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Galanin receptor 2
Symbols GALR2; GALNR2; MGC125983; MGC125984
External IDs OMIM603691 MGI1337018 HomoloGene2863 IUPHAR: GAL2 GeneCards: GALR2 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE GALR2 211226 at tn.png
PBB GE GALR2 gnf1h09841 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 8811 14428
Ensembl ENSG00000182687 ENSMUSG00000020793
UniProt O43603 Q14A53
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_003857 NM_010254
RefSeq (protein) NP_003848 NP_034384
Location (UCSC) Chr 17:
71.58 - 71.59 Mb
Chr 11:
116.1 - 116.1 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Galanin receptor 2, (GAL2) is a G-protein coupled receptor encoded by the GALR2 gene.[1]

Galanin is an important neuromodulator present in the brain, gastrointestinal system, and hypothalamopituitary axis. It is a 30-amino acid non-C-terminally amidated peptide that potently stimulates growth hormone secretion, inhibits cardiac vagal slowing of heart rate, abolishes sinus arrhythmia, and inhibits postprandial gastrointestinal motility. The actions of galanin are mediated through interaction with specific membrane receptors that are members of the 7-transmembrane family of G protein-coupled receptors. GALR2 interacts with the N-terminal residues of the galanin peptide. The primary signaling mechanism for GALR2 is through the phospholipase C/protein kinase C pathway (via Gq), in contrast to GALR1, which communicates its intracellular signal by inhibition of adenylyl cyclase through Gi. However, it has been demonstrated that GALR2 couples efficiently to both the Gq and Gi proteins to simultaneously activate 2 independent signal transduction pathways.[1]


See also


External links

Further reading

  • Bloomquist BT, Beauchamp MR, Zhelnin L, et al. (1998). "Cloning and expression of the human galanin receptor GalR2.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 243 (2): 474–9. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1998.8133. PMID 9480833.  
  • Fathi Z, Battaglino PM, Iben LG, et al. (1998). "Molecular characterization, pharmacological properties and chromosomal localization of the human GALR2 galanin receptor.". Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 58 (1-2): 156–69. doi:10.1016/S0169-328X(98)00116-8. PMID 9685625.  
  • Kolakowski LF, O'Neill GP, Howard AD, et al. (1998). "Molecular characterization and expression of cloned human galanin receptors GALR2 and GALR3.". J. Neurochem. 71 (6): 2239–51. PMID 9832121.  
  • Borowsky B, Walker MW, Huang LY, et al. (1999). "Cloning and characterization of the human galanin GALR2 receptor.". Peptides 19 (10): 1771–81. doi:10.1016/S0196-9781(98)00133-8. PMID 9880084.  
  • Berger A, Tuechler C, Almer D, et al. (2002). "Elevated expression of galanin receptors in childhood neuroblastic tumors.". Neuroendocrinology 75 (2): 130–8. doi:10.1159/000048229. PMID 11867941.  
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMID 12477932.  
  • Berger A, Lang R, Moritz K, et al. (2004). "Galanin receptor subtype GalR2 mediates apoptosis in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.". Endocrinology 145 (2): 500–7. doi:10.1210/en.2003-0649. PMID 14592962.  
  • Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).". Genome Res. 14 (10B): 2121–7. doi:10.1101/gr.2596504. PMID 15489334.  
  • Belfer I, Hipp H, Bollettino A, et al. (2007). "Alcoholism is associated with GALR3 but not two other galanin receptor genes.". Genes, Brain and Behavior 6 (5): 473–81. doi:10.1111/j.1601-183X.2006.00275.x. PMID 17083333.  

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.



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