replace the older phylum Zygomycota.^ Formerly part of the Zygomycota (commonly known as 'sugar' and 'pin' molds), the Glomeromycota were elevated to phylum status in 2001 and now replace the older phylum Zygomycota.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some well-known examples of fungi formerly in the Zygomycota include black bread mold ( Rhizopus stolonifer ), and Pilobolus species, capable of ejecting spores several meters through the air.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[117] .Fungi that were placed in the Zygomycota are now being reassigned to the Glomeromycota, or the subphyla incertae sedis Mucoromycotina, Kickxellomycotina, the Zoopagomycotina and the Entomophthoromycotina.^ Fungi that were placed in the Zygomycota are now being reassigned to the Glomeromycota, or the subphyla incertae sedis Mucoromycotina , Kickxellomycotina , the Zoopagomycotina and the Entomophthoromycotina .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, evidence for a monophyletic Zygomycota is lacking (Seif et al., 2005), and the deconstruction of the Zygomycota into four unordered subphyla (Entomophthoromycotina, Kickxellomycotina, Mucoromycotina, Zoopagomycotina) has been proposed (Hibbett et al., 2007).
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Recent molecular data and ultrastructural characteristics, however, place the Blastocladiomycota as a sister clade to the Zygomycota, Glomeromycota, and Dikarya (Ascomycota and Basiomycota).
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[37] .Some well-known examples of fungi formerly in the Zygomycota include black bread mold (Rhizopus stolonifer), and Pilobolus species, capable of ejecting spores several meters through the air.^ Some mold spores will be found floating through the air and in house dust.
  • Mold & Fungus 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Edible mushrooms are well-known examples of fungi.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some well-known examples of fungi formerly in the Zygomycota include black bread mold ( Rhizopus stolonifer ), and Pilobolus species, capable of ejecting spores several meters through the air.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[118] .Medically relevant genera include Mucor, Rhizomucor, and Rhizopus.^ Medically relevant genera include Mucor , Rhizomucor , and Rhizopus .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Rhizopus differs from Absidia , Mucor , and Rhizomucor by having simple sporangiophores arising opposite rhizoids at nodes.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

Cross-section of a cup-shaped structure showing locations of developing meiotic asci (upper edge of cup, left side, arrows pointing to two gray-colored cells containing four and two small circles), sterile hyphae (upper edge of cup, right side, arrows pointing to white-colored cells with a single small circle in them), and mature asci (upper edge of cup, pointing to two gray-colored cells with eight small circles in them)
Diagram of an apothecium (the typical cup-like reproductive structure of Ascomycetes) showing sterile tissues as well as developing and mature asci.
.The Ascomycota, commonly known as sac fungi or ascomycetes, constitute the largest taxonomic group within the Eumycota.^ The Ascomycota are a of the kingdom Fungi , and subkingdom Dikarya , whose members are commonly known as the Sac Fungi .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Ascomycota , commonly known as sac fungi or ascomycetes, constitute the largest taxonomic group within the Eumycota.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Members of the Basidiomycota , commonly known as the club fungi or basidiomycetes, produce meiospores called basidiospores o n club-like stalks called basidia .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[36] .These fungi form meiotic spores called ascospores, which are enclosed in a special sac-like structure called an ascus.^ These specialized spores are called basidiospores .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These spores are called ascospores .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These fungi form meiotic spores called ascospores , which are enclosed in a special sac-like structure called an ascus .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.This phylum includes morels, a few mushrooms and truffles, single-celled yeasts (e.g., of the genera Saccharomyces, Kluyveromyces, Pichia, and Candida), and many filamentous fungi living as saprotrophs, parasites, and mutualistic symbionts.^ This phylum includes morels , a few mushrooms and truffles , single-celled yeasts (e.g., of t he genera Saccharomyces , Kluyveromyces , Pichia , and Candida ), and many filamentous fungi living as saprotrophs, parasites, and mutualistic symbionts.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Termites on the African savannah are also known to cultivate fungi, [143 ] and yeasts of the genera Candida and Lachancea inhabit the gut of a wide range of insects, including neuropterans , beetles , and cockroaches ; it is not known whether these fungi benefit their hosts.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Milk mushrooms , morels , chanterelles , truffles , black trumpets , and porcini mushrooms ( Boletus edulis ) (also known as king boletes) demand a high price on the market.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Prominent and important genera of filamentous ascomycetes include Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps.^ Prominent and important genera of filamentous ascomycetes include Aspergillus , Penicillium , Fusarium , and Claviceps .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Among the genera most frequently found in numbers exceeding levels that they reach outdoors are Aspergillus, Penicillium, Stachybotrys , and Cladosporium .
  • Mold & Fungus 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many ascomycete species have only been observed undergoing asexual reproduction (called anamorphic species), but analysis of molecular data has often been able to identify their closest teleomorphs in the Ascomycota.^ Many ascomycete species have only been observed undergoing asexual reproduction (called anamorphic species), but analysis of molecular data has often been able to identify their closest teleomorphs in the Ascomycota.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Micheli not only observed spores, but showed that under the proper conditions, they could be induced into growing into the same species of fungi from which they originated.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Environmental conditions trigger genetically determined developmental programs that lead to the creation of specialized structures for sexual or asexual reproduction.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[119] .Because the products of meiosis are retained within the sac-like ascus, ascomycetes have been used for elucidating principles of genetics and heredity (e.g.^ Because the products of meiosis are retained within the sac-like ascus, ascomycetes have been used for elucidating principles of genetics and heredity (e.g.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The interaction probabilities in Supplementary Tables S7 and S8 are likely to be underestimated because the MIPS complexes used as a 'gold standard' are themselves imperfect 26 .
  • Global landscape of protein complexes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae : Nature 19 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Ascomycota , commonly known as sac fungi or ascomycetes, constitute the largest taxonomic group within the Eumycota.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

Neurospora crassa).[120]
.Members of the Basidiomycota, commonly known as the club fungi or basidiomycetes, produce meiospores called basidiospores on club-like stalks called basidia.^ Members of the Basidiomycota , commonly known as the club fungi or basidiomycetes, produce meiospores called basidiospores o n club-like stalks called basidia .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungi are used extensively to produce industrial chemicals like citric , gluconic , lactic , and malic acids , antibiotics, and even to make stonewashed jeans .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Basically, Basidiomycota are filamentous fungi composed of hyphae (except for those forming yeasts), and reproducing sexually via the formation of specialized club-shaped end cells called basidia that normally bear external meiospores (usually four).
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Most common mushrooms belong to this group, as well as rust and smut fungi, which are major pathogens of grains.^ Fungi, including those pathogenic to humans and animals, are eukaryotic microorganisms that can be conveniently separated into two basic groups, moulds and yeasts.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Included in the group "fungi" are yeasts, molds and mildews, as well as large mushrooms, puffballs and bracket fungi that grow on dead trees.
  • Mold & Fungus 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the dimorphic fungi, yeasts and dangerous opportunistic pathogens are capable of causing systemic mycoses.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

.Other important basidiomycetes include the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis,[121] human commensal species of the genus Malassezia,[122] and the opportunistic human pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans.^ Of these, Cryptococcus neoforman is the only species that is pathogenic.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The genus Cryptococcus includes around 37 species.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The genus Aspergillus includes over 185 species.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[123]

Fungus-like organisms

.Because of similarities in morphology and lifestyle, the slime molds (myxomycetes) and water molds (oomycetes) were formerly classified in the kingdom Fungi.^ Because of similarities in morphology and lifestyle, the slime molds (myxomycetes) and water molds (oomycetes) were formerly classified in the kingdom Fungi.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This fungal group is distinct from the structurally similar slime molds (myxomycetes) and water molds (oomycetes).
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other organisms that were previously considered to be Fungi because of their heterotrophic, mold-like growth forms are now classified as stramenopiles (Oomycota, Hyphochytriomycota, and Labyrinthulomycota) or slime molds (Myxomycota, Plasmodiomycota, Dictyosteliomycota, Acrasiomycota) (Bhattacharya et al., 1992; Leipe et al., 1994; Van der Auwera et al., 1995).
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

.Unlike true fungi the cell walls of these organisms contain cellulose and lack chitin.^ One major difference is that fungal cells have cell walls that contain chitin , unlike the cell walls of plants, which contain cellulose .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Unlike true fungi the cell walls of these organisms contain cellulose and lack chitin.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This finding is significant because Nuclearia lacks a cell wall and has phagotrophic nutrition in which the food source (such as a bacterium or algal cell) is engulfed wholly, unlike fungi and microsporidia which utilize absorptive nutrition.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

.Slime molds are unikonts like fungi, but are grouped in the Amoebozoa.^ Included in the group "fungi" are yeasts, molds and mildews, as well as large mushrooms, puffballs and bracket fungi that grow on dead trees.
  • Mold & Fungus 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Water molds are diploid bikonts, grouped in the Chromalveolate kingdom. .Neither water molds nor slime molds are closely related to the true fungi, and, therefore, taxonomists no longer group them in the kingdom Fungi.^ After the source of the moisture has stopped, it does not mean that the mold is no longer dangerous.
  • Mold & Fungus 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They usually appear 3 or 4 months or as long as a year after the walls of a building are plastered, and disappear after the walls are thoroughly dry and can no longer support the growth of molds.
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 10] Pests in Excessively Damp Locations< 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.entomology.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All the forms have the same life-history as the lepto forms of that group, so that there is no longer any trace of sexual organs.

.Nonetheless, studies of the oomycetes and myxomycetes are still often included in mycology textbooks and primary research literature.^ Nonetheless, studies of the oomycetes and myxomycetes are still often included in mycology textbooks and primary research literature.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[124]
.The nucleariids, currently grouped in the Choanozoa, may be a sister group to the eumycete clade, and as such could be included in an expanded fungal kingdom.^ The nucleariids , currently grouped in the Choanozoa , may be a sister group to the eumycete clade, and as such could be included in an expanded fungal kingdom.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In between the extremes are fungal infections associated with diseases such as diabetes, cancer and other conditions including cross infections amongst humans.
  • Mold & Fungus 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.tuberose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Domain: Eukaryota Whittaker & Margulis,1978 - eukaryotes Kingdom: Fungi (Linnaeus, 1753) Nees, 1817 The Kingdom Fungi is further organized into finer groupings including: .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[125]

Ecology

.Although often inconspicuous, fungi occur in every environment on Earth and play very important roles in most ecosystems.^ Back to top ] Although often inconspicuous, fungi occur in every environment on Earth and play very important roles in most ecosystems .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lichens occur in every ecosystem on all continents, play a key role in soil formation and the initiation of biological succession , [136 ] and are the dominating life forms in extreme environments, including polar , alpine , and semiarid desert regions.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hanseniaspora uvarum is important in the first phase of grape fermentation and play a role in the production of certain flavours beneficial for the quality of wine and cider.
  • Moulds and yeasts 17 September 2009 2:34 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

.Along with bacteria, fungi are the major decomposers in most terrestrial (and some aquatic) ecosystems, and therefore play a critical role in biogeochemical cycles[126] and in many food webs.^ For most cases of swimmer's ear, over-the-counter ear drops will dry up the ear canal and kill bacteria or fungi.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The life cycles of most chytrids are poorly studied, but some (Blastocladiomycota) are known to have zygotic meiosis (therefore, alternation between haploid and diploid generations).
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Exceptions to this characterization of fungi are well known, and include the following: Most species of chytrids have cells with a single, smooth, posteriorly inserted flagellum at some stage in the life cycle, and centrioles are associated with nuclear division.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

.As decomposers, they play an essential role in nutrient cycling, especially as saprotrophs and symbionts, degrading organic matter to inorganic molecules, which can then re-enter anabolic metabolic pathways in plants or other organisms.^ The want of chlorophyll restricts their mode of life - which is rarely aquatic - since they are therefore unable to decompose the carbon dioxide of the atmosphere , and renders them dependent on other plants or (rarely) animals for their carbonaceous food-materials.

^ Wines will not go bad sitting three months on their yeast lees, but could go bad sitting on gross lees containing bits of fruit pulp or other decomposing organic matter.

^ On the other hand, lichens , previously regarded as autonomous plants, are now known to be dual organisms - fungi symbiotic with algae .

[127][128]

Symbiosis

.Many fungi have important symbiotic relationships with organisms from most if not all Kingdoms.^ Many fungi have important symbiotic relationships with organisms from most if not all Kingdoms .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The functions of both symbiotic organisms are so closely intertwined that they function almost as a single organism; in most cases the resulting organism differs greatly from the individual components.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The fungal kingdom is defined by several featuressome shared with other organisms, others unique to the fungi: .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[129][130][131] .These interactions can be mutualistic or antagonistic in nature, or in the case of commensal fungi are of no apparent benefit or detriment to the host.^ These interactions can be mutualistic or antagonistic in nature, or in the case of commensal fungi are of no apparent benefit or detriment to the host.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Termites on the African savannah are also known to cultivate fungi, [143 ] and yeasts of the genera Candida and Lachancea inhabit the gut of a wide range of insects, including neuropterans , beetles , and cockroaches ; it is not known whether these fungi benefit their hosts.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[132][133][134]

With plants

.Mycorrhizal symbiosis between plants and fungi is one of the most well-known plant – fungus associations and is of significant importance for plant growth and persistence in many ecosystems; over 90% of all plant species engage in mycorrhizal relationships with fungi and are dependent upon this relationship for survival.^ Basidiomycetes have always attracted a lot of attention because some of them have large basidiocarps, but the realization that all fungi are important in ecosystem function has drawn more attention to microscopic forms as well.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Extant chytrid species also occur in terrestrial environments as plant pathogenic fungi, soil fungi, and even as anaerobic inhabitants of the guts of herbivores such as cows (all Neocallimastigomycota).
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Botany Fungi Great Britain Sowerby, James, Handbook of British fungi, with full descriptions of all the species, and illustrations of the genera.

[135]
A microscopic view of blue-stained cells, some with dark wavy lines in them
The dark filaments are hyphae of the endophytic fungus Neotyphodium coenophialum in the intercellular spaces of tall fescue leaf sheath tissue
.The mycorrhizal symbiosis is ancient, dating to at least 400 million years ago.^ The symbiotic association between the Glomeromycota and plants is ancient, with evidence dating to 400 million years ago.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lichen-like symbiosis 600 million years ago ".
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The dark filaments are hyphae of the endophytic fungus Neotyphodium coenophialum in the intercellular spaces of tall fescue leaf sheath tissue The mycorrhizal symbiosis is ancient, dating to at least 400 million years ago.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[116] .It often increases the plant's uptake of inorganic compounds, such as nitrate and phosphate from soils having low concentrations of these key plant nutrients.^ It often increases the plant's uptake of inorganic compounds, such as nitrate and phosphate from soils having low concentrations of these key plant nutrients.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The larvae of some species feed on fungus in over-watered soil, but there are other species that consume plant roots as a source of nutrients.
  • Fungus Gnats 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.orkin.com [Source type: General]

^ Unlike other flying insects, fully mature fungus gnats often remain low to the ground, close to plants and soil.
  • Fungus Gnats 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.orkin.com [Source type: General]

[127][136] .The fungal partners may also mediate plant-to-plant transfer of carbohydrates and other nutrients.^ The larvae of some species feed on fungus in over-watered soil, but there are other species that consume plant roots as a source of nutrients.
  • Fungus Gnats 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.orkin.com [Source type: General]

^ Most species are carnivorous, but others will sometimes feed on plant tissues, and may occasionally be injurious to crops.
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 10] Pests in Excessively Damp Locations< 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.entomology.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fungi, like other plants, are often found to store up large quantities of reserve materials (oil, glycogen, carbohydrates, &c.

.Such mycorrhizal communities are called "common mycorrhizal networks".[137] A special case of mycorrhiza is myco-heterotrophy, whereby the plant parasitizes the fungus, obtaining all of its nutrients from its fungal symbiont.^ Such mycorrhizal communities are called "common mycorrhizal networks".
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The larvae of some species feed on fungus in over-watered soil, but there are other species that consume plant roots as a source of nutrients.
  • Fungus Gnats 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.orkin.com [Source type: General]

^ It contains less than 200 species, chiefly parasitic on or in algae and other water-plants or animals, of various kinds, or in other fungi, seedlings, pollen and higher plants.

[138] .Some fungal species inhabit the tissues inside roots, stems, and leaves, in which case they are called endophytes.^ Some species inhabit the tissues inside roots, stems, and leaves, in which case they are called endophytes.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some fungus gnat larvae are known for their propensity to feed on the roots and lower stem tissues of plants.
  • Fungus Gnat Larvae 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.orkin.com [Source type: General]

^ The larvae of some species feed on fungus in over-watered soil, but there are other species that consume plant roots as a source of nutrients.
  • Fungus Gnats 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.orkin.com [Source type: General]

[139] .Similar to mycorrhiza, endophytic colonization by fungi may benefit both symbionts; for example, endophytes of grasses impart to their host increased resistance to herbivores and other environmental stresses and receive food and shelter from the plant in return.^ Similar to mycorrhiza, endophytic colonization by fungi may benefit both symbionts; for example, endophytes of grasses impart to their host increased resistance to herbivores and other environmental stresses and receive food and shelter from the plant in return.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other fungi produce secondary metabolites such as aflatoxins that may be potent toxins and carcinogens in food of birds, fish, humans, and other mammals.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Leaf and stem endophytes are a more recent discovery, and some of these fungi can protect the plants they inhabit from herbivory and even influence flowering and other aspects of plant reproductive biology.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

[140]

With algae and cyanobacteria

A green, leaf-like structure attached to a tree, with a pattern of ridges and depression on the bottom surface
The lichen Lobaria pulmonaria, a symbiosis of fungal, algal, and cyanobacterial species.
.Lichens are formed by a symbiotic relationship between algae or cyanobacteria (referred to in lichen terminology as "photobionts") and fungi (mostly various species of ascomycetes and a few basidiomycetes), in which individual photobiont cells are embedded in a tissue formed by the fungus.^ Lichens are formed by a symbiotic relationship between algae or cyanobacteria (referred to in lichen terminology as "photobionts") and fungi (mostly various species of ascomycetes and a few basidiomycetes ), in which individual photobiont cells are embedded in a tissue formed by the fungus.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Interactions between various wod-decay fungi and bacteria: antibiosis, attack, lysis, or inhibition.
  • AGARICS, BOLETES AND CHANTERELLES - REFERENCES 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC www.naturewatch.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ As regards its composition, the cell-wall of fungi exhibits variations of the same kind as those met with in higher plants.

[141] .Lichens occur in every ecosystem on all continents, play a key role in soil formation and the initiation of biological succession,[142] and are the dominating life forms in extreme environments, including polar, alpine, and semiarid desert regions.^ All molecular studies have shown that microsporidia evolve at an extremely accelerated rate of evolution, making their placement in the Tree of Life difficult.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Although lichens may seem infrequent in polluted cities, they can form the dominant vegetation in nordic environments, and there is a better than 80% chance that any plant you find is mycorrhizal.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Extant chytrid species also occur in terrestrial environments as plant pathogenic fungi, soil fungi, and even as anaerobic inhabitants of the guts of herbivores such as cows (all Neocallimastigomycota).
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

[143] .They are able to grow on inhospitable surfaces, including bare soil, rocks, tree bark, wood, shells, barnacles and leaves.^ They are able to grow on inhospitable surfaces, including bare soil, rocks, tree bark , wood, shells, barnacles and leaves.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Slow growing, they form a gradually enlarging core called a pina from which the leaves grow.

^ Several groups of ants cultivate fungi in the order Agaricales as their primary food source, while ambrosia beetles cultivate various species of fungi in the bark of trees that they infest.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[144] .As in mycorrhizas, the photobiont provides sugars and other carbohydrates via photosynthesis, while the fungus provides minerals and water.^ As in mycorrhizas , the photobiont provides sugars and other carbohydrates via photosynthesis , while the fungus provides mineral s and water.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The larvae of some species feed on fungus in over-watered soil, but there are other species that consume plant roots as a source of nutrients.
  • Fungus Gnats 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.orkin.com [Source type: General]

^ Also fungus problem of fingernail is also evidence that your body is also deficient in some other minerals.
  • Nail Fungus Remedies on Earth Clinic, Your Source for Natural Cures. 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

.The functions of both symbiotic organisms are so closely intertwined that they function almost as a single organism; in most cases the resulting organism differs greatly from the individual components.^ The functions of both symbiotic organisms are so closely intertwined that they function almost as a single organism; in most cases the resulting organism differs greatly from the individual components.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many fungi have important symbiotic relationships with organisms from most if not all Kingdoms .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although they probably have fragmented and are no longer continuous bodies, such organisms give us cause to think about what constitutes an individual.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

.Lichenization is a common mode of nutrition; around 20% of fungi—between 17,500 and 20,000 described species—are lichenized.^ Lichenization is a common mode of nutrition; around 20% of fungibetween 17,500 and 20,000 described speciesare lichenized.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Glomeromycota (informally glomeromycetes ) is one of seven currently recognized phyla within the Fungi , with approximately 200 described species.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lichens are formed by a symbiotic relationship between algae or cyanobacteria (referred to in lichen terminology as "photobionts") and fungi (mostly various species of ascomycetes and a few basidiomycetes ), in which individual photobiont cells are embedded in a tissue formed by the fungus.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[145] .Characteristics common to most lichens include obtaining organic carbon by photosynthesis, slow growth, small size, long life, long-lasting (seasonal) vegetative reproductive structures, mineral nutrition obtained largely from airborne sources, and greater tolerance of dessication than most other photosynthetic organisms in the same habitat.^ The most common organism is Candida albicans .
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Many species are free-living saprobes (users of carbon fixed by other organisms) in woody substrates, soils, leaf litter, dead animals, and animal exudates.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The life (the Mother)is still in it and can help in many other ways than just a nail fungus problem.
  • Nail Fungus Remedies on Earth Clinic, Your Source for Natural Cures. 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

[146]

With insects

.Many insects also engage in mutualistic relationships with fungi.^ Many insects also engage in mutualistic relationships with fungi.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many fungi have important symbiotic relationships with organisms from most if not all Kingdoms .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Several groups of ants cultivate fungi in the order Agaricales as their primary food source, while ambrosia beetles cultivate various species of fungi in the bark of trees that they infest.^ Fungi as food: some Ontario species.
  • AGARICS, BOLETES AND CHANTERELLES - REFERENCES 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC www.naturewatch.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Several groups of ants cultivate fungi in the order Agaricales as their primary food source, while ambrosia beetles cultivate various species of fungi in the bark of trees that they infest.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Micheli not only observed spores, but showed that under the proper conditions, they could be induced into growing into the same species of fungi from which they originated.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[147] .Similarly, females of several wood wasp species (genus Sirex) inject their eggs together with spores of the wood-rotting fungus Amylostereum areolatum into the sapwood of pine trees; the growth of the fungus provides ideal nutritional conditions for the development of the wasp larvae.^ The genus Bipolaris contains several species.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Similarly, females of several wood wasp species (genus Sirex ) inject their eggs together with spores of the wood-rotting fungus Amylostereum areolatum into the sapwood of pine trees; the growth of the fungus provides ideal nutritional conditions for the development of the wasp larvae.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A pile of damp fabrics stored in the garage had developed a growth of fungus, providing food for the larvae.
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 10] Pests in Excessively Damp Locations< 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.entomology.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[148] .Termites on the African savannah are also known to cultivate fungi,[149] and yeasts of the genera Candida and Lachancea inhabit the gut of a wide range of insects, including neuropterans, beetles, and cockroaches; it is not known whether these fungi benefit their hosts.^ These are known as dimorphic fungi.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungus beetles are very small insects, ranging from 1 to 3 mm in length.
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 10] Pests in Excessively Damp Locations< 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.entomology.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fungi, including those pathogenic to humans and animals, are eukaryotic microorganisms that can be conveniently separated into two basic groups, moulds and yeasts.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[150]

As pathogens and parasites

A thin brown stick positioned horizontally with roughly two dozen clustered orange-red leaves originating from a single point in the middle of the stick. <a name=.These orange leaves are three to four times larger than the few other green leaves growing out of the stick, and are covered on the lower leaf surface with hundreds of tiny bumps.^ All four classifiers were validated by the hold-out method (66% for training and 33% for testing) and ten-times tenfold cross-validation, which gave similar results.
  • Global landscape of protein complexes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae : Nature 19 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The frequency and relative importance of parasexual events is unclear and may be lower than other sexual processes.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These were larger than others I had encountered but not nearly as large as even the smallest commercial berries.

The background shows the green leaves and branches of neighboring shrubs." src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/2/1/4/40284413417926106.jpg" width="180" height="135" class="thumbimage" />
The plant pathogen Aecidium magellanicum causes calafate rust, seen here on a Berberis shrub in Chile.
.Many fungi are parasites on plants, animals (including humans), and other fungi.^ Many fungi are parasites on plants, animals (including humans), and other fungi.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other fungi produce secondary metabolites such as aflatoxins that may be potent toxins and carcinogens in food of birds, fish, humans, and other mammals.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Many species are free-living saprobes (users of carbon fixed by other organisms) in woody substrates, soils, leaf litter, dead animals, and animal exudates.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

.Serious pathogens of many cultivated plants causing extensive damage and losses to agriculture and forestry include the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae,[151] tree pathogens such as Ophiostoma ulmi and Ophiostoma novo-ulmi causing Dutch elm disease,[152] and Cryphonectria parasitica responsible for chestnut blight,[153] and plant pathogens in the genera Fusarium, Ustilago, Alternaria, and Cochliobolus.^ Serious pathogens of many cultivated plants causing extensive damage and losses to agriculture and forestry include the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae , [145 ] tree pathogens such as Ophiostoma ulmi and Ophiostoma novo-ulmi causing Dutch elm disease , [146 ] and Cryphonectria parasitica responsible for chestnut blight , [147 ] and plant pathogens in the genera Fusarium , < i> Ustilago , Alternaria , and Cochliobolus .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungi are our most important plant pathogens, and include rusts, smuts, and many ascomycetes such as the agents of Dutch elm disease and chestnut blight.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A fungus capable of causing an infectious disease is known as a pathogen.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[133] .Some carnivorous fungi, like Paecilomyces lilacinus, are predators of nematodes, which they capture using an array of specialized structures such as constricting rings or adhesive nets.^ Fungi as food: some Ontario species.
  • AGARICS, BOLETES AND CHANTERELLES - REFERENCES 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC www.naturewatch.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Since they are mostly carnivorous, they are able to obtain their moisture requirements to some extent by feeding on the live insects they can capture.
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 10] Pests in Excessively Damp Locations< 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.entomology.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are used because the same groups of fungi cause disease in humans, animals and plants.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[154]
.Some fungi can cause serious diseases in humans, several of which may be fatal if untreated.^ Some fungi can cause serious diseases in humans, several of which may be fatal if untreated.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The frost melts during warm periods, and in the more severe cases, water in the attic may drip to the ceiling below and cause damage to the finish.
  • Urban Entomology [Ebeling Chap. 10] Pests in Excessively Damp Locations< 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.entomology.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diseases caused by fungi are known as mycoses (mycosis).
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

.These include aspergilloses, candidoses, coccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, mycetomas, and paracoccidioidomycosis.^ These include aspergilloses , candidoses , coccidioidomycosis , cryptococcosis , histoplasmosis , mycetomas , and paracoccidioidomycosis .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Furthermore, persons with immuno-deficiencies are particularly susceptible to disease by genera such as Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptoccocus,[134][155][156] Histoplasma,[157] and Pneumocystis.^ Furthermore, persons with immuno-deficiencies are particularly susceptible to disease by genera such as Aspergillus , Candida , Cryptoccocus , [129 ] [149 ] [150 ] Histoplasma , [151 ] and Pneumocystis .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is considerable variation in the pathogenicity of these fungi: some are highly pathogenic and capable of establishing an infection in all exposed individuals, for example the systemic pathogens Histoplasma capsulatum and Coccidioides immitis ; others, such as Candida and Aspergillus species, are opportunist pathogens, which ordinarily cause disease only in an immunocompromised host.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Systemic mycoses due to opportunistic pathogens such as Aspergillus , Candida and Cryptococcus species have a more widespread geographical distribution.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[158] .Other fungi can attack eyes, nails, hair, and especially skin, the so-called dermatophytic and keratinophilic fungi, and cause local infections such as ringworm and athlete’s foot.^ Infections of the eyes and skin by the black fungi could also be classified as phaeohyphomycosis.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ A number of fungi are involved in this eye infection.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Dermatomycosis , infections of the epidermis Superficial-localised to the skin, the hair and the nails.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[159] .Fungal spores are also a cause of allergies, and fungi from different taxonomic groups can evoke allergic reactions.^ Fungal spores are also a cause of allergies , and fungi from different taxonomic groups can evoke allergic reactions.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Another strategy is seen in the stinkhorns , a group of fungi with lively colors and putrid odor that attract insects to disperse their spores.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungal spores also cause allergies; however, unlike seasonal pollen production, some fungi can produce spores all year long.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

[160]

Human use

.The human use of fungi for food preparation or preservation and other purposes is extensive and has a long history.^ But even in the latter it has a long history of use.

^ The human use of fungi for food preparation or preservation and other purposes is extensive and has a long history.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungi are used extensively to produce industrial chemicals like citric , gluconic , lactic , and malic acids , antibiotics, and even to make stonewashed jeans .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Mushroom farming and mushroom gathering are large industries in many countries.^ Mushroom farming and mushroom gathering are large industries in many countries.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.The study of the historical uses and sociological impact of fungi is known as ethnomycology.^ The study of the historical uses and sociological imp act of fungi is known as ethnomycology .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Contributed By: New York Botanical Garden Tags: Catalonia Fungi Spain Introduction to the study of fungi, their organography, classification, and distribution for the use of collectors.

.Because of the capacity of this group to produce an enormous range of natural products with antimicrobial or other biological activities, many species have long been used or are being developed for industrial production of antibiotics, vitamins, and anti-cancer and cholesterol-lowering drugs.^ In addition a number of fungi are used in the processing and flavoring of foods (baker's and brewer's yeasts, Penicillia in cheese-making) and in production of antibiotics and organic acids.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Many species are free-living saprobes (users of carbon fixed by other organisms) in woody substrates, soils, leaf litter, dead animals, and animal exudates.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These usually are species that produce large numbers of spores, and examples include many species pathogenic on agricultural crops and trees.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

.More recently, methods have been developed for genetic engineering of fungi,[161] enabling metabolic engineering of fungal species.^ More recently, methods have been developed for genetic engineering of fungi, [155 ] enabling metabolic engineering of fungal species.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ More recent studies (2009) estimate the arrival of fungal organisms at about 7601060 Ma based on comparisons of the rate of evolution in closely related groups.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ More recently the nuclearid amoebae have been demonstrated to be a sister group to the Fungi with strong support (Steenkamp et al., 2006).
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

.For example, genetic modification of yeast species[162 ]—which are easy to grow at fast rates in large fermentation vessels—has opened up ways of pharmaceutical production that are potentially more efficient than production by the original source organisms.^ "Mycopesticide production by fermentation: potential and challenges".
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, genetic modification of yeast species [156 ] which are easy to grow at fast rates in large fermentation vesselshas opened up ways of pharmaceutical production that are potentially more efficient than production by the original source organisms.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Micheli not only observed spores, but showed that under the proper conditions, they could be induced into growing into the same species of fungi from which they originated.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[163]

Antibiotics

.Many species produce metabolites that are major sources of pharmacologically active drugs.^ Main article: Antibiotics Many species produce metabolites that are major sources of pharmacologically active drugs.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These usually are species that produce large numbers of spores, and examples include many species pathogenic on agricultural crops and trees.
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Many species produce bioactive compounds called mycotoxins , such as alkaloids and polyketides , that are toxic to animals including humans.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Particularly important are the antibiotics, including the penicillins, a structurally related group of β-lactam antibiotics that are synthesized from small peptides.^ They are usually included in Oomycetes, but their simple structure, minute size, usually uniciliate zoospores, and their negative characters would justify their retention as a separate group.

.Although naturally occurring penicillins such as penicillin G (produced by Penicillium chrysogenum) have a relatively narrow spectrum of biological activity, a wide range of other penicillins can be produced by chemical modification of the natural penicillins.^ Vigorous, consistent producer, wide ranging tree.

.Modern penicillins are semisynthetic compounds, obtained initially from fermentation cultures, but then structurally altered for specific desirable properties.^ Modern penicillins are semisynthetic compounds, obtained initially from fermentation cultures, but then structurally altered for specific desirable properties.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[164] .Other antibiotics produced by fungi include: griseofulvin from Penicillium griseofulvin used to treat dermatophyte infections of the skin, hair and nails;[165] ciclosporin, commonly used as an immunosuppressant during transplant surgery; and fusidic acid, used to help control infection from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.^ "Registered and investigational drugs for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection".
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hope it helps :-) Healthy hair and Nails .
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Advice about Toenail Fungus 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Other antibiotics produced by fungi include: griseofulvin from Penicillium griseofulvin used to treat dermatophyte infections of the skin, hair and nails; [159 ] cyclosporins , commonly used as an immunosuppressant during transplant surgery ; and fusidic acid , used to help control infection from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[166] .Widespread use of these antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial diseases, such as tuberculosis, syphilis, leprosy, and many others began in the early 20th century and continues to play a major part in anti-bacterial chemotherapy.^ Widespread use of these antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial diseases, such as tuberculosis , syphilis , leprosy , and many others began in the early 20th century and continues to play a major part in anti-bacterial chemotherapy .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Agaricus bisporus , sold as button mushrooms when small or Portobello mushrooms when larger, is a commonly-eaten species, used in salads, soups, and many other dishes.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In nature, antibiotics of fungal or bacterial origin appear to play a dual role: at high concentrations they act as chemical defense against competition with other microorganisms in species-rich environments, such as the rhizosphere , and at low concentrations as quorum-sensing molecules for intra- or interspecies signaling.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.In nature, antibiotics of fungal or bacterial origin appear to play a dual role: at high concentrations they act as chemical defense against competition with other microorganisms in species-rich environments, such as the rhizosphere, and at low concentrations as quorum-sensing molecules for intra- or interspecies signaling.^ Bacterial and Fungal Infection A unique kind of honey contains powerful antibacterial and antimicrobial properties that make it incredibly effective in combating the microorganisms responsible for infecting wounds and causing a variety of other medical conditions.

^ Nevertheless, the diversity of Candida that are encountered in infections is expanding and the emergence of other species that were rarely in play in the past is now likely.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Scalp Treating Ringworm and Other Fungal Conditions New studies indicate that a special type of honey known as Manuka Honey can be extremely effective in treating fungal infections such as ringworm, athlete's foot, jock itch and nail fungus.

[167 ]

Cultured foods

.Baker's yeast or Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a single-celled fungus, is used to make bread and other wheat-based products, such as pizza dough and dumplings.^ "Production of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ".
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Baker's yeast or Saccharomyces cerevisiae , a single-celled fungus, is used to make bread and other wheat-based products, such as pizza dough and dumplings .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other important model fungi are Aspergillus nidulans and the yeasts, Saccaromyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe , each of which has a long history of use to investigate issues in eukaryotic cell biology and genetics , such as cell cycle regulation, chromatin structure, and gene regulation .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[168] .Yeast species of the genus Saccharomyces are also used to produce alcoholic beverages through fermentation.^ Yeast species of the genus Saccharomyces are also used to produce alcoholic beverages through fermentation.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Baker's yeast or Saccharomyces cerevisiae , a single-celled fungus, is used to make bread and other wheat-based products, such as pizza dough and dumplings .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ You can use baker's yeast, but it might stop fermenting before all the sugar has been converted into alcohol, leaving a sweeter wine than desired, and/or it might produce slightly yeasty off-flavors (although some people actually like this).

[169] .Shoyu koji mold (Aspergillus oryzae) is an essential ingredient in brewing Shoyu (soy sauce) and sake, and the preparation of miso,[170] while Rhizopus species are used for making tempeh.^ Shoyu koji mold ( Aspergillus oryzae ) is an essential ingredient in brewing Shoyu (soy sauce ) and sake , and the preparation of miso , [164 ] while Rhizopus species are used for making tempeh .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Aspergillus Oryzae plays an important part in saccharifying the starch of rice , maize , &c., by means of the abundant diastase it secretes, and, in symbiosis with a yeast which ferments the sugar formed, has long been used by the Japanese for the preparation of the alcoholic liquor sake.

^ Aspergillus clavatus , Aspergillus glaucus group, Aspergillus nidulans , Aspergillus oryzae , Aspergillus terreus , Aspergillus ustus and Aspergillus versicolor are among the other species less commonly isolated as opportunistic pathogens.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[171 ] .Several of these fungi are domesticated species that were bred or selected according to their capacity to ferment food without producing harmful mycotoxins (see below), which are produced by very closely related Aspergilli.^ Associated with these relations are the specializations which parasites show in regard to the age of the host.

^ Several years later I tasted two very good sugar beet wines and developed the recipe below from discussions with the two winemakers.

^ The existence of fossil fungi is undoubted, though very few of the identifications can be relied on as regards species or genera.

[172] .Quorn, a meat substitute, is made from Fusarium venenatum.^ Quorn , a meat substitute , is made from Fusarium venenatum .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Molecular phylogenetic, morphological, and mycotoxin data support reidentification of the Quorn mycoprotein fungus as Fusarium venenatum ".
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[173]

Medicinal use

 Upper surface view of a kidney-shaped fungus, brownish-red with a lighter yellow-brown margin, and a somewhat varnished or shiny appearance. Two dried yellow-orange caterpillars, one with a curly grayish-colored fungus growing out of one of its ends. The grayish fungus is roughly equal to or slightly greater in length than the caterpillar, and tapers in thickness to a narrow end.
The medicinal fungi Ganoderma lucidum (left) and Cordyceps sinensis (right).
Certain mushrooms enjoy usage as therapeutics in folk medicines, such as Traditional Chinese medicine. .Notable medicinal mushrooms with a well-documented history of use include Agaricus blazei,[174][175] Ganoderma lucidum,[176] and Cordyceps sinensis.^ Notable species with a well-documented history of use include Agaricus blazei , [168 ] [169 ] Ganoderma lucidum , [170 ] and Cordyceps sinensis .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Agaricus bisporus , sold as button mushrooms when small or Portobello mushrooms when larger, is a commonly-eaten species, used in salads, soups, and many other dishes.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill: review of literature and pharmaco-toxicological problems ".
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[177] .Research has identified compounds produced by these and other fungi that have inhibitory biological effects against viruses[178][179] and cancer cells.^ Research has identified compounds produced by these and other fungi that have inhibitory biological effects against viruses [172 ] [173 ] and cancer cells .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungal fossils are difficult to distinguish from those of other microbes, and are most easily identified when they resemble extant fungi.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The cell wall of fungi consists of chitin, chitosan, glucan, mannan and other components in various combinations.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[174][180] .Specific metabolites, such as polysaccharide-K, ergotamine, and β-lactam antibiotics, are routinely used in clinical medicine.^ Specific metabolites with biological or antimicrobial activities, such as polysaccharide-K , ergotamine , and -lactam antibiotics , are routinely used in clinical medicine.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Medicinal Odors - Causes and Treatment The single word "medicinal" is often used to describe a variety of individual smells, each of which is more specific and offers clues as to what may be the cause.

.The shiitake mushroom is a source of lentinan, a clinical drug approved for use in cancer treatments in several countries, including Japan.^ The shiitake mushroom is a source of lentinan , a clinical drug approved for use in cancer treatments in several countries, including Japan .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In Europe and Japan , polysaccharide-K (brand name Krestin), a chemical derived from Trametes versicolor , is an approved adjuvant for cancer therapy.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fly agaric mushrooms ( Amanita muscaria ) also cause occasional non-fatal poisonings, mostly as a result of ingestion for use as a recreational drug for its hallucinogenic properties.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[181][182] .In Europe and Japan, polysaccharide-K (brand name Krestin), a chemical derived from Trametes versicolor, is an approved adjuvant for cancer therapy.^ In Europe and Japan , polysaccharide-K (brand name Krestin), a chemical derived from Trametes versicolor , is an approved adjuvant for cancer therapy.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The shiitake mushroom is a source of lentinan , a clinical drug approved for use in cancer treatments in several countries, including Japan .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[183]

Edible and poisonous species

Two light yellow-green mushrooms with stems and caps, one smaller and still in the ground, the larger one pulled out and laid beside the other to show its bulbous stem with a ring
Amanita phalloides accounts for the majority of fatal mushroom poisonings worldwide.
.Edible mushrooms are well-known examples of fungi.^ Edible mushrooms are well-known examples of fungi.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most common mushrooms belong to this group, as well as rust and smut fungi , which are major pathogens of grains.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some well-known examples of fungi formerly in the Zygomycota include black bread mold ( Rhizopus stolonifer ), and Pilobolus species, capable of ejecting spores several meters through the air.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Many are commercially raised, but others must be harvested from the wild.^ Many are commercially raised, but others must be harvested from the wild.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are man y more mushroom species that are harvested from the wild for personal consumption or commercial sale.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Agaricus bisporus, sold as button mushrooms when small or Portobello mushrooms when larger, is a commonly eaten species, used in salads, soups, and many other dishes.^ Agaricus bisporus , sold as button mushrooms when small or Portobello mushrooms when larger, is a commonly-eaten species, used in salads, soups, and many other dishes.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They are also edible and can be fried in a fritter or beer batter, added to pancake or muffin batter, cooked into pies and tarts, and added fresh to salads or many other food dishes.

^ The most commonly known basidiocarps are mushrooms, but they may also take other forms (see Morphology section).
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Many Asian fungi are commercially grown and have increased in popularity in the West.^ Many Asian fungi are commercially grown and have increased in popularity in the West.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.They are often available fresh in grocery stores and markets, including straw mushrooms (Volvariella volvacea), oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitakes (Lentinula edodes), and enokitake (Flammulina spp.^ They are often available fresh in grocery stores and markets, including straw mushrooms ( Volvariella volvacea ), oyster mushrooms ( Pleurotus ostreatus ), shiitakes ( Lentinula edodes ), and enokitake ( Flammulina spp.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As to which to buy, don't waste your time on the type from the grocery store as you mentioned or for that matter any other average store unless they do carry the ___ line.
  • Nail Fungus Remedies on Earth Clinic, Your Source for Natural Cures. 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

^ The shiitake mushroom is a source of lentinan , a clinical drug approved for use in cancer treatments in several countries, including Japan .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

).[184]
.There are many more mushroom species that are harvested from the wild for personal consumption or commercial sale.^ I knew there is absolutely no way I could take another prescription like lamisil because I take so many drugs for other more serious conditions.
  • Nail Fungus Remedies on Earth Clinic, Your Source for Natural Cures. 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

^ This holiday is the last chance for a summer outing for many - especially families with school-age children - and commercially is the occasion for final "back to school" sales.

^ I do not know which of the many other elder species exude the goo; perhaps readers with personal knowledge will write me with goo or no goo experiences.

.Milk mushrooms, morels, chanterelles, truffles, black trumpets, and porcini mushrooms (Boletus edulis) (also known as king boletes) demand a high price on the market.^ Milk mushrooms , morels , chanterelles , truffles , black trumpets , and porcini mushrooms ( Boletus edulis ) (also known as king boletes) demand a high price on the market.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.They are often used in gourmet dishes.^ In countries where weather is cold, people often use dark gloves, however they are often not laundered.
  • Nail Fungus Remedies on Earth Clinic, Your Source for Natural Cures. 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

[185]
.Certain types of cheeses require inoculation of milk curds with fungal species that impart a unique flavor and texture to the cheese.^ Elderflower Wine The white or whitish-yellow flowers of all species and varieties of elder are pleasantly fragrant and impart a muscat flavor to wines, ciders and vinegars.

.Examples include the blue color in cheeses such as Stilton or Roquefort, which are made by inoculation with Penicillium roqueforti.^ Examples include the blue color in cheeses such as Stilton or Roquefort , which are made by inoculation with Penicillium roqueforti .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Stilton cheese veined with Penicillium roqueforti Many mushroom species are poisonous to humans, with toxicities ranging from slight digestive problems or allergic reactions as well as hallucinations to severe organ failures and death.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Enzymes of Penicillium roqueforti involved in the biosynthesis of cheese flavor".
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[186] .Molds used in cheese production are non-toxic and are thus safe for human consumption; however, mycotoxins (e.g., aflatoxins, roquefortine C, patulin, or others) may accumulate because of growth of other fungi during cheese ripening or storage.^ Molds used in cheese production are non-toxic and are thus safe for human consumption; however, mycotoxins (e.g., aflatoxins, roquefortine C , patulin, or others) may a ccumulate due to growth of other fungi during cheese ripening or storage.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other notable mycotoxins include the aflatoxins , which are insidious liver toxins and highly carcinogenic metabolites produced by certain Aspergillus species often growing in or on grains and nuts consumed by humans, ochratoxins , patulin , and trichothecenes (e.g., T-2 mycotoxin ) and fumonisins , which have significant impact on human food supplies or animal livestock .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Baker's yeast or Saccharomyces cerevisiae , a single-celled fungus, is used to make bread and other wheat-based products, such as pizza dough and dumplings .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[187]
.Many mushroom species are poisonous to humans, with toxicities ranging from slight digestive problems or allergic reactions as well as hallucinations to severe organ failures and death.^ Mycetismus, or mushroom poisoning, results from the ingestion of a mushroom that contains preformed toxic metabolites.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Many moulds produce secondary metabolites that are highly toxic to humans.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

.Genera with mushrooms containing deadly toxins include Conocybe, Galerina, Lepiota, and most infamously, Amanita.^ The most deadly mushrooms belong to the genera Inocybe , Cortinarius , and most infamously, Amanita .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The latter genus includes the destroying angel (A. virosa ) and the de ath cap (A. phalloides ) , the most common cause of deadly mushroom poisoning.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[188] .The latter genus includes the destroying angel (A. virosa) and the death cap (A. phalloides), the most common cause of deadly mushroom poisoning.^ Probably the most common underlying cause is taking prescribed antibacterial agents.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Aspergillis fumigatus is one of the most common species causing disease.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The most common genera of fungi causing dermatomycoses are Microsporum , Epidermophyton and Trichophyton .
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[189] .The false morel (Gyromitra esculenta) is occasionally considered a delicacy when cooked, yet can be highly toxic when eaten raw.^ "Poisoning due to raw Gyromitra esculenta (false morels) west of the Rockies".
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The false morel ( Gyromitra esculenta ) is occasionally considered a delicacy when cooked, yet can be highly toxic when eaten raw.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[190] Tricholoma equestre was considered edible until being implicated in serious poisonings causing rhabdomyolysis.[191 ] .Fly agaric mushrooms (Amanita muscaria) also cause occasional non-fatal poisonings, mostly as a result of ingestion for use as a recreational drug for its hallucinogenic properties.^ Amanita phalloides accounts for the majority of fatal mushroom poisonings worldwide.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fly agaric mushrooms ( Amanita muscaria ) also cause occasional non-fatal poisonings, mostly as a result of ingestion for use as a recreational drug for its hallucinogenic properties.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Certain fungi, such as mushrooms, can produce poisonous toxins that may prove fatal if ingested, Amanita phalloides , others, Psilocybe , affect the central nervous system inducing hallucinogenic responses.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

.Historically, fly agaric was used by different peoples in Europe and Asia and its present usage for religious or shamanic purposes is reported from some ethnic groups such as the Koryak people of north-eastern Siberia.^ All kinds of reports from people, who used different methods."
  • Nail Fungus Remedies on Earth Clinic, Your Source for Natural Cures. 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

^ Historically, fly agaric was used by different peoples in Europ e and Asia and its present usage for religious or shamanic purposes is reported from some ethnic groups such as the Koryak people of north-eastern Siberia .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Any water used for people with compromised immune systems must also be sterile since pathogenic fungi are a serious risk for such people.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[192 ]
.As it is difficult to accurately identify a safe mushroom without proper training and knowledge, it is often advised to assume that a wild mushroom is poisonous and not to consume it.^ As it is difficult to accurately identify a safe mushroom without proper training and knowledge, it is often advised to assume that a wild mushroom is poisonous and not to consume it.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[193][194]

Pest control

Two dead grasshoppers with a whitish fuzz growing on them
Grasshoppers killed by Beauveria bassiana
.In agriculture, fungi may be useful if they actively compete for nutrients and space with pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria or other fungi via the competitive exclusion principle,[195 ] or if they are parasites of these pathogens.^ Grasshoppers killed by Beauveria bassiana In agriculture, fungi may be useful if they actively compete for nutrients and space with pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria or other fungi via the competitive exclusion principle , [188 ] or if they are parasites of these pathogens.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Entomopathogenic fungi can be used as biopesticides , as they actively kill insects.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some carnivorous fungi , like Paecilomyces lilacinus , are predators of nematodes , which they capture using an array of specialized structures such as constricting rings or adhesive nets.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.For example, certain species may be used to eliminate or suppress the growth of harmful plant pathogens, such as insects, mites, weeds, nematodes and other fungi that cause diseases of important crop plants.^ For example, certain species may be used to eliminate or suppress the growth of harmful plant pathogens, such as insects, mites , weeds , nematodes and other fungi that cause diseases of important crop plants.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungi have evolved a remarkable metabolic versatility that allows them to use a diverse range of organic substrates for growth, including simple compounds such as nitrate , ammonia , acetate , or ethanol .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Similar to mycorrhiza, endophytic colonization by fungi may benefit both symbionts; for example, endophytes of grasses impart to their host increased resistance to herbivores and other environmental stresses and receive food and shelter from the plant in return.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.[196] This has generated strong interest in practical applications that use these fungi in the biological control of these agricultural pests.^ The nomenclature used for mycoses caused by the dimorphic fungi is based upon the generic names of the pathogens.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ These documents are compilations and presentations of information which may be of use in determining orders, codes of practice, policy, recommendations, guidelines or other actions but do not constitute policy, guidelines or recommendations.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ In agriculture, materials contaminated with Aspergillus flavus and Stachybotrys chartarum are recognized as being potentially dangerous owing to the ability of these fungi to form mycotoxins.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

.Entomopathogenic fungi can be used as biopesticides, as they actively kill insects.^ They are used because the same groups of fungi cause disease in humans, animals and plants.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[197 ] .Examples that have been used as biological insecticides are Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Hirsutella spp, Paecilomyces spp, and Verticillium lecanii.^ Examples that have been used as biological insecticides are Beauveria bassiana , Metarhizium anisopliae , Hirsutella spp, Paecilomyces spp, and Verticillium lecanii .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[198][199] .Endophytic fungi of grasses of the genus Neotyphodium, such as N. coenophialum, produce alkaloids that are toxic to a range of invertebrate and vertebrate herbivores.^ Endophytic fungi of grasses of the genus Neotyphodium , such as N. coenophialum , produce alkaloids that are toxic to a range of invertebrate and vertebrate herbivores .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Similar to mycorrhiza, endophytic colonization by fungi may benefit both symbionts; for example, endophytes of grasses impart to their host increased resistance to herbivores and other environmental stresses and receive food and shelter from the plant in return.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Infecting cultivars of pasture or forage grasses with Neotyphodium endophytes is one approach being used in grass breeding programs; the fungal strains are selected for producing only alkaloids that increase resistance to herbivores such as insects, while being non-toxic to livestock.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.These alkaloids protect grass plants from herbivory, but several endophyte alkaloids can poison grazing animals, such as cattle and sheep.^ These alkaloids protect grass plants from herbivory , but several endophyte alkaloids can poison grazing animals, such as cattle and sheep.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Endophytic fungi of grasses of the genus Neotyphodium , such as N. coenophialum , produce alkaloids that are toxic to a range of invertebrate and vertebrate herbivores .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Use of nonergot alkaloid-producing endophytes for alleviating tall fescue toxicosis in sheep".
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[200] .Infecting cultivars of pasture or forage grasses with Neotyphodium endophytes is one approach being used in grass breeding programs; the fungal strains are selected for producing only alkaloids that increase resistance to herbivores such as insects, while being non-toxic to livestock.^ Endophytic fungi of grasses of the genus Neotyphodium , such as N. coenophialum , produce alkaloids that are toxic to a range of invertebrate and vertebrate herbivores .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Bioprotective alkaloids of grass-fungal endophyte symbioses".
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Infecting cultivars of pasture or forage grasses with Neotyphodium endophytes is one approach being used in grass breeding programs; the fungal strains are selected for producing only alkaloids that increase resistance to herbivores such as insects, while being non-toxic to livestock.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[201]

Bioremediation

.Certain fungi, in particular "white rot" fungi, can degrade insecticides, herbicides, pentachlorophenol, creosote, coal tars, and heavy fuels and turn them into carbon dioxide, water, and basic elements.^ Main article: Mycoremediation Certain fungi, in particular "white rot" fungi, can degrade insecticides , herbicides , pentachlorophenol , creosote , coal tars , and heavy fuels and turn them into carbon dioxide , w ater, and basic elements.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nevertheless, certain biological phenomena in fungi are especially pronounced, and of these the following require particular notice.

^ "Degradation of xenobiotic compounds by lignin-degrading white-rot fungi: enzymology and mechanisms involved".
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[202] .Fungi have been shown to biomineralize uranium oxides, suggesting they may have application in the bioremediation of radioactively polluted sites.^ Fungi have been shown to biomineralize uranium oxides , suggesting they may have application in the bioremediation of radioactively polluted sites.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They may be caused by primary pathogenic fungi or by opportunistic fungi that are of marginal pathogenicity but can infect the immunocompromised host.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ They are frequently contaminated with a variety of fungi that may or may not be causing the disease that is present.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[203][204][205]

Model organisms

.Several pivotal discoveries in biology were made by researchers using fungi as model organisms, that is, fungi that grow and sexually reproduce rapidly in the laboratory.^ Several pivotal discoveries in biology were made by researchers using fungi as model organisms , that is, fungi that grow and sexually reproduce rapidly in the laboratory.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The fungal kingdom is defined by several featuressome shared with other organisms, others unique to the fungi: .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most fungi grow as hyphae , which are cylindrical, thread-like structures 210 m in diameter and up to several centimeters in length.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.For example, the one gene-one enzyme hypothesis was formulated by scientists who used the bread mold Neurospora crassa to test their biochemical theories.^ For example, the one gene-one enzyme hypothesis was formulated by scientists who used the bread mold Neurospora c rassa to test their biochemical theories.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The genome and genes of Neurospora crassa ".
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Adding insulation to a house, for example, restricts air exchange with the outside and one effect of this may be increased humidity which encourages mold growth.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[206] .Other important model fungi are Aspergillus nidulans and the yeasts, Saccaromyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, each of which has a long history of use to investigate issues in eukaryotic cell biology and genetics, such as cell cycle regulation, chromatin structure, and gene regulation.^ But even in the latter it has a long history of use.

^ "Regulation of gene expression by ambient pH in filamentous fungi and yeasts".
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other important model fungi are Aspergillus nidulans and the yeasts, Saccaromyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe , each of which has a long history of use to investigate issues in eukaryotic cell biology and genetics , such as cell cycle regulation, chromatin structure, and gene regulation .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Other fungal models have more recently emerged that each address specific biological questions relevant to medicine, plant pathology, and industrial uses; examples include Candida albicans, a dimorphic, opportunistic human pathogen,[207] Magnaporthe grisea, a plant pathogen,[208] and Pichia pastoris, a yeast widely used for eukaryotic protein expression.^ Candida albicans is a yeast causing candidiasis or "thrush" in humans.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ This fungus has emerged as an opportunistic fungal pathogen.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The more common ones include: Candida albicans Candida dubliniensis Candida tropicalis Candida glabrata Candida parapsilosis Candida krusei Candida lusitaniae Candida lipolytica Candida is a yeast and the most common cause of opportunistic mycoses worldwide.
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[209]

Others

.Fungi are used extensively to produce industrial chemicals like citric, gluconic, lactic, and malic acids,[210] antibiotics, and even to make stonewashed jeans.^ Fungi are used extensively to produce industrial chemicals like citric , gluconic , lactic , and malic acids , antibiotics, and even to make stonewashed jeans .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other antibiotics produced by fungi include: griseofulvin from Penicillium griseofulvin used to treat dermatophyte infections of the skin, hair and nails; [159 ] cyclosporins , commonly used as an immunosuppressant during transplant surgery ; and fusidic acid , used to help control infection from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Members of the Basidiomycota , commonly known as the club fungi or basidiomycetes, produce meiospores called basidiospores o n club-like stalks called basidia .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[211] .Fungi are also sources of industrial enzymes, such as lipases used in biological detergents,[212] amylases,[213] cellulases,[214] invertases, proteases and xylanases.^ Fungi are also sources of industrial enzymes, such as lipases used in biological detergents , [204 ] amylases , [205 ] cellulases , [206 ] invertases , proteases and xylanases .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungi are used extensively to produce industrial chemicals like citric , gluconic , lactic , and malic acids , antibiotics, and even to make stonewashed jeans .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Any water used for people with compromised immune systems must also be sterile since pathogenic fungi are a serious risk for such people.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[215] .Several species, most notably Psilocybin mushrooms (colloquially known as magic mushrooms), are ingested for their psychedelic properties, both recreationally and religiously.^ There are several variants of the Malay Apple, most notable in fruit size and color - red fruit is usual but variegated varieties and a rare albino exist.

^ Aspergilloma is most often caused by Aspergillus fumigatus but several other species can also cause it.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Candida albicans accounts for most cases of systemic candidosis, but other species, most notably Candida tropicalis , are increasingly implicated as opportunistic pathogens.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

Mycotoxins

(6aR,9R)-N-((2R,5S,10aS,10bS)-5-benzyl-10b-hydroxy-2-methyl-3,6-dioxooctahydro-2H-oxazolo[3,2-a] pyrrolo[2,1-c]pyrazin-2-yl)-7-methyl-4,6,6a,7,8,9-hexahydroindolo[4,3-fg] quinoline-9-carboxamide
Ergotamine, a major mycotoxin produced by Claviceps species, which if ingested can cause gangrene, convulsions, and hallucinations
.Many fungi produce biologically active compounds, several of which are toxic to animals or plants and are therefore called mycotoxins.^ Back to top ] Main article: Mycotoxins Ergotamine , a major mycotoxin produced by Claviceps species, which if ingested can cause gangrene , convulsions, and hallucinations Many fungi produce biologically active compounds, several of which are toxic to animals or plants and are therefore called mycotoxins.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many species produce bioactive compounds called mycotoxins , such as alkaloids and polyketides , that are toxic to animals including humans.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many fungi are parasites on plants, animals (including humans), and other fungi.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Of particular relevance to humans are mycotoxins produced by molds causing food spoilage, and poisonous mushrooms (see above).^ Of particular relevance to humans are mycotoxins produced by molds causing food spoilage, and poisonous mushrooms (see above).
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They often cause food spoilage.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Losses of crops due to fungal diseases (e.g., rice blast disease ) or food spoilage can have a large impact on human food supplies and local economies.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Particularly infamous are the lethal amatoxins in some Amanita mushrooms, and ergot alkaloids, which have a long history of causing serious epidemics of ergotism (St Anthony's Fire) in people consuming rye or related cereals contaminated with sclerotia of the ergot fungus, Claviceps purpurea.^ Claviceps purpurea , the fungus that causes ergotism, has had a profound impact upon the history of various peoples for hundreds of years.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Ergotism is caused by eating bread prepared from rye infected with the fungus Claviceps purpurea .
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Particularly infamous are the lethal amatoxins in some Amanita mushrooms, and ergot alkaloids , which have a long history of causing serious epidemics of ergotism (St Anthony's Fire) in people consuming rye or related cereals contaminated with sclerotia of the ergot fungus, Claviceps purpurea .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[216] .Other notable mycotoxins include the aflatoxins, which are insidious liver toxins and highly carcinogenic metabolites produced by certain Aspergillus species often growing in or on grains and nuts consumed by humans, ochratoxins, patulin, and trichothecenes (e.g., T-2 mycotoxin) and fumonisins, which have significant impact on human food supplies or animal livestock.^ Other notable mycotoxins include the aflatoxins , which are insidious liver toxins and highly carcinogenic metabolites produced by certain Aspergillus species often growing in or on grains and nuts consumed by humans, ochratoxins , patulin , and trichothecenes (e.g., T-2 mycotoxin ) and fumonisins , which have significant impact on human food supplies or animal livestock .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some Aspergillus produce various mycotoxins.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Many moulds produce secondary metabolites that are highly toxic to humans.
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[217]
.Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites (or natural products), and research has established the existence of biochemical pathways solely for the purpose of producing mycotoxins and other natural products in fungi.^ "The natural functions of secondary metabolites".
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites (or natural products ), and research has established the existence of biochemical pathways solely for the purpose of producing mycotoxins and other natural products in fungi.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ With euglenoids and bacteria: Higher fungi, euglenoids, a nd some bacteria produce the amino acid L -lysine in specific biosynthesis steps, called the a-aminoadipate pathway .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[218 ] .Mycotoxins may provide fitness benefits in terms of physiological adaptation, competition with other microbes and fungi, and protection from consumption (fungivory).^ It must always be remembered that a number of other fungi can be morphologically identical to Aspergillus in tissue.Rarely, Aspergillus may cause invasive disease of the lung from where it may disseminate to other organs.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Ironically, cyclosporin, a fungal-derived drug that reduces the risk of rejection in organ transplants, weakens the immune system so that other fungi may infect the patient.
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[219][220]

Mycology

.Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the systematic study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy, and their use to humans as a source of medicine, food, and psychotropic substances consumed for religious purposes, as well as their dangers, such as poisoning or infection.^ Mycology is the branch of biology that deals with the study of fungi.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Back to top ] Main article: Mycology Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the systematic study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy, and their use to humans as a source of medicine, food, and psychotropic substances consumed for religious purposes, as well as their dangers, such as poisoning or infection.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungi have evolved a remarkable metabolic versatility that allows them to use a diverse range of organic substrates for growth, including simple compounds such as nitrate , ammonia , acetate , or ethanol .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.The field of phytopathology, the study of plant diseases, is closely related because many plant pathogens are fungi.^ The field of phytopathology , the study of plant diseases, is closely related because most plan t pathogens are fungi.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A small proportion of otherwise healthy people infected with these pathogenic fungi develop progressive disease.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The interaction between plant pathogenic fungi and their host plants is extremely complex and should be viewed from the perspectives of both the fungus and the plant.
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[221]
.Use of fungi by humans dates back to prehistory; Ötzi the Iceman, a well-preserved mummy of a 5,300 year old Neolithic man found frozen in the Austrian Alps, carried two species of polypore mushrooms that may have been used as tinder (Fomes fomentarius), or for medicinal purposes (Piptoporus betulinus).^ Use of fungi by humans dates back to prehistory; tzi the Iceman , a well-preserved mummy of a 5,300 year old Neolithic man found frozen in the Austrian Alps, carried two species of polypore mushrooms that may have been used as tinder ( Fomes fomentarius ), or for medicinal purposes ( Piptoporus betulinus ).
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Agaricus bisporus , sold as button mushrooms when small or Portobello mushrooms when larger, is a commonly-eaten species, used in salads, soups, and many other dishes.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Back to top ] The English word fungus is directly adopted from the Latin fungus (mushroom), used in the writings of Horace and Pliny .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[222] .Ancient peoples have used fungi as food sources – often unknowingly – for millennia, in the preparation of leavened bread and fermented juices.^ Any water used for people with compromised immune systems must also be sterile since pathogenic fungi are a serious risk for such people.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ In countries where weather is cold, people often use dark gloves, however they are often not laundered.
  • Nail Fungus Remedies on Earth Clinic, Your Source for Natural Cures. 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

.Some of the oldest written records contain references to the destruction of crops that were probably caused by pathogenic fungi.^ A primary pathogen is a fungus that typically causes disease in some portion of susceptible individuals who apparently have intact specific and nonspecific defense systems.
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^ They may be caused by primary pathogenic fungi or by opportunistic fungi that are of marginal pathogenicity but can infect the immunocompromised host.
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^ There are pathogenic fungi which can cause infection in people who appear otherwise healthy.
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[223]

History

.Mycology is a relatively new science that became systematic after the development of the microscope in the 16th century.^ Mycology is a relatively new science that became systematic after the development of the microscope in the 16th century.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Although fungal spores were first observed by Giambattista della Porta in 1588, the seminal work in the development of mycology is considered to be the publication of Pier Antonio Micheli's 1729 work Nova plantarum genera.^ Although fungal spores were first observed by Giambattista della Porta in 1588, the seminal work in the development of mycology is considered to be the publication of Pier Antonio Micheli 's 1729 work Nova plantarum genera .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Micheli not only observed spores, but showed that under the proper conditions, they could be induced into growing into the same species of fungi from which they originated.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[224] .Micheli not only observed spores, but showed that under the proper conditions, they could be induced into growing into the same species of fungi from which they originated.^ The two nuclei when once associated are termed" conjugate "nuclei, and they always divide at the same time, a half of each passing into each cell.

^ These substances, mycotoxins, are produced when the fungus grows in specific environments, on particular substrates, under certain conditions and by only specific strains of the species.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The vines may all be of the same variety or they can be from different varieties or even species.

[225] .Extending the use of the binomial system of nomenclature introduced by Carl Linnaeus in his Species plantarum (1753), the Dutch Christian Hendrik Persoon (1761–1836) established the first classification of mushrooms with such skill so as to be considered a founder of modern mycology.^ Extending the use of the binomial system of nomenclature introduced by Carl Linnaeus in his Species plantarum (1753), the Dutch Christian Hendrik Persoon (17611836) established the first classification of mushrooms with such skill so as to be considered a founder of modern mycology.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ever since the pioneering 18th and 19th century taxonomical works of Carl Linnaeus , Christian Hendrik Persoon , and Elias Magnus Fries , fungi have been classified according to their morphology (e.g., characteristics such as spore color or microscopic features) or physiology .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although fungal spores were first observed by Giambattista della Porta in 1588, the seminal work in the development of mycology is considered to be the publication of Pier Antonio Micheli 's 1729 work Nova plantarum genera .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Later, Elias Magnus Fries (1794–1878) further elaborated the classification of fungi, using spore color and various microscopic characteristics, methods still used by taxonomists today.^ Later, Elias Magnus Fries (17941878) further elaborated the classification of fungi, using spore color and various microscopic characteristics, methods still used by taxonomists today.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ever since the pioneering 18th and 19th century taxonomical works of Carl Linnaeus , Christian Hendrik Persoon , and Elias Magnus Fries , fungi have been classified according to their morphology (e.g., characteristics such as spore color or microscopic features) or physiology .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Another strategy is seen in the stinkhorns , a group of fungi with lively colors and putrid odor that attract insects to disperse their spores.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Other notable early contributors to mycology in the 17th–19th and early 20th centuries include Miles Joseph Berkeley, August Carl Joseph Corda, Anton de Bary, the brothers Louis René and Charles Tulasne, Arthur H. R. Buller, Curtis G. Lloyd, and Pier Andrea Saccardo.^ Other notable early contributors to mycology in the 17th19th and early 20th centuries include Miles Joseph Berkeley , August Carl Joseph Corda , Anton de Bary , the brothers Louis Ren and Charles Tulasne , Arthur H. R. Buller , Curtis G. Lloyd , and Pier Andrea Saccardo .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Widespread use of these antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial diseases, such as tuberculosis , syphilis , leprosy , and many others began in the early 20th century and continues to play a major part in anti-bacterial chemotherapy .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ English naturalist Miles Joseph Berkeley 's publication The English Flora of Sir James Edward Smith, Vol.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.The 20th century has seen a modernization of mycology that has come from advances in biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and biotechnology.^ As modern medicine advances, serious opportunistic mycoses are being seen with increasing frequency in patients compromised by disease or drug treatment.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

.The use of DNA sequencing technologies and phylogenetic analysis has provided new insights into fungal relationships and biodiversity, and has challenged traditional morphology-based groupings in fungal taxonomy.^ The use of DNA sequencing technologies and phylogenetic analysis has provided new insights into fungal relationships and biodiversity , and has challenged traditional morphology-based groupings in fungal taxonomy .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Advances in molecular genetics have opened the way for DNA analysis to be incorporated into taxonomy, which has sometimes challenged the historical groupings based on morphology and other traits.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The use of fungal names as part of the clinical nomenclature is inappropriate because they limit the concept too much and are subject to change as the taxonomy of the pathogens changes.
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[226]

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Moore RT. (1980). "Taxonomic proposals for the classification of marine yeasts and other yeast-like fungi including the smuts". Botanica Marine 23: 361–73.  
  2. ^ The classification system presented here is based on the 2007 phylogenetic study by Hibbett et al.
  3. ^ Simpson DP. (1979). Cassell's Latin Dictionary (5 ed.). London: Cassell Ltd. p. 883. ISBN 0-304-52257-0.  
  4. ^ a b Ainsworth, p. 2.
  5. ^ Alexopoulos et al., p. 1.
  6. ^ Bruns T. (2006). "Evolutionary biology: a kingdom revised". Nature 443 (7113): 758–61. doi:10.1038/443758a. PMID 17051197.  
  7. ^ Baldauf; Palmer, JD (1993). "Animals and fungi are each other's closest relatives: congruent evidence from multiple proteins". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 90 (24): 11558–62. doi:10.1073/pnas.90.24.11558. PMID 8265589.   edit
  8. ^ Deacon, p. 4.
  9. ^ a b Deacon, pp. 128–29.
  10. ^ Alexopoulos et al., pp. 28–33.
  11. ^ Alexopoulos et al., pp. 31–32.
  12. ^ Shoji JY, Arioka M, Kitamoto K. (2006). "Possible involvement of pleiomorphic vacuolar networks in nutrient recycling in filamentous fungi". Autophagy 2 (3): 226–27. PMID 16874107.  
  13. ^ Deacon, p. 58.
  14. ^ Zabriskie TM, Jackson MD. (2000). "Lysine biosynthesis and metabolism in fungi". Natural Product Reports 17 (1): 85–97. doi:10.1039/a801345d. PMID 10714900.  
  15. ^ Xu H, Andi B, Qian J, West AH, Cook PF. (2006). "The α-aminoadipate pathway for lysine biosynthesis in fungi". Cellular Biochemistry and Biophysics 46 (1): 43–64. doi:10.1385/CBB:46:1:43. PMID 16943623.  
  16. ^ Alexopoulos et al., pp. 27–28.
  17. ^ Alexopoulos et al., p. 685.
  18. ^ Desjardin DE, Oliveira AG, Stevani CV. (2008). "Fungi bioluminescence revisited". Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences 7 (2): 170–82. doi:10.1039/b713328f. PMID 18264584.  
  19. ^ a b Alexopoulos et al., p. 30.
  20. ^ Alexopoulos et al., pp. 32–33.
  21. ^ Bowman SM, Free SJ. (2006). "The structure and synthesis of the fungal cell wall". Bioessays 28 (8): 799–808. doi:10.1002/bies.20441. PMID 16927300.  
  22. ^ Alexopoulos et al., p. 33.
  23. ^ Mihail JD, Bruhn JN. (2005). "Foraging behaviour of Armillaria rhizomorph systems". Mycological Research 109 (Pt 11): 1195–207. doi:10.1017/S0953756205003606. PMID 16279413.  
  24. ^ a b c Keller NP, Turner G, Bennett JW. (2005). "Fungal secondary metabolism—from biochemistry to genomics". Nature Reviews Microbiology 3 (12): 937–47. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1286. PMID 16322742.  
  25. ^ Wu S, Schalk M, Clark A, Miles RB, Coates R, Chappell J. (2007). "Redirection of cytosolic or plastidic isoprenoid precursors elevates terpene production in plants". Nature Biotechnology 24 (11): 1441–47. doi:10.1038/nbt1251. PMID 17057703.  
  26. ^ Tudzynski B. (2005). "Gibberellin biosynthesis in fungi: genes, enzymes, evolution, and impact on biotechnology". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 66 (6): 597–611. doi:10.1007/s00253-004-1805-1. PMID 15578178.  
  27. ^ Vaupotic T, Veranic P, Jenoe P, Plemenitas A. (2008). "Mitochondrial mediation of environmental osmolytes discrimination during osmoadaptation in the extremely halotolerant black yeast Hortaea werneckii". Fungal Genetics and Biology 45 (6): 994–1007. doi:10.1016/j.fgb.2008.01.006. PMID 18343697.  
  28. ^ a b Dadachova E, Bryan RA, Huang X, Moadel T, Schweitzer AD, Aisen P, Nosanchuk JD, Casadevall A. (2007). "Ionizing radiation changes the electronic properties of melanin and enhances the growth of melanized fungi". PLoS ONE 2 (5): e457. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000457. PMID 17520016.  
  29. ^ Raghukumar C, Raghukumar S. (1998). "Barotolerance of fungi isolated from deep-sea sediments of the Indian Ocean". Aquatic Microbial Ecology 15: 153–63. doi:10.3354/ame015153. http://hdl.handle.net/2264/1892.  
  30. ^ Sancho LG, de la Torre R, Horneck G, Ascaso C, de Los Rios A, Pintado A, Wierzchos J, Schuster M. (2007). "Lichens survive in space: results from the 2005 LICHENS experiment". Astrobiology 7 (3): 443–54. doi:10.1089/ast.2006.0046. PMID 17630840.  
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