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     G4 bloc (leadership of G20 developing nations)      Permanent G20 developing nations      Fluctuating G20 developing nations

The G20 (Group of 20, also variously G21, G22 and G20+) is a bloc of developing nations established on 20 August 2003. The group emerged at the 5th Ministerial WTO conference, held in Cancún, Mexico from 10 September to 14 September 2003. The G-20 accounts for 60% of the world's population, 70% of its farmers and 26% of world’s agricultural exports [1].


Its origins date back to June 2003, when foreign ministers from Brazil, India and South Africa signed a declaration known as the Brasilia Declaration[2][3], in which they stated that “major trading partners are still moved by protectionist concerns in their countries’ less competitive sectors [...] and emphasized how important it is that the results of the current round of trade negotiations provide especially for the reversal of protectionist policies and trade-distorting practices [...] Furthermore, Brazil, India and South Africa decided to articulate their initiatives of trade liberalization”.

Currently, the group consists of 23 nations:

  1.  Argentina
  2.  Bolivia
  3.  Brazil
  4.  Chile
  5.  China
  6.  Cuba
  7.  Ecuador
  8.  Egypt
  9.  Guatemala
  10.  India
  11.  Indonesia
  12.  Mexico
  13.  Nigeria
  14.  Pakistan
  15.  Paraguay
  16.  Peru
  17.  Philippines
  18.  South Africa
  19.  Tanzania
  20.  Thailand
  21.  Uruguay
  22.  Venezuela
  23.  Zimbabwe

Nonetheless, the “official” appearance of the G-20 occurred as a response to a text released on 13 August 2003 by the European Communities (EC) and the United States with a common proposal on agriculture for the Cancún Ministerial. On 20 August 2003 a document signed by twenty countries and re-issued as a Cancún Ministerial document on 4 September proposed an alternative framework to that of the EC and the United States on agriculture for the Cancún Meeting. This document marked the establishment of the G-20. The original group of signatories of the 20 August 2003 document went through many changes, being known as such different names as the G-21 or the G-22. The title G-20 was finally chosen, in honor of the date of the group's establishment.

Since its creation, the group has had a fluctuating membership. Previous members have included: Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Peru, and Turkey. As of October 2008, the group had 23 members.

The core leadership of the G-20, known as the G4 bloc, consists of Brazil, China, India, and South Africa.


  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ Brasilia Declaration June 6, 2003 by Ministers of Brazil, South Africa and India (also [2])
  3. ^ IBSA - trilateral, developmental initiative between India, Brazil and South Africa

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