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The Family II is a straight-4 piston engine that was originally developed by Opel in the early 1970s. It was used in the Opel Ascona and Opel Kadett and their corresponding sister models the Vauxhall Cavalier and Vauxhall Astra. In the US the SOHC engine was available from 1982-1990 including a turbocharged version known as LT3.

Over time, the engine evolved to include many modern features such as DOHC and Gasoline direct injection. Family II has also expanded to include a range of Opel derived 6 cylinder engines. Many General Motors subsidiaries, including Holden, GM do Brasil and recently GM Powertrain have adopted this design. It is also starting to be used in hot rods as an engine swap.

Contents

20NE, 20SE, 20SEH, C20NE, C20GET

These engines formed the basis of the modern Family II lineup. Configuration was limited to a single over head cam, and 2 Valves per cylinder (8 valves total). The 20NE served as the base, where later Family II engines evolved.

Common features include:

  • Cast iron block
  • 6 bolt flywheel
  • Aluminum head.
  • 1998 cc, 86 mm x 86 mm bore/stroke

Individual differences:

Engine Power Torque Ratio Engine Management (Other)
20NE 116 horsepower (87 kW) @ 5200 rpm 175 N·m (129 lb·ft) @ 2600 rpm 9.2:1 Motronic ML 4.1
20SE 122 horsepower (91 kW) @ 5400 rpm 175 N·m (129 lb·ft) @ 2600 rpm 10.0:1 Motronic ML 4.1 High compression pistons
20SEH 130 horsepower (97 kW) @ 5600 rpm 180 N·m (130 lb·ft) @ 4600 rpm 10.0:1 Motronic ML 4.1 High compression pistons; More aggressive camshaft than 20SE
C20NE 115 horsepower (86 kW) @ 5200 rpm 170 N·m (130 lb·ft) @ 2600 rpm 9.2:1 Motronic 1.5/Motronic 1.5.2 Catalytic converter; Lambda sensor.
C20GET 165 horsepower (123 kW) @ 5600 rpm 175 N·m (129 lb·ft) @ 4000 rpm 8.0:1 Most likely Motronic 1.5 Turbocharged

A South African derivative of the 20SEH engine was used until 1999 in the Astra/Kadett models featuring 10:1 compression ratio and a Bosch Motronic 1.5.4 engine management system. Quoted power was 95 kW (129 PS; 127 hp) and 180 N·m (130 lb·ft) of torque.

The 2 liter 8v OHC engines is used in the base versions of:

20XE, 20XEJ, C20XE, C20LET

The naturally-aspirated 16-valve version of the 2.0 L— 1,998 cc (121.9 cu in)—cast iron block engine is the successor to the OHC-engines and a predecessor to the 16-valve Ecotec-line of engines.

This lineup features the same block as the OHC based engines with an 86 mm (3.4 in) bore & stroke and a Cosworth-developed DOHC cylinder head (Cosworth Project KB). The cylinder heads were manufactured by either Cosworth or, at a latter date, Kolbenschmidt. In general, the heads from this lineup are supposed to flow appreciablу better than their Ecotec successors. Power output is rated at 110 kW (150 hp) at 6000 rpm and 196 N·m at 4600 rpm (C20XE) or 156 hp (20XE).

Common features:
-1,998 cc (121.9 cu in); 86 mm × 86 mm (3.4 in × 3.4 in) bore x stroke
-Cast iron block
-Aluminium head
-Aluminium oil pan with cooling fins
-Air mass flow meter
-Knock sensors
-Twin Camshafts
-8 bolt flywheel

20XE
- 157 hp (117 kW)
- 198 N·m (146 lb·ft)
-Compression ratio: 10.8-1
-Engine Management: Bosh Motronic 2.5

C20XE
- 150 bhp (112 kW; 152 PS) @ 6000 rpm
- 196 N·m (145 lb·ft) @ 4600 rpm
-Compression ratio: 10.8-1
-Catalytic converter
-Lambda sensor
-Engine Management: Bosh Motronic 2.8

C20LET
- 204 hp (152 kW) @ 5600 rpm
- 280 N·m (210 lb·ft) @ 2400 rpm
- 102 bhp/litre
-Compression ratio: 9.0-1
-Catalytic converter
-Lambda sensor
-Different camshafts
-Turbo pressure: 0.6 bars (8.7 psi) continuous with a 0.8 bars (12 psi) overboost
-Engine Management: Bosch Motronic M2.7
-The map sensor is built into the ECU.
-Turbo used in the C20LET: KKK16, integral water cooling and oil lubrication.

These engines were used in:

The turbocharged version of the C20XE, branded C20LET was also offered in the Opel/Vauxhall Calibra and Vectra Turbo. The C20LET is essentially the same as the C20XE, bar the lower compression, forged Mahle pistons turbocharger, Bosh Motronic M2.7 with MAP a sensor. There are also slight revisions to the block which provide an oil inlet/outlet for the turbocharger.

C25XE

Opel later developed a 2.5 liter V6 engine based on the C20XE's design. The GM 54-Degree V6 engine featured four camshafts and 4 valves per cylinder. The C25XE found use in the V6 Calibra/Vectra A/A2 and the Omega A (Known as the Vauxhall Carlton in the UK).


-2,498 cc (152.4 cu in)
- 170 hp (127 kW) @ 6000 rpm
- 226 N·m (167 lb·ft) @ 4200 rpm Engine Management Bosch Motronic 2.8

X20XEV

The first engine Opel branded as Ecotec, a mass-market successor to the C20XE with a Lotus-developed cylinder head. The new cylinder head had a smaller valve angle compared to the older C20XE, which was supposed to give more torque in the lower revs. It is a 1,998 cc (121.9 cu in) naturally aspirated engine with 16 valves and belt driven double overhead camshafts (DOHC). 86 mm (3.4 in) bore and stroke in cast iron OHC-derived cylinder block and aluminium cylinder head. X20XEV was equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce nitrogen dioxide emissions and air injection reactor (AIR) to speed up the warming up of the catalytic converter and to reduce unburnt hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. Power 100 kW / 136 hp.

This engine was used in:

X25XE, X30XE

A GM 54-Degree V6 engine - essentially an Ecotec version of the C25XE. It has similar design features to the X20XEV - particularly the cylinder heads and emission reduction hardware. This engine was used in the Opel Omega B and for the first few years in the C

The X25XE was also used in Later Models of Vectra B from 2000 until 2002. It was to prove popular in Police Vehicles in the UK.

Ecotec

The Ecotec name was adopted in 2000 for the new generation of Family II engines. The name was already used for the Opel GM Family II engine, Family 1 and Family 0 ranges. GM intends this new Ecotec to become its global 4-cylinder.

The Ecotec Family II is a DOHC 4-valve design with an aluminum block and head (L850 for 86 mm bore applications, and L880 for 88 mm bore), designed for displacements from 1.8 to 2.4 L. It was developed by an international team of engineers and technicians from Opel's International Technical Development Center in Rüsselsheim, Germany, GM Powertrain in Pontiac, Michigan, and Saab in Trollhättan, Sweden.[citation needed] Much of the development work on this project was carried out by Lotus Engineering, Hethel, United Kingdom. The engine uses aluminum pistons and cast iron cylinder liners. Vibration is reduced with twin balance shafts.

The current Ecotec line is manufactured in Tonawanda, New York, Kaiserslautern, Germany, and (for Saturn) in Spring Hill, Tennessee.

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Turbo

Opel/Vauxhall offers a turbocharged version of the 2.0 L—1,998 cc (121.9 cu in)—Ecotec (the Z20LET) in a cast iron block; it features a square 86 millimetres (3.4 in) bore and stroke, 9.5:1 compression, 200 hp (150 kW) and 195 lb·ft (264 N·m) of torque. fuel economy 14.6 L/100 km (16.1 mpg-US) This engine is used in:

From 2005, the Z20LET engine was revised for the Astra H and Zafira B, to three different model designations, Z20LEL, Z20LER and Z20LEH. The differing designations denote the engine power output, 170 hp, 200 hp and 240 hp. Further revisions to the original design include the deletion of the contrarotating balancer shafts in the 240 hp Z20LEH engine, to reduce mechanical losses.

LK9

This engine is also known as a Z20NET in other countries such as The United Kingdom and Australia

LK9 is a turbocharged 2.0 L— 1,998 cc (121.9 cu in)—version of the L850 series ECOTEC utilizing a reinforced sand cast aluminum cylinder head and reinforced internal components. It features an 86 millimetres (3.4 in) bore and stroke and a 9.5:1 compression ratio. Power is 210 horsepower (160 kW) at 5300 rpm and 220 lb·ft (298 N·m) of torque at 2500 rpm. Maximum boost is 12.3 psi (0.85 bar).

LNF

Ecotec LNF in a Pontiac Solstice

A turbocharged direct injected (redubbed Spark Ignition Direct Injection) Ecotec was introduced in the 2007 Saturn Sky Red Line. It is a longitudinally mounted engine. Displacement is 2.0 L—1,998 cc (121.9 cu in)—with a square 86 millimetres (3.4 in) bore and stroke. Compression is 9.2:1 and maximum boost is 1.4 bar (20.0 psi), delivering 260 hp (190 kW) at 5300 rpm and 260 lb·ft (350 N·m) of torque from 2500–5250 rpm. Engine redline is at 6300 rpm and premium fuel is recommended. The sodium filled exhaust valves were based on technology developed for the Corvette V8 powertrains. The sodium fuses and becomes a liquid at idle, which improves conductivity and draws heat away from the valve face and valve guide towards the stem to be cooled by the engine oil circulating in this aerea. The camshaft-driven direct injection systems pressurizes the fuel to 52 bar (750 psi) at idle, and up to 155 bar (2,250 psi) at wide-open throttle. The "Gen II" block is similar to the 2.4 L and also features VVT technology. The Gen II block was developed using data from racing programs and computer simulations. The bore walls and bulkheads were strengthened with a weight increase of 1 kg (2.5 pounds). The coolant jackets were expanded to improve heat rejection, resulting in a coolant capacity increase of 0.5 liters.

Unique LNF features[1] include:

This engine is used in:

This or a similar engine is used in:

DI

A high-end direct injection version of the 2.2 L Ecotec is available for:

A high-end direct injected 2.4 L Ecotec is available for the 2010 Chevy Equinox (see below: LAF). This engine makes 180 hp (130 kW; 180 PS) and 172 ft·lbf (233 N·m) of torque, partly due to an 11.4:1 compression ratio.[2]

L61

Ecotec L61 engine in a Chevrolet Classic
2003 Pontiac Sunfire Ecotec engine
Ecotec L61 installed in a 2003 Chevrolet Cavalier
This engine is also known as a Z22SE in other countries such as The United Kingdom and Australia

The basic Family II architecture was substantially reengineered in 2000, becoming the Ecotec 2.2, model L61 (or L42 for the CNG version). First appearing in the 2000 Saturn LS1, the L61 spread throughout North American GM products, displacing the Quad 4 and its descendants.

Unlike its notably harsh predecessor, the L61 was designed for smoothness - however in the nearly 20 years since the demise of the Oldsmobile engineered Quad 4, no other GM 4-cylinder has exceeded the output of the 190 hp (142 kW) 1991 W41 Quad 4. Only recently the Ecotec LAF exceeded the high volume 180 hp (134 kW) LG0 Quad 4. Dual in-block balance shafts were integral to the design, and all accessories were mounted directly to the engine block to reduce vibration. The oil filter was cast into the block with a removable cover and replaceable paper element.

Displacement for the 2.2 L engine is 2,196 cc (134.0 cu in) with an 86 millimetres (3.4 in) bore and 94.6 millimetres (3.72 in) stroke. Compression is 9.5:1 or 10:1, delivering 135 to 147 hp (101 to 110 kW) and 142 to 152 lb·ft (193 to 206 N·m) of torque. The Ecotec line is manufactured in Tonawanda, New York, Kaiserslautern, Germany, and (for Saturn) in Spring Hill, Tennessee. The L61-powered Saturn Ion replaced the Saturn-powered Saturn S-Series.

There are a few variations to the standard L61. The new Chevrolet Malibu uses a version with electronic throttle control and a special unitized exhaust manifold and catalytic converter. The 2003 Saturn L-Series has a high output version with higher (10:1) compression and more aggressive camshaft. The Malibu and Saturn versions also use return-less fuel injection. The 2002 Saturn VUE was the first North American variant of the L61 to be equipped with electronic throttle control, whereas other applications did not arise until 2005 in the Saturn ION and Chevrolet Cobalt. The supercharger and inlet manifold from the 2.0 Ecotec engine can be purchased as an official kit from GM and along with modified software in the ECM, can create a 2.2 supercharged version of this engine.

In 2007 the L61 was upgraded with a second generation cylinder case, Coil on plug ignition, 58x crankshaft position sensing and a 32-bit computer.

The 2.2 L Ecotec is used in the following cars:

Year(s) Model Power Torque
2002–2005 Chevrolet Cavalier 140 hp (100 kW) @ 5600 rpm 150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm
2004 Chevrolet Classic (Malibu) 144 hp (107 kW) @ 5600 rpm 155 lb·ft (210 N·m) @ 4000 rpm
2005–2006 Chevrolet Cobalt 145 hp (108 kW) @ 5600 rpm 155 lb·ft (210 N·m) @ 4000 rpm
2007–2008 148 hp (110 kW) @ 5600 rpm 152 lb·ft (206 N·m) @ 4200 rpm
2006 Chevrolet HHR 143 hp (107 kW) @ 5600 rpm 150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm
2007–2008 Chevrolet HHR 149 hp (111 kW) @ 5600 rpm 152 lb·ft (206 N·m) @ 4000 rpm
2002–2004 Oldsmobile Alero 140 hp (100 kW) @ 5600 rpm 150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm
2002–2005 Pontiac Grand Am 140 hp (100 kW) @ 5600 rpm 150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm
2002–2005 Pontiac Sunfire 140 hp (100 kW) @ 5600 rpm 150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm
2005–2008 Pontiac G5/Pursuit 145 hp (108 kW) @ 5600 rpm 155 lb·ft (210 N·m) @ 4000 rpm
2003–2005 Saturn L-Series (high output) 140 hp (100 kW) @ 5600 rpm 145 lb·ft (197 N·m) @ 4000 rpm
2003–2007 Saturn Ion 140 hp (100 kW) @ 5600 rpm 145 lb·ft (197 N·m) @ 4000 rpm
2002–2007 Saturn VUE 143 hp (107 kW) @ 5600 rpm 155 lb·ft (210 N·m) @ 4000 rpm
2001–2005 Vauxhall VX220/Opel Speedster 147 hp (110 kW) @ 5800 rpm 150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm
Opel/Vauxhall/Holden Astra
Opel/Vauxhall/Holden Vectra
Opel/Vauxhall/Holden Zafira/Subaru Traviq

Following the GM-Fiat agreement, the 2.2 L engine is also used in

L42

The Ecotec 2.2, model L42 is the CNG version of the Ecotec 2.2. It delivers 129 hp (96 kW) and 129 lb·ft (175 N·m).

LSJ

Ecotec LSJ engine in a 2006 Saturn Ion Red Line

The LSJ is a supercharged version of the LK9 Ecotec with an Eaton M62 Roots-type supercharger and air-to-liquid intercooler. It is rated at 205 hp (153 kW) at 5600 rpm and 200 lb·ft (271 N·m) at 4400 rpm with a compression ratio of 9.5:1 and a 6500 rpm redline. With the end of the Chevy Cobalt S/C SS and Saturn Ion Red Line, The LSJ will no longer be available in a production car after 2007.

The LSJ was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 2006.

This engine is used in:

Year(s) Model Power Torque
2004–2007 Saturn Ion Red Line 205 hp (153 kW) @ 5600 rpm 200 lb·ft (271 N·m) @ 4400 rpm
2005–2007 Chevrolet Cobalt SS Supercharged Coupe 205 hp (153 kW) @ 5600 rpm 200 lb·ft (271 N·m) @ 4400 rpm

LE5

Ecotec LE5 engine in a 2006 Pontiac Solstice

The LE5 is a larger 2.4 L—2,376 cc (145.0 cu in)—version of the Ecotec. Both the 88 mm (3.5 in) bore and 98 mm (3.9 in) stroke are larger, and Variable Valve Timing on the intake and exhaust improve low-end torque. Compression is 10.4:1. Power is 164-177 hp (123-132 kW) and torque is 159-170 lb·ft (215-230 N·m). The engine uses a reinforced "Gen II" block.

Year(s) Model Power Torque
2006–2007 Chevrolet Cobalt SS 173 hp (129 kW) @ 6200 rpm 163 lb·ft (221 N·m) @ 4800 rpm
2008 Chevrolet Cobalt Sport 171 hp (128 kW) @ 6200 rpm 167 lb·ft (226 N·m) @ 4800 rpm
2006–2008 Chevrolet HHR 175 hp (130 kW) 165 lb·ft (224 N·m)
2006–2008 Pontiac G5/Pursuit 171 hp (128 kW) @ 5800 rpm 167 lb·ft (226 N·m) @ 4500 rpm
2006–2009 Pontiac G6 169 hp (126 kW) @ 6300 rpm 162 lb·ft (220 N·m) @ 4500 rpm
2006–2009 Pontiac Solstice 173 hp (129 kW) @ 5800 rpm 164 lb·ft (222 N·m) @ 4500 rpm
2006–2009 Saturn Sky 173 hp (129 kW) @ 5800 rpm 166 lb·ft (225 N·m) @ 4800 rpm
2006–2007 Saturn Ion 175 hp (130 kW) @ 6200 rpm 164 lb·ft (222 N·m) @ 4800 rpm
2008–2009 Saturn Aura 169 hp (126 kW) 162 lb·ft (220 N·m)
2008–present Chevrolet Malibu 169 hp (126 kW) 162 lb·ft (220 N·m)
2008–2009 Saturn Vue 169 hp (126 kW) @ 6200 rpm 161 lb·ft (218 N·m) @ 5100 rpm

The LE5 is also used in the following overseas models:

LAT

The LAT is the designation used for the 2.4 L LE5 when used in GM's mild hybrid vehicles.

Year(s) Model Power Torque Fuel economy (average; 63 mph)
2007–2009 Saturn Aura Green Line Hybrid 164 hp (122 kW) @ 6400 rpm 159 lb·ft (216 N·m) @ 5000 rpm
2007 Saturn Vue Green Line Hybrid 170 hp (130 kW) @ 6600 rpm 162 lb·ft (220 N·m) @ 4200 rpm
2008 Saturn Vue Green Line Hybrid 172 hp (128 kW) @ 6500 rpm 167 lb·ft (226 N·m) @ 4500 rpm
2008–present Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid 164 hp (122 kW) @ 6400 rpm 159 lb·ft (216 N·m) @ 5000 rpm

LE9

The LE9 is an E85 compatible version of the 2.4 L—2,384 cc (145.5 cu in)—LE5 Ecotec. Bore and stroke are 88 mm (3.5 in) and 98 mm (3.9 in) and has a compression ratio of 10.4:1, the same as the LE5.

Year(s) Model Power Torque
2009–present Chevrolet HHR 172 hp (128 kW) @ 5800 rpm (gasoline) 167 lb·ft (226 N·m) @ 4500 rpm (gasoline)
176 hp (131 kW) @ 5800 rpm (E85) 170 lb·ft (230 N·m) @ 5000 rpm (E85)
2010 Chevrolet Malibu (fleet only) 175 hp (130 kW) @ 5800 rpm (E85) 170 lb·ft (230 N·m) @ 5000 rpm (E85)

LAP

The LAP is a 2.2 L—2,189 cc (133.6 cu in)—version of the Ecotec, based on the Gen II block. Bore and stroke are 86 mm (3.4 in) and 94.6 mm (3.72 in), the same as the 2.2 L L61. Compression ratio is 10.0:1. Major features that set it apart from the 2.2 L L61 are variable-valve-timing and other cylinder head improvements from the 2.4 L LE5.

Year(s) Model Power Torque
2009 Chevrolet Cobalt 155 hp (116 kW) @ 6100 rpm 150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4900 rpm
2009 Pontiac G5 155 hp (116 kW) @ 6100 rpm 150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4900 rpm

LE8

The LE8 is an E85 compatible 2.2 L—2,189 cc (133.6 cu in)—version of the LAP Ecotec. Bore and stroke remain the same 86 mm (3.4 in) and 94.6 mm (3.72 in). Compression ratio is 10.0:1 and the engine can run on both regular unleaded gasoline or E85.

Year(s) Model Power Torque
2009 Chevrolet HHR 155 hp (116 kW) @ 6100 rpm (gasoline) 150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4800 rpm (gasoline)
160 hp (120 kW) @ 6000 rpm (E85) 158 lb·ft (214 N·m) @ 4600 rpm (E85)

LAF

The LAF is a direct injected 2.4 L. It uses technology based on GM’s other four-cylinder direct injection applications, but with unique features designed for its specific application. This includes an 11.4:1 compression ratio that helps build power, slightly dished pistons that increase combustion efficiency and injectors with an application-specific flow rate.[3]

Year(s) Model Power Torque
2010 GMC Terrain
Chevrolet Equinox
182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm (gasoline) 172 lb·ft (233 N·m) @ 4900 rpm (gasoline)
2010 Buick LaCrosse 182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm 172 lb·ft (233 N·m) @ 4900 rpm
2011 Buick Regal 182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm 172 lb·ft (233 N·m) @ 4900 rpm

D-TEC/E-TEC II

Holden makes various Family II engines for GM India and GM Daewoo at its Melbourne plant. Variations include displacements from 1.8 L to 2.4 L. Unlike the Ecotec engines, the block is made of iron.

L34

This is the 2.0 L—1,998 cc (121.9 cu in)—variant of the engines, featuring an 86 mm (3.4 in) bore and 86 mm (3.4 in) stroke. Power is 119 hp (89 kW) at 5400 rpm and torque is 126 lb·ft (171 N·m).

The engine has been used on following vehicles:

Other models

GM do Brasil

General Motors do Brasil specializes in older SOHC FlexPower (alcohol and petrol powered) iron block engines.

  • X20XE—2.0 L SFI SOHC 8V FlexPower
  • X24XF—2.4 L MPFI SOHC 8V FlexPower
  • X24SFD—2.4 L SFI DOHC 16V FlexPower

In 2004, a 2.0 L MultiPower engine was made available for the taxi market which could use gasoline, alcohol and natural gas.

A 2.0 L FlexPower engine is available for the current Chevrolet Astra and Vectra. The 2006 Chevrolet Vectra also received a 2.4 L 16V FlexPower engine.

Ariel Atom

In late 2005 Brammo Motorsports struck a deal with GM for a Supercharged 2.0 L Ecotec for their Ariel Atom. The engine came in various ratings from 205 hp (153 kW) to 300 hp (220 kW). Jay Leno received the very first Atom for commercial sale in the US by Brammo.

See also

Notes

References

  • Larry Webster. "Getting Rid of the H-Word". Car and Driver (May 2000): 93. 

External links


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