Gaetano Donizetti: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Gaetano Donizetti

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Gaetano Donizetti.

Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti (29 November 1797 – 8 April 1848) was an Italian composer from Bergamo, Lombardy. Donizetti's most famous work is Lucia di Lammermoor (1835), and arguably his most immediately recognizable piece of music is the aria "Una furtiva lagrima" from L'elisir d'amore (1832). Along with Vincenzo Bellini and Gioachino Rossini, he was a leading composer of bel canto opera.

Contents

Life

Gaetano Donizetti.

The youngest of three sons, Donizetti was born in 1797 in Bergamo's Borgo Canale quarter located just outside the city walls. His family was very poor with no tradition of music, his father being the caretaker of the town pawnshop. Nevertheless, Donizetti received some musical instruction from Johann Simon Mayr, a priest at Bergamo's principal church (and also himself a composer of successful operas).

Donizetti was not especially successful as a choirboy, but in 1806 he was one of the first pupils to be enrolled at the Lezioni Caritatevoli school, founded by Johann Simon Mayr, in Bergamo through a full scholarship. He received detailed training in the arts of fugue and counterpoint, and it was here that he launched his operatic career. After some minor compositions under the commission of Paolo Zanca, Donizetti wrote his fourth opera, Zoraïda di Granata. This work impressed Domenico Barbaia, a prominent theatre manager, and Donizetti was offered a contract to compose in Naples. Writing in Rome and Milan in addition to Naples, Donizetti achieved some success (his 75 operas written in the space of just 12 years were usually popular successes, but the critics were often unimpressed), but was not well known internationally until 1830, when his Anna Bolena was premiered in Milan. He almost instantly became famous throughout Europe. L'elisir d'amore, a comedy produced in 1832, came soon after, and is deemed one of the masterpieces of the comic opera, as is his Don Pasquale, written in 1843. Shortly after L'elisir d'amore, Donizetti composed Lucia di Lammermoor, based on the Sir Walter Scott novel The Bride of Lammermoor. It became his most famous opera, and one of the high points of the bel canto tradition, reaching stature similar to Bellini's Norma.

After the success of Lucrezia Borgia (1833) consolidated his reputation, Donizetti followed the paths of both Rossini and Bellini by visiting Paris, but his opera Marino Falerio suffered by comparison with Bellini's I puritani, and he returned to Naples to produce his already-mentioned masterpiece, Lucia di Lammermoor. As Donizetti's fame grew, so did his engagements, as he was further hired to write in both France and Italy. In 1838, he moved to Paris after the Italian censor objected to the production of Poliuto (on the grounds that such a sacred subject was inappropriate for the stage); there he wrote La fille du régiment, which became another success.

Donizetti's wife, Virginia Vasselli, gave birth to three children, none of whom survived. Within a year of his parents' deaths, his wife died from cholera. By 1843, Donizetti exhibited symptoms of syphilis. After being institutionalized in 1845, he was sent to Paris, where he could be cared for. After visits from friends, including Giuseppe Verdi, Donizetti was sent back to Bergamo, his hometown. After several years in the grip of insanity, he died in 1848 in the house of the noble family Scotti. After his death Donizetti was buried in the cemetery of Valtesse but in the late 19th century his body was transferred to Bergamo's Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore near the grave of his teacher Johann Simon Mayr.

Donizetti is best known for his operatic works, but he also wrote music in a number of other forms, including some church music, a number of string quartets, and some orchestral works.

He was the younger brother of Giuseppe Donizetti, who had become, in 1828, Instructor General of the Imperial Ottoman Music at the court of Sultan Mahmud II (1808–1839).

Works

Gaetano Donizetti

Donizetti was a prolific composer. He composed about 75 operas, 16 symphonies, 19 string quartets, 193 songs, 45 duets, 3 oratorios, 28 cantatas, instrumental concertos, sonatas, and other chamber pieces.

Operas

1816–1819
1820–1824
1825–1829
  • Alahor in Granata (7 January 1826 Teatro Carolino, Palermo)
  • Don Gregorio [rev of L'ajo nell'imbarazzo] (11 June 1826, Teatro Nuovo, Naples)
  • Elvida (6 July 1826, Teatro San Carlo, Naples)
  • Gabriella di Vergy (written: 1826; premiere: 29 November 1869, Teatro San Carlo, Naples) (Gabriella)
  • Olivo e Pasquale (7 January 1827 Teatro Valle, Rome)
  • Olivo e Pasquale [rev] (1 September 1827, Teatro Nuovo, Naples)
  • Otto mesi in due ore (13 May 1827, Teatro Nuovo, Naples) (Gli esiliati in Siberia)
  • Il borgomastro di Saardam (19 August 1827, Teatro del Fondo, Naples)
  • Le convenienze ed inconvenienze teatrali , also known as Viva la mamma (21 November 1827, Teatro Nuovo, Naples)
  • L'esule di Roma, ossia Il proscritto (1 January 1828, Teatro San Carlo, Naples)
  • Emilia di Liverpool [rev] (8 March 1828, Teatro Nuovo, Naples)
  • Alina, regina di Golconda (12 May 1828, Teatro Carlo Felice, Genoa)
  • Gianni di Calais (2 August 1828, Teatro del Fondo, Naples)
  • Il paria (12 January 1829, Teatro San Carlo, Naples)
  • Il giovedi grasso (Il nuovo Pourceaugnac) (26 February 1829?, Teatro del Fondo, Naples)
  • Il castello di Kenilworth (6 July 1829, Teatro San Carlo, Naples)
  • Alina, regina di Golconda [rev] (10 October 1829, Teatro Valle, Rome)
1830–1834
  • I pazzi per progetto (6 February 1830, Teatro San Carlo, Naples)
  • Il diluvio universale (28 February 1830, Teatro San Carlo, Naples)
  • Imelda de' Lambertazzi (5 September 1830, Teatro San Carlo, Naples)
  • Anna Bolena (26 December 1830, Teatro Carcano, Milan)
  • Le convenienze ed inconvenienze teatrali [rev of Le convenienze teatrali] (20 April 1831, Teatro Canobbiana, Milan)
  • Gianni di Parigi (written: 1831; premiere: 10 September 1839, Teatro alla Scala Milan)
  • Francesca di Foix (30 May 1831, Teatro San Carlo, Naples)
  • La romanziera e l'uomo nero (18 June 1831, Teatro del Fondo, Naples) (libretto lost)
  • Fausta (12 January 1832, Teatro San Carlo, Naples)
  • Ugo, conte di Parigi (13 March 1832, Teatro alla Scala Milan)
  • L'elisir d'amore (12 May 1832, Teatro Canobbiana, Milan)
  • Sancia di Castiglia (4 November 1832, Teatro San Carlo, Naples)
  • Il furioso all'isola di San Domingo (2 January 1833, Teatro Valle, Rome)
  • Otto mesi in due ore [rev] (1833, Livorno)
  • Parisina (17 March 1833, Teatro della Pergola, Florence)
  • Torquato Tasso (9 September 1833, Teatro Valle, Rome)
  • Lucrezia Borgia (26 December 1833, Teatro alla Scala Milan)
  • Il diluvio universale [rev] (17 January 1834, Teatro Carlo Felice, Genoa)
  • Rosmonda d'Inghilterra (27 February 1834, Teatro della Pergola, Florence)
  • Maria Stuarda [rev] (Buondelmonte) (18 October 1834, Teatro San Carlo, Naples)
  • Gemma di Vergy (26 October 1834, Teatro alla Scala Milan)
1835–1839
  • Maria Stuarda (30 December 1835, Teatro alla Scala Milan)
  • Marin Faliero (12 March 1835, Théâtre-Italien, Paris)
  • Lucia di Lammermoor (26 September 1835, Teatro San Carlo, Naples)
  • Belisario (4 February 1836, Teatro La Fenice, Venice)
  • Il campanello di notte (1 June 1836, Teatro Nuovo, Naples)
  • Betly, o La capanna svizzera (21 August 1836, Teatro Nuovo, Naples)
  • L'assedio di Calais (19 November 1836, Teatro San Carlo, Naples)
  • Pia de' Tolomei (18 February 1837, Teatro Apollo, Venice)
  • Pia de' Tolomei [rev] (31 July 1837, Sinigaglia)
  • Betly [rev] ((?) 29 September 1837, Teatro del Fondo, Naples)
  • Roberto Devereux (28 October 1837, Teatro San Carlo, Naples)
  • Maria de Rudenz (30 January 1, 1838 Teatro La Fenice, Venice)
  • Gabriella di Vergy [rev] (written: 1838; August 1978 recording, London)
  • Poliuto (written: 1838; premiere: 30 November 1848, Teatro San Carlo, Naples)
  • Pia de' Tolomei [rev 2] (30 September 1838, Teatro San Carlo, Naples)
  • Lucie de Lammermoor [rev of Lucia di Lammermoor] (6 August 1839, Théâtre de la Renaissance, Paris)
  • Le duc d'Albe (written: 1839; premiere: 22 March 1882, Teatro Apollo, Rome) (Il duca d'Alba)
1840–1845
  • Lucrezia Borgia [rev] (11 January 1840, Teatro alla Scala Milan)
  • Poliuto [rev] (Les martyrs) (10 April 1840, Théâtre de l'Académie Royale de Musique (Paris Opéra), Paris)
  • La fille du régiment (11 February 1840, Opéra-Comique, Paris)
  • L'ange de Nisida (1839; ?)
  • Lucrezia Borgia [rev 2] (31 October 1840, Théâtre-Italien, Paris)
  • La favorite [rev of L'ange de Nisida] (2 December 1840, Théâtre de l'Académie Royale de Musique, Paris)
  • Adelia (11 February 1841, Teatro Apollo, Rome)
  • Rita (Deux hommes et une femme) (written: 1841; premiere: 7 May 1860, Opéra-Comique, Paris)
  • Maria Padilla (26 December 1841, Teatro alla Scala Milan)
  • Linda di Chamounix (19 May 1842, Kärntnertortheater, Vienna)
  • Linda di Chamounix [rev] (17 November 1842, Théâtre-Italien, Paris)
  • Caterina Cornaro (18 January 1844, Teatro San Carlo, Naples)
  • Don Pasquale (3 January 1843, Théâtre-Italien, Paris)
  • Maria di Rohan (5 June 1843, Kärntnertortheater, Vienna)
  • Dom Sébastien (13 November 1843, Théâtre de l'Académie Royale de Musique , Paris)
  • Dom Sébastien [rev] (6 February 1845, Kärntnertortheater, Vienna)

Choral works

  • Ave Maria
  • Grande Offertorio
  • Il sospiro
  • Messa da Requiem
  • Messa di Gloria e Credo
  • Miserere (Psalm 50)

Orchestral works

  • Allegro for Strings in C major
  • L'ajo nell'imbarazzo: Sinfonia
  • Larghetto, tema e variazioni in E flat major
  • Roberto Devereux: Sinfonia
  • Sinfonia Concertante in D major (1818)
  • Sinfonia for Winds in G minor (1817)
  • Sinfonia in A major
  • Sinfonia in C major
  • Sinfonia in D major
  • Sinfonia in D minor
  • Ugo, conte di Parigi: Sinfonia

Concertos

  • Concertino for Clarinet in B flat major
  • Concertino for English Horn in G major (1816)
  • Concertino in C minor for flute and chamber orchestra (1819)
  • Concertino for Flute and Orchestra in C major
  • Concertino for Flute and Orchestra in D major
  • Concertino for Oboe in F major
  • Concertino for Violin and Cello in D minor
  • Concerto for 2 Clarinets "Maria Padilla"
  • Concerto for Violin and Cello in D minor

Chamber works

  • Andante sostenuto for Oboe and Harp in F minor
  • Introduction for Strings in D major
  • Larghetto and Allegro for Violin and Harp in G minor
  • Largo/Moderato for Cello and Piano in G minor
  • Nocturnes (4) for Winds and Strings
  • Quartet for Strings in D major
  • Quartet for Strings no 3 in C minor: 2nd movement, Adagio ma non troppo
  • Quartet for Strings no 4 in D major
  • Quartet for Strings no 5 in E minor
  • Quartet for Strings no 5 in E minor: Larghetto
  • Quartet for Strings no 6 in G minor
  • Quartet for Strings no 7 in F minor
  • Quartet for Strings no 8 in B flat major
  • Quartet for Strings no 9 in D minor
  • Quartet for Strings no 10 in G minor
  • Quartet for Strings no 11 in C major
  • Quartet for Strings no 12 in C major
  • Quartet for Strings no 13 in A major
  • Quartet for Strings no 14 in D major
  • Quartet for Strings no 15 in F major
  • Quartet for Strings no 16 in B minor
  • Quartet for Strings no 17 in D major
  • Quartet for Strings no 18 in E minor
  • Quartet for Strings no 18 in E minor: Allegro
  • Quintet for Guitar and Strings no 2 in C major
  • Solo de concert
  • Sonata for Flute and Harp
  • Sonata for Flute and Piano in C minor
  • Sonata for Oboe and Piano in F major
  • Study for Clarinet no 1 in B flat major
  • Trio for Flute, Bassoon and Piano in F major

Piano works

  • Adagio and Allegro for Piano in G major
  • Allegro for Piano in C major
  • Allegro for Piano in F minor
  • Fugue for Piano in G minor
  • Grand Waltz for Piano in A major
  • Larghetto for Piano in A minor "Una furtiva lagrima"
  • Larghetto for Piano in C major
  • Pastorale for Piano in E major
  • Presto for Piano in F minor
  • Sinfonia for Piano in A major
  • Sinfonia for Piano no 1 in C major
  • Sinfonia for Piano no 1 in D major
  • Sinfonia for Piano no 2 in C major
  • Sinfonia for Piano no 2 in D major
  • Sonata for Piano in C major
  • Sonata for Piano in F major
  • Sonata for Piano in G major
  • Variations for Piano in E major
  • Variations for Piano in G major
  • Waltz for Piano in A major
  • Waltz for Piano in C major
  • Waltz for Piano in C major "The Invitation"

Media

Problems listening to these files? See media help.

Quotations

  • "Ah, by Bacchus, with this aria I shall receive universal applause. People will say to me, “Bravo maestro!”
I, in a very modest manner, shall walk about with bowed head; I’ll have rave reviews…I can become immortal…
My mind is vast, my genius swift...
And at composing, a thunderbolt am I."
(From a poem composed by 14-year-old Gaetano Donizetti)
  • "Donizetti, when asked which of his own operas he thought the best, spontaneously replied, 'How can I say which? A father always has a preference for a crippled child, and I have so many.'" (Louis Engel: "From Mozart to Mario", 1886)

See also

Bibliography

  • William Ashbrook: Donizetti and his Operas, Cambridge:Cambridge University Press 1982. Ashbrook also wrote an earlier life entitled Donizetti in 1965.
  • Stanley Sadie (ed.), The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Volume 7, London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 2001, pp. 761–796. The 1980 edition article, by William Ashbrook and Julian Budden, was also reprinted in The New Grove Masters of Italian Opera, London: Papermac, 1984, pp. 93–154.
  • Stanley Sadie (ed.), The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, Volume 1, London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 1997, pp. 1201–1221.
  • Egidio Saracino (ed), Tutti I libretti di Donizetti, Garzanti Editore, 1993.
  • Herbert Weinstock, Donizetti, London: Metheun & Co., Ltd., 1964. (UK publication date).
  • Giuliano Donati Petténi, Donizetti, Milano: Fratelli Treves Editori, 1930
  • Guido Zavadini, Donizetti: Vita - Musiche- Epistolario, Bergamo, 1948
  • John Stewart Allitt, Gaetano Donizetti – Pensiero, musica, opere scelte, Milano: Edizione Villadiseriane, 2003
  • John Stewart Allitt, Donizetti – in the light of romanticism and the teaching of Johann Simon Mayr, Shaftesbury, Dorset, UK: Element Books, 1991. Also see Allitt's website http://www.johnstewartallitt.com/
  • Annalisa Bini & Jeremy Commons, Le prime rappresentazioni delle opere di Donizetti nella stampa coeva, Milan: Skira, 1997
  • John Black, Donizetti's Operas in Naples 1822-1848, London: The Donizetti Society, 1982
  • James P. Cassaro, Gaetano Donizetti - A Guide to Research, New York: Garland Publishing. 2000
  • Leopold M Kantner, ed., Donizetti in Wien, papers from a symposium in various languages (ISBN 3-7069-0006-8 / ISSN 156,00-8921). Published by Primo Ottocento, available from Edition Praesens.
  • Philip Gossett, "Anna Bolena" and the Artistic Maturity of Gaetano Donizetti, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985
  • Egidio Saracino Ed., Tutti i libretti di Donizetti, Milan: Garzanti, 1993
  • Marcello Sorce Keller, "Gaetano Donizetti: un bergamasco compositore di canzoni napoletane", Studi Donizettiani, III(1978), 100- 107.
  • Marcello Sorce Keller, "Io te voglio bene assaje: a Famous Neapolitan Song Traditionally Attributed to Gaetano Donizetti", The Music Review, XLV (1984), no. 3- 4, 251- 264. Also published as: "Io te voglio bene assaje: una famosa canzone napoletana tradizionalmente attribuita a Gaetano Donizetti, La Nuova Rivista Musicale Italiana, 1985, no. 4, 642- 653.

External links

Advertisements

Sheet music

Sound-bites and recordings


Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti (29 November 1797 – 8 April 1848) was an Italian composer from Bergamo, Lombardy. Donizetti's most famous work is Lucia di Lammermoor (1835), although arguably his most immediately recognizable piece of music is the aria "Una furtiva lagrima" from L'elisir d'amore (1832). Along with Vincenzo Bellini and Gioachino Rossini, he was a leading composer of bel canto opera.

Contents

Life

The youngest of three sons, Donizetti was born in 1797 in Bergamo's Borgo Canale quarter located just outside the city walls. His family was very poor with no tradition of music, his father being the caretaker of the town pawnshop. Nevertheless, Donizetti received some musical instruction from Johann Simon Mayr, a priest at Bergamo's principal church (and also himself a composer of successful operas).

Donizetti was not especially successful as a choirboy, but in 1806 he was one of the first pupils to be enrolled at the Lezioni Caritatevoli school, founded by Johann Simon Mayr, in Bergamo through a full scholarship. He received detailed training in the arts of fugue and counterpoint, and it was here that he launched his operatic career. After some minor compositions under the commission of Paolo Zanca, Donizetti wrote his fourth opera, Zoraïda di Granata. This work impressed Domenico Barbaia, a prominent theatre manager, and Donizetti was offered a contract to compose in Naples. Writing in Rome and Milan in addition to Naples, Donizetti achieved some success (his 75 operas written in the space of just 12 years were usually popular successes, but the critics were often unimpressed), but was not well known internationally until 1830, when his Anna Bolena was premiered in Milan. He almost instantly became famous throughout Europe. L'elisir d'amore, a comedy produced in 1832, came soon after, and is deemed one of the masterpieces of the comic opera, as is his Don Pasquale, written in 1843. Shortly after L'elisir d'amore, Donizetti composed Lucia di Lammermoor, based on the Sir Walter Scott novel The Bride of Lammermoor. It became his most famous opera, and one of the high points of the bel canto tradition, reaching stature similar to Bellini's Norma.

After the success of Lucrezia Borgia (1833) consolidated his reputation, Donizetti followed the paths of both Rossini and Bellini by visiting Paris, but his opera Marino Falerio suffered by comparison with Bellini's I puritani, and he returned to Naples to produce his already-mentioned masterpiece, Lucia di Lammermoor. As Donizetti's fame grew, so did his engagements, as he was further hired to write in both France and Italy. In 1838, he moved to Paris after the Italian censor objected to the production of Poliuto (on the grounds that such a sacred subject was inappropriate for the stage); there he wrote La fille du régiment, which became another success.

As a conductor, he led the premiere of Rossini's Stabat Mater.

Donizetti's wife, Virginia Vasselli, gave birth to three children, none of whom survived. Within a year of his parents' deaths, his wife died from cholera. By 1843, Donizetti exhibited symptoms of syphilis. After being institutionalized in 1845, he was sent to Paris, where he could be cared for. After visits from friends, including Giuseppe Verdi, Donizetti was sent back to Bergamo, his hometown. After several years in the grip of insanity, he died in 1848 in the house of the noble family Scotti. After his death Donizetti was buried in the cemetery of Valtesse but in the late 19th century his body was transferred to Bergamo's Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore near the grave of his teacher Johann Simon Mayr.

Donizetti is best known for his operatic works, but he also wrote music in a number of other forms, including some church music, a number of string quartets, and some orchestral works.

He was the younger brother of Giuseppe Donizetti, who had become, in 1828, Instructor General of the Imperial Ottoman Music at the court of Sultan Mahmud II (1808–1839).

Works

Donizetti was a prolific composer. He composed about 75 operas, 16 symphonies, 19 string quartets, 193 songs, 45 duets, 3 oratorios, 28 cantatas, instrumental concertos, sonatas, and other chamber pieces.

Operas

1816–1819
1820–1824
1825–1829
  • Alahor in Granata (7 January 1826 Teatro Carolino, Palermo)
  • Don Gregorio [rev of L'ajo nell'imbarazzo] (11 June 1826, Teatro Nuovo, Naples)
  • Elvida (6 July 1826, Teatro San Carlo, Naples)
  • Gabriella di Vergy (written: 1826; premiere: 29 November 1869, Teatro San Carlo, Naples) (Gabriella)
  • Olivo e Pasquale (7 January 1827 Teatro Valle, Rome)
  • Olivo e Pasquale [rev] (1 September 1827, Teatro Nuovo, Naples)
  • Otto mesi in due ore (13 May 1827, Teatro Nuovo, Naples) (Gli esiliati in Siberia)
  • Il borgomastro di Saardam (19 August 1827, Teatro del Fondo, Naples)
  • Le convenienze ed inconvenienze teatrali , also known as Viva la mamma (21 November 1827, Teatro Nuovo, Naples)
  • L'esule di Roma, ossia Il proscritto (1 January 1828, Teatro San Carlo, Naples)
  • Emilia di Liverpool [rev] (8 March 1828, Teatro Nuovo, Naples)
  • Alina, regina di Golconda (12 May 1828, Teatro Carlo Felice, Genoa)
  • Gianni di Calais (2 August 1828, Teatro del Fondo, Naples)
  • Il paria (12 January 1829, Teatro San Carlo, Naples)
  • Il giovedi grasso (Il nuovo Pourceaugnac) (26 February 1829?, Teatro del Fondo, Naples)
  • Il castello di Kenilworth (6 July 1829, Teatro San Carlo, Naples)
  • Alina, regina di Golconda [rev] (10 October 1829, Teatro Valle, Rome)
1830–1834
1835–1839
  • Maria Stuarda (30 December 1835, Teatro alla Scala Milan)
  • Marin Faliero (12 March 1835, Théâtre-Italien, Paris)
  • Lucia di Lammermoor (26 September 1835, Teatro San Carlo, Naples)
  • Belisario (4 February 1836, Teatro La Fenice, Venice)
  • Il campanello di notte (1 June 1836, Teatro Nuovo, Naples)
  • Betly, o La capanna svizzera (21 August 1836, Teatro Nuovo, Naples)
  • L'assedio di Calais (19 November 1836, Teatro San Carlo, Naples)
  • Pia de' Tolomei (18 February 1837, Teatro Apollo, Venice)
  • Pia de' Tolomei [rev] (31 July 1837, Sinigaglia)
  • Betly [rev] ((?) 29 September 1837, Teatro del Fondo, Naples)
  • Roberto Devereux (28 October 1837, Teatro San Carlo, Naples)
  • Maria de Rudenz (30 January 1, 1838 Teatro La Fenice, Venice)
  • Gabriella di Vergy [rev] (written: 1838; August 1978 recording, London)
  • Poliuto (written: 1838; premiere: 30 November 1848, Teatro San Carlo, Naples)
  • Pia de' Tolomei [rev 2] (30 September 1838, Teatro San Carlo, Naples)
  • Lucie de Lammermoor [rev of Lucia di Lammermoor] (6 August 1839, Théâtre de la Renaissance, Paris)
  • Le duc d'Albe (written: 1839; premiere: 22 March 1882, Teatro Apollo, Rome) (Il duca d'Alba)
1840–1845
  • Lucrezia Borgia [rev] (11 January 1840, Teatro alla Scala Milan)
  • Poliuto [rev] (Les martyrs) (10 April 1840, Paris Opera (Salle Le Peletier)
  • La fille du régiment (11 February 1840, Opéra-Comique, Paris)
  • L'ange de Nisida (1839; ?)
  • Lucrezia Borgia [rev 2] (31 October 1840, Théâtre-Italien, Paris)
  • La favorite [rev of L'ange de Nisida] (2 December 1840, Paris Opera (Salle Le Peletier)
  • Adelia (11 February 1841, Teatro Apollo, Rome)
  • Rita (Deux hommes et une femme) (written: 1841; premiere: 7 May 1860, Opéra-Comique, Paris)
  • Maria Padilla (26 December 1841, Teatro alla Scala Milan)
  • Linda di Chamounix (19 May 1842, Kärntnertortheater, Vienna)
  • Linda di Chamounix [rev] (17 November 1842, Théâtre-Italien, Paris)
  • Caterina Cornaro (18 January 1844, Teatro San Carlo, Naples)
  • Don Pasquale (3 January 1843, Théâtre-Italien, Paris)
  • Maria di Rohan (5 June 1843, Kärntnertortheater, Vienna)
  • Dom Sébastien (13 November 1843, Paris Opera (Salle Le Peletier)
  • Dom Sébastien [rev] (6 February 1845, Kärntnertortheater, Vienna)

Choral works

  • Ave Maria
  • Grande Offertorio
  • Il sospiro

  • Messa da Requiem
  • Messa di Gloria e Credo
  • Miserere (Psalm 50)

Orchestral works

  • Allegro for Strings in C major
  • L'ajo nell'imbarazzo: Sinfonia
  • Larghetto, tema e variazioni in E flat major
  • Roberto Devereux: Sinfonia
  • Sinfonia Concertante in D major (1818)
  • Sinfonia for Winds in G minor (1817)

  • Sinfonia in A major
  • Sinfonia in C major
  • Sinfonia in D major
  • Sinfonia in D minor
  • Ugo, conte di Parigi: Sinfonia

Concertos

  • Concertino for Clarinet in B flat major
  • Concertino for English Horn in G major (1816)
  • Concertino in C minor for flute and chamber orchestra (1819)
  • Concertino for Flute and Orchestra in C major
  • Concertino for Flute and Orchestra in D major

  • Concertino for Oboe in F major
  • Concertino for Violin and Cello in D minor
  • Concerto for 2 Clarinets "Maria Padilla"
  • Concerto for Violin and Cello in D minor

Chamber works

  • Andante sostenuto for Oboe and Harp in F minor
  • Introduction for Strings in D major
  • Larghetto and Allegro for Violin and Harp in G minor
  • Largo/Moderato for Cello and Piano in G minor
  • Nocturnes (4) for Winds and Strings
  • Quartet for Strings in D major
  • Quartet for Strings no 3 in C minor: 2nd movement, Adagio ma non troppo
  • Quartet for Strings no 4 in D major
  • Quartet for Strings no 5 in E minor
  • Quartet for Strings no 5 in E minor: Larghetto
  • Quartet for Strings no 6 in G minor
  • Quartet for Strings no 7 in F minor
  • Quartet for Strings no 8 in B flat major
  • Quartet for Strings no 9 in D minor

  • Quartet for Strings no 10 in G minor
  • Quartet for Strings no 11 in C major
  • Quartet for Strings no 12 in C major
  • Quartet for Strings no 13 in A major
  • Quartet for Strings no 14 in D major
  • Quartet for Strings no 15 in F major
  • Quartet for Strings no 16 in B minor
  • Quartet for Strings no 17 in D major
  • Quartet for Strings no 18 in E minor
  • Quartet for Strings no 18 in E minor: Allegro
  • Quintet for Guitar and Strings no 2 in C major
  • Solo de concert
  • Sonata for Flute and Harp
  • Sonata for Flute and Piano in C minor
  • Sonata for Oboe and Piano in F major
  • Study for Clarinet no 1 in B flat major
  • Trio for Flute, Bassoon and Piano in F major

Piano works

  • Adagio and Allegro for Piano in G major
  • Allegro for Piano in C major
  • Allegro for Piano in F minor
  • Fugue for Piano in G minor
  • Grand Waltz for Piano in A major
  • Larghetto for Piano in A minor "Una furtiva lagrima"
  • Larghetto for Piano in C major
  • Pastorale for Piano in E major
  • Presto for Piano in F minor
  • Sinfonia for Piano in A major
  • Sinfonia for Piano no 1 in C major

  • Sinfonia for Piano no 1 in D major
  • Sinfonia for Piano no 2 in C major
  • Sinfonia for Piano no 2 in D major
  • Sonata for Piano in C major
  • Sonata for Piano in F major
  • Sonata for Piano in G major
  • Variations for Piano in E major
  • Variations for Piano in G major
  • Waltz for Piano in A major
  • Waltz for Piano in C major
  • Waltz for Piano in C major "The Invitation"

Media

Quotations

  • "Ah, by Bacchus, with this aria I shall receive universal applause. People will say to me, “Bravo maestro!”
I, in a very modest manner, shall walk about with bowed head; I’ll have rave reviews…I can become immortal…
My mind is vast, my genius swift...
And at composing, a thunderbolt am I."
(From a poem composed by 14-year-old Gaetano Donizetti)
  • "Donizetti, when asked which of his own operas he thought the best, spontaneously replied, 'How can I say which? A father always has a preference for a crippled child, and I have so many.'" (Louis Engel: "From Mozart to Mario", 1886)

See also

Bibliography

  • William Ashbrook: Donizetti and his Operas, Cambridge:Cambridge University Press 1982. Ashbrook also wrote an earlier life entitled Donizetti in 1965.
  • Stanley Sadie (ed.), The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Volume 7, London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 2001, pp. 761–796. The 1980 edition article, by William Ashbrook and Julian Budden, was also reprinted in The New Grove Masters of Italian Opera, London: Papermac, 1984, pp. 93–154.
  • Stanley Sadie (ed.), The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, Volume 1, London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 1997, pp. 1201–1221.
  • Egidio Saracino (ed), Tutti I libretti di Donizetti, Garzanti Editore, 1993.
  • Herbert Weinstock, Donizetti, London: Metheun & Co., Ltd., 1964. (UK publication date).
  • Giuliano Donati Petténi, Donizetti, Milano: Fratelli Treves Editori, 1930
  • Guido Zavadini, Donizetti: Vita - Musiche- Epistolario, Bergamo, 1948
  • John Stewart Allitt, Gaetano Donizetti – Pensiero, musica, opere scelte, Milano: Edizione Villadiseriane, 2003
  • John Stewart Allitt, Donizetti – in the light of romanticism and the teaching of Johann Simon Mayr, Shaftesbury, Dorset, UK: Element Books, 1991. Also see Allitt's website http://www.johnstewartallitt.com/
  • Annalisa Bini & Jeremy Commons, Le prime rappresentazioni delle opere di Donizetti nella stampa coeva, Milan: Skira, 1997
  • John Black, Donizetti's Operas in Naples 1822-1848, London: The Donizetti Society, 1982
  • James P. Cassaro, Gaetano Donizetti - A Guide to Research, New York: Garland Publishing. 2000
  • Leopold M Kantner, ed., Donizetti in Wien, papers from a symposium in various languages (ISBN 3-7069-0006-8 / ISSN 156,00-8921). Published by Primo Ottocento, available from Edition Praesens.
  • Philip Gossett, "Anna Bolena" and the Artistic Maturity of Gaetano Donizetti, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985
  • Egidio Saracino Ed., Tutti i libretti di Donizetti, Milan: Garzanti, 1993
  • Marcello Sorce Keller, "Gaetano Donizetti: un bergamasco compositore di canzoni napoletane", Studi Donizettiani, III(1978), 100- 107.
  • Marcello Sorce Keller, "Io te voglio bene assaje: a Famous Neapolitan Song Traditionally Attributed to Gaetano Donizetti", The Music Review, XLV (1984), no. 3- 4, 251- 264. Also published as: "Io te voglio bene assaje: una famosa canzone napoletana tradizionalmente attribuita a Gaetano Donizetti, La Nuova Rivista Musicale Italiana, 1985, no. 4, 642- 653.

External links

Sheet music

Sound-bites and recordings


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

GAETANO DONIZETTI (1798-1848), Italian musical composer, was born at Bergamo in 1798, the son of a government official of limited means. Originally destined for the bar, he showed at an early age a strong taste for art. At first, strangely enough, he mistook architecture for his vocation, and only of ter an unsuccessful trial in that direction did he discover his real talent. He entered the conservatoire of his native city, where he studied under Simon Mayr, the fertile operatic composer. His second master was Mattei, the head master of the celebrated music school of Bologna, where Donizetti resided for three years. After his return to Bergamo the young composer determined to devote himself to dramatic music, but his father insisted upon his giving lessons with a view to immediate gain. The disputes arising from this cause ultimately led to Donizetti's enlisting in the army. But this desperate step proved beneficial against all expectation. The regiment was quartered at Venice, and here the young composer's first dramatic attempt, an opera called Enrico cornte di Borgogna, saw the light in 1818.

The success of this work, and of a second opera brought out in the following year, established Donizetti's reputation. He obtained his discharge from the army, and henceforth his operas followed each other in rapid and uninterrupted succession at the rate of three or four a year. Although he had to contend successively with two such dangerous rivals as Rossini and Bellini, he succeeded in taking firm hold of the public, and the brilliant reception accorded to his Anna Bolena at Milan carried his name beyond the limits of his own country. In 1835 Donizetti went for the first time to Paris, where, however, his Marino Faliero failed to hold its own against Bellini's Puritani, then recently produced at the Theatre Italien. The disappointed composer went to Naples, where the enormous success of his Lucia di Lammermoor consoled him for his failure in Paris. For Naples he wrote a number of works, none of which is worth notice. In 1840 the censorship refused to pass his Poliuto, an Italian version of Corneille's Polyeucte, in consequence of which the disgusted composer once more left his country for Paris. Here he produced at the Opera Comique his most popular opera, La Fille du regiment, but again with little success. It was not till after the work had made the round of the theatres of Germany and Italy that the Parisians reconsidered their unfavourable verdict. A serious opera, Les Martyrs, produced about the same time with the Daughter of the Regiment, was equally unsuccessful, and it was reserved to La Favorita, generally considered as Donizetti's masterpiece, to break the evil spell. His next important work, Linda di Chamounix, was written for Vienna, where it was received most favourably in 1842, and the same success accompanied the production of Don Pasquale after Donizetti's return to Paris in 1843. Soon after this event the first signs of a fatal disease, caused to a great extent by overwork, began to show themselves. The utter failure of Don Sebastian, a large opera produced soon after Don Pasquale, is said to have hastened the catastrophe. A paralytic stroke in 1844 deprived Donizetti of his reason; for four years he lingered on in a state of mental and physical prostration. A visit to his country was proposed as a last resource, but he reached his native place only to die there on the 1st of April 1848.

The sum total of his operas amounts to sixty-four. The large number of his works accounts for many of their chief defects. His rapidity of working made all revision impossible. It is said that he once wrote the instrumentation of a whole opera within thirty hours, a time hardly sufficient, one would think, to put the notes on paper. And yet it may be doubted whether more elaboration would have essentially improved his work; for the last act of the Favorita, infinitely superior to the preceding ones, is also said to have been the product of a single night.

There is a strange parallelism observable in the lives of Rossini, Bellini and Donizetti. They had no sooner established their reputations on the Italian stage than they left their own country for Paris, at that time the centre of the musical world. All three settled in France, and all three were anxious to adapt the style of their music to the taste and artistic traditions of their adopted country. The difference which exists between Rossini's Tell and his Semiramide may, although in a less striking degree, be noticed between Donizetti's Fille du regiment and one of his earlier Italian operas. But here the parallel ends. As regards artistic genius Donizetti can by no means be compared with his illustrious countrymen. He has little of Bellini's melancholy sweetness, less of Rossini's sparkle, and is all but devoid of spontaneous dramatic impulse. For these shortcomings he atones by a considerable though by no means extraordinary store of fluent melody, and by his rare skill in writing for the voice. The duet in the last act of the Favorita and the ensemble in Lucia following upon the signing of the contract, are masterpieces of concerted music in the Italian style. These advantages, together with considerable power of humorous delineation, as evinced in Don Pasquale and L'Elisir d'amore, must account for the unimpaired vitality of many of his works on the stage.


<< Dongola, Sudan

Donjon >>


Simple English

File:Donizetti in
Gaetano Donizetti

Gaetano Donizetti (born Bergamo 29 November 1797; died Bergamo 8 April 1848) was an Italian composer. He was the most famous composer of operas in Italy in the years between the death of Bellini (1835) and the time when Verdi was becoming well-known. Bellini and Donizetti wrote operas in the bel canto style: music with beautiful, smooth melodies.

Donizetti’s family were very poor. His talent was discovered by Simon Mayr who was maestro di cappella (music director) at S Maria Maggiore in Bergamo. He opened a school which trained boys to sing in the church choir and gave them a good musical education. Donizetti learned a lot from Mayr and was always very grateful to him.

Donizetti’s first operas were performed in Venice. A rich lady who realized he was very talented paid so that he did not have to do military service. His opera Zoraida di Granata was very successful in Rome and he was given a contract for an opera for Naples. For several years he composed between two and five operas every year. They were not particularly successful. One of the reasons was that the libretti he was given (the words he had to set) were not very good.

In 1828 he married. None of their three children lived very long and his wife died in 1837 which made him very sad during his last years. This can be felt in his music.

His opera Anna Bolena made him internationally famous. It was performed in London and Paris. His opera Maria Stuarda was based on a play by Schiller. It was not popular at first. The audience did not like the tragic ending. Today it is recognized as containing some great music, especially in the final scene. After a visit to Paris he returned to Naples to produce Lucia di Lammermoor which was based on Scott’s novel The Bride of Lammermoor. There is a French version as well as an Italian version of this opera.

In 1838 he moved to Paris where he had his operas performed in four theatres. Berlioz wrote very critical articles about him in a music journal. Donizetti had gone to Paris hoping that he would earn lots of money so that he could then retire, just like Rossini had done. However, his health was not good and he found it harder to concentrate. He managed to composed Don Pasquale which is one of the best comic operas every written, but it does have a lot of music that he had written earlier. He was obviously finding it difficult to think of new ideas. Soon he became really ill. He was suffering from syphilis. He was put in a sanatorium near Paris for 17 months. In 1847 some friends arranged for him to stay with them, but he was very ill by then. He was paralysed and almost unable to speak. His friends looked after him until he died.

He was buried in Bergamo. His remains are now in a church there. The house where he was born is a museum.


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message