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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Gabonese Republic
République Gabonaise
Flag Coat of arms
Motto"Union, Travail, Justice"
(French for "Union, Work, Justice")
AnthemLa Concorde
Capital
(and largest city)
Libreville
0°23′N 9°27′E / 0.383°N 9.45°E / 0.383; 9.45
Official language(s) French
Vernacular languages Fang, Myene
Demonym Gabonese, Gabonaise
Government Republic
 -  President Ali Bongo Ondimba
 -  Prime Minister Paul Biyoghé Mba
Independence
 -  from France August 17, 1960 
Area
 -  Total 267,745 km2 (76th)
103,347 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 3.76%
Population
 -  2009 estimate 1,475,000[1] (150th)
 -  Density 5.5/km2 (216th)
14.3/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $21.146 billion[2] 
 -  Per capita $14,545[2] 
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $14.535 billion[2] 
 -  Per capita $9,997[2] 
HDI (2007) 0.755[3] (medium) (103rd)
Currency Central African CFA franc (XAF)
Time zone CAT (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+1)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .ga
Calling code 241

Gabon (pronounced /ɡəˈbɒn/; French pronunciation: [ɡabɔ̃]) is a country in west central Africa sharing borders with the Gulf of Guinea to the west, Equatorial Guinea to the northwest, and Cameroon to the north, with the Republic of the Congo curving around the east and south. Its size is almost 270,000 km² with an estimated population of 1,500,000. The capital and largest city is Libreville.

Since its independence from France on August 17, 1960, the Republic has been ruled by three presidents. In the early 1990s, Gabon introduced a multi-party system and a new democratic constitution that allowed for a more transparent electoral process and reformed many governmental institutions. The small population density together with abundant natural resources and foreign private investment have helped make Gabon one of the most prosperous countries in the region, with the highest HDI in Sub-Saharan Africa.[4]

Contents

History

The earliest inhabitants of the area were Pygmy peoples. They were largely replaced and absorbed by Bantu tribes as they migrated.

In the 15th century, the first Europeans arrived. The nation's present name originates from "Gabão", Portuguese for "cloak", which is roughly the shape of the estuary of the Komo River by Libreville. French explorer Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza led his first mission to the Gabon-Congo area in 1875. He founded the town of Franceville, and was later colonial governor. Several Bantu groups lived in the area that is now Gabon when France officially occupied it in 1885.

In 1910, Gabon became one of the four territories of French Equatorial Africa, a federation that survived until 1959. These territories became independent on August 17, 1960. The first president of Gabon, elected in 1961, was Léon M’ba, with Omar Bongo Ondimba as his vice president. French interests were decisive in selecting the future leadership in Gabon after Independence; French logging interests poured funds into the successful election campaign of M'ba, an 'evolué' from the coastal region.

After M'ba's accession to power, the press was suppressed, political demonstrations banned, freedom of expression curtailed, other political parties gradually excluded from power and the Constitution changed along French lines to vest power in the Presidency, a post that M'ba assumed himself. However, when M'ba dissolved the National Assembly in January 1964 to institute one-party rule, an army coup sought to oust him from power and restore parliamentary democracy. The extent to which M'ba's dictatorial regime was synonymous with "French Interests" then became blatantly apparent when French paratroopers flew in within 24 hours to restore M'ba to power.

After a few days of fighting, the coup was over and the opposition imprisoned, despite widespread protests and riots. The French government was unperturbed by international condemnation of the intervention; and paratroops still remain in the Camp de Gaulle on the outskirts of Gabon's capital. When M'Ba died in 1967, Bongo replaced him as president, and continued to be the head of state until his death in 2009, winning each contested election with a substantial majority.

Government

Former President Omar Bongo Ondimba in 2004

In March 1991, a new constitution was enacted. Among its provisions are a bill of rights, the creation of a body to guarantee those rights (National Council of Democracy) and a governmental advisory board which deals with economic and social issues. Multi-party legislative elections were held in 1990–91 even though opposition parties had not yet been formally declared legal.

President El Hadj Omar Bongo Ondimba, in power from 1967 until his death in June 2009,[5] was re-elected to his third consecutive seven-year term on November 27, 2005. According to figures provided by Gabon's Interior Ministry, he received a 79.1% majority of votes. Succeeding Bongo as interim president upon his death was Rose Francine Rogombé, President of the Senate of Gabon.

The voting age in Gabon is 21 years of age.[6] In 2003, the President amended the Constitution of Gabon to remove any restrictions on the number of terms a president is allowed to serve. The president retains strong powers, such as authority to dissolve the National Assembly, declare a state of siege, delay legislation, conduct referendums, and appoint or dismiss the prime minister as well as cabinet members. In provisional results, the ruling Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG) won 84 out of 120 parliamentary seats.

On September 3, 2009, the son of Omar Bongo, Ali Ben Bongo, was elected president.[7] As with previous Gabonese elections, the opposition parties have contested the results. There were calls for a boycott and accusations of electoral fraud and bribery. The announcement of the result sparked looting and the torching of the French consulate in Port-Gentil.[8][9] However, several international observers including the Economic Community of Central African States have reported that the election "met international standards" for democratic voting, and urged the people of Gabon to accept the result.[10]

Gabon has a small, professional military of about 5,000 personnel, divided into army, navy, air force, gendarmerie, and national police. Gabonese forces are oriented to the defense of the country and have not been trained for an offensive role. A 1,800-member guard provides security for the president.

In September, 2007, René Ndémezo'o Obiang, the government's spokesperson, announced that Gabon's cabinet council had decided to formally abolish the death penalty, which had not been applied in the country in over a decade.

Gabon placed 21st out of 53 African countries in the 2009 Ibrahim Index of African Governance. The Ibrahim Index is a comprehensive measure of African governance, based on a number of different variables which reflect the success with which governments deliver essential political goods to its citizens.[11]

Provinces and departments

Provinces of Gabon

Gabon is divided into nine provinces and further divided into 37 departments.

The provinces are:

  1. Estuaire
  2. Haut-Ogooué
  3. Moyen-Ogooué
  4. Ngounié
  5. Nyanga
  6. Ogooué-Ivindo
  7. Ogooué-Lolo
  8. Ogooué-Maritime
  9. Woleu-Ntem

Geography

Satellite image of Gabon, generated from raster graphics data supplied by The Map Library

Gabon is located on the Atlantic coast of central Africa. Located on the equator, Gabon has an equatorial climate with an extensive system of rainforests covering 85% of the country. There are three distinct regions: the coastal plains (ranging between 20 to 300 km from the ocean's shore), the mountains (the Cristal Mountains to the northeast of Libreville, the Chaillu Massif in the centre, culminating at 1575 m with Mont Iboundji), and the savanna in the east. The coastal plains form a large section of the World Wildlife Fund's Atlantic Equatorial coastal forests ecoregion and contain patches of Central African mangroves especially on the Muni River estuary on the border with Equatorial Guinea.

Gabon's largest river is the Ogooué which is 1200 km long. Gabon has three karst areas where there are hundreds of caves located in the dolomite and limestone rocks. Some of the caves include Grotte du Lastoursville, Grotte du Lebamba, Grotte du Bongolo, and Grotte du Kessipougou. Many caves have not been explored yet. A National Geographic Expedition visited the caves in the summer of 2008 to document them (Expedition Website).

Gabon is also noted for efforts to preserve the natural environment. In 2002, President Omar Bongo Ondimba put Gabon firmly on the map as an important future ecotourism destination by designating more than 11% of the nation's territory to be part of its national park system (with 13 parks in total), one of the largest proportions of nature parkland in the world. Natural resources include: petroleum, magnesium, iron, gold, uranium, and forests.

Economy

Gabon is more prosperous than most nearby countries, with a per capita income of four times the average for Sub-Saharan Africa. This is in large part due to offshore oil production. Critics note that the income was not invested in modernizing or diversifying the economy and Gabon remains heavily reliant on its natural resources. Gabon was a full member of OPEC from 1975 to 1995. It is an exporter of manganese, iron, and wood. Uranium mines near Franceville were shut down in 2001 with the arrival of new competition on the global market and there is work in progress to re-open them. Planned efforts to exploit rich iron deposits north-east of Makokou are expected to begin in 2012.

During the 1990s, devaluation of the CFA franc left Gabon struggling to pay its overseas debt; France and the IMF have provided further loans and aid in exchange for the implementation of changes to the economy. Gabon's principal trading partners are the United States, China, and Russia for exports while importing mainly from France.[6]

On December 5, 2007 JPMorgan acted as Joint-Bookrunner on the Gabonese Republic’s (BB-/BB-) debut international US$1 billion 10-year bond issue.

Gabon is a member of the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA).[12]

Tourism

Straddling the equator, this rainforest nation is situated on West Africa’s Atlantic coast. Animals are abundant – Gabon is the continent’s fifth least densely populated country – and is 85 per cent covered in tropical forest.[citation needed] This, along with savannahs, mangroves, lagoons and beaches makes it an ideal habitat for varied species of animals and reptiles including 20,000 western lowland gorillas and 60,000 forest elephants – the largest population in Africa – and 700 types of exotic birds.[citation needed]

The National Tourism Strategy, written in consultation with the The Wildlife Conservation Society, aims to achieve 100,000 visitors per annum.[citation needed]

Demographics

Population, in thousands, of Gabon from 1961 to 2003

The population of Gabon is nearly 1.5 million (1,442,334).[6] Almost all Gabonese are of Bantu origin, though Gabon has at least forty ethnic groups with diverse languages and cultures. The Fang are generally thought to be the largest, although recent census data seem to favor the Bandjabi (or Nzebi). Others include the Myene, Bakota, Eshira, Bapounou, and Okande. Ethnic group boundaries are less sharply drawn in Gabon than elsewhere in Africa. French, the official language, may be regarded as a unifying force. It is estimated that 80%[13] of the country's population are able to speak French, and that 30% of Libreville residents are native speakers of the language. Nationally, 32% of the Gabonese people speak the Fang language as a mother tongue.[14] More than 10,000 French people live in Gabon, and France is the predominant foreign cultural and commercial influence.

Historical and environmental factors caused Gabon's population to decline between 1900 and 1940. It has one of the lowest population densities of any country in Africa, and labor shortages form a major obstacle to development and a draw for foreign workers. Most inhabitants are Christians, with estimates of the Christian population ranging from 55 to 77%, mostly members of the Roman Catholic Church. Other religious groups include animists, Muslims, and practitioners of indigenous African religions. Gabon's literacy rate is 63.2%.[6]

Culture

Chancery building, Libreville.
Gabonese mask.

Gabonese music is lesser-known in comparison with regional giants like the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Cameroon. The country boasts an array of folk styles, as well as pop stars like Patience Dabany and Annie Flore Batchiellilys, a Gabonese singer and renowned live performer. Also known are guitarists like Georges Oyendze, La Rose Mbadou and Sylvain Avara, and the singer Oliver N'Goma. Imported rock and hip hop from the US and UK are popular in Gabon, as are rumba, makossa and soukous. Gabonese folk instruments include the obala, the ngombi, balafon and traditional drums.

A country with a primarily oral tradition up until the spread of literacy in the 21st century, Gabon is rich in folklore and mythology. "Raconteurs" are currently working to keep traditions alive such as the mvett among the Fangs and the ingwala among the Nzebis.

Gabon also features internationally celebrated masks, such as the n'goltang (Fang) and the relicary figures of the Kota. Each group has its own set of masks used for various reasons. They are mostly used in traditional ceremonies such as marriage, birth and funerals. Traditionalists mainly work with rare local woods and other precious materials.

International rankings

Organization Survey Ranking
Institute for Economics and Peace [5] Global Peace Index[15] 51 out of 144
United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index 103 out of 182
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 106 out of 180

See also

References

  1. ^ Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) (.PDF). World Population Prospects, Table A.1. 2008 revision. United Nations. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2008/wpp2008_text_tables.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Gabon". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=646&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=20&pr.y=18. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  3. ^ "Human Development Report 2009. Human development index trends: Table G". The United Nations. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-10. 
  4. ^ "Human Development Indices: A statistical update 2008 - HDI rankings". Human Development Reports. United Nations Development Programme. 2008. http://hdr.ndp.org/en/statistics/. Retrieved 2009-01-25. 
  5. ^ "Bongo set to rise to senior world leader", Chicago Sun-Times, February 19, 2008. Accessed February 19, 2008.
  6. ^ a b c d CIA - The World Factbook - Gabon
  7. ^ [1]BBC News, Country Profile
  8. ^ [2]Bloomberg, September 4, 2009.
  9. ^ [3]BBC News, September 8, 2009. Sarkozy congratulates Ali Ben Bongo.
  10. ^ [4]CEEAC, September 6, 2009.
  11. ^ Ibrahim Foundation
  12. ^ OHADA.com: The business law portal in Africa, http://www.ohada.com/index.php, retrieved 2009-03-22 
  13. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_French#_note-2007_report
  14. ^ Le Gabon
  15. ^ "Vision of Humanity". Vision of Humanity. http://www.visionofhumanity.org/gpi/home.php. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 

Further reading

  • Ghazvinian, John (2008). Untapped: The Scramble for Africa's Oil. Orlando: Harcourt. ISBN 0151011389. 
  • Petringa, Maria (2006). Brazza, A Life for Africa. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse. ISBN 1425911986. 
  • Rich, Jeremy (2007). A Workman Is Worthy of His Meat: Food and Colonialism in the Gabon Estuary. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0803207417. 
  • Shaxson, Nicholas (2007). Poisoned Wells: The Dirty Politics of African Oil. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1403971943. 
  • Warne, Sophie (2003). Bradt Travel Guide: Gabon and São Tomé and Príncipe. Guilford, CT: Chalfont St. Peter. ISBN 1841620734. 
  • Yates, Douglas A. (1996). The Rentier State in Africa: Oil Rent Dependency and Neo-colonialism in the Republic of Gabon. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press. ISBN 0865435200. 

External links

Government
Tourism

Gabon travel guide from Wikitravel

General
News media
Cultural

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

noframe
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:gb-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Libreville
Government Republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition parties legalized in 1990)
Currency Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF)
Area total: 267,667 km2
water: 10,000 km2
land: 257,667 km2
Population 1,424,906 (July 2006 est.)
Language French (official), Fang, Myene, Nzebi, Bapounou/Eschira, Bandjabi
Religion Christian 55%-75%, animist, Muslim less than 1%
Electricity 220V/50Hz (European plug)
Calling Code +241
Internet TLD .ga
Time Zone UTC+1

Gabon is a country in Western Central Africa. It lies on the Equator, on the Atlantic Ocean coast, between the Republic of the Congo to the south and east, Equatorial Guinea to the northwest and Cameroon to the north.

A small population, as well as oil and mineral reserves have helped Gabon become one of Africa's wealthier countries. The country has generally been able to maintain and conserve its pristine rain forest and rich biodiversity.

Administrative divisions 
9 provinces; Estuaire, Haut-Ogooue, Moyen-Ogooue, Ngounie, Nyanga, Ogooue-Ivindo, Ogooue-Lolo, Ogooue-Maritime, Woleu-Ntem

Cocobeach

Map of Gabon
Map of Gabon

Climate

Tropical; always hot, humid. During the months of June to September, the climate is a bit cool (20-25°C).

Terrain

Narrow coastal plain; hilly interior; savanna in east and south

Highest point 
Mont Iboundji 1,575 m

History

Ruled by autocratic presidents since independence from France in 1960, Gabon introduced a multiparty system and a new constitution in the early 1990s that allowed for a more transparent electoral process and for reforms of governmental institutions. A small population, abundant natural resources, and considerable foreign support have helped make Gabon one of the more prosperous sub-Saharan African countries.

Independence 
17 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday 
Founding of the Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG), 12 March (1968)

Get in

The fee for a visa to enter the country is typically 70 euros. The visa can be purchased on arrival in either euros or in the local francs in the right hand line upon exiting the plane.

By plane

Air Gabon has recently gone out of business. Air France and Gabon Airlines fly from Paris to Libreville, and Royal Air Maroc flies from Casablanca to Gabon. Air Service also flies to Douala (Cameroon), and Air Ethiopia flies from Addis Ababa. There are also on occasion flights to Brazzaville, Congo. It is reported on the Internet that the Air Service Dash 8 aircraft were returned to Canada in May 2006.

"Interair" flies from Johannesburg (South Africa) to Libreville on Monday with a stopover in Brazzaville/Congo - returning via the same route every Wednesday. "SAA" flies direct from Johannesburg (South Africa) to Libreville on Wednesdays and Fridays.

Lufthansa 5x weekly from Frankfurt via Accra, Ghana.

By car

There are several border crossings, though the roads are not good and a 4x4 is recommended.

Get around

The easiest way to get around is by bus. There are many and they are very cheap.

By plane

Air Service has scheduled flights to Oyem, Makouko and Franceville/Mvengue. Air Nationale flies to Franceville/Mvengue. There are flights to Franceville/Mvengue every day of the week except Tuesdays and Thursdays. Africa's Connection has daily scheduled flights between Libreville and Port Gentil, weekly flights from Port-Gentil / Libreville to São Tomé & Príncipe and to Loango National Park.

By car

There are lots of paved roads in Gabon, if you are staying in one of the major citys a car should suffice. If you plan on venturing onto some of the unpaved roads outside the major cities a 4x4 is recommended. There are less than 800km of tarred roads in Gabon - some of them in a bad condition. During the rainy season it is difficult to travel outside the major city areas even in a 4x4 vehicle.

By train

The Trans-Gabon railroad goes from Owendo to Franceville. The trip takes 12-18 hours, there is a train every day of the week. November 2006: There are only 3 trains per week to Franceville: Tuesdays leaving Owendo at 9 a.m. - arriving in Franceville at 5 p.m. according to timetable, which is not completely reliable timewise. On Thursdays and Saturdays train travels through the night.

By bus

A few wealthy Gabonese entrepreneurs have invested in new buses for bus lines to service the larger interior cities. Mostly these buses serve the cities with paved roads leading to and from them. Since Air Gabon closed down, these bus lines have greatly increased their routes.

By boat

Boat travel is available all along the coast of Gabon and dozens of miles up the Ogooue river to Lambarene. Boats leave daily to/from Libreville and Port Gentil. River trips from the mouth of the big river at Port Gentil to Lambarene (Albert Schweitzer Hospital) are available every few days. Hotel Olako arranges weekly boat transfers between Port Gentil and Omboué (close to Loango National Park), transfers take between 3 and 4,5 hours (depending on the type of boat and engine).

Languages 
French (official), Fang, Myene, Nzebi, Bapounou/Eschira, Bandjabi

Very few people speak english in Gabon, so some knowledge of French is an asset.

Eat

The Balbool restaurant serves western delicious food with very cheap prices. Ask for the big Balbool soup.

Drink

The cheapest local beer is Regab, it costs from 350-1000 CFA and comes in a 650ml bottle. There are fantastic fruit juices available: "D'jino" Pampelmousse (grapefruit), Ananas (pineapple), Citron (Lemon) in 300ml bottles at CFA 400 and in a 1,5l bottle at CFA 900 if bought in a shop.

Sleep

Oct, 2007: There are three known hotels - Le Meridien, Intercontinental and the Novotel (currently under renovation but soon to be back into business) Apart from these, there are several other budget and economy hotels. Long term lease on apartments is also an option.

  • Africa's Eden (Loango Lodge & eco-camps), Loango National Park (From Libreville with Africa's Connection or Air Service to Port Gentil; from Port Gentil by boat or plane to Omboué / Iguéla), +31(0)263705567 or +241564818, [1]. From Loango Lodge, you can launch expeditions into different areas of Loango National Park, and camps such as Pte. Ste. Cathérine Beach Camp, Tassi Savannah Camp, Akaka Bush Camp and Evengué Lodge. From €235 per person per night, full board, including excursions.  edit

Work

A visa and letter of invitation are required for foreigners working in Gabon.

Stay safe

Malaria is common, so visitors should take malaria pills and a mosquito net when travelling in Gabon. HIV/AIDS is, unfortunately, a common disease in Gabon with 8% (1 in 12) of adults infected.

Respect

The people are generally very friendly, respectful and helpful to visitors.

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also Gabón

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Proper noun

Singular
Gabon

Plural
-

Gabon

  1. Country in Western Africa. Official name: Gabonese Republic.

Translations

See also

Anagrams

  • Anagrams of abgno
  • bogan

Bosnian

Proper noun

Gabon

  1. Gabon

Breton

Proper noun

Gabon

  1. Gabon

Croatian

Proper noun

Gabon f.

  1. Gabon

Czech

Proper noun

Gabon m.

  1. Gabon

Danish

Proper noun

Gabon

  1. Gabon

Dutch

Proper noun

Gabon

  1. Gabon

Finnish

Wikipedia-logo.png
Finnish Wikipedia has an article on:
Gabon

Wikipedia fi

Proper noun

Gabon

  1. Gabon

Declension


French

Proper noun

Gabon

  1. Gabon

Derived terms


Hungarian

Wikipedia-logo.png
Hungarian Wikipedia has an article on:
Gabon

Wikipedia hu

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /ˈgɒbon/
  • Hyphenation: Ga‧bon

Proper noun

Gabon

  1. Gabon

Declension


Interlingua

Proper noun

Gabon

  1. Gabon

Italian

Wikipedia-logo.png
Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
Gabon

Wikipedia it

Proper noun

Gabon m.

  1. Gabon

Derived terms

Anagrams


Japanese

Proper noun

Gabon (hiragana がぼん)

  1. ガボン: Gabon

Norwegian

Proper noun

Gabon

  1. Gabon

Related terms


Polish

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /ˈɡabɔn/

Proper noun

Gabon m.

  1. Gabon

Declension

Singular Plural
Nominative Gabon Gabony
Genitive Gabonu Gabonów
Dative Gabonowi Gabonom
Accusative Gabon Gabony
Instrumental Gabonem Gabonami
Locative Gabonie Gabonach
Vocative Gabonie Gabony

Derived terms

  • Gabończyk m., Gabonka f.
  • adjective: gaboński

Romanian

Proper noun

Gabon

  1. Gabon

Swedish

Proper noun

Gabon

  1. Gabon

Turkish

Proper noun

Gabon

  1. Gabon

Simple English

[[File:|thumb|240px|Map of Gabon]]

File:Flag of
Flag of Gabon

The Gabonese Republic or Gabon is a country in Africa. Its capital is Libreville.

It became a new country on August 17, 1960. Before that, Gabon was a colony of France.

Gabon is a small country led by the President Ali Bongo Ondimba. This country was conquered by France. It is a rich country, culturally, ecomonically, and geographically. Gabon is located in Central of Africa.

Contents

Politics

The first Gabonese president was Leon Mba. His successor was Omar Bongo, from 1967 until his death in 2009. Under his governance Gabon had just one political party between 1968 and 1990. It was called PDG.

Ecomonics

Gabon has nine states. The soil of Gabon is rich in the metals uranium, manganese, and petrolium. Therefore, these three elements, such as metal exploited in Port-Gentil, Iranium in Munana, and the manganese in Franceville.

Culture

Gabon has a wide culture. Before colonialism, Gabon's people believed their ancestral spirit as religion, like bwiti, mvett, djobi.

After colonialism, others religions such as Christianity and Islam came to be added to the first animists believers.

Books about Gabon

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Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
bjn:Gabon








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