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Galileo Galilei

Portrait of Galileo Galilei by Giusto Sustermans
Born 15 February 1564(1564-02-15)[1]
Pisa,[1] Duchy of Florence, Italy
Died 8 January 1642 (aged 77)[1]
Arcetri,[1] Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Italy
Residence Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Italy
Nationality Italian
Fields Astronomy, Physics and Mathematics
Institutions University of Pisa
University of Padua
Alma mater University of Pisa
Academic advisors Ostilio Ricci[2]
Notable students Benedetto Castelli
Mario Guiducci
Vincenzio Viviani[3]
Known for Kinematics
Dynamics
Telescopic observational astronomy
Heliocentrism
Signature
.
Notes
His father was the musician Vincenzo Galilei.^ His father, Vincenzo Galilei (ca.

^ Galileo was born in Pisa, Italy, the son of Vincenzo Galilei, a mathematician and musician.

^ His father, Vincenzo Galilei, who was born around 1525 and died in 1591, was a well educated and talented musician who published a book on musical theory in 1581.

His mistress was Marina Gamba and Maria Celeste was one of Galileo's daughters.
.Galileo Galilei (Italian pronunciation: [galiˈlɛo galiˈlɛi]; 15 February 1564[4] – 8 January 1642)[1][5] was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution.^ Galileo Galilei ( 15 February 1564 [2] – 8 January 1642 ) [1] [3] was a Tuscan ( Italian ) physicist , mathematician , astronomer , and philosopher who played a major role in the scientific revolution .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo died on January 8 , 1642 .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GALILEO GALILEI (1564-1642), Italian astronomer and experimental philosopher, was born at Pisa on the 15th of February 1564.
  • Galileo Galilei - LoveToKnow 1911 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

.His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations, and support for Copernicanism.^ His achievements include improvements to the telescope and > consequent astronomical observations, and support for Copernicanism.
  • Why Don't Global Warmers Just STFU - rec.gambling.poker | Google Groups 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His achievements include improving the telescope, a variety of astronomical observations, the first law of motion, and supporting Copernicanism effectively.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His achievements include the first systematic studies of uniformly accelerated motion, improvements to the telescope , a variety of astronomical observations, and support for Copernicanism .
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Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy,"[6] the "father of modern physics,"[7] the "father of science,"[7] and "the Father of Modern Science."[8] Stephen Hawking says, "Galileo, perhaps more than any other single person, was responsible for the birth of modern science."[9]
.The motion of uniformly accelerated objects, taught in nearly all high school and introductory college physics courses, was studied by Galileo as the subject of kinematics.^ Further studies of accelerated motion.
  • Galileo Timeline 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC physics.ship.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy ", [4] the "father of modern physics ", [5] the "father of science ", [5] and “the Father of Modern Science.” [6] The motion of uniformly accelerated objects, taught in nearly all high school and introductory college physics courses, was studied by Galileo as the subject of kinematics .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Introductory physics courses are taught at three levels: physics with calculus, physics without calculus, and physics without physics.
  • Science Quotes 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.lhup.edu [Source type: Original source]

.His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus, the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter (named the Galilean moons in his honour), and the observation and analysis of sunspots.^ Venus has phases like the moon.
  • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Galileo discovered the four largest satellites of Jupiter.
  • Logos (est. 1995): Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC russellmcneil.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jupiter had four moons.
  • Beginning of Modern Science & Modern Philosophy 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Galileo also worked in applied science and technology, inventing an improved military compass and other instruments.^ In 1595–1598, Galileo devised and improved a "Geometric and Military Compass" suitable for use by gunners and surveyors.

^ We build a Varity of other instruments Inclined planes Galileo's Compass - Sector - The pendulum/Brachistochronous Sci-tech instruments and services Thoughts about basic scientific research .
  • Galileo's Telescope for IYA Made for Griffith observatory,on exhibt at Franklin Institute, Adler Planetrium,the IMSS Institute and Museum of the History of Science in Florence Italy where the original telescopes are on display, Celebrate the IYA 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC galileotelescope.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo realized at once that such an instrument would be an invaluable military aid, and that one of the Italian rulers would want one.
  • Museum - Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC web.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Galileo's championing of Copernicanism was controversial within his lifetime, when a large majority of philosophers and astronomers still subscribed (at least outwardly) to the geocentric view that the Earth is at the centre of the universe.^ Galileo's championing of Copernicanism was controversial within his lifetime.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Church Controversy Galileo was a devout Catholic, yet his writings on the Copernican model of the universe (incorporating a heliocentric, or sun-centered solar system) disturbed the Church, which, like most everyone else at the time, held to a Ptolemaic or Aristotelian Earth-centered theory of the universe.
  • Logos (est. 1995): Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC russellmcneil.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo Galilei ( 15 February 1564 [2] – 8 January 1642 ) [1] [3] was a Tuscan ( Italian ) physicist , mathematician , astronomer , and philosopher who played a major role in the scientific revolution .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After 1610, when he began publicly supporting the heliocentric view, which placed the Sun at the centre of the universe, he met with bitter opposition from some philosophers and clerics, and two of the latter eventually denounced him to the Roman Inquisition early in 1615. In February 1616, although he had been cleared of any offence, the Catholic Church nevertheless condemned heliocentrism as "false and contrary to Scripture",[10] and Galileo was warned to abandon his support for it—which he promised to do.^ Galileo met with fierce opposition from the Church and the followers of Aristotle.
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | February 15| Jon Frum Vanuatu John Frum Jeremy Bentham panopticon, USS Maine, Galileo, Lupercalia ancient Rome peace demonstrations protest demo Iraq anti-war 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

^ Galileo defended heliocentrism , and claimed it was not contrary to those Scripture passages.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This view of the universe was eventually named after him and called the Ptolemaic system.
  • Museum - Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC web.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

.When he later defended his views in his most famous work, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, published in 1632, he was tried by the Inquisition, found "vehemently suspect of heresy," forced to recant, and spent the rest of his life under house arrest.^ Galileo consented, and set to work writing his masterpiece, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (often called simply the Dialogue).

^ Galileo's reflections on motion were carefully argued in the Dialogue on the two chief world systems .
  • Logos (est. 1995): Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC russellmcneil.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1632, Galileo published the Dialogue .

Contents

Life

.Galileo was born in Pisa (then part of the Duchy of Florence), Italy, the first of six children of Vincenzo Galilei, a famous lutenist and music theorist, and Giulia Ammannati.^ He was the son of Vincenzo Galilei , well known for his studies of music, and Giulia Ammannati.
  • Logos (est. 1995): Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC russellmcneil.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo was born in Pisa, Italy, the son of Vincenzo Galilei, a mathematician and musician.

^ July 5 Vincenzo Galilei of Florence marries Giulia degli Ammannati of Pescia.
  • Galileo Timeline 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC physics.ship.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Four of their six children survived infancy, and the youngest Michelangelo (or Michelagnolo) became a noted lutenist and composer.^ Galileo was born in Pisa (then part of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany ), the first of six children of Vincenzo Galilei , a famous lutenist and music theorist , and Giulia Ammannati.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Galileo's full name was Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de' Galilei.^ Telescopio de Galileo Galilei .

^ Galileo was born in Pisa (then part of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany ), the first of six children of Vincenzo Galilei , a famous lutenist and music theorist , and Giulia Ammannati.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo Galilei y la Teoría de Cuerdas .
  • Galileo Galilei y la Teoría de Cuerdas | Caerolus 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.caerolus.com [Source type: General]

.At the age of 8, his family moved to Florence, but he was left with Jacopo Borghini for two years.^ Vincenzo Galilei and his family move to Florence .
  • Galileo Timeline 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC physics.ship.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the age of 8, his family moved to Florence , but he was left with Jacopo Borghini for two years.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He finally moved to Florence in September 1610 having sent his daughters (then aged eight and ten years) there earlier to be with his mother and leaving his son (aged four years) with Marina Gamba until old enough to leave her care.

[1] .He then was educated in the Camaldolese Monastery at Vallombrosa, 35 km southeast of Florence.^ He then was educated in the Camaldolese Monastery at Vallombrosa, 33 km southeast of Florence.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the monastery of Vallombrosa, near Florence, where his education was principally conducted, he not only made himself acquainted with the best Latin authors, but acquired a fair command of the Greek tongue, thus laying the foundation of his brilliant and elegant style.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the monastery of Vallombrosa , near Florence, where his education was principally conducted, he not only made himself acquainted with the best Latin authors, but acquired a fair command of the Greek tongue, thus laying the foundation of his brilliant and elegant style .

[1] .Although he seriously considered the priesthood as a young man, he enrolled for a medical degree at the University of Pisa at his father's urging.^ Although he seriously considered the priesthood as a young man, he enrolled for a medical degree at the University of Pisa at his father's urging.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, his father had other plans and at age 17 years Galileo was enrolled at the University of Pisa as a medical student.

^ To please his father he studied medicine but he became more and more interested in mathematics and mechanics, although there was no serious department of mathematics at the University at that time.

.He did not complete this degree, but instead studied mathematics.^ He did not complete this degree, but instead studied mathematics.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The young Galileo hoped to become a monk but instead studied medicine at the University of Pisa at his father’s direction, where he became enthralled with mathematics.

[11] .In 1589, he was appointed to the chair of mathematics in Pisa.^ In 1589, he was appointed to the chair of mathematics in Pisa.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, in 1592 he took the Chair of mathematics at the University of Padua, receiving something like 3 times his salary at Pisa, where he stayed for 18 years.

^ Rather surprisingly, considering his previous history, he was given the Chair of Mathematics at Pisa in 1589, a very poorly paid position since mathematics was regarded of minor importance in Pisa.

.In 1591 his father died and he was entrusted with the care of his younger brother Michelagnolo.^ In 1591 his father died and he was entrusted with the care of his younger brother Michelagnolo .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His father, Vincenzo Galilei, who was born around 1525 and died in 1591, was a well educated and talented musician who published a book on musical theory in 1581.

^ And he had some financial problems; since his father had died in 1591 Galileo, the eldest son, had assumed responsibility for the family.

.In 1592, he moved to the University of Padua, teaching geometry, mechanics, and astronomy until 1610.[12] During this period Galileo made significant discoveries in both pure science (for example, kinematics of motion, and astronomy) and applied science (for example, strength of materials, improvement of the telescope).^ In 1592, he moved to the University of Padua , teaching geometry , mechanics , and astronomy until 1610.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo moves from Padua to Florence .
  • Galileo Timeline 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC physics.ship.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During this period Galileo made significant discoveries in both pure science (for example, kinematics of motion, and astronomy) and applied science (for example, strength of materials, improvement of the telescope).
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His multiple interests included the study of astrology, which at the time was a discipline tied to the studies of mathematics and astronomy.^ His multiple interests included the study of astrology , which in pre-modern disciplinary practice was seen as correlated to the studies of mathematics and astronomy.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Drawing on his diverse studies in philosophy, mathematics, mechanics, music, astronomy, and engineering, Galileo developed revolutionary theories that thoroughly changed the disciplines of physics, mathematics, astronomy, and technology.
  • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

^ To please his father he studied medicine but he became more and more interested in mathematics and mechanics, although there was no serious department of mathematics at the University at that time.

[13]
.
Galileo's beloved elder daughter, Virginia (AKA Maria Celeste), was particularly devoted to her father.
^ April 1634 – Galileo’s daughter, Maria Celeste, dies.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The private Life of Galileo: Compiled primarily from his correspondence and that of his eldest daughter, Sister Maria Celeste , (nun in the Franciscan convent of St. Matthew, in Arcetri), 1870, Boston : Nichols and Noyes.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dava Sobel's Galileo's Daughter offers a different set of insights into Galileo and his world, in large part through the private correspondence of Maria Celeste, the daughter of the title, and her father.
  • Logos (est. 1995): Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC russellmcneil.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

She is buried with him in Galieo's tomb in the Basilica of Santa Croce, Florence.
.Although a genuinely pious Roman Catholic,[14] Galileo fathered three children out of wedlock with Marina Gamba.^ Although a devout Roman Catholic , Galileo fathered three children out of wedlock with Marina Gamba .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although a devout Catholic, Galileo fathered three children out of wedlock.

^ All were the children of Galileo and Marina Gamba.

.They had two daughters, Virginia in 1600 and Livia in 1601, and one son, Vincenzo, in 1606. Because of their illegitimate birth, their father considered the girls unmarriageable.^ They had two daughters (Virginia in 1600 and Livia in 1601) and one son (Vincenzio, in 1606).
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of their illegitimate birth, their father considered the girls unmarriageable.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of their illegitimate birth, both girls were sent to the convent of San Matteo in Arcetri at early ages.

.Their only worthy alternative was the religious life.^ Their only worthy alternative was the religious life.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both girls were sent to the convent of San Matteo in Arcetri and remained there for the rest of their lives.^ Because of their illegitimate birth, both girls were sent to the convent of San Matteo in Arcetri at early ages.

^ Both girls were sent to the convent of San Matteo in Arcetri and remained there for the rest of their lives.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soon after her thirteenth birthday, he placed her at the Convent of San Matteo in Arcetri."
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] .Virginia took the name Maria Celeste upon entering the convent.^ Maria Celeste upon entering the convent.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo's daughter, Maria Celeste , who has lived in a convent near Arcetri for many years, dies.
  • Galileo Timeline 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC physics.ship.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As we saw above, in 1616, Galileo's eldest daughter Virginia had entered a Franciscan convent, San Matteo, near Arcetri, taking the name if Sister Maria Celeste.

.She died on 2 April 1634, and is buried with Galileo at the Basilica of Santa Croce, Florence.^ April 1634 – Galileo’s daughter, Maria Celeste, dies.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ She is buried with Galileo at the Basilica di Santa Croce di Firenze.

^ She died on April 2 , 1634 , and is buried with Galileo at the Basilica di Santa Croce di Firenze .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Livia took the name Sister Arcangela and was ill for most of her life.^ Suor Arcangela and was ill for most of her life.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Virginia took the veil in 1616, choosing the name Sister Maria Celeste, and Livia a year later became Sister Arcangela.

^ Marina Gamba gives birth to a second daughter who is baptized Livia, who later takes the name Arcangela.
  • Galileo Timeline 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC physics.ship.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Vincenzo was later legitimized and married Sestilia Bocchineri.[16]
.In 1610 Galileo published an account of his telescopic observations of the moons of Jupiter, using this observation to argue in favour of the sun-centered, Copernican theory of the universe against the dominant earth-centered Ptolemaic and Aristotelian theories.^ In 1610 Galileo published an account of his telescopic observations of the moons of Jupiter, using this observation to argue in favor of the sun-centered, Copernican theory of the universe against the dominant earth-centered Ptolemaic and Aristotelian theories.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Earth at the center of the Universe.
  • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

^ Europa, one of the Moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo in 1610.

.The next year Galileo visited Rome in order to demonstrate his telescope to the influential philosophers and mathematicians of the Jesuit Collegio Romano, and to let them see with their own eyes the reality of the four moons of Jupiter.^ The mathematicians at the Collegio Romano honor Galileo at a banquet.
  • Galileo Timeline 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC physics.ship.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jupiter had four moons.
  • Beginning of Modern Science & Modern Philosophy 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Why not see it with your own eyes?
  • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Galileo's Dialog 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: Original source]

[17] .While in Rome he was also made a member of the Accademia dei Lincei.^ While in Rome he was also made a member of the Accademia dei Lincei .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Greek mathematician Giovanni Demisiani for one of Galileo Galilei’s instruments presented at a banquet at the Accademia dei Lincei”.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Just before it was published, Pope Urban VIII succeeded Pope Paul V and the Accademia dei Lincei decided to dedicate the book to him.

[18]
.In 1612, opposition arose to the Sun-centered theory of the universe which Galileo supported.^ From Wikipedia: In astronomy, heliocentrism is the theory that the Sun is at the center of the Universe.
  • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1612, opposition arose to the Sun-centered solar system which Galileo supported.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Italian physicist and astronomer Galileo maintained that the earth revolved around the sun, disputing the belief held by the Roman Catholic church that the earth was the center of the universe.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.In 1614, from the pulpit of the Basilica of Santa Maria Novella, Father Tommaso Caccini (1574–1648) denounced Galileo's opinions on the motion of the Earth, judging them dangerous and close to heresy.^ In 1614, from the pulpit of Santa Maria Novella, Father Tommaso Caccini (1574–1648) denounced Galileo's opinions on the motion of the Earth, judging them dangerous and close to heresy .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ En 1614, el padre Tommaso Caccini denunció las opiniones de Galileo sobre el movimiento de la Tierra desde el púlpito de Santa María Novella, juzgándolas de erróneas.

^ Against the assertion that Galileo was deceptive in making these arguments, Albert Einstein expressed the opinion that Galileo developed his "fascinating arguments" and accepted them uncritically out of a desire for physical proof of the motion of the Earth.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Galileo went to Rome to defend himself against these accusations, but, in 1616, Cardinal Roberto Bellarmino personally handed Galileo an admonition enjoining him neither to advocate nor teach Copernican astronomy.^ Galileo went to Rome to defend himself against these accusations, but, in 1616, Cardinal Roberto Bellarmino personally handed Galileo an admonition enjoining him neither to advocate nor teach Copernican astronomy.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo goes to Rome to defend his Copernican ideas.
  • Galileo Timeline 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC physics.ship.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At Galileo’s request, Cardinal Robert Bellarmine, a Jesuit—one of the most important Catholic theologians of the day—issued a certificate that, although it forbade Galileo to hold or defend the heliocentric theory, did not prevent him from conjecturing it.
  • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

[19] .During 1621 and 1622 Galileo wrote his first book, The Assayer (Il Saggiatore), which was approved and published in 1623. In 1630, he returned to Rome to apply for a licence to print the Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, published in Florence in 1632. In October of that year, however, he was ordered to appear before the Holy Office in Rome.^ Galileo consented, and set to work writing his masterpiece, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (often called simply the Dialogue).

^ Intermittently from 1624 Galileo wrote his Dialogue concerning two chief systems of the World, the Ptolemaic and Copernican, which he finished at the end of 1629 but because of numerous delays due to difficulties of getting a license, first in Rome and then in Florence, the book wasn't published until February 1632.

^ In 1632, Galileo published the Dialogue .

.Following a papal trial in which he was found vehemently suspect of heresy, Galileo was placed under house arrest and his movements restricted by the Pope.^ Galileo’s process took place under a ruthless and cruel pope.
  • The Galileo affair: history or heroic hagiography? 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Galileo was never convicted of heresy; even in the second trial, he was only "vehemently suspected of heresy".

^ He was under mild house arrest.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

.From 1634 onward he stayed at his country house at Arcetri, outside of Florence.^ Dan Falk: Galileo would spend his remaining years under house arrest in his villa in Arcetri, now a suburb of Florence.
  • Galileo Galilei - Science Show - 19 December 2009 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Galileo was put under life-long house arrest, for the most part (1634-1642) in his own villas in Arcetri and Florence.
  • Logos (est. 1995): Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC russellmcneil.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo was sentenced to prison, but because of his advanced age (and/or Church politics) the sentence was commuted to house arrest at his villas in Arcetri and Florence 1.

.He went completely blind in 1638 and was suffering from a painful hernia and insomnia, so he was permitted to travel to Florence for medical advice.^ Winter Suffers from a painful hernia.
  • Galileo Timeline 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC physics.ship.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the plague did not get him on the road, the strain of travelling might finish him off; in addition he had been ill most of the autumn, with dizziness, stomach pains and a serious hernia.
  • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

^ Galileo's health was rapidly failing, he suffered bouts of asthma and he went blind in 1638 a devastating blow for someone who had such a special talent for observation and had seen further than others before him.

He continued to receive visitors until 1642, when, after suffering fever and heart palpitations, he died.[20][21]

Scientific methods

.Galileo made original contributions to the science of motion through an innovative combination of experiment and mathematics.^ Galileo Galilei pioneered the use of quantitative experiments whose results could be analyzed with mathematical precision (More typical of science at the time were the qualitative studies of William Gilbert , on magnetism and electricity).
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo made a few contributions to what we now call technology as distinct from pure physics, and suggested others.

^ One can doubt whether Galileo had made many experiments to prove his theories.
  • The Galileo affair: history or heroic hagiography? 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Original source]

[22] .More typical of science at the time were the qualitative studies of William Gilbert, on magnetism and electricity.^ Galileo Galilei pioneered the use of quantitative experiments whose results could be analyzed with mathematical precision (More typical of science at the time were the qualitative studies of William Gilbert , on magnetism and electricity).
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was more old science vs new science, but in the context of the time (ie in terms of physics as understood in 1600) it was perfectly tenable to argue against Galileian heliocentrism.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To please his father he studied medicine but he became more and more interested in mathematics and mechanics, although there was no serious department of mathematics at the University at that time.

.Galileo's father, Vincenzo Galilei, a lutenist and music theorist, had performed experiments establishing perhaps the oldest known non-linear relation in physics: for a stretched string, the pitch varies as the square root of the tension.^ However, Galileo's father, Vincenzo Galilei, had performed experiments in which he discovered what may be the oldest known non-linear relation in physics, between the tension and the pitch of a stretched string.

^ His father, Vincenzo Galilei (ca.

^ (However, Galileo's father, Vincenzo Galilei, had performed experiments in which he discovered what may be the oldest known non-linear relation in physics, between the tension and the pitch of a stretched string.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

[23] .These observations lay within the framework of the Pythagorean tradition of music, well-known to instrument makers, which included the fact that subdividing a string by a whole number produces a harmonious scale.^ These observations lay within the framework of the Pythagorean tradition of music, well-known to instrument makers, which included the fact that subdividing a string by a whole number produces a harmonious scale.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was even allowed to receive visitors, including two well known Englishmen, the philosopher Thomas Hobbes and the poet John Milton.
  • Galileo Galilei - Science Show - 19 December 2009 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Although technically his major contributions were in mechanics and the study of motion, he is probably most well-known for his astronomical observations.

.Thus, a limited amount of mathematics had long related music and physical science, and young Galileo could see his own father's observations expand on that tradition.^ Thus, a limited amount of mathematics had long related music and physical science, and young Galileo could see his own father's observations expand on that tradition.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy", the "father of modern physics", and the "father of science".
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ (However, Galileo's father, Vincenzo Galilei, had performed experiments in which he discovered what may be the oldest known non-linear relation in physics, between the tension and the pitch of a stretched string.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

[24]
.Galileo is perhaps the first to clearly state that the laws of nature are mathematical.^ Galileo is perhaps the first to clearly state that the laws of nature are mathematical.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was the first person to clearly state that the laws of nature could be described mathematically.
  • Galileo Galilei - Science Show - 19 December 2009 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The most obvious example of course is the problem of the dynamics of the solar system, which led Newton to his laws of motion and gravitation, the first really general mathematical principles governing natural phenomena.
  • Galileo Galilei - Science Show - 19 December 2009 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

.In The Assayer he wrote "Philosophy is written in this grand book, the universe ...^ Philosophy is written in this grand book, the universe, which stands continually open to our gaze.
  • From Warpath to Wholeness: The Condemnation and Rehabilitation of Galileo Galilei :: Mathew Chandrankunnel :: Global Spiral 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.metanexus.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In The Assayer he wrote "Philosophy is written in this grand book, the universe ...
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pythagoras (11) Philosophy is written in this grand book, the universe, which stands continually open to our gaze.
  • Galileo Galilei Quotes - Dictionary of Science Quotations and Scientist Quotes 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is written in the language of mathematics, and its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometric figures; ...^ It is written in the language of mathematics, and its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometric figures without which it is humanly impossible to understand a single word of it; without these, one wanders about in a dark labyrinth.
  • Galileo Galilei Quotes - Dictionary of Science Quotations and Scientist Quotes 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is written in the language of mathematics, and its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometric figures without which it is humanity impossible to understand a single word of it; without these one wanders about in a dark labyrinth.
  • From Warpath to Wholeness: The Condemnation and Rehabilitation of Galileo Galilei :: Mathew Chandrankunnel :: Global Spiral 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.metanexus.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, and the book of scripture is scribbled in the language of faith.
  • From Warpath to Wholeness: The Condemnation and Rehabilitation of Galileo Galilei :: Mathew Chandrankunnel :: Global Spiral 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.metanexus.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

."[25] .His mathematical analyses are a further development of a tradition employed by late scholastic natural philosophers, which Galileo learned when he studied philosophy.^ His mathematical analyses are a further development of a tradition employed by late scholastic natural philosophers, which Galileo learned when he studied philosophy.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reply Marelisa Marelisa Jan 5, 2009 @ 8:54 pm Galileo Galilei was a scientist, philosopher, the leading mathematical physicist of his age, and he excelled at lute playing and painting.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Though many philosophers were proposing the experimental basis of studying nature, Galileo was the first to practise it.
  • From Warpath to Wholeness: The Condemnation and Rehabilitation of Galileo Galilei :: Mathew Chandrankunnel :: Global Spiral 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.metanexus.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] .Although he tried to remain loyal to the Catholic Church, his adherence to experimental results, and their most honest interpretation, led to a rejection of blind allegiance to authority, both philosophical and religious, in matters of science.^ Although he tried to remain loyal to the Catholic Church, his adherence to experimental results, and their most honest interpretation, led to a rejection of blind allegiance to authority, both philosophical and religious, in matters of science.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Catholic church suppressed science.
  • Slashdot | 400 Years Ago, Galileo Discovered Four Jovian Moons 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The geocentric view had been dominant since the time of Aristotle, and the controversy engendered by Galileo's opposition to this view resulted in the condemnation of heliocentrism in 1616 by the Catholic Church as contrary to Scripture.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.In broader terms, this aided the separation of science from both philosophy and religion; a major development in human thought.^ Religion and science are two separate venues.
  • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition, his conflict with the Catholic Church is taken as a major early example of the conflict of authority and freedom of thought, particularly with science, in Western society.

^ Counterbalance Interactive Library "Welcome to the Counterbalance Interactive Library, offering new views on complex issues from science, ethics, philosophy, and religion.

.By the standards of his time, Galileo was often willing to change his views in accordance with observation.^ By the standards of his time, Galileo was often willing to change his views in accordance with observation.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The geocentric view had been dominant since the time of Aristotle, and the controversy engendered by Galileo's opposition to this view resulted in the condemnation of heliocentrism in 1616 by the Catholic Church as contrary to Scripture.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Yes, Galileo presented observations counfounding to the geocentric view.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

.In order to perform his experiments, Galileo had to set up standards of length and time, so that measurements made on different days and in different laboratories could be compared in a reproducible fashion.^ In order to perform his experiments, Galileo had to set up standards of length and time, so that measurements made on different days and in different laboratories could be compared in a reproducible fashion.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo Galilei pioneered the use of quantitative experiments whose results could be analyzed with mathematical precision (More typical of science at the time were the qualitative studies of William Gilbert , on magnetism and electricity).
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One can doubt whether Galileo had made many experiments to prove his theories.
  • The Galileo affair: history or heroic hagiography? 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Original source]

.This provided a reliable foundation on which to confirm mathematical laws using inductive reasoning.^ Also, why leave out another of his reasons; namely, that this number is used, as if by a law of nature, in sacrifices to the gods?
  • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Galileo's Dialog 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He expressed this law using geometrical constructions and mathematically-precise words, adhering to the standards of the day.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Galileo showed a remarkably modern appreciation for the proper relationship between mathematics, theoretical physics, and experimental physics.^ Galileo showed a remarkably modern appreciation for the proper relationship between mathematics, theoretical physics, and experimental physics.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Experimental science In the pantheon of the scientific revolution, Galileo takes a high position because of his pioneering use of quantitative experiments with results analyzed mathematically.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Galileo received, as the result of a conference between Cardinals Bellarmin and Del Monte, a semi-official warning to avoid theology, and limit himself to physical reasoning.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

.He understood the parabola, both in terms of conic sections and in terms of the ordinate (y) varying as the square of the abscissa (x).^ He understood the parabola, both in terms of conic sections and in terms of the ordinate (y) varying as the square of the abscissa (x).
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Galilei further asserted that the parabola was the theoretically ideal trajectory of a uniformly accelerated projectile in the absence of friction and other disturbances.^ Galilei further asserted that the parabola was the theoretically-ideal trajectory for uniformly accelerated motion, in the absence of friction and other disturbances.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thirdly, Galilei recognized that his experimental data would never agree exactly with any theoretical or mathematical form, because of the imprecision of measurement, irreducible friction, and other factors.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He conceded that there are limits to the validity of this theory, noting on theoretical grounds that a projectile trajectory of a size comparable to that of the Earth could not possibly be a parabola,[27] but he nevertheless maintained that for distances up to the range of the artillery of his day, the deviation of a projectile's trajectory from a parabola would only be very slight.^ He also noted that there are limits to the validity of this theory, stating that it was appropriate only for laboratory-scale and battlefield-scale trajectories, and noting on theoretical grounds that the parabola could not possibly apply to a trajectory so large as to be comparable to the size of the planet.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If this theory were correct, there would be only one high tide per day.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meanwhile Venus showed a range of moon-like phases, something which could not happen if both it and the sun orbited the Earth.
  • Galileo's telescope reaches 400th anniversary | Technology | guardian.co.uk 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[28] .Thirdly, he recognized that his experimental data would never agree exactly with any theoretical or mathematical form, because of the imprecision of measurement, irreducible friction, and other factors.^ Thirdly, Galilei recognized that his experimental data would never agree exactly with any theoretical or mathematical form, because of the imprecision of measurement, irreducible friction, and other factors.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Experimental science In the pantheon of the scientific revolution, Galileo takes a high position because of his pioneering use of quantitative experiments with results analyzed mathematically.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ah, but this is only because Copernicus, a devoute Catholic, feared and respected the Church, recognized that his theories (which actually others had suggested before, though none would take credit (blame) for them) would be disruptive, and cleverly published his theories posthumously.
  • Slashdot | 400 Years Ago, Galileo Discovered Four Jovian Moons 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.According to Stephen Hawking, Galileo probably bears more of the responsibility for the birth of modern science than anybody else,[29] and Albert Einstein called him the father of modern science.^ Galileo's methods was the birth of modern science.
  • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

^ Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy", the "father of modern physics", and the "father of science".
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ According to Stephen Hawking , Galileo probably bears more of the responsibility for the birth of modern science than anybody else, [15] and Albert Einstein called him the father of modern science.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30]

Astronomy

Contributions

.
It was on this page that Galileo first noted an observation of the moons of Jupiter.
^ It was on this page that Galileo first noted an observation of the moons of Jupiter .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was on this page that Galileo first noted an observation of the moons of Jupiter.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His contributions to observational astronomy include the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter, named the Galilean moons in his honour, and the observation and analysis of sunspots.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.This observation upset the notion that all celestial bodies must revolve around the Earth.^ This observation upset the notion that all celestial bodies must revolve around the Earth.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.scientific-web.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Italian physicist and astronomer Galileo maintained that the earth revolved around the sun, disputing the belief held by the Roman Catholic church that the earth was the center of the universe.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Orbiting moons around Jupiter that contradicted the idea of natural philosophers that the Earth was the center of all celestial motions.

Galileo published a full description in Sidereus Nuncius in March 1610
The phases of Venus, observed by Galileo in 1610
.Based only on uncertain descriptions of the first practical telescope, invented by Hans Lippershey in the Netherlands in 1608, Galileo, in the following year, made a telescope with about 3x magnification.^ Four hundred years ago, in 1609, Galileo made the first observations with the telescope.

^ Galileo first turned his telescope to the skies 400 years ago.

^ Interestingly, there is a note in a brochure, dated November 22, 1608, that says that a telescope could also be used for "seeing stars which are not ordinarily in view because of their smallness" Galileo was certainly not the first to use a telescope to look skyward; drawings of the Moon exist that were made by Thomas Harriot in July 1609, possibly before Galileo had heard about the telescope.

.He later made others with up to about 30x magnification.^ Galileo ignored all other researchers, did not inform them about his discoveries, and believed that he alone made scientifically relevant discoveries.
  • The Galileo affair: history or heroic hagiography? 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Galileo made one with about 8x magnification, and then made improved models up to about 20x.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ More comparisons were made with the moon than with other planets, perhaps from our having more and better sensible evidence about the former by reason of its lesser distance.
  • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

[31] .With this improved device he could see magnified, upright images on the earth – it was what is now known as a terrestrial telescope, or spyglass.^ In Galileo's time, people had a very limited understanding of the Earth and its relation to the sun, moon, and other celestial objects they could see.
  • Museum - Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC web.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ He soon made one that could magnify 30 times and commenced observations of the moon, which he discovered to have an irregular surface, like that of the earth.
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | February 15| Jon Frum Vanuatu John Frum Jeremy Bentham panopticon, USS Maine, Galileo, Lupercalia ancient Rome peace demonstrations protest demo Iraq anti-war 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

^ Galileo's telescope add that much more to what we could already see of the moon?
  • Galileo's telescope reaches 400th anniversary | Technology | guardian.co.uk 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.He could also use it to observe the sky; for a time he was one of those who could construct telescopes good enough for that purpose.^ He could also use it to observe the sky; for a time he was one of very few who could construct telescopes good enough for that purpose.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Born in Pisa, Italy, in 1564, the son of a cloth merchant and musician, Galileo is best known for his discoveries in astronomy through one of the first telescopes used to study the sky.
  • Museum - Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC web.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ He is supported by Cardinal Maffeo Barberini (later Pope Urban VIII ), who became one of Galileo's patrons at this time.
  • Galileo Timeline 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC physics.ship.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 25 August 1609, he demonstrated his first telescope to Venetian lawmakers.^ On August 25, 1609, he demonstrated his first telescope to Venetian lawmakers.

^ On 25 August 1609 , he demonstrated his first telescope to Venetian lawmakers.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1609, Galileo was among the first to use a refracting telescope as an instrument to observe stars, planets or moons.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.scientific-web.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

His telescopes were a profitable sideline. .He could sell them to merchants who found them useful both at sea and as items of trade.^ His work on the device also made for a profitable sideline with merchants who found it useful for their shipping businesses.

^ "LabX.com was founded in 1995 to provide a forum where buyers and sellers of new, used, surplus, and refurbished scientific and laboratory equipment could find items, negotiate terms, and complete transactions online.".
  • Science Links by George Hernandez 20 November 2009 5:54 UTC www.georgehernandez.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the President of International Union for Quaternary Research (INQUA) who could possibly have been better placed to talk of sea level change than him.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

.He published his initial telescopic astronomical observations in March 1610 in a brief treatise entitled Sidereus Nuncius (Starry Messenger).^ He published his initial telescopic astronomical observations in March 1610 in a short treatise entitled Sidereus Nuncius ( Starry Messenger ).
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He published his initial telescopic astronomical observations in March 1610 in a short treatise entitled Sidereus Nuncius (Sidereal Messenger).
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He published Sidereus Nuncius in March 1610″ .
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

[32]
.On 7 January 1610 Galileo observed with his telescope what he described at the time as "three fixed stars, totally invisible[33] by their smallness," all close to Jupiter, and lying on a straight line through it.^ On January 7, 1610, Galileo only recorded 3 "fixed stars" next to Jupiter.
  • Slashdot Science Story | 400 Years Ago, Galileo Discovered Four Jovian Moons 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC science.slashdot.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On January 7 , 1610 Galileo observed with his telescope what he described at the time as "three fixed stars, totally invisible [17] by their smallness", all within a short distance of Jupiter , and lying on a straight line through it.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On January 7, 1610 , Galileo observed the four largest moons of Jupiter for the first time.
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | February 15| Jon Frum Vanuatu John Frum Jeremy Bentham panopticon, USS Maine, Galileo, Lupercalia ancient Rome peace demonstrations protest demo Iraq anti-war 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

[34] .Observations on subsequent nights showed that the positions of these "stars" relative to Jupiter were changing in a way that would have been inexplicable if they had really been fixed stars.^ Observations on subsequent nights showed that the positions of these "stars" relative to Jupiter were changing in a way that would have been inexplicable if they had really been fixed stars.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo observed the Milky Way, previously believed to be nebulous, and found it to be a multitude of stars, packed so densely that they appeared to be clouds from Earth.

^ Galileo observed the Milky Way , previously believed to be nebulous , and found it to be a multitude of stars packed so densely that they appeared to be clouds from Earth.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 10 January Galileo noted that one of them had disappeared, an observation which he attributed to its being hidden behind Jupiter.^ It was on this page that Galileo first noted an observation of the moons of Jupiter .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was on this page that Galileo first noted an observation of the moons of Jupiter.

^ On January 10 Galileo noted that one of them had disappeared, an observation which he attributed to its being hidden behind Jupiter.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Within a few days he concluded that they were orbiting Jupiter:[35] He had discovered three of Jupiter's four largest satellites (moons): Io, Europa, and Callisto.^ With it, he discovered Jupiter's moon and hundreds of stars.
  • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

^ Here were four bodies that were orbiting Jupiter.
  • Museum - Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC web.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Galileo published a full description in Sidereus Nuncius in March 1610.On January 7, 1610 Galileo discovered Jupiter's four largest satellites (moons): Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

.He discovered the fourth, Ganymede, on 13 January.^ He discovered the fourth, Ganymede , on January 13 .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Galileo named the four satellites he had discovered Medicean stars, in honour of his future patron, Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Cosimo's three brothers.^ Galileo travels to Pisa where he shows the satellites of Jupiter to Grand Duke Cosimo II de' Medici .
  • Galileo Timeline 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC physics.ship.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cosimo II de' Medici becomes Grand Duke of Tuscany, following his father's death.
  • Galileo Timeline 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC physics.ship.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Marriage of Cosimo de' Medici .
  • Galileo Timeline 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC physics.ship.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36] .Later astronomers, however, renamed them the Galilean satellites in honour of Galileo himself.^ His contributions to observational astronomy include the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter, named the Galilean moons in his honour, and the observation and analysis of sunspots.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ (Later astronomers overruled Galileo's naming of these objects, changing his Medicean stars to Galilean satellites.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Galileo heard about this and himself produced the first astronomical quality telescope.
  • Beginning of Modern Science & Modern Philosophy 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Once Galileo realized what he had seen a few days later, his observations of the satellites of Jupiter created a revolution in astronomy that reverberates to this day: a planet with smaller planets orbiting it did not conform to the principles of Aristotelian Cosmology, which held that all heavenly bodies should circle the Earth,[37] and many astronomers and philosophers initially refused to believe that Galileo could have discovered such a thing.^ His model had all the planets orbiting the sun, EXCEPT the Earth.
  • Museum - Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC web.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Almost at once he realized that this was proof that not all objects orbited the Earth.
  • Museum - Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC web.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ (Where the Sun and Moon orbit the Earth and the planets orbit the Sun.
  • Slashdot | 400 Years Ago, Galileo Discovered Four Jovian Moons 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Slashdot Science Story | 400 Years Ago, Galileo Discovered Four Jovian Moons 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC science.slashdot.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38] His observations were confirmed by the observatory of Christopher Clavius and he received a hero's welcome when he visited Rome in 1611[39]
.Galileo continued to observe the satellites over the next eighteen months, and by mid 1611 he had obtained remarkably accurate estimates for their periods—a feat which Kepler had believed impossible.^ Galileo observed the Milky Way, previously believed to be nebulous, and found it to be a multitude of stars, packed so densely that they appeared to be clouds from Earth.

^ The next night was cloudy, but on January 10, Galileo was able to observe the planet again.
  • Museum - Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC web.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Kepler verifies the existence of the satellites of Jupiter (and publishes a tract on them the next year).
  • Galileo Timeline 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC physics.ship.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40]
.From September 1610, Galileo observed that Venus exhibited a full set of phases similar to that of the Moon.^ Venus has phases like the moon.
  • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ From September 1610, Galileo observed that Venus exhibited a full set of phases similar to that of the Moon .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo verifies that Venus goes through phases like the Moon .
  • Galileo Timeline 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC physics.ship.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The heliocentric model of the solar system developed by Nicolaus Copernicus predicted that all phases would be visible since the orbit of Venus around the Sun would cause its illuminated hemisphere to face the Earth when it was on the opposite side of the Sun and to face away from the Earth when it was on the Earth-side of the Sun.^ His model had all the planets orbiting the sun, EXCEPT the Earth.
  • Museum - Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC web.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The heliocentric model of the solar system developed by Nicolaus Copernicus predicted that all phases would be visible since the orbit of Venus around the Sun would cause its illuminated hemisphere to face the Earth when it was on the opposite side of the Sun and to face away from the Earth when it was on the Earth-side of the Sun.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By contrast, the geocentric model of Ptolemy predicted that only crescent and new phases would be seen, since Venus was thought to remain between the Sun and Earth during its orbit around the Earth.

.On the other hand, in Ptolemy's geocentric model it was impossible for any of the planets' orbits to intersect the spherical shell carrying the Sun.^ His model had all the planets orbiting the sun, EXCEPT the Earth.
  • Museum - Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC web.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ (Where the Sun and Moon orbit the Earth and the planets orbit the Sun.
  • Slashdot Science Story | 400 Years Ago, Galileo Discovered Four Jovian Moons 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC science.slashdot.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then the sun, carrying all the planets with it, orbited the Earth.
  • Museum - Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC web.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Traditionally the orbit of Venus was placed entirely on the near side of the Sun, where it could exhibit only crescent and new phases.^ Galileo's observation of the phases of Venus proved that Venus orbited the Sun and lent support to (but did not prove) the heliocentric model.

^ The heliocentric model of the solar system developed by Copernicus predicted that all phases would be visible since the orbit of Venus around the Sun would cause its illuminated hemisphere to face the Earth when it was on the opposite side of the Sun and to face away from the Earth when it was on the Earth-side of the Sun.

^ Here he could see for himself that somehow, a planet could orbit the sun, and not leave a moon behind!
  • Museum - Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC web.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

.It was, however, also possible to place it entirely on the far side of the Sun, where it could exhibit only gibbous and full phases.^ If the same approach and retreat of Saturn (I mean double the distance from the sun to us) is almost entirely imperceptible, and if it is scarcely noticeable in Jupiter, what could it amount to in the fixed stars, which I believe you would not hesitate to place twice as far away as Saturn?
  • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore assign to the sun some other place of your choosing, as far from the earth as you like, and designate that also.
  • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Galileo noted that Venus exhibited a full set of phases like the Moon.

.After Galileo's telescopic observations of the crescent, gibbous and full phases of Venus, therefore, this Ptolemaic model became untenable.^ Those are the phases, from small full to large crescent, that Galileo saw.
  • Beginning of Modern Science & Modern Philosophy 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Galileo published a full description in Sidereus Nuncius in March 1610 The phases of Venus, observed by Galileo in 1610 Based only on uncertain descriptions of the telescope, invented in the Netherlands in 1608, Galileo, in that same year, made a telescope with about 3x magnification, and later made others with up to about 32x magnification.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the phases of Venus were observed there just was no other credible theory of the solar system except a heliocentric one, and the Jupiter system was a perfect miniature model for it.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thus in the early 17th century as a result of his discovery the great majority of astronomers converted to one of the various geo-heliocentric planetary models,[41] such as the Tychonic, Capellan and Extended Capellan models,[42] each either with or without a daily rotating Earth.^ The second deals with the earth's daily rotation.
  • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

^ One curious result of this inertia, which deserves to rank among the fundamental 'laws' of nature, is that when a discovery has finally won tardy recognition it is usually found to have been anticipated, often with cogent reasons and in great detail.
  • Science Quotes 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.lhup.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In the second chapter of this book he raised the question of the earth's rotation, and in the final chapters he appealed for patience and further investigation into such matters.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC helix.ucsd.edu [Source type: Original source]

.These all had the virtue of explaining the phases of Venus without the vice of the 'refutation' of full heliocentrism’s prediction of stellar parallax.^ After the phases of Venus were observed there just was no other credible theory of the solar system except a heliocentric one, and the Jupiter system was a perfect miniature model for it.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The heliocentric model of the solar system developed by Nicolaus Copernicus predicted that all phases would be visible since the orbit of Venus around the Sun would cause its illuminated hemisphere to face the Earth when it was on the opposite side of the Sun and to face away from the Earth when it was on the Earth-side of the Sun.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first is that the varying aspects of the sun are so necessary for our various species that these could not exist at all without them.
  • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Galileo's Dialog 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Galileo’s discovery of the phases of Venus was thus arguably his most empirically practically influential contribution to the two-stage transition from full geocentrism to full heliocentrism via geo-heliocentrism.^ The geocentric view had been dominant since the time of Aristotle, and the controversy engendered by Galileo's opposition to this view resulted in the condemnation of heliocentrism in 1616 by the Catholic Church as contrary to Scripture.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ This last discovery caused the most trouble for Galileo, because spots or blemishes on the "perfect" sun finally proved too controversial for many people to accept.
  • Museum - Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC web.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Galileo's observations of the phases of Venus proved that it orbited the Sun and lent support to (but did not prove) the heliocentric model .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Galileo also observed the planet Saturn, and at first mistook its rings for planets, thinking it was a three-bodied system.^ Galileo also observed the planet Saturn , and at first mistook its rings for planets, thinking it was a three-bodied system.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the popular idea of Galileo inventing the telescope is inaccurate, he was one of the first people to use the telescope to observe the sky.

^ The next night was cloudy, but on January 10, Galileo was able to observe the planet again.
  • Museum - Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC web.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

.When he observed the planet later, Saturn's rings were directly oriented at Earth, causing him to think that two of the bodies had disappeared.^ The rings reappeared when he observed the planet in 1616, further confusing him.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When he observed the planet later, Saturn's rings were directly oriented at Earth, causing him to think that two of the bodies had disappeared.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo also observed the planet Saturn , and at first mistook its rings for planets, thinking it was a three-bodied system.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The rings reappeared when he observed the planet in 1616, further confusing him.^ The rings reappeared when he observed the planet in 1616, further confusing him.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When he observed the planet later, Saturn's rings were directly oriented at Earth, causing him to think that two of the bodies had disappeared.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo also observed the planet Saturn , and at first mistook its rings for planets, thinking it was a three-bodied system.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43]
.Galileo was one of the first Europeans to observe sunspots, although Kepler had unwittingly observed one in 1607, but mistook it for a transit of Mercury.^ Turning the telescope on the sun, Galileo was also one of the first to see sunspots.
  • Museum - Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC web.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Galileo was one of the first Europeans to observe sunspots, although there is evidence that Chinese astronomers had done so before.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ May Galileo first letter on sunspots .
  • Galileo Timeline 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC physics.ship.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He also reinterpreted a sunspot observation from the time of Charlemagne, which formerly had been attributed (impossibly) to a transit of Mercury.^ He also reinterpreted a sunspot observation from the time of Charlemagne , which formerly had been attributed (impossibly) to a transit of Mercury .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The very existence of sunspots showed another difficulty with the unchanging perfection of the heavens posited by orthodox Aristotelian celestial physics, but their regular periodic transits also confirmed the dramatic novel prediction of Kepler's Aristotelian celestial dynamics in his 1609 Astronomia Nova that the sun rotates, which was the first successful novel prediction of post-spherist celestial physics.^ The very existence of sunspots showed another difficulty with the perfection of the heavens as assumed in the older philosophy.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The very existence of sunspots showed another difficulty with the unchanging perfection of the heavens as assumed in the older philosophy.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The inevitable realization that the sun indeed was the center of the universe, and the Earth merely a member of the sun's planetary family, destroyed the idea of a perfect heaven.
  • Museum - Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC web.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

[44] .And the annual variations in sunspots' motions, discovered by Francesco Sizzi and others in 1612–1613,[45] provided a powerful argument against both the Ptolemaic system and the geoheliocentric system of Tycho Brahe.^ And the annual variations in their motions, first noticed by Francesco Sizzi , presented great difficulties for both the geocentric system and that of Tycho Brahe .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And the annual variations in their motions, first noticed by Francesco Sizzi, presented great difficulties for either the geocentric system or that of Tycho Brahe.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the same time the two Catholic powers, Spain and France, which were both allies of the pope, started to fight each other.
  • The Galileo affair: history or heroic hagiography? 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Original source]

[46] .A dispute over priority in the discovery of sunspots, and in their interpretation, led Galileo to a long and bitter feud with the Jesuit Christoph Scheiner; in fact, there is little doubt that both of them were beaten by David Fabricius and his son Johannes, looking for confirmation of Kepler's prediction of the sun's rotation.^ Johannes Kepler sends a letter in support of Galileo's discoveries.
  • Galileo Timeline 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC physics.ship.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A dispute over priority in the discovery of sunspots led to a long and bitter feud with Christoph Scheiner; in fact, there can be little doubt that both of them were beaten by David Fabricius and his son Johannes.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Galileo's career coincided with that of Johannes Kepler.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

.Scheiner quickly adopted Kepler's 1615 proposal of the modern telescope design, which gave larger magnification at the cost of inverted images; Galileo apparently never changed to Kepler's design.^ A few actually accused Galileo of putting images of Jupiter's moons inside the telescope!
  • Museum - Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC web.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ But Galileo refused to give Kepler one of his telescopes, although he gave them to many political heads of the world.
  • The Galileo affair: history or heroic hagiography? 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Before that declaration, in addition to advocating heliocentrism, Galileo had also argued that scripture should not be used to question matters of science (apparently this had never come up before).
  • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

.Galileo was the first to report lunar mountains and craters, whose existence he deduced from the patterns of light and shadow on the Moon's surface.^ He was the first to report lunar mountains and craters, whose existence he deduced from the patterns of light and shadow on the Moon's surface.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Galileo was the first to report lunar mountains and craters , whose existence he deduced from the patterns of light and shadow on the Moon's surface.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In it he not only reported on the moons of Jupiter but also about the rugged surface of the moon.
  • Museum - Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC web.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

.He even estimated the mountains' heights from these observations.^ He even estimated the mountains' heights from these observations.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

.This led him to the conclusion that the Moon was "rough and uneven, and just like the surface of the Earth itself," rather than a perfect sphere as Aristotle had claimed.^ This led him to the conclusion that the Moon was "rough and uneven, and just like the surface of the Earth itself," rather than a perfect sphere as Aristotle had claimed.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This led him to the conclusion that the Moon was "rough and uneven, and just like the surface of the Earth itself", and not a perfect sphere as Aristotle had claimed.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Watermelon, I understand the belief was that the 'perfectly smooth' surface of the moon reflected the oceans of the Earth.
  • Galileo's telescope reaches 400th anniversary | Technology | guardian.co.uk 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.Galileo observed the Milky Way, previously believed to be nebulous, and found it to be a multitude of stars packed so densely that they appeared to be clouds from Earth.^ Galileo observed the Milky Way , previously believed to be nebulous , and found it to be a multitude of stars packed so densely that they appeared to be clouds from Earth.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo observed the Milky Way, previously believed to be a cloud, and found it to be a multitude of stars, packed so densely that they appeared to be clouds from Earth.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Galileo continued to observe the satellites over the next eighteen months, and by mid 1611 he had obtained remarkably accurate estimates for their periods—a feat which Kepler had believed impossible.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He located many other stars too distant to be visible with the naked eye.^ He located many other stars too distant to be visible with the naked eye.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He also located many other stars too distant to be visible with the naked eye.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There were many more stars in the sky than could be seen with the eye; and the Milky Way, which always was just a glow, was itself composed of stars.
  • Beginning of Modern Science & Modern Philosophy 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Galileo also observed the planet Neptune in 1612, but did not realize that it was a planet and took no particular notice of it.^ Galileo observed the planet Neptune in 1611, but took no particular notice of it; it appears in his notebooks as one of many unremarkable dim stars.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The next night was cloudy, but on January 10, Galileo was able to observe the planet again.
  • Museum - Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC web.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ However, given the technology of Galileo’s time, no such shifts in their positions could be observed.
  • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

.It appears in his notebooks as one of many unremarkable dim stars.^ It appears in his notebooks as one of many unremarkable dim stars.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo observed the planet Neptune in 1611, but took no particular notice of it; it appears in his notebooks as one of many unremarkable dim stars.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

.He observed the double star Mizar in Ursa Major in 1617.[47] In the Starry Messenger Galileo reported that stars appeared as mere blazes of light, essentially unaltered in appearance by the telescope, and contrasted them to planets which the telescope revealed to be disks.^ Planets all showed disks and were not points of light like stars.
  • Beginning of Modern Science & Modern Philosophy 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Galileo observed the Milky Way , previously believed to be nebulous , and found it to be a multitude of stars packed so densely that they appeared to be clouds from Earth.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the publication of Siderius Nuncius , or The Starry Messenger , in 1610–in which he recorded the sights he had seen with the newly invented telescope, including the moons of Jupiter, and the mountains of our own moon-Galileo was instantly famous across Europe.
  • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, in later writings he described the stars as also being disks, whose sizes he measured.^ A few years later, though, he observed Saturn as being a plain disk, and this change he couldn't explain.
  • Museum - Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC web.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

.According to Galileo, stellar disk diameters typically measured a tenth the diameter of the disk of Jupiter (one five-hundredth the diameter of the sun), although some were somewhat larger and others substantially smaller.^ Galileo once complained about that when he said that his critics would not be satisfied until he brought one of Jupiter's moons to Earth and showed it to them.
  • Museum - Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC web.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1638 Galileo described an experimental method to measure the speed of light by arranging that two observers, each having lanterns equipped with shutters, observe each other's lanterns at some distance.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then, on January 7, about an hour after sunset, Jupiter rose in the east, and Galileo happened to turn his powerful scope on its bright disk.
  • Museum - Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC web.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Galileo argued that stars were suns, and that they were not arranged in a spherical shell surrounding the solar system but rather were at varying distances from Earth.^ Galileo observed the Milky Way , previously believed to be nebulous , and found it to be a multitude of stars packed so densely that they appeared to be clouds from Earth.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To ancient and mediaeval astronomers the only acceptable theory about the universe came to be that of geocentrism , that the Earth is the center of the universe, with the sun, moon, planets, and stars moving around it.
  • Beginning of Modern Science & Modern Philosophy 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He thus speaks of "sunrise" and "sunset," of the "rising and setting" of the stars, of changes in the obliquity of the ecliptic and of variations in the equinoctial points, of the mean motion and variations in motion of the sun, and so on.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC helix.ucsd.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Brighter stars were closer suns, and fainter stars were more distant suns.^ To mention just a few: Transits gave us much more accurate surveying data and , at Greenwich, we get more accurate time from sun and star transits.
  • Galileo's Telescope for IYA Made for Griffith observatory,on exhibt at Franklin Institute, Adler Planetrium,the IMSS Institute and Museum of the History of Science in Florence Italy where the original telescopes are on display, Celebrate the IYA 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC galileotelescope.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore the difference in aspect of the fixed star caused by the diameter of the earth’s orbit would be little more noticeable than that which is observed in the sun due to the radius of the earth.
  • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

.Based on this idea and on the sizes he claimed for stellar disks, he calculated stars to lie at distances ranging from several hundred solar distances for bright stars to over two thousand solar distances for faint stars barely visible to the unaided eye, with stars visible only with the telescope being further still.^ His last telescopic discoverythat of the moons diurnal and monthy librationswas made in 1637, only a few months before his eyes were for ever closed in hopeless blindness.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He located many other stars too distant to be visible with the naked eye.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is called "ontological" because it is based on an idea about the nature of God's existence :  that God is a necessary being , i.e.
  • Beginning of Modern Science & Modern Philosophy 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.These distances, although too small by modern standards, were far larger than planetary distances, and he used these calculations to counter anti-Copernican arguments that distant stars were an absurdity.^ Now this author takes the observations made by thirteen astronomers at different polar elevations, and comparing a part of these (which he selects) he calculates, by using twelve pairings, that the height of the new star was always below the moon.
  • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He was beginning to realize the fixed stars weren't a flat distant wall on a globe, but a three-dimensional expanse bigger than anyone had ever thought!
  • Museum - Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC web.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Then he adds that these apparent mutations which are perceived to be greater in Mars than in Jupiter, from Jupiter’s being more distant, and still less in Saturn, from its being farther away than Jupiter, remain imperceptible in the fixed stars because of their immense distance from us in comparison with the distance of Jupiter or of Saturn.
  • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

[48]

Controversy over comets and The Assayer

.In 1619, Galileo became embroiled in a controversy with Father Orazio Grassi, professor of mathematics at the Jesuit Collegio Romano.^ In its opening passage, Galileo and Guiducci's Discourse gratuitously insulted the Jesuit Christopher Scheiner,[56] and various uncomplimentary remarks about the professors of the Collegio Romano were scattered throughout the work.
  • Slashdot Science Story | 400 Years Ago, Galileo Discovered Four Jovian Moons 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC science.slashdot.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the end of that time he appeared in public with his Saggiatore, a polemical treatise written in reply to the Libra astronomica of Padre Grassi (under the pseudonym of Lotario Sarsi), the Jesuit astronomer of the Collegio Romano.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ AUTHOR Galilei, Galileo: see Orazio Grassi (two items) .

.It began as a dispute over the nature of comets, but by the time Galileo had published The Assayer (Il Saggiatore) in 1623, his last salvo in the dispute, it had become a much wider argument over the very nature of Science itself.^ At the time there were very good scientific arguments against Galileo.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This seems very reasonable and natural, for those who believe an argument to be false may much more easily find the fallacies in it than men who consider it to be true and conclusive.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC helix.ucsd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Assayer is another important book of Galileo that contains the rich philosophy of science by Galileo.
  • From Warpath to Wholeness: The Condemnation and Rehabilitation of Galileo Galilei :: Mathew Chandrankunnel :: Global Spiral 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.metanexus.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because The Assayer contains such a wealth of Galileo's ideas on how Science should be practised, it has been referred to as his scientific manifesto.^ Because The Assayer contains such a wealth of Galileo's ideas on how Science should be practised, it has been referred to as his scientific manifesto.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because Galileo saw this, and particularly because he drummed it into the scientific world, he is the father of modern physics – indeed of modern science altogether.”[9] .
  • From Warpath to Wholeness: The Condemnation and Rehabilitation of Galileo Galilei :: Mathew Chandrankunnel :: Global Spiral 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.metanexus.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact it was Urban VIII who told Galileo he was fine – gave him gifts etc – unless he presented his ideas as fact rather than scientific hypothesis.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

[49]
.Early in 1619, Father Grassi had anonymously published a pamphlet, An Astronomical Disputation on the Three Comets of the Year 1618 ,[50] which discussed the nature of a comet that had appeared late in November of the previous year.^ Early in 1619 Father Grassi had anonymously published a pamphlet, An Astronomical Disputation on the Three Comets of the Year 1618 , [25] which discussed the nature of a comet that had appeared late in November of the previous year.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1619 Galileo became embroiled in a controversy with Father Horatio Grassi , the professor of mathematics at the Jesuit Collegio Romano .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It began as a dispute over the nature of comets, but by the time Galileo had published The Assayer ( Il Saggiatore ) in 1623, his last salvo in the dispute, it had become a much wider argument over the very nature of Science itself.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Grassi concluded that the comet was a fiery body which had moved along a segment of a great circle at a constant distance from the earth,[51] and since it moved in the sky more slowly than the moon, it must be farther away than the moon.^ Grassi concluded that the comet was a fiery body which had moved along a segment of a great circle at a constant distance from the earth, [26] and that it had been located well beyond the moon.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CheshireCatCO (185193) writes: on Thursday January 07, @09:38PM ( #30690342 ) Homepage How is Halley's comet more significant than the discovery of the first moons in our solar system, apart from our own?
  • Slashdot Science Story | 400 Years Ago, Galileo Discovered Four Jovian Moons 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC science.slashdot.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand, the star must be lost to sight by passing the mouth of the well, which would be only a couple of yards in diameter, if the well goes along with the earth more than two million yards per hour.
  • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

.Grassi's arguments and conclusions were criticized in a subsequent article, Discourse on the Comets ,[52] published under the name of one of Galileo's disciples, a Florentine lawyer named Mario Guiducci, although it had been largely written by Galileo himself.^ Grassi's arguments and conclusions were criticised in a subsequent article, Discourse on the Comets , [27] published under the name of one of Galileo's disciples, a Florentine lawyer named Mario Guiducci , although it had been largely written by Galileo himself.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo and Guiducci offered no definitive theory of their own on the nature of comets, [29] although they did present some tentative conjectures which we now know to be mistaken.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But Galileo refused to give Kepler one of his telescopes, although he gave them to many political heads of the world.
  • The Galileo affair: history or heroic hagiography? 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Original source]

[53] .Galileo and Guiducci offered no definitive theory of their own on the nature of comets,[54] although they did present some tentative conjectures that we now know to be mistaken.^ Galileo and Guiducci offered no definitive theory of their own on the nature of comets, [29] although they did present some tentative conjectures which we now know to be mistaken.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At Galileo’s request, Cardinal Robert Bellarmine, a Jesuit—one of the most important Catholic theologians of the day—issued a certificate that, although it forbade Galileo to hold or defend the heliocentric theory, did not prevent him from conjecturing it.
  • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He knew all about the current theories on why the planets moved as they did, but Copernicus felt there must be a simpler explanation.
  • Museum - Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC web.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

.In its opening passage, Galileo and Guiducci's Discourse gratuitously insulted the Jesuit Christopher Scheiner,[55] and various uncomplimentary remarks about the professors of the Collegio Romano were scattered throughout the work.^ In its opening passage, Galileo and Guiducci's Discourse gratuitously insulted the Jesuit Christopher Scheiner , [30] and various uncomplimentary remarks about the professors of the Collegio Romano were scattered throughout the work.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In its opening passage, Galileo and Guiducci's Discourse gratuitously insulted the Jesuit Christopher Scheiner,[56] and various uncomplimentary remarks about the professors of the Collegio Romano were scattered throughout the work.
  • Slashdot | 400 Years Ago, Galileo Discovered Four Jovian Moons 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A dispute over priority in the discovery of sunspots, and in their interpretation, led Galileo to a long and bitter feud with the Jesuit Christoph Scheiner ; in fact, there is little doubt that both of them were beaten by David Fabricius and his son Johannes .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[56] .The Jesuits were offended,[57] and Grassi soon replied with a polemical tract of his own, The Astronomical and Philosophical Balance ,[58] under the pseudonym Lothario Sarsio Sigensano,[59] purporting to be one of his own pupils.^ The Jesuits were offended, [32] and Grassi soon replied with a polemical tract of his own, The Astronomical and Philosophical Balance , [33] under the pseudonym Lothario Sarsi, purporting to be one of his own pupils.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Jesuits were offended,[58] and Grassi soon replied with a polemical tract of his own, The Astronomical and Philosophical Balance ,[59] under the pseudonym Lothario Sarsio Sigensano,[60] purporting to be one of his own pupils.
  • Slashdot Science Story | 400 Years Ago, Galileo Discovered Four Jovian Moons 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC science.slashdot.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Assayer , [34] was Galileo's devastating reply to the Astronomical Balance .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Assayer was Galileo's devastating reply to the Astronomical Balance.[60] .It has been widely regarded as a masterpiece of polemical literature,[61] in which "Sarsi's" arguments are subjected to withering scorn.^ It has been widely regarded as a masterpiece of polemical literature, [35] in which "Sarsi's" arguments are subjected to withering scorn.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[62] .It was greeted with wide acclaim, and particularly pleased the new pope, Urban VIII, to whom it had been dedicated.^ He had been warned once to watch it, but then a friend of his (Maffeo Barberini) became Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644).
  • Beginning of Modern Science & Modern Philosophy 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What interest did Pope Urban VIII show in the trial as it happened?
  • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

^ Summer 1632 – Distribution of Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is stopped by Pope Urban VIII. The Pope authorizes a special commission to examine the book.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

[63]
.Galileo's dispute with Grassi permanently alienated many of the Jesuits who had previously been sympathetic to his ideas,[64] and Galileo and his friends were convinced that these Jesuits were responsible for bringing about his later condemnation.^ A fierce expression of this critical attitude can also be seen in Bertolt Brecht's play about Galileo, a source for popular ideas about the scientist.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Monkeedude1212 (1560403) writes: To be fair, he also came up with this crazy-wrong idea about how the earth's motion was responsible for the tides.
  • Slashdot Science Story | 400 Years Ago, Galileo Discovered Four Jovian Moons 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC science.slashdot.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yes some Jesuits were given telescopes and confirmed Galileo’s findings but many more were hostile and some even refused to look through the telescope to see if Galileo was right.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

[65] The evidence for this is at best equivocal, however.[66]

Galileo, Kepler and theories of tides

Galileo Galilei. Portrait in crayon by Leoni.
Cardinal Bellarmine had written in 1615 that the Copernican system could not be defended without "a true physical demonstration that the sun does not circle the earth but the earth circles the sun."[67] Galileo considered his theory of the tides to provide the required physical proof of the motion of the earth. .This theory was so important to Galileo that he originally intended to entitle his Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems the Dialogue on the Ebb and Flow of the Sea.^ February 1632 – Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is printed.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Galileo's Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems thus changed History.
  • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

^ This theory was so important to Galileo that he originally intended to entitle his Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems the Dialogue on the Ebb and Flow of the Sea .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[68] .The reference to tides was removed by order of the Inquisition.^ In fact, the original title for the book described it as a dialogue on the tides; the reference to tides was removed by order of the Inquisition.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For Galileo, the tides were caused by the sloshing back and forth of water in the seas as a point on the Earth's surface speeded up and slowed down because of the Earth's rotation on its axis and revolution around the Sun.^ He believed that the earth rotated on its axis, but not that it moved around the sun.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC helix.ucsd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Galileo was tried for the heresy of saying that the Earth moved around the sun.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Galileo proved that the Earth was acctually revolving around the sun.
  • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

.Galileo circulated his first account of the tides in 1616, addressed to Cardinal Orsini.^ Galileo circulated his first account of the tides in 1616, addressed to Cardinal Orsini.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ February 26, 1616 – Cardinal Bellarmine warns Galileo not to hold, teach, or defend Copernican theory.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In his 1632 Dialogue Galileo presented a physical theory to account for tides , based on the motion of the Earth.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[69] .His theory gave the first insight into the importance of the shapes of ocean basins in the size and timing of tides; he correctly accounted, for instance, for the negligible tides halfway along the Adriatic Sea compared to those at the ends.^ His theory gave the first insight into the importance of the shapes of ocean basins in the size and timing of tides; he correctly accounted, for instance, for the negligible tides halfway along the Adriatic Sea compared to those at the ends.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed, this leads to the creation of the Theory of Knowledge, Epistemology , as a separate discipline within philosophy for the first time.
  • Beginning of Modern Science & Modern Philosophy 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Those claims should have ended with Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), who for the first time clearly provided a distinction between the issues that science could deal with and those that it couldn't, but since Kant's theory could not be demonstrated the same way as a scientific theory, the spell of science, even if it is only through pseudo-science, continues.
  • Beginning of Modern Science & Modern Philosophy 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.As a general account of the cause of tides, however, his theory was a failure.^ As a general account of the cause of tides, however, his theory was a failure.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fourth day-the shortest section by far-is almost entirely concerned with Galileo’s theory that the Earth’s motion was the cause of tides.
  • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Kepler and others correctly associated the Moon with an influence over the tides, based on empirical data; a proper physical theory of the tides, however, was not available until Newton.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If this theory were correct, there would be only one high tide per day.^ But the truth was there was only one elephant.
  • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If this theory were correct, there would be only one high tide per day.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo and his contemporaries were aware of this inadequacy because there are two daily high tides at Venice instead of one, about twelve hours apart.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Galileo and his contemporaries were aware of this inadequacy because there are two daily high tides at Venice instead of one, about twelve hours apart.^ Galileo and his contemporaries were aware of this inadequacy because there are two daily high tides at Venice instead of one, about twelve hours apart.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of Galileo’s best friends, Giovanni Francesco Sagredo (1571–1620), had already warned Galileo in 1611 against moving to Florence, because there he would be dependent on international politics and on the Jesuits.
  • The Galileo affair: history or heroic hagiography? 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I n Venice in April or May , 1609 , Galileo heard of a cylindrical instrument, made by one Hans Lippershey of Middleburg ( Netherlands ), that made distant objects look to be closer.
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | February 15| Jon Frum Vanuatu John Frum Jeremy Bentham panopticon, USS Maine, Galileo, Lupercalia ancient Rome peace demonstrations protest demo Iraq anti-war 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

.Galileo dismissed this anomaly as the result of several secondary causes, including the shape of the sea, its depth, and other factors.^ Galileo dismissed this anomaly as the result of several secondary causes, including the shape of the sea, its depth, and other factors.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo dismissed as a "useless fiction" the idea, held by his contemporary Johannes Kepler , that the moon caused the tides.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[70] .Against the assertion that Galileo was deceptive in making these arguments, Albert Einstein expressed the opinion that Galileo developed his "fascinating arguments" and accepted them uncritically out of a desire for physical proof of the motion of the Earth.^ Galileo considered his theory of the tides to provide the required physical proof of the motion of the earth.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Against the assertion that Galileo was deceptive in making these arguments, Albert Einstein expressed the opinion that Galileo developed his "fascinating arguments" and accepted them uncritically out of a desire for physical proof of the motion of the Earth.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1614, from the pulpit of Santa Maria Novella, Father Tommaso Caccini (1574–1648) denounced Galileo's opinions on the motion of the Earth, judging them dangerous and close to heresy .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[71]
.Galileo dismissed as a "useless fiction" the idea, held by his contemporary Johannes Kepler, that the moon caused the tides.^ Galileo dismissed as a "useless fiction" the idea, held by his contemporary Johannes Kepler , that the moon caused the tides.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo, Kepler and theories of tides .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo's career coincided with that of Johannes Kepler.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

[72] .Galileo also refused to accept Kepler's elliptical orbits of the planets,[73] considering the circle the "perfect" shape for planetary orbits.^ However, if the discussion relates to Galileo, Newton, and Kepler, they consider them infidels.
  • Galileo Galilei Quotes - Dictionary of Science Quotations and Scientist Quotes 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But Galileo refused to give Kepler one of his telescopes, although he gave them to many political heads of the world.
  • The Galileo affair: history or heroic hagiography? 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Kepler abandoned his most dearly held belief, the perfection of the circle for imperfect ellipses in the face of evidence, and Galileo simply followed the evidence over dogma.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

Technology

.
Galileo's geometrical and military compass, thought to have been made c.
^ In 15951598, Galileo devised and improved a "Geometric and Military Compass" suitable for use by gunners and surveyors.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

1604 by his personal instrument-maker Marc'Antonio Mazzoleni
.Galileo made a number of contributions to what is now known as technology, as distinct from pure physics, and suggested others.^ Portrait in crayon by Leoni A replica of the earliest surviving telescope attributed to Galileo Galilei, on display at the Griffith Observatory Galileo made a number of contributions to what is now known as technology , as distinct from pure physics, and suggested others.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Technology Galileo made a few contributions to what we now call technology as distinct from pure physics, and suggested others.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is not the same distinction as made by Aristotle, who would have considered all Galileo's physics as techne or useful knowledge, as opposed to episteme, or philosophical investigation into the causes of things.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

.This is not the same distinction as made by Aristotle, who would have considered all Galileo's physics as techne or useful knowledge, as opposed to episteme, or philosophical investigation into the causes of things.^ This is not the same distinction as made by Aristotle, who would have considered all Galileo's physics as techne or useful knowledge, as opposed to episteme, or philosophical investigation into the causes of things.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is not the same distinction as made by Aristotle, who would have considered all Galileo's physics as techne or useful knowledge, as opposed to episteme , or philosophical investigation into the causes of things.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Portrait in crayon by Leoni A replica of the earliest surviving telescope attributed to Galileo Galilei, on display at the Griffith Observatory Galileo made a number of contributions to what is now known as technology , as distinct from pure physics, and suggested others.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Between 1595–1598, Galileo devised and improved a Geometric and Military Compass suitable for use by gunners and surveyors.^ In 15951598, Galileo devised and improved a "Geometric and Military Compass" suitable for use by gunners and surveyors.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Between 1595–1598, Galileo devised and improved a Geometric and Military Compass suitable for use by gunners and surveyors .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo also worked in applied science and technology, improving compass design.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This expanded on earlier instruments designed by Niccolò Tartaglia and Guidobaldo del Monte.^ This expanded on earlier instruments designed by Niccolo Tartaglia and Guidobaldo del Monte.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This expanded on earlier instruments designed by Niccolò Tartaglia and Guidobaldo del Monte .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For gunners, it offered, in addition to a new and safer way of elevating cannons accurately, a way of quickly computing the charge of gunpowder for cannonballs of different sizes and materials.^ For gunners, it offered, in addition to a new and safer way of elevating cannons accurately, a way of quickly computing the charge of gunpowder for cannonballs of different sizes and materials.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For if it was placed in the firmament among the other fixed stars, its meridian altitudes when taken at different elevations of the pole would have to differ among themselves in the same way as did these polar elevations.
  • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

.As a geometric instrument, it enabled the construction of any regular polygon, computation of the area of any polygon or circular sector, and a variety of other calculations.^ As a geometric instrument, it enabled the construction of any regular polygon, computation of the area of any polygon or circular sector, and a variety of other calculations.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a geometric instrument, it enabled the construction of any regular polygon , computation of the area of any polygon or circular sector, and a variety of other calculations.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Under Galileo's direction, instrument maker Marc'Antonio Mazzoleni produced more than 100 of these compasses, which Galileo sold (along with an instruction manual he wrote) for 50 lire and offered a course of instruction in the use of the compasses for 120 lire.^ These observations lay within the framework of the Pythagorean tradition of music, well-known to instrument makers, which included the fact that subdividing a string by a whole number produces a harmonious scale.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between 1595–1598, Galileo devised and improved a Geometric and Military Compass suitable for use by gunners and surveyors .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileos direction of his new instrument to the heavens formed an era in the history of astronomy.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

[74]
.About 1593, Galileo constructed a thermometer, using the expansion and contraction of air in a bulb to move water in an attached tube.^ About 1593 , Galileo constructed a thermometer , using the expansion and contraction of air in a bulb to move water in an attached tube.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About 16061607 (or possibly earlier), Galileo made a thermometer, using the expansion and contraction of air in a bulb to move water in an attached tube.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His invention of the proportional compass or sectoran implement still used in geometrical drawingdates from 5597; and about the same time he constructed the first thermometer, consisting of a bull, and tube filled with air and water, and terminating in a vessel of water.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

A replica of the earliest surviving telescope attributed to Galileo Galilei, on display at the Griffith Observatory.
.In 1609, Galileo was, along with Englishman Thomas Harriot and others, among the first to use a refracting telescope as an instrument to observe stars, planets or moons.^ In 1609, Galileo was among the first to use a refracting telescope as an instrument to observe stars, planets or moons.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo’s telescope came along, nobody had ever thought to use the device to look at the stars.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Galileo was first to use a telescope for astronomy.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

.The name "telescope" was coined for Galileo's instrument by a Greek mathematician, Giovanni Demisiani,[75] at a banquet held in 1611 by Prince Federico Cesi to make Galileo a member of his Accademia dei Lincei.^ Greek mathematician Giovanni Demisiani for one of Galileo Galilei’s instruments presented at a banquet at the Accademia dei Lincei”.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Galileo's telescope was the first instrument given that name by an unidentified Greek poet/theologian, present at a banquet held in 1611 by Prince Federico Cesi to make Galileo a member of his Accademia dei Lincei [48] .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While in Rome he was also made a member of the Accademia dei Lincei .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[76] .The name was derived from the Greek tele = 'far' and skopein = 'to look or see'. In 1610, he used a telescope at close range to magnify the parts of insects.^ In 1610, he used a telescope at close range to magnify the parts of insects [49] .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Linceans played a role again in naming the "microscope" a year later when fellow academy member Giovanni Faber coined the word for Galileo's invention from the Greek words μικρόν ( micron ) meaning "small", and σκοπεῖν ( skopein ) meaning "to look at".
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With this improved device he could see magnified, upright images on the earth - it was what is now known as a terrestrial telescope, or spyglass.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[77] .By 1624 he had perfected[78] a compound microscope.^ By 1624 he had perfected [50] a compound microscope .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He gave one of these instruments to Cardinal Zollern in May of that year for presentation to the Duke of Bavaria,[79] and in September he sent another to Prince Cesi.^ He gave one of these instruments to Cardinal Zollern in May of that year for presentation to the Duke of Bavaria, [51] and in September he sent another to Prince Cesi.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I n Venice in April or May , 1609 , Galileo heard of a cylindrical instrument, made by one Hans Lippershey of Middleburg ( Netherlands ), that made distant objects look to be closer.
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | February 15| Jon Frum Vanuatu John Frum Jeremy Bentham panopticon, USS Maine, Galileo, Lupercalia ancient Rome peace demonstrations protest demo Iraq anti-war 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

^ Greek mathematician Giovanni Demisiani for one of Galileo Galilei’s instruments presented at a banquet at the Accademia dei Lincei”.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

[80] The Linceans played a role again in naming the "microscope" a year later when fellow academy member Giovanni Faber coined the word for Galileo's invention from the Greek words μικρόν (micron) meaning "small," and σκοπεῖν (skopein) meaning "to look at." The word was meant to be analogous with "telescope."[81][82] .Illustrations of insects made using one of Galileo's microscopes, and published in 1625, appear to have been the first clear documentation of the use of a compound microscope.^ Illustrations of insects made using one of Galileo's microscopes, and published in 1625, appear to have been the first clear documentation of the use of a compound microscope.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This appears to be the first clearly documented use of the compound microscope.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1610, he used a telescope as a compound microscope, and he made improved microscopes in 1623 and after.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

[83]
.In 1612, having determined the orbital periods of Jupiter's satellites, Galileo proposed that with sufficiently accurate knowledge of their orbits one could use their positions as a universal clock, and this would make possible the determination of longitude.^ In 1612, having determined the orbital periods of Jupiter's satellites, Galileo proposed that with sufficiently accurate knowledge of their orbits one could use their positions as a universal clock, and this would make possible the determination of longitude .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1612, having determined the orbital periods of Jupiter's satellites, Galileo proposed that with sufficiently accurate knowledge of their orbits one could use their positions as a universal clock, and this would make possible the determination of longitude.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Galileo continued to observe the satellites over the next eighteen months, and by mid 1611 he had obtained remarkably accurate estimates for their periods—a feat which Kepler had believed impossible.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He worked on this problem from time to time during the remainder of his life; but the practical problems were severe.^ He worked on this problem from time to time during the remainder of his life; but the practical problems were severe.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He worked on this problem from time to time during the rest of his life; but the practical problems were severe.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

.The method was first successfully applied by Giovanni Domenico Cassini in 1681 and was later used extensively for large land surveys; this method, for example, was used by Lewis and Clark.^ The method was first successfully applied by Giovanni Domenico Cassini in 1681 and was later used extensively for large land surveys; this method, for example, was used by Lewis and Clark .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For sea navigation, where delicate telescopic observations were more difficult, the longitude problem eventually required development of a practical portable marine chronometer, such as that of John Harrison.^ For sea navigation, where delicate telescopic observations were more difficult, the longitude problem eventually required development of a practical portable marine chronometer , such as that of John Harrison .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The method was first successfully applied by Giovanni Domenico Cassini in 1681 and was later used extensively for land surveys; for navigation, the first practical method was the chronometer of John Harrison.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Making the observation later with a fine telescope which would multiply the disc of the sun more than a thousandfold turned out to be pleasant and easy.
  • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

[84] .In his last year, when totally blind, he designed an escapement mechanism for a pendulum clock, a vectorial model of which may be seen here.^ In his last year, when totally blind, he designed an escapement mechanism for a pendulum clock.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In his last year, when totally blind, he designed an escapement mechanism for a pendulum clock, a vectorial model of which may be seen here .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here’s a set of theories proposed over the last 2000+ years: a) Geocentric, no gravity, no mechanics [Ptolemy/Aristotle] b) Heliocentric, no gravity, no mechanics [Copernicus/Kepler] c) Heliocentric, gravity, Newtonian mechanics [Newton] d) Galaxies, relativity, quantum mechanics e) String theory?
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

.The first fully operational pendulum clock was made by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s.^ The first fully operational pendulum clock was made by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

.Galilei created sketches of various inventions, such as a candle and mirror combination to reflect light throughout a building, an automatic tomato picker, a pocket comb that doubled as an eating utensil, and what appears to be a ballpoint pen.^ He created sketches of various inventions, such as a candle and mirror combination to reflect light throughout a building, an automatic tomato picker, a pocket comb that doubled as an eating utensil, and what appears to be a ballpoint pen.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Galilei created sketches of various inventions, such as a candle and mirror combination to reflect light throughout a building, an automatic tomato picker, a pocket comb that doubled as an eating utensil, and what appears to be a ballpoint pen.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

Physics

Galileo e Viviani, 1892, Tito Lessi
.Galileo's theoretical and experimental work on the motions of bodies, along with the largely independent work of Kepler and René Descartes, was a precursor of the classical mechanics developed by Sir Isaac Newton.^ Galileo's theoretical and experimental work on the motions of bodies, along with the largely independent work of Kepler and René Descartes , was a precursor of the classical mechanics developed by Sir Isaac Newton .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo's theoretical and experimental work on the motions of bodies, along with the largely independent work of Kepler and René Descartes, was a precursor of the Classical mechanics developed by Sir Isaac Newton.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sir Isaac Newton (82) .
  • Galileo Galilei Quotes - Dictionary of Science Quotations and Scientist Quotes 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: Original source]

.A biography by Galileo's pupil Vincenzo Viviani stated that Galileo had dropped balls of the same material, but different masses, from the Leaning Tower of Pisa to demonstrate that their time of descent was independent of their mass.^ One of the most famous stories about Galileo is that he dropped balls of different masses from the Leaning Tower of Pisa to demonstrate that their velocity of descent was independent of their mass (excluding the limited effect of air resistance).
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A biography by Galileo's pupil Vincenzo Viviani stated that Galileo had dropped balls of the same material, but different masses , from the Leaning Tower of Pisa to demonstrate that their time of descent was independent of their mass.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But then Galileo determined what that rate was by rolling balls down an inclined plane (not by dropping them off the Leaning Tower of Pisa, which is the legend).
  • Beginning of Modern Science & Modern Philosophy 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[85] .This was contrary to what Aristotle had taught: that heavy objects fall faster than lighter ones, in direct proportion to weight.^ This was contrary to what Aristotle had taught: that heavy objects fall faster than lighter ones, in direct proportion to weight.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Aristotle had said, simply based on reason, that if one object is heavier than another, it will fall faster.
  • Beginning of Modern Science & Modern Philosophy 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During one debate, in which Galileo maintained that ice floated because it was simply lighter than water, his opponent followed Aristotle in declaring that it was truly heavier, but could float if it didn’t “break” the water’s surface.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

[86] .While this story has been retold in popular accounts, there is no account by Galileo himself of such an experiment, and it is generally accepted by historians that it was at most a thought experiment which did not actually take place.^ Galileo’s problem: he had no such proof.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While this story has been retold in popular accounts, it is generally accepted by historians that there is no account by Galileo himself of such an experiment, and that it was at most a thought experiment which did not actually take place.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But actually there is no state of rest.
  • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

[87]
.In his 1638 Discorsi Galileo's character Salviati, widely regarded as largely Galileo's spokesman, held that all unequal weights would fall with the same finite speed in a vacuum.^ A number of scholars [61] prior to Galileo wrote -- or showed by experiment -- that in a vacuum, bodies which are composed of the same substance but which have different masses, fall through equal distances in equal times: Lucretius (ca.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo's Principle of Inertia stated: "A body moving on a level surface will continue in the same direction at constant speed unless disturbed."
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, I would regard him as having not existed, and that he won’t matter, and that this entire deal is nonsense, and I would not even bother to participate in this discussion at all.
  • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

But this had previously been proposed by Lucretius[88] and Simon Stevin.[89] Salviati also held it could be experimentally demonstrated by the comparison of pendulum motions in air with bobs of lead and of cork which had different weight but which were otherwise similar.
.Galileo proposed that a falling body would fall with a uniform acceleration, as long as the resistance of the medium through which it was falling remained negligible, or in the limiting case of its falling through a vacuum.^ The experiments on falling bodies (actually rolling balls) were replicated using the methods described by Galileo (Settle, 1961), and the precision of the results was consistent with Galileo's report.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A number of scholars [61] prior to Galileo wrote -- or showed by experiment -- that in a vacuum, bodies which are composed of the same substance but which have different masses, fall through equal distances in equal times: Lucretius (ca.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, Galileo did perform experiments which proved the same thing by rolling balls down inclined planes : [60] falling or rolling objects (rolling is a slower version of falling, as long as the distribution of mass in the objects is the same) are accelerated independently of their mass.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[90] .He also derived the correct kinematical law for the distance travelled during a uniform acceleration starting from rest—namely, that it is proportional to the square of the elapsed time ( d ∝ t 2 ).^ He determined the correct mathematical law for acceleration: the total distance covered, starting from rest, is proportional to the square of the time.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Galileo arrived at the correct mathematical law for uniform acceleration: the total distance covered, starting from rest, is proportional to the square of the time ( ), already discovered by Domingo de Soto in the 16th century.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[91] However, in neither case were these discoveries entirely original. .The time-squared law for uniformly accelerated change was already known to Nicole Oresme in the 14th century,[92] and Domingo de Soto, in the 16th, had suggested that bodies falling through a homogeneous medium would be uniformly accelerated.^ Galileo arrived at the correct mathematical law for uniform acceleration: the total distance covered, starting from rest, is proportional to the square of the time ( ), already discovered by Domingo de Soto in the 16th century.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A number of scholars [61] prior to Galileo wrote -- or showed by experiment -- that in a vacuum, bodies which are composed of the same substance but which have different masses, fall through equal distances in equal times: Lucretius (ca.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the time when Viviani asserts that the experiment took place, Galileo had not yet formulated the final version of his law of free fall.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[93] .Galileo expressed the time-squared law using geometrical constructions and mathematically precise words, adhering to the standards of the day.^ He expressed this law using geometrical constructions and mathematically-precise words, adhering to the standards of the day.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo Galilei pioneered the use of quantitative experiments whose results could be analyzed with mathematical precision (More typical of science at the time were the qualitative studies of William Gilbert , on magnetism and electricity).
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between 1595–1598, Galileo devised and improved a Geometric and Military Compass suitable for use by gunners and surveyors .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(It remained for others to re-express the law in algebraic terms).^ (It remained for others to re-express the law in algebraic terms).
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He also concluded that objects retain their velocity unless a force—often friction—acts upon them, refuting the generally accepted Aristotelian hypothesis that objects "naturally" slow down and stop unless a force acts upon them (philosophical ideas relating to inertia had been proposed by Ibn al-Haytham centuries earlier, as had Jean Buridan, and according to Joseph Needham, Mo Tzu had proposed it centuries before either of them, but this was the first time that it had been mathematically expressed, verified experimentally, and introduced the idea of frictional force, the key breakthrough in validating inertia).^ He also concluded that objects retain their velocity unless a force —often friction —acts upon them, refuting the generally accepted Aristotelian hypothesis that objects "naturally" slow down and stop unless a force acts upon them (philosophical ideas relating to inertia had been proposed by Ibn al-Haytham centuries earlier, as had Jean Buridan , and according to Joseph Needham , Mo Tzu had proposed it centuries before either of them, but this was the first time that it had been mathematically expressed, verified experimentally, and introduced the idea of frictional force , the key breakthrough in validating inertia).
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Taken over the centuries, scientific ideas have exerted a force on our civilization fully as great as the more tangible practical applications of scientific research.
  • Science Quotes 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.lhup.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On the first day, Galileo speaks against the Aristotelian physics which had been accepted up to his time.
  • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

.Galileo's Principle of Inertia stated: "A body moving on a level surface will continue in the same direction at constant speed unless disturbed."^ Galileo's Principle of Inertia stated: "A body moving on a level surface will continue in the same direction at constant speed unless disturbed."
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo also put forward the basic principle of relativity , that the laws of physics are the same in any system that is moving at a constant speed in a straight line, regardless of its particular speed or direction.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So that if the author’s reply Is to have any bearing upon Kepler’s argument, this author will have to believe that it is all the same to the motive principle whether a very tiny or an immense body is moved for the same time, the increase of velocity being a direct consequence of the increase in size.
  • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

.This principle was incorporated into Newton's laws of motion (first law).^ This principle was incorporated into Newton's laws of motion (1st law).
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This principle was incorporated into Newton's laws of motion (first law).
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The interdependence of motion and force was not indeed formulated into definite laws by Galileo, but his writings on dynamics are everywhere suggestive of those laws, and his solutions of dynamical problems involve their recognition.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

Dome of the Cathedral of Pisa with the "lamp of Galileo"
Galileo conducted several experiments with pendulums. .It is popularly believed (thanks to the biography by Vincenzo Viviani) that these began by watching the swings of the bronze chandelier in the cathedral of Pisa, using his pulse as a timer.^ The story goes that he came to this conclusion by watching the swings of the bronze chandelier in the cathedral of Pisa, using his pulse to time it.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1581, while watching a lamp set swinging in the cathedral of Pisa, he observed that, whatever the range of its oscillations, they were invariably executed in equal times.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Dome of the cathedral of Pisa with the "lamp of Galileo" Galileo also noted that a pendulum 's swings always take the same amount of time, independently of the amplitude .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Later experiments are described in his Two New Sciences.^ The experiments reported in Two New Sciences to determine the law of acceleration of falling bodies, for instance, required accurate measurements of time, which appeared to be impossible with the technology of 1600.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was while Galileo was under house arrest that he dedicated his time to one of his finest works, Two New Sciences .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Galileo claimed that a simple pendulum is isochronous, i.e. that its swings always take the same amount of time, independently of the amplitude. .In fact, this is only approximately true,[94] as was discovered by Christian Huygens.^ They supported the sciences, in fact during a large portion of the 2000 years, were the only Christian support of the sciences.
  • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

Galileo also found that the square of the period varies directly with the length of the pendulum. .Galileo's son, Vincenzo, sketched a clock based on his father's theories in 1642. The clock was never built and, because of the large swings required by its verge escapement, would have been a poor timekeeper.^ In his 1632 Dialogue Galileo presented a physical theory to account for tides , based on the motion of the Earth.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(See Technology above.)
.In 1638 Galileo described an experimental method to measure the speed of light by arranging that two observers, each having lanterns equipped with shutters, observe each other's lanterns at some distance.^ In the early 1600s, Galileo and an assistant tried to measure the speed of light.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1638 Galileo described an experimental method to measure the speed of light by arranging that two observers, each having lanterns equipped with shutters, observe each other's lanterns at some distance.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The experiments on falling bodies (actually rolling balls) were replicated using the methods described by Galileo (Settle, 1961), and the precision of the results was consistent with Galileo's report.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

The first observer opens the shutter of his lamp, and, the second, upon seeing the light, immediately opens the shutter of his own lantern. .The time between the first observer's opening his shutter and seeing the light from the second observer's lamp indicates the time it takes light to travel back and forth between the two observers.^ Why, it seems to me that having to travel 10 yards of breadth takes ten times as long as to pass I yard.
  • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ See how important it is to know how to take time by the forelock!
  • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, I now see that here In the fifth objection, which follows, there is set forth the great disparity between the earth and the heavenly bodies.
  • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

.Galileo reported that when he tried this at a distance of less than a mile, he was unable to determine whether or not the light appeared instantaneously.^ Galileo reported that when he tried this at a distance of less than a mile, he was unable to determine whether or not the light appeared instantaneously.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo was the first to report lunar mountains and craters , whose existence he deduced from the patterns of light and shadow on the Moon's surface.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hence the moon itself is illuminated less brightly from the earth, and as a result its secondary light appears fainter to us.
  • Galileo Galilei Quotes - Dictionary of Science Quotations and Scientist Quotes 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: Original source]

[95] .Sometime between Galileo's death and 1667, the members of the Florentine Accademia del Cimento repeated the experiment over a distance of about a mile and obtained a similarly inconclusive result.^ Sometime between Galileo's death and 1667, the members of the Florentine Accademia del Cimento repeated the experiment over a distance of about a mile and obtained a similarly inconclusive result.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo received, as the result of a conference between Cardinals Bellarmin and Del Monte, a semi-official warning to avoid theology, and limit himself to physical reasoning.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At a distance of less than a mile, Galileo could detect no delay in the round-trip time greater than when he and the assistant were only a few yards apart.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

[96]
.Galileo is lesser known for, yet still credited with, being one of the first to understand sound frequency.^ Galileo is lesser known for, yet still credited with, being one of the first to understand sound frequency.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First Science Online Newsletter) Inventor, Astronomer, and Rebel Galileo Galilei was one of the world's greatest scientist.
  • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

^ The other side of a great life Though it does not advance any particular historical hypothesis, "Galileo" does tell the life story of one of history's best-known figures.
  • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

By scraping a chisel at different speeds, he linked the pitch of the sound produced to the spacing of the chisel's skips, a measure of frequency.
.Galileo put forward the basic principle of relativity, that the laws of physics are the same in any system that is moving at a constant speed in a straight line, regardless of its particular speed or direction.^ Galileo's Principle of Inertia stated: "A body moving on a level surface will continue in the same direction at constant speed unless disturbed."
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo also put forward the basic principle of relativity , that the laws of physics are the same in any system that is moving at a constant speed in a straight line, regardless of its particular speed or direction.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SALV. Surely you cannot make more than three straight lines meet in the same point and form right angles with each other!
  • Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Hence, there is no absolute motion or absolute rest.^ Hence, there is no absolute motion or absolute rest.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But actually there is no state of rest.
  • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite much thinking about it, I have not been able to find any difference, so it seems to me I have found that there can be no difference; hence I think it vain to seek one further.
  • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

.This principle provided the basic framework for Newton's laws of motion and is central to Einstein's special theory of relativity.^ This principle was incorporated into Newton's laws of motion (first law).
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This principle provided the basic framework for Newton's laws of motion and is central to Einstein's special theory of relativity .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This principle was incorporated into Newton's laws of motion (1st law).
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

Mathematics

.While Galileo's application of mathematics to experimental physics was innovative, his mathematical methods were the standard ones of the day.^ While Galileo's application of mathematics to experimental physics was innovative, his mathematical methods were the standard ones of the day.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Experimental science In the pantheon of the scientific revolution, Galileo takes a high position because of his pioneering use of quantitative experiments with results analyzed mathematically.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Drawing on his diverse studies in philosophy, mathematics, mechanics, music, astronomy, and engineering, Galileo developed revolutionary theories that thoroughly changed the disciplines of physics, mathematics, astronomy, and technology.
  • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

.The analysis and proofs relied heavily on the Eudoxian theory of proportion, as set forth in the fifth book of Euclid's Elements.^ The analysis and proofs relied heavily on the Eudoxian theory of proportion, as set forth in the fifth book of Euclid's Elements .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed, I now see that here In the fifth objection, which follows, there is set forth the great disparity between the earth and the heavenly bodies.
  • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

.This theory had become available only a century before, thanks to accurate translations by Tartaglia and others; but by the end of Galileo's life it was being superseded by the algebraic methods of Descartes.^ This theory had become available only a century before, thanks to accurate translations by Tartaglia and others; but by the end of Galileo's life it was being superseded by the algebraic methods of Descartes .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even Galileo was celebrated by the church only a few years before he got in trouble.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The other side of a great life Though it does not advance any particular historical hypothesis, "Galileo" does tell the life story of one of history's best-known figures.
  • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

.Galileo produced one piece of original and even prophetic work in mathematics: Galileo's paradox, which shows that there are as many perfect squares as there are whole numbers, even though most numbers are not perfect squares.^ Galileo produced one piece of original and even prophetic work in mathematics: Galileo's paradox , which shows that there are as many perfect squares as there are whole numbers, even though most numbers are not perfect squares.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo and his contemporaries were aware of this inadequacy because there are two daily high tides at Venice instead of one, about twelve hours apart.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But finding no event whatever like ours, of the many that would be required to produce similar effects, there is no point in troubling to introduce one only, and even that one not from sure observation but because of mere possibility.
  • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

.Such seeming contradictions were brought under control 250 years later in the work of Georg Cantor.^ Such seeming contradictions were brought under control 250 years later in the work of Georg Cantor .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It only requires one to accept (and protect) the kind of axiomatic supernaturalism that seemed so obvious 250 years ago.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He fell quite silent for a long time, then many years later published System of the World, which in April, 1633 brought him before the Inquisition again.
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | February 15| Jon Frum Vanuatu John Frum Jeremy Bentham panopticon, USS Maine, Galileo, Lupercalia ancient Rome peace demonstrations protest demo Iraq anti-war 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed]

Church controversy

Cristiano Banti's 1857 painting Galileo facing the Roman Inquisition
Biblical references Psalm 93:1, Psalm 96:10, and 1 Chronicles 16:30 include text (depending on the translation) stating that "the world is firmly established, it cannot be moved." In the same manner, Psalm 104:5 says, "the LORD set the earth on its foundations; it can never be moved." Further, Ecclesiastes 1:5 states that "And the sun rises and sets and returns to its place" etc.[97]
.Galileo defended heliocentrism, and claimed it was not contrary to those Scripture passages.^ Galileo defended heliocentrism , and claimed it was not contrary to those Scripture passages.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before that declaration, in addition to advocating heliocentrism, Galileo had also argued that scripture should not be used to question matters of science (apparently this had never come up before).
  • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

.He took Augustine's position on Scripture: not to take every passage literally, particularly when the scripture in question is a book of poetry and songs, not a book of instructions or history.^ He took Augustine's position on Scripture: not to take every passage literally, particularly when the scripture in question is a book of poetry and songs, not a book of instructions or history.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The writers of the Scripture wrote from the perspective of the terrestrial world, and from that vantage point the sun does rise and set.^ The writers of the Scripture wrote from the perspective of the terrestrial world, and from that vantage point the sun does rise and set.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Further, Ecclesiastes 1:5 states that "And the sun rises and sets and returns to its place, etc."
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now if it is true that the center of the universe is that point around which all the orbs and world bodies (that is, the planets) move, it is quite certain that not the earth, but the sun, is to be found at the center of the universe.
  • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

.By 1616 the attacks on the ideas of Copernicus had reached a head, and Galileo went to Rome to try to persuade the Catholic church authorities not to ban his ideas.^ By 1616 the attacks on Galileo had reached a head, and he went to Rome to try to persuade the Church authorities not to ban his ideas.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo went to Rome to defend himself against these accusations, but, in 1616, Cardinal Roberto Bellarmino personally handed Galileo an admonition enjoining him neither to advocate nor teach Copernican astronomy.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although he tried to remain loyal to the Catholic Church, his adherence to experimental results, and their most honest interpretation, led to a rejection of blind allegiance to authority, both philosophical and religious, in matters of science.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the end, Cardinal Bellarmine, acting on directives from the Inquisition, delivered him an order not to "hold or defend" the idea that the Earth moves and the Sun stands still at the centre.^ Sun moved around the Earth?
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the end, Cardinal Bellarmine , acting on directives from the Inquisition, delivered him an order not to "hold or defend" the idea that the Earth moves and the Sun stands still at the centre.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At Galileo’s request, Cardinal Robert Bellarmine, a Jesuit—one of the most important Catholic theologians of the day—issued a certificate that, although it forbade Galileo to hold or defend the heliocentric theory, did not prevent him from conjecturing it.
  • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

.The decree did not prevent Galileo from discussing heliocentrism hypothesis (thus maintaining a facade of separation between science and that church).^ The decree did not prevent Galileo from discussing heliocentrism hypothetically.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Was it the Galileo/Science side, or the Jesuit/Church side?
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Galileo had been ordered by the Church that he could not discuss the Copernican theoryexcept as a Hypothesis.
  • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

For the next several years Galileo stayed well away from the controversy. .He revived his project of writing a book on the subject, encouraged by the election of Cardinal Barberini as Pope Urban VIII in 1623. Barberini was a friend and admirer of Galileo, and had opposed the condemnation of Galileo in 1616. The book, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, was published in 1632, with formal authorization from the Inquisition and papal permission.^ In 1630, he returned to Rome to apply for a license to print the Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems , published in Florence in 1632.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Pope Urban VIII became the Pope Galileo was greatly encouraged, because as Cardinal Maffeo Barberini prior to being elected Pope Urban VIII, he had been a great admirer of Galileo.
  • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

^ Despite opposition of the Catholic Church, Galileo publishes Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems: Ptolemaic and Copernican.
  • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

.Dava Sobel[98] explains that during this time, Urban had begun to fall more and more under the influence of court intrique and problems of state.^ This book places Galileo in the context of his time and place -- and showing how he influenced his era (and eras after) -- and it also leaves you wanting a more traditional biography that tells you more about what Galileo did.
  • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

^ He worked on this problem from time to time during the remainder of his life; but the practical problems were severe.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He worked on this problem from time to time during the rest of his life; but the practical problems were severe.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

.His friendship with Galileo began to take second place to his feelings of persecution and fear for his own life.^ These decisions were not in place when Galileo began considering and writing on the question but rather were a consequence of him (and others) doing so.
  • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Galileo seems, at an early period of his life, to have adopted the Copernican theory of the solar system, and was deterred from avowing his opinions-as is proved by his letter to Kepler of August 4, 1597by the fear of ridicule rather than of persecution.
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

.At this low point in Urban's life, the problem of Galileo was presented to the pope by court insiders and enemies of Galileo.^ In fact it was Urban VIII who told Galileo he was fine – gave him gifts etc – unless he presented his ideas as fact rather than scientific hypothesis.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Galileo met with the new pope, Urban VIII, in 1623, he received permission from his longtime friend to write a work on heliocentrism, but the new pontiff cautioned him not to advocate the new position, only to present arguments for and against it.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Alas, enemies convinced the Pope that he was being made a fool of – depicted as the character Simplicius in the book – and then Galileo really did come into conflict with the Church.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

.Coming on top of the recent claim by the then Spanish cardinal that Urban was soft on defending the church, he reacted out of anger and fear.^ He might have escaped the censure of the church, but he "was of an ardent disposition", so when he was assailed from the pulpit he brought out a pamphlet defending his views.
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | February 15| Jon Frum Vanuatu John Frum Jeremy Bentham panopticon, USS Maine, Galileo, Lupercalia ancient Rome peace demonstrations protest demo Iraq anti-war 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

.This situation did not bode well for Galileo's defense of his book.^ Alas, enemies convinced the Pope that he was being made a fool of – depicted as the character Simplicius in the book – and then Galileo really did come into conflict with the Church.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This book places Galileo in the context of his time and place -- and showing how he influenced his era (and eras after) -- and it also leaves you wanting a more traditional biography that tells you more about what Galileo did.
  • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

^ And did indeed allow Galileo to print his views – because the book was published with the blessings of the Pope himself.
  • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

.Earlier, Pope Urban VIII had personally asked Galileo to give arguments for and against heliocentrism in the book, and to be careful not to advocate heliocentrism.^ Pope Urban VIII personally asked Galileo to give arguments for and against heliocentrism in the book, and to be careful not to advocate heliocentrism.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They had to do with his publication of a book called "Dialog on the Two Chief World Systems," in which he was judged to have violated the pope's order to give a fair account of both the heliocentric (Sun-centered) and geocentric (Earth-centered) systems, a concept he personally submitted to the pope before going ahead with the project.
  • Galileo's telescope reaches 400th anniversary | Technology | guardian.co.uk 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Galileo went to Rome to defend himself against these accusations, but, in 1616, Cardinal Roberto Bellarmino personally handed Galileo an admonition enjoining him neither to advocate nor teach Copernican astronomy.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He made another request, that his own views on the matter be included in Galileo's book.^ He made another request, that his own views on the matter be included in Galileo's book.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But I also made the point that when Galileo starting questioning geocentrism the Church had made no official declarations on the matter.
  • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And did indeed allow Galileo to print his views – because the book was published with the blessings of the Pope himself.
  • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

.Only the latter of those requests was fulfilled by Galileo.^ Only the latter of those requests was fulfilled by Galileo.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Whether unknowingly or deliberately, Simplicio, the defender of the Aristotelian Geocentric view in Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, was often caught in his own errors and sometimes came across as a fool.^ Whether unknowingly or deliberate, Simplicius, the defender of the Aristotelian Geocentric view in Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems , was often caught in his own errors and sometimes came across as a fool.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo's Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems thus changed History.
  • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

^ This fact made Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems appear as an advocacy book; an attack on Aristotelian geocentrism and defense of the Copernican theory.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Indeed, although Galileo states in the preface of his book that the character is named after a famous Aristotelian philosopher (Simplicius in Latin, Simplicio in Italian), the name "Simplicio" in Italian also has the connotation of "simpleton."[99] This portrayal of Simplicio made Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems appear as an advocacy book: an attack on Aristotelian geocentrism and defence of the Copernican theory. .Unfortunately for his relationship with the Pope, Galileo put the words of Urban VIII into the mouth of Simplicio.^ To add insult to injury, Galileo put the words of Pope Urban VIII into the mouth of Simplicius.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo predeceased Urban VIII .
  • The Galileo affair: history or heroic hagiography? 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The offended scientists suggested to Pope Urban VIII that Galileo was putting the Pope's words into the mouth of the fool, Simplicius.
  • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

.Most historians agree Galileo did not act out of malice and felt blindsided by the reaction to his book.^ Most historians agree Galileo did not act out of malice and felt blindsided by the reaction to his book.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While this story has been retold in popular accounts, it is generally accepted by historians that there is no account by Galileo himself of such an experiment, and that it was at most a thought experiment which did not actually take place.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This book is profound to the extension that as a daughter, I could see the father and daughter relationship, and how that relationship has effected Galileo Ibecome one of the most extolled scientists in the world.
  • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

[100] .However, the Pope did not take the suspected public ridicule lightly, nor the Copernican advocacy.^ However, the Pope did not take the suspected public ridicule lightly, nor the blatant bias.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Galileo had alienated one of his biggest and most powerful supporters, the Pope, and was called to Rome to defend his writings.^ Galileo had alienated one of his biggest and most powerful supporters, the Pope, and was called to Rome to defend his writings.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At Galileo’s request, Cardinal Robert Bellarmine, a Jesuit—one of the most important Catholic theologians of the day—issued a certificate that, although it forbade Galileo to hold or defend the heliocentric theory, did not prevent him from conjecturing it.
  • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He also alienated his long-time supporters, the Jesuits, with attacks on one of their astronomers.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

With the loss of many of his defenders in Rome because of Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, Galileo was ordered to stand trial on suspicion of heresy in 1633. The sentence of the Inquisition was in three essential parts:
.
  • Galileo was found "vehemently suspect of heresy," namely of having held the opinions that the Sun lies motionless at the centre of the universe, that the Earth is not at its centre and moves, and that one may hold and defend an opinion as probable after it has been declared contrary to Holy Scripture.^ Earth was the centre of the Universe.
    • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If the earth stands still, the sun and the fixed stars necessarily move, and it may also be that the sun and the fixed stars are motionless if the earth is moving.
    • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Declare that the Earth did not move around the Sun.
    • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    .He was required to "abjure, curse and detest" those opinions.^ Galileo was required to abjure the opinion that the Sun lies motionless at the centre of the universe, and that the Earth is not at its centre and moves; the idea that the Sun is stationary was condemned as "formally heretical."
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [101]
  • .
  • He was ordered imprisoned; the sentence was later commuted to house arrest.
  • His offending Dialogue was banned; and in an action not announced at the trial, publication of any of his works was forbidden, including any he might write in the future.^ Imprisoned – meaning house arrest.
    • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He was ordered imprisoned; the sentence was later commuted to house arrest.
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ His sentence was imprisonment but commuted to house arrest.
    • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    [102]
Tomb of Galileo Galilei, Santa Croce
According to popular legend, after recanting his theory that the Earth moved around the Sun, Galileo allegedly muttered the rebellious phrase And yet it moves, but there is no evidence that he actually said this or anything similar. The first account of the legend dates to a century after his death.[103]
.After a period with the friendly Ascanio Piccolomini (the Archbishop of Siena), Galileo was allowed to return to his villa at Arcetri near Florence, where he spent the remainder of his life under house arrest, and where he later became blind.^ He was under mild house arrest.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Galileo is allowed to serve his term under house-arrest in the home of the archbishop of Siena.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After a period with the friendly Ascanio Piccolomini (the Archbishop of Siena ), Galileo was allowed to return to his villa at Arcetri near Florence, where he spent the remainder of his life under house arrest, and where he later became blind.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was while Galileo was under house arrest that he dedicated his time to one of his finest works, Two New Sciences.^ It was while Galileo was under house arrest that he dedicated his time to one of his finest works, Two New Sciences .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was under mild house arrest.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Galileo and his contemporaries were aware of this inadequacy because there are two daily high tides at Venice instead of one, about twelve hours apart.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Here he summarized work he had done some forty years earlier, on the two sciences now called kinematics and strength of materials.^ Here he summarized work he had done some forty years earlier, on the two sciences now called kinematics and strength of materials .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here is one link to material documenting how the Jesuits followed his work, supported his work, even gave him a hugely valuable telescope.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Prior to Einstein’s work, here was Lord Kelvin in 1900 : “In 1900, Lord Kelvin famously stated, “There is nothing new to be discovered in physics now.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

.This book has received high praise from Albert Einstein.^ This book has received high praise from both Sir Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[104] .As a result of this work, Galileo is often called, the "father of modern physics."^ As a result of this work, Galileo is often called, the "father of modern physics."
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That is, David calls Galileo’s statements about the movement of physical objects “ attempt[ing] to cross science and religion “.
  • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Galileo showed a remarkably modern appreciation for the proper relationship between mathematics, theoretical physics, and experimental physics.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Galileo died on 8 January 1642 at 77 years of age.^ Galileo died on January 8 , 1642 .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When he visited in 1640, he was age 30, and Galileo was age 77 and nearly blind.
  • Galileo Galilei Quotes - Dictionary of Science Quotations and Scientist Quotes 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinando II, wished to bury him in the main body of the Basilica of Santa Croce, next to the tombs of his father and other ancestors, and to erect a marble mausoleum in his honour.^ The Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinando II , wished to bury him in the main body of the Basilica of Santa Croce , next to the tombs of his father and other ancestors, and to erect a marble mausoleum in his honour.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was reburied in the main body of the basilica in 1737 after a monument had been erected there in his honour.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was instead buried in a small room next to the novices' chapel at the end of a corridor from the southern transept of the basilica to the sacristy.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[105] These plans were scrapped, however, after Pope Urban VIII and his nephew, Cardinal Francesco Barberini, protested,[106] because Galileo was condemned by the Catholic church for "vehement suspicion of heresy."[107] He was instead buried in a small room next to the novices' chapel at the end of a corridor from the southern transept of the basilica to the sacristy.[108] He was reburied in the main body of the basilica in 1737 after a monument had been erected there in his honour.[109]
.The Inquisition's ban on reprinting Galileo's works was lifted in 1718 when permission was granted to publish an edition of his works (excluding the condemned Dialogue) in Florence.^ The Inquisition's ban on reprinting Galileo's works was lifted in 1718 when permission was granted to publish an edition of his works (excluding the condemned Dialogue ) in Florence.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1741 Pope Benedict XIV authorized the publication of an edition of Galileo's complete scientific works [83] which included a mildly censored version of the Dialogue .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1630, he returned to Rome to apply for a license to print the Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems , published in Florence in 1632.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[110] .In 1741 Pope Benedict XIV authorized the publication of an edition of Galileo's complete scientific works[111] which included a mildly censored version of the Dialogue.^ In 1741 Pope Benedict XIV authorized the publication of an edition of Galileo's complete scientific works [83] which included a mildly censored version of the Dialogue .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both Popes were patrons of the arts and sciences, including the work of Galileo.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Summer 1632 – Distribution of Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is stopped by Pope Urban VIII. The Pope authorizes a special commission to examine the book.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

[112] .In 1758 the general prohibition against works advocating heliocentrism was removed from the Index of prohibited books, although the specific ban on uncensored versions of the Dialogue and Copernicus's De Revolutionibus remained.^ The uncensored version of the Dialogue remained on the Index of prohibited books, however (Heilbron 2005, p.279) .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1758 the general prohibition against works advocating heliocentrism was removed from the Index of prohibited books , although the specific ban on uncensored versions of the Dialogue and Copernicus's De Revolutionibus remained.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1615 he went to Rome to argue on behalf of the merits of the Copernican theory, but the political atmosphere was such that Copernicus’ De Revolutionibus was placed on the Index of Prohibited Books in 1616, and his theory declared "foolish and absurd philosophically and formally heretical inasmuch as it expressly contradicts the doctrines of the holy scripture."
  • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

[113] .All traces of official opposition to heliocentrism by the church disappeared in 1835 when these works were finally dropped from the Index.^ All of these were Church priests.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All traces of official opposition to heliocentrism by the Church disappeared in 1835 when these works were finally dropped from the Index.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Church had Galileo’s works on its Index of Condemned Books through 1835, well into the modern period.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

[114]
.In 1939 Pope Pius XII, in his first speech to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, within a few months of his election to the papacy, described Galileo as being among the "most audacious heroes of research ...^ In 1939 Pope Pius XII , in his first speech to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, within a few months of his election to the papacy, described Galileo as being among the "most audacious heroes of research … not afraid of the stumbling blocks and the risks on the way, nor fearful of the funereal monuments" [87] His close advisor of 40 years, Professor Robert Leiber wrote: "Pius XII was very careful not to close any doors (to science) prematurely.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Everyday people could read his work, which made Galileo one of the first science communicators of the age, and this loss of control of the masses frightened the Catholic church nearly as much as the knowledge contained within his work.
  • Galileo's telescope reaches 400th anniversary | Technology | guardian.co.uk 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ There is no doubt that, imitating Venus as it does, the most appropriate place for it will be a smaller circle, within this one of Venus and also described about the sun.
  • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

not afraid of the stumbling blocks and the risks on the way, nor fearful of the funereal monuments"
[115] .His close advisor of 40 years, Professor Robert Leiber wrote: "Pius XII was very careful not to close any doors (to science) prematurely.^ In 1939 Pope Pius XII , in his first speech to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, within a few months of his election to the papacy, described Galileo as being among the "most audacious heroes of research … not afraid of the stumbling blocks and the risks on the way, nor fearful of the funereal monuments" [87] His close advisor of 40 years, Professor Robert Leiber wrote: "Pius XII was very careful not to close any doors (to science) prematurely.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But they are always very careful to separate science and religion.
  • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

.He was energetic on this point and regretted that in the case of Galileo."^ He was energetic on this point and regretted that in the case of Galileo."
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[116]
On 15 February 1990, in a speech delivered at the Sapienza University of Rome,[117] Cardinal Ratzinger (later to become Pope Benedict XVI) cited some current views on the Galileo affair as forming what he called "a symptomatic case that permits us to see how deep the self-doubt of the modern age, of science and technology goes today."[118] Some of the views he cited were those of the philosopher Paul Feyerabend, whom he quoted as saying “The Church at the time of Galileo kept much more closely to reason than did Galileo himself, and she took into consideration the ethical and social consequences of Galileo's teaching too. .Her verdict against Galileo was rational and just and the revision of this verdict can be justified only on the grounds of what is politically opportune.”[118] The Cardinal did not clearly indicate whether he agreed or disagreed with Feyerabend's assertions.^ Let’s just agree to disagree.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Her verdict against Galileo was rational and just and the revision of this verdict can be justified only on the grounds of what is politically opportune.” [91] The Cardinal did not clearly indicate whether he agreed or disagreed with Feyerabend's assertions.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whatever the message underlying, and whether the reader agrees with it or not, Galileo is first and foremost a decent piece of drama.
  • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

.He did, however, say "It would be foolish to construct an impulsive apologetic on the basis of such views."^ He did, however, say "It would be foolish to construct an impulsive apologetic on the basis of such views".
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[118]
.On 31 October 1992, Pope John Paul II expressed regret for how the Galileo affair was handled, and issued a declaration acknowledging the errors committed by the Catholic church tribunal that judged the scientific positions of Galileo Galilei, as the result of a study conducted by the Pontifical Council for Culture.^ How monolithic was the Catholic church in Galileo’s time?
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On 31 October 1992 , Pope John Paul II expressed regret for how the Galileo affair was handled, and officially conceded that the Earth was not stationary, as the result of a study conducted by the Pontifical Council for Culture .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Catholic Church's decision against Galileo Galilei] .
  • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

[119][120] In March 2008 the Vatican proposed to complete its rehabilitation of Galileo by erecting a statue of him inside the Vatican walls.[121] .In December of the same year, during events to mark the 400th anniversary of Galileo's earliest telescopic observations, Pope Benedict XVI praised his contributions to astronomy.^ Galileo was first to use a telescope for astronomy.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Portrait in crayon by Leoni A replica of the earliest surviving telescope attributed to Galileo Galilei, on display at the Griffith Observatory Galileo made a number of contributions to what is now known as technology , as distinct from pure physics, and suggested others.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1741 Pope Benedict XIV authorized the publication of an edition of Galileo's complete scientific works [83] which included a mildly censored version of the Dialogue .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[122]

His writings

Statue outside the Uffizi, Florence.
.Galileo's early works describing scientific instruments include the 1586 tract entitled The Little Balance (La Billancetta) describing an accurate balance to weigh objects in air or water[123] and the 1606 printed manual Le Operazioni del Compasso Geometrico et Militare on the operation of a geometrical and military compass.^ In 1741 Pope Benedict XIV authorized the publication of an edition of Galileo's complete scientific works [83] which included a mildly censored version of the Dialogue .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between 1595–1598, Galileo devised and improved a Geometric and Military Compass suitable for use by gunners and surveyors .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About 1593 , Galileo constructed a thermometer , using the expansion and contraction of air in a bulb to move water in an attached tube.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[124]
His early works in dynamics, the science of motion and mechanics were his 1590 Pisan De Motu (On Motion) and his circa 1600 Paduan Le Meccaniche (Mechanics). .The former was based on Aristotelian-Archimedean fluid dynamics and held that the speed of gravitational fall in a fluid medium was proportional to the excess of a body's specific weight over that of the medium, whereby in a vacuum bodies would fall with speeds in proportion to their specific weights.^ This was contrary to what Aristotle had taught: that heavy objects fall faster than lighter ones, in direct proportion to weight.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He had, however, formulated an earlier version which predicted that bodies of the same material falling through the same medium would fall at the same speed (Drake, 1978, p.20) .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It also subscribed to the Hipparchan-Philoponan impetus dynamics in which impetus is self-dissipating and free-fall in a vacuum would have an essential terminal speed according to specific weight after an initial period of acceleration.
.Galileo's 1610 The Starry Messenger (Sidereus Nuncius) was the first scientific treatise to be published based on observations made through a telescope.^ He published Sidereus Nuncius in March 1610″ .
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He published his initial telescopic astronomical observations in March 1610 in a short treatise entitled Sidereus Nuncius ( Starry Messenger ).
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo published a full description in Sidereus Nuncius in March 1610 The phases of Venus, observed by Galileo in 1610 Based only on uncertain descriptions of the telescope, invented in the Netherlands in 1608, Galileo, in that same year, made a telescope with about 3x magnification, and later made others with up to about 32x magnification.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It reported his discoveries of:
  • the Galilean moons;
  • the roughness of the Moon's surface;
  • the existence of a large number of stars invisible to the naked eye, particularly those responsible for the appearance of the Milky Way; and
  • differences between the appearances of the planets and those of the fixed stars—the former appearing as small discs, while the latter appeared as unmagnified points of light.
.Galileo published a description of sunspots in 1613 entitled Letters on Sunspots[125] suggesting the Sun and heavens are corruptible.^ Galileo said the sunspots were on the Sun itself and Scheiner was soundly defeated in the debate.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Letters on Sunspots also reported his 1610 telescopic observations of the full set of phases of Venus, and his discovery of the puzzling "appendages" of Saturn and their even more puzzling subsequent disappearance.^ Galileo published a full description in Sidereus Nuncius in March 1610 The phases of Venus, observed by Galileo in 1610 Based only on uncertain descriptions of the telescope, invented in the Netherlands in 1608, Galileo, in that same year, made a telescope with about 3x magnification, and later made others with up to about 32x magnification.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Making the observation later with a fine telescope which would multiply the disc of the sun more than a thousandfold turned out to be pleasant and easy.
  • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Yes some Jesuits were given telescopes and confirmed Galileo’s findings but many more were hostile and some even refused to look through the telescope to see if Galileo was right.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1615 Galileo prepared a manuscript known as the Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina which was not published in printed form until 1636. This letter was a revised version of the Letter to Castelli, which was denounced by the Inquisition as an incursion upon theology by advocating Copernicanism both as physically true and as consistent with Scripture.^ As is well-known, Copernicus didn’t publish until he was on his death-bed, thus depriving the Holy Roman Catholic Church of its “right” to terrorize him.
  • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cardinal Bellarmine had written in 1615 that the Copernican system could not be defended without "a true physical demonstration that the sun does not circle the earth but the earth circles the sun".
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And did indeed allow Galileo to print his views – because the book was published with the blessings of the Pope himself.
  • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

[126] .In 1616, after the order by the inquisition for Galileo not to hold or defend the Copernican position, Galileo wrote the Discourse on the tides (Discorso sul flusso e il reflusso del mare) based on the Copernican earth, in the form of a private letter to Cardinal Orsini.^ Galileo circulated his first account of the tides in 1616, addressed to Cardinal Orsini.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ February 26, 1616 – Cardinal Bellarmine warns Galileo not to hold, teach, or defend Copernican theory.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At Galileo’s request, Cardinal Robert Bellarmine, a Jesuit—one of the most important Catholic theologians of the day—issued a certificate that, although it forbade Galileo to hold or defend the heliocentric theory, did not prevent him from conjecturing it.
  • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

[127] .In 1619, Mario Guiducci, a pupil of Galileo's, published a lecture written largely by Galileo under the title Discourse on the Comets (Discorso Delle Comete), arguing against the Jesuit interpretation of comets.^ Grassi's arguments and conclusions were criticised in a subsequent article, Discourse on the Comets , [27] published under the name of one of Galileo's disciples, a Florentine lawyer named Mario Guiducci , although it had been largely written by Galileo himself.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scheiner, who MrPete has quoted as a Church scientist to rival Galileo, argued against him about sunspots.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Kepler, a protestant supported by Catholic Jesuits, published his heliocentric theories before Galileo was under fire.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

[128]
.In 1623, Galileo published The Assayer – Il Saggiatore, which attacked theories based on Aristotle's authority and promoted experimentation and the mathematical formulation of scientific ideas.^ Because The Assayer contains such a wealth of Galileo's ideas on how Science should be practised, it has been referred to as his scientific manifesto.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During 1621 and 1622 Galileo wrote his first book, The Assayer ( Il Saggiatore ), which was approved and published in 1623.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact it was Urban VIII who told Galileo he was fine – gave him gifts etc – unless he presented his ideas as fact rather than scientific hypothesis.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

.The book was highly successful and even found support among the higher echelons of the Christian church.^ The charge against him was that rather than being even-handed, the book was clear support of Copernicanism.
  • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

[129] .Following the success of The Assayer, Galileo published the Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo) in 1632. Despite taking care to adhere to the Inquisition's 1616 instructions, the claims in the book favouring Copernican theory and a non Geocentric model of the solar system led to Galileo being tried and banned on publication.^ In 1630, he returned to Rome to apply for a license to print the Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems , published in Florence in 1632.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ February 1632 – Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is printed.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite opposition of the Catholic Church, Galileo publishes Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems: Ptolemaic and Copernican.
  • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

.Despite the publication ban, Galileo published his Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Relating to Two New Sciences (Discorsi e Dimostrazioni Matematiche, intorno a due nuove scienze) in 1638 in Holland, outside the jurisdiction of the Inquisition.^ Statue outside the Uffizi , Florence The Little Balance (1586) The Starry Messenger (1610; in Latin , Sidereus Nuncius ) Letters on Sunspots (1613) Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina (1615; published in 1636) Discourse on the Tides (1616; in Italian, Discorso del flusso e reflusso del mare ) Discourse on the Comets (1619; in Italian, Discorso Delle Comete ) The Assayer (1623; in Italian, Il Saggiatore ) Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (1632; in Italian Dialogo dei due massimi sistemi del mondo ) Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Relating to Two New Sciences (1638; in Italian , Discorsi e Dimostrazioni Matematiche, intorno a due nuove scienze ) [ edit ] Legacy .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, a limited amount of mathematics had long related music and physical science, and young Galileo could see his own father's observations expand on that tradition.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Editorial Review Book Description Galileo’s Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems , published in Florence in 1632, was the most proximate cause of his being brought to trial before the Inquisition.
  • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

Legacy

.Galileo's astronomical discoveries and investigations into the Copernican theory have led to a lasting legacy which includes the categorisation of the four large moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo (Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto) as the Galilean moons.^ He named them and in turn the four are called the Galilean moons (Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto).
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | February 15| Jon Frum Vanuatu John Frum Jeremy Bentham panopticon, USS Maine, Galileo, Lupercalia ancient Rome peace demonstrations protest demo Iraq anti-war 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

^ Where in most songs are about Jupiter and its 4 Galilean moons, specifically Europa .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The four large moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo ( Io , Europa , Ganymede and Callisto ) are often referred to as the 'Galilean moons'.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other scientific endeavours and principles are named after Galileo including the Galileo spacecraft,[131] the first spacecraft to enter orbit around Jupiter, the proposed Galileo global satellite navigation system, the transformation between inertial systems in classical mechanics denoted Galilean transformation and the Gal (unit), sometimes known as the Galileo which is a non-SI unit of acceleration.^ The other side of a great life Though it does not advance any particular historical hypothesis, "Galileo" does tell the life story of one of history's best-known figures.
  • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

^ In 1632 Galileo publishedthis great book in which he debated the two systems between three protagonists.
  • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

^ I learned about theories that influenced Galileo's ideas and his opinion toward Copernicus's theory which stated that the all of the planets, including the earth, revolved around the sun.
  • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

.Partly because 2009 was the fourth centenary of Galileo's first recorded astronomical observations with the telescope, the United Nations scheduled it to be the International Year of Astronomy.^ Please check this classic paper from Stillman Drake Galileo first telescopes at Padua and Venice first published in "Isis", vol.50 (1959), 245-254.
  • Galileo's telescope reaches 400th anniversary | Technology | guardian.co.uk 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ He published his initial telescopic astronomical observations in March 1610 in a short treatise entitled Sidereus Nuncius ( Starry Messenger ).
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was on this page that Galileo first noted an observation of the moons of Jupiter .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[132] A global scheme laid out by the International Astronomical Union (IAU), it has also been endorsed by UNESCO — the UN body responsible for Educational, Scientific and Cultural matters. .The International Year of Astronomy 2009 is intended to be a global celebration of astronomy and its contributions to society and culture, stimulating worldwide interest not only in astronomy but science in general, with a particular slant towards young people.^ A chicken passeth by Says: August 28, 2009 at 10:39 am The Church only supports the science that matches the bible, or proves that God exists.
  • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Only to explain that the general belief in a geocentric solar system was based on Aristotlean writings and Ptolemeic astronomy and was the generally accepted science when the Church was first formed.
  • Galileo's telescope reaches 400th anniversary | Technology | guardian.co.uk 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ They supported the sciences, in fact during a large portion of the 2000 years, were the only Christian support of the sciences.
  • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

Galileo is mentioned several times in the "opera" section of the famous Queen song, "Bohemian Rhapsody."
.20th century plays have been written on Galileo's life, including Life of Galileo (1943) by the German playwright Bertolt Brecht, with a film adaptation (1975), and Lamp At Midnight (1947) by Barrie Stavis,[133] as well as the 21st century play Galileo Galilei.^ Galileo Galilei, his life and his works .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is a play called Life of Galileo by the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht .
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bertolt Brecht's "the Life of Galileo" is perhaps one of his best known plays which came to define the Epic Drama genre of the 20th century.Written in America after Brecht fled the Nazi uprising in Germany, "the Life of Galileo" takes a bold stance about science and scientific discovery in a time when Atomic Theory and the development of an Atomic Bomb were making people consider what may happen when something good (atomic energy) are made into something bad (atomic bombs).
  • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

[134]
.Galileo Galilei was recently selected as a main motif for a high value collectors' coin: the €25 International Year of Astronomy commemorative coin, minted in 2009. This coin also commemorates the 400th anniversary of the invention of Galileo's telescope.^ Close Galileo's telescope reaches 400th anniversary .
  • Galileo's telescope reaches 400th anniversary | Technology | guardian.co.uk 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Galileo's telescope reaches 400th anniversary .
  • Galileo's telescope reaches 400th anniversary | Technology | guardian.co.uk 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Galileo was first to use a telescope for astronomy.
  • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

The obverse shows a portion of his portrait and his telescope. .The background shows one of his first drawings of the surface of the moon.^ He soon made one that could magnify 30 times and commenced observations of the moon, which he discovered to have an irregular surface, like that of the earth.
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | February 15| Jon Frum Vanuatu John Frum Jeremy Bentham panopticon, USS Maine, Galileo, Lupercalia ancient Rome peace demonstrations protest demo Iraq anti-war 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

^ First we shall mark these two points, A and B, and draw from one to the other the curved lines ACB and ADE, and the straight line P3.
  • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

In the silver ring other telescopes are depicted: the Isaac Newton Telescope, the observatory in Kremsmünster Abbey, a modern telescope, a radio telescope and a space telescope. In 2009, the Galileoscope was also released. This is a mass produced low-cost educational 2-inch telescope with relatively high quality.

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g O'Connor, J. J.; Robertson, E. F.. "Galileo Galilei". The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. University of St Andrews, Scotland. http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Galileo.html. Retrieved 2007-07-24. 
  2. ^ F. Vinci, Ostilio Ricci da Fermo, Maestro di Galileo Galilei, Fermo, 1929.
  3. ^ http://genealogy.math.ndsu.nodak.edu.id.php?id=134975
  4. ^ Drake (1978, p.1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout the whole of Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar.
  5. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg "Galileo Galilei" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia. by John Gerard. Retrieved 11 August 2007
  6. ^ Singer, Charles (1941), A Short History of Science to the Nineteenth Century, Clarendon Press, http://www.google.com.au/books?id=mPIgAAAAMAAJ&pgis=1  (page 217)
  7. ^ a b Weidhorn, Manfred (2005). The Person of the Millennium: The Unique Impact of Galileo on World History. iUniverse. pp. 155. ISBN 0-595-36877-8. 
  8. ^ Finocchiaro (2007).
  9. ^ "Galileo and the Birth of Modern Science, by Stephen Hawking, American Heritage's Invention & Technology, Spring 2009, Vol. 24, No. 1, p. 36
  10. ^ Sharratt (1994, pp.127–131), McMullin (2005a).
  11. ^ Reston (2000, pp. 3–14).
  12. ^ Sharratt (1994, pp. 45–66).
  13. ^ Rutkin, H. Darrel. "Galileo, Astrology, and the Scientific Revolution: Another Look". Program in History & Philosophy of Science & Technology, Stanford University. http://www.stanford.edu/dept/HPST/colloquia0405.html. Retrieved 2007-04-15. 
  14. ^ Sharratt (1994, pp.17, 213)
  15. ^ Sobel (2000, p.5) Chapter 1. Retrieved on 26 August 2007. "But because he never married Virginia's mother, he deemed the girl herself unmarriageable. Soon after her thirteenth birthday, he placed her at the Convent of San Matteo in Arcetri."
  16. ^ Pedersen, O. (24 May–27, 1984). "Galileo's Religion". Proceedings of the Cracow Conference, The Galileo affair: A meeting of faith and science. Cracow: Dordrecht, D. Reidel Publishing Co.. pp. 75–102. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985gamf.conf...75P. Retrieved 2008-06-09. 
  17. ^ Gebler (1879, pp. 22–35).
  18. ^ Anonymous (2007). "History". Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei. http://www.lincei.it/modules.php?name=Content&pa=showpage&pid=21. Retrieved 2008-06-10. 
  19. ^ There are contradictory documents describing the nature of this admonition and the circumstances of its delivery. Finocchiaro, The Galileo Affair, pp.147–149, 153
  20. ^ Carney, Jo Eldridge (2000). Renaissance and Reformation, 1500-1620: a. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-30574-9. 
  21. ^ Allan-Olney (1870)
  22. ^ Sharratt (1994, pp.204–05)
  23. ^ Cohen, H. F. (1984). Quantifying Music: The Science of Music at. Springer. pp. 78–84. ISBN 90-277-1637-4. 
  24. ^ Field, Judith Veronica (2005). Piero Della Francesca: A Mathematician's Art. Yale University Press. pp. 317–320. ISBN 0-300-10342-5. 
  25. ^ In Drake (1957, pp.237−238)
  26. ^ Wallace, (1984).
  27. ^ Sharratt (1994, pp.202–04), Galilei (1954, pp.250–52), Favaro (1898, 8:274–75) (Italian)
  28. ^ Sharratt (1994, pp.202–04), Galilei (1954, pp.252), Favaro (1898, 8:275) (Italian)
  29. ^ Hawking (1988, p.179).
  30. ^ Einstein (1954, p.271). "Propositions arrived at by purely logical means are completely empty as regards reality. Because Galileo realised this, and particularly because he drummed it into the scientific world, he is the father of modern physics—indeed, of modern science altogether."
  31. ^ Drake (1990, pp.133–34).
  32. ^ Sharratt (1994, pp.1–2)
  33. ^ i.e., invisible to the naked eye.
  34. ^ Drake (1978, p.146).
  35. ^ In Sidereus Nuncius (Favaro,1892, 3:81(Latin)) Galileo stated that he had reached this conclusion on 11 January. Drake (1978, p.152), however, after studying unpublished manuscript records of Galileo's observations, concluded that he did not do so until 15 January.
  36. ^ Sharratt (1994, p.17).
  37. ^ Linton (2004, pp.98,205), Drake (1978, p.157).
  38. ^ Drake (1978, p.158–68), Sharratt (1994, pp.18–19).
  39. ^ God's Philosophers ju James Hannam Orion 2009 p313
  40. ^ Drake (1978, p.168), Sharratt (1994, p.93).
  41. ^ Thoren (1989), p.8; Hoskin (1999) p.117.
  42. ^ In the Capellan model only Mercury and Venus orbit the Sun, whilst in its extended version such as expounded by Riccioli, Mars also orbits the Sun, but the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn are centred on the Earth
  43. ^ Baalke, Ron. Historical Background of Saturn's Rings. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, NASA. Retrieved on 2007-03-11
  44. ^ In Kepler's Thomist 'inertial' variant of Aristotelian dynamics as opposed to Galileo's impetus dynamics variant all bodies universally have an inherent resistance to all motion and tendency to rest, which he dubbed 'inertia'. This notion of inertia was originally introduced by Averroes in the 12th century just for the celestial spheres in order to explain why they do not rotate with infinite speed on Aristotelian dynamics, as they should if they had no resistance to their movers. And in his Astronomia Nova celestial mechanics the inertia of the planets is overcome in their solar orbital motion by their being pushed around by the sunspecks of the rotating sun acting like the spokes of a rotating cartwheel. And more generally it predicted all but only planets with orbiting satellites, such as Jupiter for example, also rotate to push them around, whereas the Moon, for example, does not rotate, thus always presenting the same face to the Earth, because it has no satellites to push around. These seem to have been the first successful novel predictions of Thomist 'inertial' Aristotelian dynamics as well as of post-spherist celestial physics. In his 1630 Epitome (See p514 on p896 of the Encyclopædia Britannica 1952 Great Books of the Western World edition) Kepler keenly stressed he had proved the Sun's axial rotation from planetary motions in his Commentaries on Mars Ch 34 long before it was telescopically established by sunspot motion.
  45. ^ Drake (1978, p.209). Sizzi reported the observations he and his companions had made over the course of a year to Orazio Morandi in a letter dated 10 April 1613 (Favaro,1901, 11:491 (Italian)). Morandi subsequently forwarded a copy to Galileo.
  46. ^ In geostatic systems the apparent annual variation in the motion of sunspots could only be explained as the result of an implausibly complicated precession of the Sun's axis of rotation (Linton, 2004, p.212; Sharratt, 1994, p.166; Drake, 1970, pp.191–196). This did not apply, however, to the modified version of Tycho's system introduced by his protegé, Longomontanus, in which the Earth was assumed to rotate. Longomontanus's system could account for the apparent motions of sunspots just as well as the Copernican.
  47. ^ Ondra (2004), p. 72-73
  48. ^ Finocchiaro (1989, p. 167-176), Drake (1953), p. 359-360), Ondra (2004), p. 74-75
  49. ^ Drake (1960, pp.vii,xxiii–xxiv), Sharratt (1994, pp.139–140).
  50. ^ Grassi (1960a).
  51. ^ Drake (1978, p.268), Grassi (1960a, p.16).
  52. ^ Galilei & Guiducci (1960).
  53. ^ Drake (1960, p.xvi).
  54. ^ Drake (1957, p.222), Drake (1960, p.xvii).
  55. ^ Sharratt (1994, p.135), Drake (1960, p.xii), Galilei & Guiducci (1960, p.24).
  56. ^ Sharratt (1994, p.135).
  57. ^ Sharratt (1994, p.135), Drake (1960, p.xvii).
  58. ^ Grassi (1960b).
  59. ^ Drake (1978, p.494), Favaro(1896, 6:111). The pseudonym was a slightly imperfect anagram of Oratio Grasio Savonensis, a latinized version of his name and home town.
  60. ^ Galilei (1960).
  61. ^ Sharratt (1994, p.137), Drake (1957, p.227).
  62. ^ Sharratt (1994, p.138–142).
  63. ^ Drake (1960, p.xix).
  64. ^ Drake (1960, p.vii).
  65. ^ Sharratt (1994, p.175).
  66. ^ Sharratt (1994, pp.175–78), Blackwell (2006, p.30).
  67. ^ Finocchiaro (1989), pp. 67–9.
  68. ^ Finocchiaro (1989), p. 354, n. 52
  69. ^ Finocchiaro (1989), pp.119–133
  70. ^ Finocchiaro (1989), pp.127–131 and Drake (1953), pp. 432–6
  71. ^ Einstein (1952) p. xvii
  72. ^ Finocchiaro (1989), p. 128
  73. ^ Kusukawa, Sachiko. "Starry Messenger. The Telescope, Department of History and Philosophy of Science of the University of Cambridge. Retrieved on 2007-03-10"]. http://www.hps.cam.ac.uk/starry/galtele.html. 
  74. ^ Reston (2000, p. 56).
  75. ^ Sobel (2000, p.43), Drake (1978, p.196). In the Starry Messenger, written in Latin, Galileo had used the term "perspicillum."
  76. ^ "omni-optical.com "A Very Short History of the Telescope"". http://www.omni-optical.com/telescope/ut104.htm. 
  77. ^ Drake (1978, p.163–164), Favaro(1892, 3:163164)(Latin)
  78. ^ Probably in 1623, according to Drake (1978, p.286).
  79. ^ Drake (1978, p.289), Favaro(1903, 13:177) (Italian).
  80. ^ Drake (1978, p.286), Favaro(1903, 13:208)(Italian). The actual inventors of the telescope and microscope remain debatable. A general view on this can be found in the article Hans Lippershey (last updated 2003-08-01), © 1995–2007 by Davidson, Michael W. and the Florida State University. Retrieved 2007-08-28
  81. ^ "brunelleschi.imss.fi.it "Il microscopio di Galileo"" (PDF). http://brunelleschi.imss.fi.it/esplora/microscopio/dswmedia/risorse/testi_completi.pdf. 
  82. ^ Van Helden, Al. Galileo Timeline (last updated 1995), The Galileo Project. Retrieved 2007-08-28. See also Timeline of microscope technology.
  83. ^ Drake (1978, p.286).
  84. ^ Longitude: the true story of a lone genius who solved the greatest scientific problem of his time ,Dava Sobel Penguin, 1996 ISBN 0140258795, 9780140258790
  85. ^ Drake (1978, pp.19,20). At the time when Viviani asserts that the experiment took place, Galileo had not yet formulated the final version of his law of free fall. He had, however, formulated an earlier version which predicted that bodies of the same material falling through the same medium would fall at the same speed (Drake, 1978, p.20).
  86. ^ Drake (1978, p.9); Sharratt (1994, p.31).
  87. ^ Groleau, Rick. "Galileo's Battle for the Heavens. July 2002". http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/galileo/experiments.html.  Ball, Phil. "Science history: setting the record straight. 30 June 2005". http://www.hindu.com/seta/2005/06/30/stories/2005063000351500.htm.  An exception is Drake (1978, pp.19–21, 414–416), who argues that the experiment did take place, more or less as Viviani described it.
  88. ^ Lucretius, De rerum natura II, 225–229; Relevant passage appears in: Lane Cooper, Aristotle, Galileo, and the Tower of Pisa (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1935), page 49.
  89. ^ Simon Stevin, De Beghinselen des Waterwichts, Anvang der Waterwichtdaet, en de Anhang komen na de Beghinselen der Weeghconst en de Weeghdaet [The Elements of Hydrostatics, Preamble to the Practice of Hydrostatics, and Appendix to The Elements of the Statics and The Practice of Weighing] (Leiden, Netherlands: Christoffel Plantijn, 1586) reports an experiment by Stevin and Jan Cornets de Groot in which they dropped lead balls from a church tower in Delft; relevant passage is translated here: E. J. Dijksterhuis, ed., The Principal Works of Simon Stevin (Amsterdam, Netherlands: C. V. Swets & Zeitlinger, 1955) vol. 1, pages 509 and 511. Available on-line at: http://www.library.tudelft.nl/cgi-bin/digitresor/display.cgi?bookname=Mechanics%20I&page=509
  90. ^ Sharratt (1994, p.203), Galilei (1954, pp.251–54).
  91. ^ Sharratt (1994, p.198), Galilei (1954, p.174).
  92. ^ Clagett (1968, p.561).
  93. ^ Sharratt (1994, p.198), Wallace (2004, pp.II 384, II 400, III 272) Soto, however, did not anticipate many of the qualifications and refinements contained in Galileo's theory of falling bodies. He did not, for instance, recognise, as Galileo did, that a body would only fall with a strictly uniform acceleration in a vacuum, and that it would otherwise eventually reach a uniform terminal velocity.
  94. ^ Newton, R. G. (2004). Galileo's Pendulum: From the Rhythm of Time to the Making of Matter. Harvard University Press. p. 51. ISBN 067401331X. 
  95. ^ Galileo Galilei, Two New Sciences, (Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Pr., 1974) p. 50.
  96. ^ I. Bernard Cohen, "Roemer and the First Determination of the Velocity of Light (1676)," Isis, 31 (1940): 327–379, see pp. 332–333
  97. ^ Brodrick (1965, c1964, p.95) quoting Cardinal Bellarmine's letter to Foscarini, dated 12 April 1615. Translated from Favaro(1902, 12:171–172) (Italian).
  98. ^ Sobel, Dava (2000, pp.223-225) [1999]. Galileo's Daughter. London: Fourth Estate. ISBN 1-85702-712-4.
  99. ^ Finocchiaro (1997, p.82); Moss & Wallace (2003, p.11)
  100. ^ See Langford (1966, pp.133–134), and Seeger (1966, p.30), for example. Drake (1978, p.355) asserts that Simplicio's character is modelled on the Aristotelian philosophers, Lodovico delle Colombe and Cesare Cremonini, rather than Urban. He also considers that the demand for Galileo to include the Pope's argument in the Dialogue left him with no option but to put it in the mouth of Simplicio (Drake, 1953, p.491). Even Arthur Koestler, who is generally quite harsh on Galileo in The Sleepwalkers (1959), after noting that Urban suspected Galileo of having intended Simplicio to be a caricature of him, says "this of course is untrue" (1959, p.483)
  101. ^ Fantoli (2005, p.139), Finocchiaro (1989, p.288–293). Finocchiaro's translation of the Inquisition's judgement against Galileo is available on-line. "Vehemently suspect of heresy" was a technical term of canon law and did not necessarily imply that the Inquisition considered the opinions giving rise to the verdict to be heretical. The same verdict would have been possible even if the opinions had been subject only to the less serious censure of "erroneous in faith" (Fantoli, 2005, p.140; Heilbron, 2005, pp.282-284).
  102. ^ Drake (1978, p.367), Sharratt (1994, p.184), Favaro(1905, 16:209, 230)(Italian). See Galileo affair for further details.
  103. ^ Drake (1978, p.356). The phrase "Eppur si muove" does appear, however, in a painting of the 1640s by the Spanish painter Bartolomé Esteban Murillo or an artist of his school. The painting depicts an imprisoned Galileo apparently pointing to a copy of the phrase written on the wall of his dungeon (Drake, 1978, p.357).
  104. ^ Stephen Hawking, ed. p. 398, On the Shoulders of Giants :"Galileo ... is the father of modern physics -- indeed of modern science"—Albert Einstein.
  105. ^ Shea & Artigas (2003, p.199); Sobel (2000, p.378).
  106. ^ Shea & Artigas (2003, p.199); Sobel (2000, p.378); Sharratt (1994, p.207); Favaro(1906,18:378–80) (Italian).
  107. ^ Monumental tomb of Galileo. Institute and Museum of the History of Science, Florence, Italy. Retrieved 2010-02-15.
  108. ^ Shea & Artigas (2003, p.199); Sobel (2000, p.380).
  109. ^ Shea & Artigas (2003, p.200); Sobel (2000, p.380–384).
  110. ^ Heilbron (2005, p.299).
  111. ^ Two of his non-scientific works, the letters to Castelli and the Grand Duchess Christina, were explicitly not allowed to be included (Coyne 2005, p.347).
  112. ^ Heilbron (2005, p.303–04); Coyne (2005, p.347). The uncensored version of the Dialogue remained on the Index of prohibited books, however (Heilbron 2005, p.279).
  113. ^ Heilbron (2005, p.307); Coyne (2005, p.347) The practical effect of the ban in its later years seems to have been that clergy could publish discussions of heliocentric physics with a formal disclaimer assuring its hypothetical character and their obedience to the church decrees against motion of the earth: see for example the commented edition (1742) of Newton's 'Principia' by Fathers Le Seur and Jacquier, which contains such a disclaimer ('Declaratio') before the third book (Propositions 25 onwards) dealing with the lunar theory.
  114. ^ McMullin (2005, p.6); Coyne (2005, p.346). In fact, the Church's opposition had effectively ended in 1820 when a Catholic canon, Giuseppe Settele, was given permission to publish a work which treated heliocentism as a physical fact rather than a mathematical fiction. The 1835 edition of the Index was the first to be issued after that year.
  115. ^ Discourse of His Holiness Pope Pius XII given on 3 December 1939 at the Solemn Audience granted to the Plenary Session of the Academy, Discourses of the Popes from Pius XI to John Paul II to the Pontifical Academy of the Sciences 1939-1986, Vatican City, p.34
  116. ^ Robert Leiber, Pius XII Stimmen der Zeit, November 1958 in Pius XII. Sagt, Frankfurt 1959, p.411
  117. ^ An earlier version had been delivered on 16 December 1989, in Rieti, and a later version in Madrid on 24 February 1990 (Ratzinger, 1994, p.81). According to Feyerabend himself, Ratzinger had also mentioned him "in support of" his own views in a speech in Parma around the same time (Feyerabend, 1995, p.178).
  118. ^ a b c Ratzinger (1994, p.98).
  119. ^ "Vatican admits Galileo was right". New Scientist. 1992-11-07. http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg13618460.600-vatican-admits-galileo-was-right-.html. Retrieved 2007-08-09. .
  120. ^ "Papal visit scuppered by scholars". BBC News. 2008-01-15. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/7188860.stm. Retrieved 2008-01-16. 
  121. ^ "Vatican recants with a statue of Galileo". London: TimesOnline News. 2008-03-04. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/faith/article3478943.ece. Retrieved 2009-03-02. 
  122. ^ "Pope praises Galileo's astronomy". BBC News. 2008-12-21. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7794668.stm. Retrieved 2008-12-22. 
  123. ^ Hydrostatic balance, The Galileo Project, http://galileo.rice.edu/sci/instruments/balance.html, retrieved 2008-07-17 
  124. ^ The Works of Galileo, The University of Oklahoma, College of Arts and Sciences, http://hsci.ou.edu/exhibits/exhibit.php?exbgrp=1&exbid=10&exbpg=1, retrieved 2008-07-17 
  125. ^ Sunspots and Floating Bodies, The University of Oklahoma, College of Arts and Sciences, http://hsci.ou.edu/exhibits/exhibit.php?exbgrp=1&exbid=13&exbpg=2, retrieved 2008-07-17 
  126. ^ Galileo, Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina, The University of Oklahoma, College of Arts and Sciences, http://hsci.ou.edu/exhibits/exhibit.php?exbgrp=1&exbid=14&exbpg=3, retrieved 2008-07-17 
  127. ^ Galileo's Theory of the Tides, The Galileo Project, http://galileo.rice.edu/sci/observations/tides.html, retrieved 2008-07-17 
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  130. ^ "Collection of Galileo Galilei's Manuscripts and Related Translations". http://echo.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/content/scientific_revolution/galileo. Retrieved 2009-12-04. 
  131. ^ Fischer, Daniel (2001). Mission Jupiter: The Spectacular Journey of the Galileo Spacecraft. Springer. pp. v. ISBN 0-387-98764-9. 
  132. ^ United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (11 August 2005). "Proclamation of 2009 as International year of Astronomy" (PDF). UNESCO. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001403/140317e.pdf. Retrieved 2008-06-10. 
  133. ^ Stavis, Barrie. Lamp at Midnight. New York: A.S. Barnes, 1966
  134. ^ http://www.archive.org/search.php?query=robert%20lalonde%20AND%20collection%3Aopensource

See also

References

.
  • Allan-Olney, Mary (1870).^ Allan-Olney, Mary.
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Private Life of Galileo: Compiled primarily from his correspondence and that of his eldest daughter, Sister Maria Celeste.^ The private Life of Galileo: Compiled primarily from his correspondence and that of his eldest daughter, Sister Maria Celeste , (nun in the Franciscan convent of St. Matthew, in Arcetri), 1870, Boston : Nichols and Noyes.
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ April 1634 – Galileo’s daughter, Maria Celeste, dies.
    • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Google Books : The private Life of Galileo - The Internet Archive Biagioli, Mario (1993).
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Boston: Nichols and Noyes. .http://books.google.com/books?id=zWcSAAAAIAAJ.^ AUTHOR Gevers, Gustav TITLE De Lysia Epitaphii auctore caput alterum URL http://books.google.com/books?id=MtKNVHMR4H0C&pg=PA1&dq=dissertatio&as_brr=1#PPP3,M1 SITE Google Books SUBJECT Philology NOTES Dpr of the 1839 Göttingen edition .

    ^ Retrieved 11 August 2007 ↑ Singer, Charles (1941), A Short History of Science to the Nineteenth Century , Clarendon Press , http://www.google.com.au/books?id=mPIgAAAAMAAJ&pgis=1 (page 217) ↑ a b Weidhorn, Manfred (2005).
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ AUTHOR Gebhard, Friedrich TITLE De Plutarchi in Demosthenis vita fontibus ac fide URL http://books.google.com/books?id=4uJx9zKf3SUC&pg=PA1&dq=dissertatio&as_brr=1 SITE Google Books SUBJECT Philology NOTES Dpr of the 1880 Munich edition .

    .Retrieved 2008-06-09.
     
  • Biagioli, Mario (1993).^ Google Books : The private Life of Galileo - The Internet Archive Biagioli, Mario (1993).
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Galileo, Courtier: The Practice of Science in the Culture of Absolutism.^ Galileo, Courtier: The Practice of Science in the Culture of Absolutism .
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 
  • Blackwell, Richard J. (2006). Behind the Scenes at Galileo's Trial. .Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.^ Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ISBN 0-268-02201-1. 
  • Brodrick, James, S. J. (1965) [c1964].^ Brodrick (1965, c1964, p.95) quoting Cardinal Bellarmine's letter to Foscarini , dated April 12, 1615.
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ISBN 0-13-964131-9 Brodrick, James, S.J. [c1964] (1965).
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Galileo: the man, his work, his misfortunes. London: G. Chapman. 
  • Clagett, Marshall (editor & translator) (1968). .Nicole Oresme and the Medieval Geometry of Qualities and Motions; a treatise on the uniformity and difformity of intensities known as Tractatus de configurationibus qualitatum et motuum.^ TITLE Tractatus de beneficiis amplissimus et doctissimus declarationibus cardinalium S. Congr.

    Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-04880-2.
     
  • Clavelin, Maurice (1974). .The Natural Philosophy of Galileo.^ His mathematical analyses are a further development of a tradition employed by late scholastic natural philosophers, which Galileo learned when he studied philosophy.
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    MIT Press.
     
  • Coffa, J. (1968). "Galileo's Concept of Inertia". Physis Riv. Internaz. .Storia Sci. 10: 261–281. 
  • Consolmagno, Guy; Schaefer, Marta (1994).^ Consolmagno, Guy; Schaefer, Marta (1994).
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Worlds Apart, A Textbook in Planetary Science. .Englewood, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.^ Englewood, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0-13-964131-9. 
  • Cooper, Lane (1935). .Aristotle, Galileo, and the Tower of Pisa.^ Relevant passage also appears in: Lane Cooper, Artistotle, Galileo, and the Tower of Pisa (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1935), page 47.
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Lists of Galileo's predecessors in falling bodies experiment: Lane Cooper, Artistotle, Galileo, and the Tower of Pisa (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1935).
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. .ISBN 1-4067-5263-0. 
  • Coyne, George V., S.J. (2005).^ Coyne, George V., S.J. (2005).
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The Church's Most Recent Attempt to Dispel the Galileo Myth. .In McMullin (2005, pp.340–359). 
  • Drabkin, Israel; Drake, Stillman, eds (1960).^ Censorship of Astronomy in Italy after Galileo , In McMullin (2005, pp.279–322) .
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Template:Wikicite Drake, Stillman, and O'Malley, C.D. (translators) (1960).
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In Drake & O'Malley (1960, pp.67–132) .
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    On Motion and On Mechanics. University of Wisconsin Press. .ISBN 0-299-02030-4. 
  • Drake, Stillman (translator) (1953).^ Drake, Stillman (translator) (1953).
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Template:Wikicite Drake, Stillman, and O'Malley, C.D. (translators) (1960).
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Assayer , translated by Stillman Drake.
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems.^ Galileo’s Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is taken off the Vatican’s list of banned books.
    • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ When Galileo wrote the Dialogue on the Two World Systems, he used an argument the pope had offered, and placed it in the mouth of his character Simplicio.
    • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He declares that the Copernican case was made too strongly in his book Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, and offers to refute it in another book.
    • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 
  • Drake, Stillman (1957).^ Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo. New York: Doubleday & Company. ISBN 0-385-09239-3. 
  • Drake, Stillman (1960). .Introduction to the Controversy on the Comets of 1618.^ Introduction to the Controversy on the Comets of 1618 , In Drake & O'Malley (1960, pp.vii–xxv) .
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Controversy on the Comets of 1618 .
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In Drake & O'Malley (1960, pp.vii–xxv). 
  • Drake, Stillman (1970).^ Template:Wikicite Drake, Stillman, and O'Malley, C.D. (translators) (1960).
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In Drake & O'Malley (1960, pp.67–132) .
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Introduction to the Controversy on the Comets of 1618 , In Drake & O'Malley (1960, pp.vii–xxv) .
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Galileo Studies. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08283-3. 
  • Drake, Stillman (1973). ."Galileo's Discovery of the Law of Free Fall.". Scientific American 228 (5): 84–92. 
  • Drake, Stillman (1978).^ Galileo’s theory was just the manifestation of free thought in a scientific context.
    • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Church forcing Galileo to recant wasn’t based on a scientific disagreement, it was because his scientific discoveries differed from what goat herders thought was true thousands of years earlier.
    • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ One that became a favorite was Stillman Drake’s _Galileo at Work_, which attempts to illuminate how Galileo stumbled onto his various discoveries in mechanics and astronomy.
    • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    Galileo At Work. .Chicago: University of Chicago Press.^ Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Chicago, MI: University of Chicago Press.
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Between Copernicus and Galileo: Christopher Clavius and the Collapse of Ptolemaic Cosmology , Chicago: the University of Chicago Press Langford, Jerome K., O.P. [1966] (1998).
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0-226-16226-5. 
  • Drake, Stillman (1990). Galileo: Pioneer Scientist. Toronto: The University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-2725-3. 
  • Drake, Stillman, and O'Malley, C.D. (translators) (1960). The Controversy on the Comets of 1618. Philadelphia, PA: University of Philadelphia Press. 
  • Dugas, René (1988) [1955]. A History of Mechanics. Dover Publications. 
  • Duhem, Pierre (1906-13). Etudes sur Leonard de Vinci. 
  • Duhem, Pierre (1913). Le Systeme du Monde. 
  • Duhem, Pierre. "History of Physics". Catholic Encyclopedia. 
  • Einstein, Albert (1953). "Foreword". in Drake, Stillman. .Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems.^ Galileo’s Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is taken off the Vatican’s list of banned books.
    • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ When Galileo wrote the Dialogue on the Two World Systems, he used an argument the pope had offered, and placed it in the mouth of his character Simplicio.
    • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He declares that the Copernican case was made too strongly in his book Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, and offers to refute it in another book.
    • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
     
  • Einstein, Albert (1954). Ideas and Opinions. translated by Sonja Bargmann. London: Crown Publishers. ISBN 0-285-64724-5. 
  • Fantoli, Annibale (2003). .Galileo — For Copernicanism and the Church (third English ed.^ If you look at how the Church handled the Copernican writing, you will see how Galileo pushed it into the theological realm.
    • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

    ). Vatican Observatory Publications. ISBN 88-209-7427-4.
     
  • Fantoli, Annibale (2005). .The Disputed Injunction and its Role in Galileo's Trial.^ Most of the 1633 trial turned on whether or not Galileo had violated the 1616 injunction.
    • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

    In McMullin (2005, pp.117–149).
     
  • Favaro, Antonio, ed (1890–1909; reprinted 1929–1939 and 1964–1966) (in italian). .Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, Edizione Nazionale [The Works of Galileo Galilei, National Edition].^ AUTHOR Galilei, Galileo (1564 - 1642) TITLE Opere di Galileo Galilei URL In this javascript-driven site you must go to this page and select the item SITE Instituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza SUBJECT Astronomy NOTES Dpr of the 1656 Bologna edition .

    ^ AUTHOR Galilei, Galileo (1564 - 1642) TITLE Opere di Galileo Galilei URL In this javascript-driven site you must go to this page and select the item SITE Instituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza SUBJECT Astronomy NOTES Dpr of the 1808 1811 Milan edition .

    ^ AUTHOR Galilei, Galileo (1564 - 1642) TITLE Le opere di Galileo Galilei URL In this javascript-driven site you must go to this page and select the item SITE Instituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza SUBJECT Astronomy NOTES Dpr of the 1929 - 1939 Florence edition .

    Florence: Barbera. ISBN 88-09-20881-1. .http://moro.imss.fi.it/lettura/LetturaWEB.DLL?AZIONE=CATALOGO.  A searchable online copy is available on the Institute and Museum of the History of Science, Florence, and a brief overview of Le Opere is available at Finn's fine books, and here.
  • Feyerabend, Paul (1975).^ URL http://bibbild.abo.fi/diss/diss.php?katalog=Gezelius1667 SITE Åbo Akademis Bibliotek SUBJECT Religion NOTES Dpr of the 1667 Åbo edition (downloadable pdf file available here ) .

    Againat Method. Verso. 
  • Feyerabend, Paul (1995). Killing Time: The Autobiography of Paul Feyerabend. Chicago, MI: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-24531-4. 
  • Fillmore, Charles (July 2004) [1931]. Metaphysical Bible Dictionary (17th ed.). Unity Village, Missouri: Unity House. ISBN 0-87159-067-0. 
  • Finocchiaro, Maurice A. (1997). .Galileo on the world systems: a new abridged translation and guide.^ When Galileo wrote the Dialogue on the Two World Systems, he used an argument the pope had offered, and placed it in the mouth of his character Simplicio.
    • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Galileo’s Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is taken off the Vatican’s list of banned books.
    • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-20548-0. .http://books.google.com.au/books?id=Li4eh7JIMtIC. 
  • Finocchiaro, Maurice A. (1989).^ AUTHOR Gevers, Gustav TITLE De Lysia Epitaphii auctore caput alterum URL http://books.google.com/books?id=MtKNVHMR4H0C&pg=PA1&dq=dissertatio&as_brr=1#PPP3,M1 SITE Google Books SUBJECT Philology NOTES Dpr of the 1839 Göttingen edition .

    ^ AUTHOR Gebhard, Friedrich TITLE De Plutarchi in Demosthenis vita fontibus ac fide URL http://books.google.com/books?id=4uJx9zKf3SUC&pg=PA1&dq=dissertatio&as_brr=1 SITE Google Books SUBJECT Philology NOTES Dpr of the 1880 Munich edition .

    ^ AUTHOR Gaylor, G. F. TITLE Particulorum Graecae sermonis negativarum...accurata disputatio URL http://books.google.com/books?id=UNsDAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=intitle:disputatio&lr=&as_brr=1 SITE Google Books SUBJECT Language studies NOTES Dpr of the 1836 Tübingen - Leipzig edition .

    The Galileo Affair: A Documentary History. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-06662-6. .http://books.google.com.au/books?id=wKCZFJuMCaQC&printsec=frontcover&#v=onepage&q=&f=false. 
  • Finocchiaro, Maurice A. (Fall 2007).^ AUTHOR Gevers, Gustav TITLE De Lysia Epitaphii auctore caput alterum URL http://books.google.com/books?id=MtKNVHMR4H0C&pg=PA1&dq=dissertatio&as_brr=1#PPP3,M1 SITE Google Books SUBJECT Philology NOTES Dpr of the 1839 Göttingen edition .

    ^ URL http://books.google.com/books?id=JYNw3oaf_8YC&pg=PR127&dq=dissertatio&as_brr=1#PPP5,M1 SITE Google Books SUBJECT Philology NOTES Dpr of the 1757 Zweibrücken edition .

    ^ AUTHOR Gehle, Hendrik TITLE De Bedae venerabilis presbyteri Anglo-Saxonis vita et scriptis URL http://books.google.com/books?id=ikEAAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=intitle:disputatio&lr=&as_brr=1 SITE Google Books SUBJECT Philology NOTES Dpr of the 1818 Leiden edition .

    ."Book Review—The Person of the Millennium: The Unique Impact of Galileo on World History". The Historian 69 (3): 601–602. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6563.2007.00189_68.x. 
  • Galilei, Galileo (1960) [1623].^ But I would say that a) to compare him to Galileo maybe a bit extreme, seeing the position of Galileo in the history of Science and the world for that matter and b) I didnt start it.
    • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Galileo’s Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is taken off the Vatican’s list of banned books.
    • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    The Assayer. translated by Stillman Drake. In Drake & O'Malley (1960, pp.151–336). 
  • Galilei, Galileo (1954) [1638, 1914]. Crew, Henry; de Salvio, Alfonso. eds. .Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences.^ Summer 1632 – Distribution of Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is stopped by Pope Urban VIII. The Pope authorizes a special commission to examine the book.
    • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ February 1632 – Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is printed.
    • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Galileo’s Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is taken off the Vatican’s list of banned books.
    • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    New York, NY: Dover Publications Inc.. ISBN 486-60099-8. .http://oll.libertyfund.org/index.php?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.php%3Ftitle=753&Itemid=99999999. 
  • Galilei, Galileo Galileo: Two New Sciences (Translation by Stillman Drake of Galileo's 1638 Discourses and mathematical demonstrations concerning two new sciences) University of Wisconsin Press 1974 ISBN 0-299-06400-X
  • Galilei, Galileo, and Guiducci, Mario (1960) [1619].^ AUTHOR Galilei, Galileo: see Orazio Grassi (two items) .

    ^ One that became a favorite was Stillman Drake’s _Galileo at Work_, which attempts to illuminate how Galileo stumbled onto his various discoveries in mechanics and astronomy.
    • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ AUTHOR Galilei, Galileo (1564 - 1642) TITLE Sidereus Nuncius (1610) URL http://www.liberliber.it/biblioteca/g/galilei/sidereus_nuncius/html/index.htm SITE Liber Liber SUBJECT Astronomy NOTES Latin and Italian translation; html format (downloadable in zipped html, rtf, and text formats from this page ) .

    Discourse on the Comets. translated by Stillman Drake. In Drake & O'Malley (1960, pp.21–65). 
  • von Gebler, Karl (1879). Galileo Galilei and the Roman Curia. London: C.K. Paul & Co.. .http://books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC02415342&id=FheRZAirWvQC. 
  • Geymonat, Ludovico (1965), Galileo Galilei, A biography and inquiry into his philosophy and science, translation of the 1957 Italian edition, with notes and appendix by Stillman Drake, McGraw-Hill
  • Grant, Edward Aristotle, Philoponus, Avempace, and Galileo's Pisan Dynamics Centaurus, 11, 1965-7
  • Grassi, Horatio (1960a) [1619].^ Please check this classic paper from Stillman Drake Galileo first telescopes at Padua and Venice first published in "Isis", vol.50 (1959), 245-254.
    • Galileo's telescope reaches 400th anniversary | Technology | guardian.co.uk 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ AUTHOR Galilei, Galileo (1564 - 1642) TITLE Sidereus Nuncius (1610) URL http://www.liberliber.it/biblioteca/g/galilei/sidereus_nuncius/html/index.htm SITE Liber Liber SUBJECT Astronomy NOTES Latin and Italian translation; html format (downloadable in zipped html, rtf, and text formats from this page ) .

    ^ AUTHOR Gevers, Gustav TITLE De Lysia Epitaphii auctore caput alterum URL http://books.google.com/books?id=MtKNVHMR4H0C&pg=PA1&dq=dissertatio&as_brr=1#PPP3,M1 SITE Google Books SUBJECT Philology NOTES Dpr of the 1839 Göttingen edition .

    On the Three Comets of the Year MDCXIII. translated by C.D. O'Malley. In Drake & O'Malley (1960, pp.3–19). 
  • Grassi, Horatio (1960b) [1619]. The Astronomical and Philosophical Balance. translated by C.D. O'Malley. In Drake & O'Malley (1960, pp.67–132). 
  • Grisar, Hartmann, S.J., Professor of Church history at the University of Innsbruck (1882). .Historisch theologische Untersuchungen über die Urtheile Römischen Congegationen im Galileiprocess (Historico-theological Discussions concerning the Decisions of the Roman Congregations in the case of Galileo), Regensburg: Pustet. – Google Books ISBN 0-7905-6229-4. (LCC# QB36 – microfiche) Reviewed here (1883), pp.211–213
  • Hall, A. R. From Galileo to Newton 1963
  • Hall, A. R. Galileo and the Science of Motion in 'British Journal of History of Science', 2 1964-5
  • Hoskin, Michael (Ed) The Cambridge concise history of astronomy CUP 1999
  • Hawking, Stephen (1988).^ There is little question that if Galileo had kept the discussion within the accepted boundaries of astronomy (i.e., predicting planetary motions) and had not claimed physical truth for the heliocentric theory, the issue would not have escalated to the point it did.
    • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As I explained above but you apparently ignored, the Catholic Church’s decisions resulted from events which Galileo himself help put into motion.
    • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ September 1632 – Based on the special commission’s report, the Pope refers Galileo’s case to the Roman Inquisition.
    • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    A Brief History of Time. New York, NY: Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-34614-8. 
  • Heilbron, John L. (2005). Censorship of Astronomy in Italy after Galileo. In McMullin (2005, pp.279–322). 
  • Hellman, Hal (1988). Great Feuds in Science. Ten of the Liveliest Disputes Ever. New York: Wiley
  • Jarrel, Richard A. (1989). The contemporaries of Tycho Brahe. In Taton and Wilson (1989, pp.22–32). 
  • Kelter, Irving A. (2005). The Refusal to Accommodate. Jesuit Exegetes and the Copernican System. .In McMullin (2005, pp.38–53). 
  • Humphreys, W. C. Galileo, Falling Bodies and Inclined Planes.^ In Galileo’s day Theology was the queen of all of the ’sciences’ (broadly construed) and considered a higher calling than rolling balls down inclined planes.
    • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

    .An Attempt at Reconstructing Galileo's Discovery of the Law of Squares
    'British Journal of History of Science' 1967
  • Koestler, Arthur (1990) [1959].^ Galileo, a good Catholic, attempted to cross science and religion.
    • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ One that became a favorite was Stillman Drake’s _Galileo at Work_, which attempts to illuminate how Galileo stumbled onto his various discoveries in mechanics and astronomy.
    • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Galileo’s example is a valuable one, and you do science, if not history, a disservice if you depreciate it in this way.
    • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    The Sleepwalkers: A History of Man's Changing Vision of the Universe. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-019246-8.  Original edition published by Hutchinson (1959, London).
  • Koyré, Alexandre A Documentary History of the Problem of Fall from Kepler to Newton Transaction of the American Philosophical Society, 1955
  • Koyré, Alexandre Galilean Studies Harvester Press 1978
  • Kuhn, T. The Copernican Revolution 1957
  • Kuhn, T. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions 1962
  • Lattis, James M. (1994). Between Copernicus and Galileo: Christopher Clavius and the Collapse of Ptolemaic Cosmology, Chicago: the University of Chicago Press
  • Langford, Jerome K., O.P. (1998) [1966]. .Galileo, Science and the Church (third ed.^ Was it the Galileo/Science side, or the Jesuit/Church side?
    • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Not that Galileo attempted some kind of union between science and the Church, but rather, that his science contradicted the Church.
    • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But there is ongoing confusion about this event precisely because the Church (not Galileo) mixed religion and science when it declared Copernicus “theologically false”.
    • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

    ). St. Augustine's Press. ISBN 1-890318-25-6.
     . Original edition by Desclee (New York, NY, 1966)
  • Lessl, Thomas, "The Galileo Legend." New Oxford Review, 27–33 (June 2000).
  • Linton, Christopher M. (2004). From Eudoxus to Einstein—A History of Mathematical Astronomy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-82750-8. 
  • Losee, J. Drake, Galileo, and the Law of Inertia American Journal of Physics, 34, p. 430-2 1966
  • McMullin, Ernan, ed. (2005). The Church and Galileo. .Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.^ Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
    • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0-268-03483-4.
     
  • McMullin, Ernan, (2005a). The Church's Ban on Copernicanism, 1616. In McMullin (2005, pp.150–190). 
  • Mach, Ernst. The Science of Mechanics 1893
  • Machamer, Peter (Ed) The Cambridge Companion to Galileo Cambridge University Press 1998
  • Moss, Jean Dietz; Wallace, William (2003). Rhetoric & dialectic in the time of Galileo. Washington D.C.: CUA Press. ISBN 0-8132-1331-2. .http://books.google.com.au/books?id=Lw50esHmgacC. 
  • Naylor, Ronald H. (1990).^ AUTHOR Gevers, Gustav TITLE De Lysia Epitaphii auctore caput alterum URL http://books.google.com/books?id=MtKNVHMR4H0C&pg=PA1&dq=dissertatio&as_brr=1#PPP3,M1 SITE Google Books SUBJECT Philology NOTES Dpr of the 1839 Göttingen edition .

    ^ AUTHOR Gebhard, Friedrich TITLE De Plutarchi in Demosthenis vita fontibus ac fide URL http://books.google.com/books?id=4uJx9zKf3SUC&pg=PA1&dq=dissertatio&as_brr=1 SITE Google Books SUBJECT Philology NOTES Dpr of the 1880 Munich edition .

    ^ AUTHOR Gaylor, G. F. TITLE Particulorum Graecae sermonis negativarum...accurata disputatio URL http://books.google.com/books?id=UNsDAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=intitle:disputatio&lr=&as_brr=1 SITE Google Books SUBJECT Language studies NOTES Dpr of the 1836 Tübingen - Leipzig edition .

    "Galileo's Method of Analysis and Synthesis," Isis, 81: 695–707
  • Newall, Paul (2004). "The Galileo Affair"
  • Ondra, Leos (July 2004). "A New View of Mizar". Sky & Telescope: 72–75. 
  • Remmert, Volker R. (2005). "Galileo, God, and Mathematics". in Koetsier, Teun; Bergmans, Luc. Mathematics and the Divine. A Historical Study. Amsterdam: Elsevier. pp. 347–360. 
  • Ratzinger, Joseph Cardinal (1994). Turning point for Europe? The Church in the Modern World—Assessment and Forecast. translated from the 1991 German edition by Brian McNeil. San Francisco, CA: Ignatius Press. ISBN 0-89870-461-8. OCLC 60292876. 
  • Reston, James (2000). Galileo: A Life. Beard Books. ISBN 1-893122-62-X. 
  • Seeger, Raymond J. (1966). Galileo Galilei, his life and his works. Oxford: Pergamon Press. 
  • Settle, Thomas B. (1961). "An Experiment in the History of Science". Science 133: 19–23. doi:10.1126/science.133.3445.19. 
  • Sharratt, Michael (1994). Galileo: Decisive Innovator. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-56671-1. 
  • Shapere, Dudley Galileo, a Philosophical Study University of Chicago Press 1974
  • Shea, William R. and Artigas, Mario (2003). Galileo in Rome: The Rise and Fall of a Troublesome Genius. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-516598-5. 
  • Sobel, Dava (2000) [1999]. Galileo's Daughter. London: Fourth Estate. ISBN 1-85702-712-4. 
  • Taton, René; Wilson, Curtis, eds (1989). Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics Part A: Tycho Brahe to Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24254-1. 
  • Thoren, Victor E. (1989). Tycho Brahe. In Taton and Wilson (1989, pp.3-21). 
  • Van Helden, Albert (1989). .Galileo, telescopic astronomy, and the Copernican system.^ The full title is " DIALOGUE CONCERNING THE TWO CHIEF WORLD SYSTEMS: THE PTOLEMAIC AND THE COPERNICAN. " The book, published in 1632, summarizes Galileo Galilei’s ideas and views on questions from the field of astronomy.
    • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

    In Taton and Wilson (1989, pp.81-105).
     
  • Wallace, William A. (1984) Galileo and His Sources: The Heritage of the Collegio Romano in Galileo's Science, (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Pr.), ISBN 0-691-08355-X
  • Wallace, William A. (2004). Domingo de Soto and the Early Galileo. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0-86078-964-0. 
  • White, Andrew Dickson (1898). A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom. New York: D. Appleton and Company. http://cscs.umich.edu/~crshalizi/White/. 
  • White, Michael (2007). Galileo: Antichrist: A Biography. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-297-84868-4. 
  • Wisan, Winifred Lovell (1984). "Galileo and the Process of Scientific Creation". Isis 75: 269–286. 
  • Zik, Yaakov (2001). "Science and Instruments: The telescope as a scientific instrument at the beginning of the seventeenth century". Perspectives on Science 9 (3): 259–284. 

External links

.

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

I do not feel obliged to believe that the same God who has endowed us with senses, reason, and intellect has intended us to forgo their use and by some other means to give us knowledge which we can attain by them.
.Galileo Galilei (15 February 15648 January 1642) was an Italian physicist and astronomer.^ Galileo (Galileo Galilei) , 1564-1642, great Italian astronomer, mathematician, and physicist.
  • Galileo Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Galileo 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo Galilei Galileo Galilei, 1564 - 1642 .
  • Galileo Galilei 15 September 2009 10:36 UTC geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GALILEO GALILEI (1564-1642), Italian astronomer and experimental philosopher, was born at Pisa on the 15th of February 1564.
  • Galileo Galilei - LoveToKnow 1911 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.italylink.com [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Sourced

My dear Kepler, what would you say of the learned here, who, replete with the pertinacity of the asp, have steadfastly refused to cast a glance through the telescope?
The modern observations deprive all former writers of any authority, since if they had seen what we see, they would have judged as we judge.
You cannot teach a man anything, you can only help him to find it within himself.
Philosophy is written in that great book which ever lies before our eyes — I mean the universe — but we cannot understand it if we do not first learn the language and grasp the symbols, in which it is written.
Light held together by moisture.
.
All truths are easy to understand once they are discovered; the point is to discover them.
  • I esteem myself happy to have as great an ally as you in my search for truth. I will read your work ...^ All Galileo Galilei Quotations: All truths are easy to understand...
    • Galileo Galilei Quotes 15 September 2009 10:36 UTC www.brainyquote.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ All truths are easy to understand once they are discovered; the point is to discover them.” .
    • Galileo Galilei quotes 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thinkexist.com [Source type: General]

    ^ But they don’t have all the truth.
    • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

    all the more willingly because .I have for many years been a partisan of the Copernican view because it reveals to me the causes of many natural phenomena that are entirely incomprehensible in the light of the generally accepted hypothesis.^ I have for many years been a partisan of the Copernican view because it reveals to me the causes of many natural phenomena that are entirely incomprehensible in the light of the generally accepted hypothesis.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Reasoning (27) It reveals to me the causes of many natural phenomena that are entirely incomprehensible in the light of the generally accepted hypotheses.
    • Galileo Galilei Quotes - Dictionary of Science Quotations and Scientist Quotes 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In 1597, he was already corresponding with Johannes Kepler and a firm believer in the Copernican system, although he remained silent on this point because the Aristotelian system was still generally accepted by academics.
    • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC history.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .To refute the latter I have collected many proofs, but I do not publish them, because I am deterred by the fate of our teacher Copernicus who, although he had won immortal fame with a few, was ridiculed and condemned by countless people (for very great is the number of the stupid).^ Copernicus, who, although he has earned immortal fame among a few, yet by an infinite number (for so only can the number of fools be measured) is hissed and derided.

    ^ To refute the latter I have collected many proofs, but I do not publish them, because I am deterred by the fate of our teacher Copernicus who, although he had won immortal fame with a few, was ridiculed and condemned by countless people (for very great is the number of the stupid).
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He chose to publish because “I do not believe that the same God who has endowed us with senses, reason and intellect has intended us to forgo their use.
    • Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance . Renaissance . Galileo | PBS 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Letter to Johannes Kepler (1596), as quoted in The Story of Civilization : The Age of Reason Begins, 1558-1648 (1935) by Will Durant, p.^ Johannes Kepler sends a letter in support of Galileo's discoveries.
      • Galileo Timeline 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC physics.ship.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ In 1597, Galileo was to receive his first contact from Johannes Kepler, then aged 26 and employed as Professor of Mathematics at Grantz in Austria.
      • Skyscript: The Life and Work of Galileo by Deborah Houlding 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC skyscript.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ But in 1597, he did write in a letter to Johannes Kepler: "The model of Copernicus appears to be more plausible than that of Aristotle."
      • | 400 years invention of the telescope | 1608-2008 - Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.inventionofthetelescope.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .603
  • What has philosophy got to do with measuring anything?^ What has philosophy got to do with measuring anything?
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "What has philosophy got to do with measuring anything?"
    • Galileo Galilei - Free Encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.wacklepedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Biography of Galileo 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC courses.science.fau.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It's the mathematicians you have to trust, and they measure the skies like we measure a field.^ It's the mathematicians you have to trust, and they measure the skies like we measure a field.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Think of that the next time your child tells you that they can't measure something unless you buy them a ruler.
    • Galileo's Daughter -- A Historical Memoir of Science, Faith, and Love 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.southerncrossreview.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It was the mathematicians, he said, who could be trusted because they didn't care whether they were dealing with quintessence or polenta (which, if you don't know, is a form of Italian porridge made of maize or barley!

    .
    • "Matteo" in Concerning the New Star (1606)
  • My dear Kepler, what would you say of the learned here, who, replete with the pertinacity of the asp, have steadfastly refused to cast a glance through the telescope? What shall we make of this?^ The Trial of Galileo "My dear Kepler, what would you say of the learned here, who, replete with the pertinacity of the asp, have steadfastly refused to cast a glance through the telescope?
    • Geometry.Net - Scientists: Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www5.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ What did I see through my telescope?
    • How did Galileo Gailiei become a famous astronomer? - Yahoo! UK & Ireland Answers 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC uk.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ What would you say is missing?
    • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Shall we laugh, or shall we cry?
    • Letter to Johannes Kepler (1610), as quoted in The Crime of Galileo (1955) by Giorgio De Santillana
  • sì perché l'autorità dell'opinione di mille nelle scienze non val per una scintilla di ragione di un solo, sì perché le presenti osservazioni spogliano d'autorità i decreti de' passati scrittori, i quali se vedute l'avessero, avrebbono diversamente determinato.
    • for in the sciences the authority of thousands of opinions is not worth as much as one tiny spark of reason in an individual man. Besides, the modern observations deprive all former writers of any authority, since if they had seen what we see, they would have judged as we judge.
      • Third letter on sunspots (December 1612) to Mark Wesler (1558 - 1614), as quoted in Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo (1957) by Stillman Drake, p.^ Lettere di Galileo Galilei .
        • Author:Galileo Galilei - Wikisource 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Academic]

        ^ Johannes Kepler sends a letter in support of Galileo's discoveries.
        • Galileo Timeline 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC physics.ship.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

        ^ Galileo's opinion of Kepler was not much better.
        • IPS Appeldoorn: The Myth of Galileo 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.ips-planetarium.org [Source type: Original source]

        .134 - 135; Italian text online at Liber Liber, also from IntraText.
    • Variant translation: In questions of science the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual.
      • As quoted in Biographies of Distinguished Scientific Men (1859) by François Arago, as translated by Baden Powell, Robert Grant, and William Fairbairn, p.^ Sun (37) In questions of science the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual.
        • Galileo Galilei Quotes - Dictionary of Science Quotations and Scientist Quotes 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: Original source]

        ^ One of the most telling is "In questions of science, the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual" (1632).
        • Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) -- from Eric Weisstein's World of Scientific Biography 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC scienceworld.wolfram.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

        ^ The Authority Principle In questions of science, the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual.

        .365
  • Philosophy is written in that great book which ever lies before our eyes — I mean the universe — but we cannot understand it if we do not first learn the language and grasp the symbols, in which it is written. This book is written in the mathematical language, and the symbols are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without whose help it is impossible to comprehend a single word of it; without which one wanders in vain through a dark labyrinth.^ It is written in the language of mathematics, and its characters are triangles, circles and other geometric figures, without which it is humanly impossible to understand a single word of it; without these, one wanders in a dark labyrinth .

    ^ It is written in the language of mathematics, and its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometric figures, without which it is humanly impossible to understand a single word of it; without these, one wanders about in a dark labyrinth."
    • Essay on Galileo Galilei by Wade Rowland author of Galileo's Mistake - Book Review 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.waderowland.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ His fundamental conviction was that the universe is an open book but, as he wrote later in The Assayer, "one cannot understand it unless one first learns to understand the language and recognize the characters in which it is written.

    .
    • The Assayer (1623), as translated by Thomas Salusbury (1661), p.^ A translation of Il saggiatore (1623) is “The Assayer,” in The Controversy on the Comets of 1618, trans.

      ^ Enter Thomas Salusbury, an English historian who in 1664 published his Galilean oeuvre, Mathematical Collections and Translations .
      • Galileo, Reconsidered | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]
      • Galileo, Reconsidered | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

      ^ The Assayer (1623), as translated by Thomas Salusbury (1661), p.
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      .178, as quoted in The Metaphysical Foundations of Modern Science (2003) by Edwin Arthur Burtt, p.^ By his persistent investigation of natural laws he laid foundations for modern experimental science, and by the construction of astronomical telescopes he greatly enlarged humanity's vision and conception of the universe.
      • Galileo Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Galileo 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ But even more importantly, Galileo's use of experiment and observation to prove mathematical descriptions of natural phenomena laid the foundations for the whole of modern science.
      • Channel 4 - History - Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.channel4.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ In 1638 he completed yet another landmark work, Discourses on Two New Sciences provided the foundations for the modern science of mechanics.
      • Galileo Galilei 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.hao.ucar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .75
    • Variant translations:
    • Philosophy is written in this grand book — I mean the universe — which stands continually open to our gaze, but it cannot be understood unless one first learns to comprehend the language in which it is written. It is written in the language of mathematics, and its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometric figures, without which it is humanly impossible to understand a single word of it; without these, one is wandering about in a dark labyrinth.^ It is written in the language of mathematics, and its characters are triangles, circles and other geometric figures, without which it is humanly impossible to understand a single word of it; without these, one wanders in a dark labyrinth .

      ^ It is written in the language of mathematics, and its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometric figures, without which it is humanly impossible to understand a single word of it; without these, one wanders about in a dark labyrinth."
      • Essay on Galileo Galilei by Wade Rowland author of Galileo's Mistake - Book Review 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.waderowland.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ His fundamental conviction was that the universe is an open book but, as he wrote later in The Assayer, "one cannot understand it unless one first learns to understand the language and recognize the characters in which it is written.

      .
      • As translated in The Philosophy of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (1966) by Richard Henry Popkin, p.^ His book, The Star-Gazer , ably translated by Paul Tabor, tells the life story of Galileo, the famous sixteenth century physicist and astronomer.

        ^ As translated in The Philosophy of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (1966) by Richard Henry Popkin, p.
        • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
        • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
        • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

        ^ Contemporary empiricists, had they lived in the sixteenth century, would have been the first to scoff out of court the new philosophy of the universe.’ 55 .
        • The Galileo affair: history or heroic hagiography? 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Original source]

        .65
  • I have been in my bed for five weeks, oppressed with weakness and other infirmities from which my age, seventy four years, permits me not to hope release.^ That was six weeks, five years ago."

    ^ I have been in my bed for five weeks, oppressed with weakness and other infirmities from which my age, seventy four years, permits me not to hope release.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ However, his father had other plans and at age 17 years Galileo was enrolled at the University of Pisa as a medical student.

    .Added to this ( proh dolor! ) the sight of my right eye — that eye whose labors (dare I say it) have had such glorious results — is for ever lost.^ He lost sight in his right eye first, then the left.
    • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.studyworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I say it) have had such glorious results — is for ever lost.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Added to this ( proh dolor!
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .That of the left, which was and is imperfect, is rendered null by continual weeping.^ That of the left, which was and is imperfect, is rendered null by continual weeping.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Letter to Élie Diodati (4 July 1637), as translated in The Private Life of Galileo : Compiled primarily from his correspondence and that of his eldest daughter, Sister Maria Celeste (1870) by Mary Allan-Olney, p.^ Letter to Élie Diodati (2 January 1638), as translated in The Private Life of Galileo : Compiled primarily from his correspondence and that of his eldest daughter, Sister Maria Celeste (1870) by Mary Allan-Olney, p.
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ From A English translation of Galileo's letter ref.1 .
      • Galileo's Telescope for IYA Made for Griffith observatory,on exhibt at Franklin Institute, Adler Planetrium,the IMSS Institute and Museum of the History of Science in Florence Italy where the original telescopes are on display, Celebrate the IYA 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC galileotelescope.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Letter to Élie Diodati (4 July 1637), as translated in The Private Life of Galileo : Compiled primarily from his correspondence and that of his eldest daughter, Sister Maria Celeste (1870) by Mary Allan-Olney, p.
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      278
  • Alas! .Your dear friend and servant Galileo has been for the last month hopelessly blind; so that this heaven, this earth, this universe, which I by my marvelous discoveries and clear demonstrations had enlarged a hundred thousand times beyond the belief of the wise men of bygone ages, henceforward for me is shrunk into such a small space as is filled by my own bodily sensations.^ Your dear friend and servant Galileo has been for the last month hopelessly blind; so that this heaven, this earth, this universe, which I by my marvelous discoveries and clear demonstrations had enlarged a hundred thousand times beyond the belief of the wise men of bygone ages, henceforward for me is shrunk into such a small space as is filled by my own bodily sensations.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I, Galileo Galilei, with my own hand.
    • Galileo's Defense and Depositions in 1633-- the Trial ofGalileo 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Galileo was asked by his friends wisely to be cautious.
    • From Warpath to Wholeness: The Condemnation and Rehabilitation of Galileo Galilei :: Mathew Chandrankunnel :: Global Spiral 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.metanexus.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Letter to Élie Diodati (2 January 1638), as translated in The Private Life of Galileo : Compiled primarily from his correspondence and that of his eldest daughter, Sister Maria Celeste (1870) by Mary Allan-Olney, p.^ Letter to Élie Diodati (2 January 1638), as translated in The Private Life of Galileo : Compiled primarily from his correspondence and that of his eldest daughter, Sister Maria Celeste (1870) by Mary Allan-Olney, p.
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ From A English translation of Galileo's letter ref.1 .
      • Galileo's Telescope for IYA Made for Griffith observatory,on exhibt at Franklin Institute, Adler Planetrium,the IMSS Institute and Museum of the History of Science in Florence Italy where the original telescopes are on display, Celebrate the IYA 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC galileotelescope.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Letter to Élie Diodati (4 July 1637), as translated in The Private Life of Galileo : Compiled primarily from his correspondence and that of his eldest daughter, Sister Maria Celeste (1870) by Mary Allan-Olney, p.
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      .279
  • See now the power of truth; the same experiment which at first glance seemed to show one thing, when more carefully examined, assures us of the contrary.^ But he had one more thing to say on the subject.
    • Astronomy Universe - Galileo galilei astronomy 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.astronomyuniverse.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ See now the power of truth ; the same experiment which at first glance seemed to show one thing, when more carefully examined, assures us of the contrary.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Let us examine the results carefully.
    • Galileo and Free Fall 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Relating to Two New Sciences (1638); Discorsi e dimostrazioni matematiche, intorno à due nuove scienze, as translated by Henry Crew and Alfonso de Salvio (1914)
  • You cannot teach a man anything, you can only help him to find it within himself.
    • As quoted in How to Win Friends and Influence People (1935) by Dale Carnegie, p.^ Testi in cui è citato il testo Discorsi e dimostrazioni matematiche intorno a due nuove scienze .
      • Galileo Galilei (Favaro)/Indice - Wikisource 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC it.wikisource.org [Source type: Academic]

      ^ En 1637 publicó su obra Discorsi e dimostrazioni matematiche intorno a due nuove scienze .
      • Galileo Galilei - Apicultura Wiki 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC apicultura.wikia.com [Source type: General]

      ^ I'm only trying to help you.
      • Why Don't Global Warmers Just STFU - rec.gambling.poker | Google Groups 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .117; also paraphrased as "You cannot teach a man anything, you can only help him to find it for himself."
  • Light held together by moisture.
    • His description of wine, as quoted in Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo (1957) by Stillman Drake, p.^ Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo, trans.

      ^ I'm only trying to help you.
      • Why Don't Global Warmers Just STFU - rec.gambling.poker | Google Groups 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ You cannot teach a man anything; you can only help him discover it in himself.
      • Galileo Galilei quotes 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.thinkexist.com [Source type: Original source]

      .5
  • Names and attributes must be accommodated to the essence of things, and not the essence to the names, since things come first and names afterwards.
    • As quoted in Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo (1957) by Stillman Drake, p.^ Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo, trans.

      ^ And nowadays we call Galileo by his first name.
      • Galileo Galilei - Science Show - 19 December 2009 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Variant translation: Names and attributes must be accommodated to the essence of things, and not the essence to the names, because things came first, and their names subsequently.
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      .92
    • Variant translation: Names and attributes must be accommodated to the essence of things, and not the essence to the names, because things came first, and their names subsequently.
  • Mathematics is the language with which God has written the universe.
    • As quoted in Beginning Algebra (1992) by Margaret L. Lial, Charles David Miller and E. John Hornsby, p.^ But we must first understand the language and the character in which it is written.
      • Galileo (1564-1642) 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC usefultrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ "God speaks in the language of mathematics."
      • Galileo: a founder of science 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC web.rollins.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Variant translation: Names and attributes must be accommodated to the essence of things, and not the essence to the names, because things came first, and their names subsequently.
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      .2
  • All truths are easy to understand once they are discovered; the point is to discover them.
    • As quoted in Angels in the workplace : stories and inspirations for creating a new world of work (1999) by Melissa Giovagnoli
  • Mathematics is the key and door to the sciences.
    • As quoted in Building Fluency Through Practice and Performance (2008) by Timothy Rasinski and Lorraine Griffith, p.^ About: Truth quotes , Understanding quotes , Discovery quotes .
      • Galileo Galilei quotes 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thinkexist.com [Source type: General]
      • Galileo Galilei quotes 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.thinkexist.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ But they don’t have all the truth.
      • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ All truths are easy to understand once they are discovered; the point is to discover them.” Galileo Galilei .
      • Restaurant Empire 2 Beta Patch 1.01 - Enlight Forums 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC enlight.websitetoolbox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      64
  • Measure what is measurable, and make measurable what is not so. .
    • As quoted in Building Fluency Through Practice and Performance (2008) by Timothy Rasinski and Lorraine Griffith, p.^ As quoted in Building Fluency Through Practice and Performance (2008) by Timothy Rasinski and Lorraine Griffith, p.
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      64

Letter to Benedetto Castelli (1613)

  • "It seems to me that it was well said by Madama Serenissima, and insisted on by your reverence, that the Holy Scripture cannot err, and that the decrees therein contained are absolutely true and inviolable. But I should have in your place added that, though Scripture cannot err, its expounders and interpreters are liable to err in many ways; and one error in particular would be most grave and most frequent, if we always stopped short at the literal signification of the words."

Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina (1615)

The increase of known truths stimulates the investigation, establishment, and growth of the arts; not their diminution or destruction.
I would say here something that was heard from an ecclesiastic of the most eminent degree: "The intention of the Holy Spirit is to teach us how one goes to heaven, not how the heavens go."
Nature … is inexorable and immutable; she never transgresses the laws imposed upon her, or cares a whit whether her abstruse reasons and methods of operation are understandable to men.
.Essay published in 1615, in response to enquiries of Christina of Tuscany, as quoted in Aspects of Western Civilization : Problems and Sources in History (1988) by Perry McAdow Rogers, p.^ Essay published in 1615 , in response to enquiries of Christina of Tuscany , as quoted in Aspects of Western Civilization : Problems and Sources in History (1988) by Perry McAdow Rogers, p.
  • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Galileo's response to the report was a published Letter to Castelli which was expanded and published a year later as Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina .
  • Skyscript: The Life and Work of Galileo by Deborah Houlding 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC skyscript.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo Galilei Letter to Madame Christina of Lorraine, Grand Duchess of Tuscany: concerning the Use of Biblical Quotations in Matters of Science (1615) , trans.
  • Galileo Galilei Quotes - Dictionary of Science Quotations and Scientist Quotes 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: Original source]

53
.
  • Some years ago, as Your Serene Highness well knows, I discovered in the heavens many things that had not been seen before our own age. The novelty of these things, as well as some consequences which followed from them in contradiction to the physical notions commonly held among academic philosophers, stirred up against me no small number of professors — as if I had placed these things in the sky with my own hands in order to upset nature and overturn the sciences.^ The novelty of these things, as well as some consequences which followed from them in contradiction to the physical notions commonly held among academic philosophers, stirred up against me no small number of professors--as if I had placed these things in the sky with my own hands in order to upset nature and overturn the sciences.
    • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC helix.ucsd.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I, Galileo Galilei, with my own hand.
    • Galileo's Defense and Depositions in 1633-- the Trial ofGalileo 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I had placed these things in the sky with my own hands in order to upset Nature and overturn the sciences.
    • Galileo's Daughter -- A Historical Memoir of Science, Faith, and Love 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.southerncrossreview.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .They seemed to forget that the increase of known truths stimulates the investigation, establishment, and growth of the arts; not their diminution or destruction.
  • The passage of time has revealed to everyone the truths that I previously set forth; and, together with the truth of the facts, there has come to light the great difference in attitude between those who simply and dispassionately refused to admit the discoveries to be true, and those who combined with their incredulity some reckless passion of their own. Men who were well grounded in astronomical and physical science were persuaded as soon as they received my first message.^ The passage of time has revealed to everyone the truths that I previously set forth; and, together with the truth of the facts, there has come to light the great difference in attitude between those who simply and dispassionately refused to admit the discoveries to be true, and those who combined with their incredulity some reckless passion of their own.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Men who were well grounded in astronomical and physical science were persuaded as soon as they received my first message.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Modern History Sourcebook: Galileo: Letter to Grand Duchess 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC helix.ucsd.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Believe those who are seeking the truth.
    • The Quotations Home Page - Alphabetical by Author - Series 17 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.theotherpages.org [Source type: Original source]

    .There were others who denied them or remained in doubt only because of their novel and unexpected character, and because they had not yet had the opportunity to see for themselves.^ There were others who denied them or remained in doubt only because of their novel and unexpected character, and because they had not yet had the opportunity to see for themselves.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Modern History Sourcebook: Galileo: Letter to Grand Duchess 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC helix.ucsd.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They are named so because they were the only four moons that Galileo was able to see.

    ^ They gave upright images and were intended for terrestrial use although there is a note in a brochure, dated November 22, 1608, that says that a telescope could also be used for 'seeing stars which are not ordinarily in view because of their smallness'.

    .These men have by degrees come to be satisfied.^ These men have by degrees come to be satisfied.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Modern History Sourcebook: Galileo: Letter to Grand Duchess 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC helix.ucsd.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I cannot remain satisfied merely to know that the injustice of this is recognized by those who are acquainted with these men and with me, as perhaps it is not known to others.
    • Modern History Sourcebook: Galileo: Letter to Grand Duchess 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC helix.ucsd.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .But some, besides allegiance to their original error, possess I know not what fanciful interest in remaining hostile not so much toward the things in question as toward their discoverer.^ But some, besides allegiance to their original error, possess I know not what fanciful interest in remaining hostile not so much toward the things in question as toward their discoverer.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Modern History Sourcebook: Galileo: Letter to Grand Duchess 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC helix.ucsd.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I am not surprised that you should find yourself in some confusion, for your mind is as much filled and encumbered with what remains to be said as with what has been said.
    • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A good question to ask the students is why there is so much error.
    • Galileo and Free Fall 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .No longer being able to deny them, these men now take refuge in obstinate silence, but being more than ever exasperated by that which has pacified and quieted other men, they divert their thoughts to other fancies and seek new ways to damage me.^ They were no more stupid than we are.
    • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ No longer being able to deny them, these men now take refuge in obstinate silence, but being more than ever exasperated by that which has pacified and quieted other men, they divert their thoughts to other fancies and seek new ways to damage me.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Modern History Sourcebook: Galileo: Letter to Grand Duchess 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ No longer being able to deny them, these men now take refuge in obstinate silence, but being more than ever ex asperated by that which has pacified and quieted other men, they divert their thoughts to other fancies and seek new ways to damage me.
    • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC helix.ucsd.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .To this end they make a shield of their hypocritical zeal for religion.^ To this end they make a shield of their hypocritical zeal for religion.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Modern History Sourcebook: Galileo: Letter to Grand Duchess 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC helix.ucsd.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .They go about invoking the Bible, which they would have minister to their deceitful purposes.^ They go about invoking the Bible, which they would have minister to their deceitful purposes.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Modern History Sourcebook: Galileo: Letter to Grand Duchess 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC helix.ucsd.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They said, "We're going to be filming an episode, and we don't know anything about it.'"

    ^ Moreover, we are unable to affirm that all interpreters of the Bible speak by Divine inspiration for if that were so there would exist no differences among them about the sense of a given passage.
    • Modern History Sourcebook: Galileo: Letter to Grand Duchess 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Contrary to the sense of the Bible and the intention of the holy Fathers, if I am not mistaken, they would extend such authorities until even in purely physical matters — where faith is not involved — they would have us altogether abandon reason and the evidence of our senses in favor of some biblical passage, though under the surface meaning of its words this passage may contain a different sense.
  • Persisting in their original resolve to destroy me and everything mine by any means they can think of, these men are aware of my views in astronomy and philosophy.^ Contrary to the sense of the Bible and the intention of the holy Fathers, if I am not mistaken, they would extend such authorities until even in purely physical matters — where faith is not involved — they would have us altogether abandon reason and the evidence of our senses in favor of some biblical passage, though under the surface meaning of its words this passage may contain a different sense.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Contrary to the sense of the Bible and the intention of the holy Fathers, if I am not mistaken, they would extend such authorities until even in purely physical matters--where faith is not involved--they would have us altogether abandon reason and the evidence of our senses in favor of some biblical passage, though under the surface meaning of its words this passage may contain a different sense.
    • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC helix.ucsd.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ My view is quite different.
    • Darwin vs Galileo: Who cut us down to size? - 17 December 2008 - New Scientist 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .They know that as to the arrangement of the parts of the universe, I hold the sun to be situated motionless in the center of the revolution of the celestial orbs while the earth revolves about the sun.^ How do you deduce that it is not the earth, but the sun, which is at the center of the revolutions of the planets?
    • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ After Copernicus and Galileo, we know the earth revolves around the sun.
    • IMA Hero: Galileo Galilei HH 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.imahero.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They thought if the moon revolved around the earth, then the sun must also revolve around the earth.
    • IMA Hero: Galileo Galilei HH 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.imahero.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .They know also that I support this position not only by refuting the arguments of Ptolemy and Aristotle, but by producing many counter-arguments; in particular, some which relate to physical effects whose causes can perhaps be assigned in no other way.^ The relation of cause to effect had been of interest since Aristotle.
    • Beginning of Modern Science & Modern Philosophy 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I confirm this view not only by refuting Ptolemy 's and Aristotle 's arguments, but also by producing many for the other side, especially some pertaining to physical effects whose causes perhaps cannot be determined in any other way, and other astronomical discoveries; these discoveries clearly confute the Ptolemaic system, and they agree admirably with this other position and confirm it.

    ^ But given an effect, there could have been many causes able to produce the same effect.
    • Beginning of Modern Science & Modern Philosophy 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    .In addition there are astronomical arguments derived from many things in my new celestial discoveries that plainly confute the Ptolemaic system while admirably agreeing with and confirming the contrary hypothesis.^ In addition there are astronomical arguments derived from many things in my new celestial discoveries that plainly confute the Ptolemaic system while admirably agreeing with and confirming the contrary hypothesis.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Modern History Sourcebook: Galileo: Letter to Grand Duchess 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC helix.ucsd.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This publication, a twelve year effort, presented all the arguments for and against the two great world systems--the Copernican (sun centered) and the Aristotelian or Ptolemaic (earth centered).
    • GALILEO - What were Galileo's scientific and biblical conflicts with the Church? - ChristianAnswers.Net 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC christiananswers.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I confirm this view not only by refuting Ptolemy's and Aristotle's arguments, but also by producing many for the other side, especially some pertaining to physical effects whose causes perhaps cannot be determined in any other way, and other astronomical discoveries; these discoveries clearly confute the Ptolemaic system, and they agree admirably with this other position and confirm it.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Variant translation: I hold that the Sun is located at the centre of the revolutions of the heavenly orbs and does not change place, and that the Earth rotates on itself and moves around it.^ The question was, whether or not the earth was moving itself or was staying in the centre of the universe.
      • The Galileo affair: history or heroic hagiography? 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Copernicus believed the Earth and other planets moved around the Sun.
      • Astrophysics Science Division Kids Web Search 20 November 2009 5:54 UTC imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Declare that the Earth did not move around the Sun.
      • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

      Moreover ... .I confirm this view not only by refuting Ptolemy's and Aristotle's arguments, but also by producing many for the other side, especially some pertaining to physical effects whose causes perhaps cannot be determined in any other way, and other astronomical discoveries; these discoveries clearly confute the Ptolemaic system, and they agree admirably with this other position and confirm it.
  • I do not feel obliged to believe that the same God who has endowed us with senses, reason, and intellect has intended us to forgo their use and by some other means to give us knowledge which we can attain by them.
  • I would say here something that was heard from an ecclesiastic of the most eminent degree: "The intention of the Holy Spirit is to teach us how one goes to heaven, not how the heavens go."
    • Variant translation: I would say here something that was heard from an ecclesiastic of the most eminent degree: "That the intention of the Holy Ghost is to teach us how one goes to heaven, not how heaven goes."
  • Nature … is inexorable and immutable; she never transgresses the laws imposed upon her, or cares a whit whether her abstruse reasons and methods of operation are understandable to men. For that reason it appears that nothing physical which sense–experience sets before our eyes, or which necessary demonstrations prove to us, ought to be called in question (much less condemned) upon the testimony of biblical passages which may have some different meaning beneath their words.^ Copernicus uses eccentrics and epicycles, but these were not the reason for rejecting the Ptolemaic system, since they undoubtedly exist in the heavens; it was other difficulties.
    • Galileo's Considerations on the Copernican Opinion (1615) 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ These they apply with little judgement to the refutation of arguments that they do not understand and have not even listened to.
    • Modern History Sourcebook: Galileo: Letter to Grand Duchess 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Can the Holy Ghost be asserted not to have intended teaching us something that does concern our salvation?
    • Modern History Sourcebook: Galileo: Letter to Grand Duchess 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    For the Bible is not chained in every expression to conditions as strict as those which govern all physical effects; nor is God any less excellently revealed in Nature's actions than in the sacred statements of the Bible.

Letter to Francesco Ingoli (1624)

.Letter to Francesco Ingoli (1578-1649), as translated in Galileo at Work : His Scientific Biography (1978) by Stillman Drake, p.^ Letter to Francesco Ingoli (1624) .
  • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ From A English translation of Galileo's letter ref.1 .
  • Galileo's Telescope for IYA Made for Griffith observatory,on exhibt at Franklin Institute, Adler Planetrium,the IMSS Institute and Museum of the History of Science in Florence Italy where the original telescopes are on display, Celebrate the IYA 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC galileotelescope.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Discourse on the Comets , translated by Stillman Drake.
  • Transwiki:Galileo Galilei - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

294
.
  • Whence do you have it that the terrestrial globe is so heavy?^ Whence do you have it that the terrestrial globe is so heavy?
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For my part, either I do not know what heaviness is, or the terrestrial globe is neither heavy nor light, as likewise all other globes of the universe.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .For my part, either I do not know what heaviness is, or the terrestrial globe is neither heavy nor light, as likewise all other globes of the universe.^ For my part, either I do not know what heaviness is, or the terrestrial globe is neither heavy nor light, as likewise all other globes of the universe.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Whence do you have it that the terrestrial globe is so heavy?
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The majority of people believed that Earth was the center of the universe and that all other celestial bodies were perfect and revolved around it.
    • Teachers' Domain: Galileo: Sun-Centered System 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.teachersdomain.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Heaviness to me (and I believe to Nature) is that innate tendency by which a body resists being moved from its natural place and by which, when forcibly removed therefrom, it spontaneously returns there.^ Heaviness to me (and I believe to Nature) is that innate tendency by which a body resists being moved from its natural place and by which, when forcibly removed therefrom, it spontaneously returns there.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I tell you that if natural bodies have it from Nature to be moved by any movement, this can only be circular motion, nor is it possible that Nature has given to any of its integral bodies a propensity to be moved by straight motion.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Therefore, if the parts of the world are well ordered, straight motion is superfluous and not natural, and they can only have it when some body is forcibly removed from its natural place, to which it would then return by a straight line, for thus it appears that a part of the earth does [move] when separated from its whole.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Thus a bucketful of water raised on high and set free, returns to the sea; but who will say that the same water remains heavy in the sea, when being set free there, does not move?
  • I tell you that if natural bodies have it from Nature to be moved by any movement, this can only be circular motion, nor is it possible that Nature has given to any of its integral bodies a propensity to be moved by straight motion.^ Thus a bucketful of water raised on high and set free, returns to the sea; but who will say that the same water remains heavy in the sea, when being set free there, does not move?
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I will tell you that there have been very few.
    • Rational thoughts from a religious skeptic — Galileo Galilei « the BEattitude 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC thebeattitude.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He tells you that just as there is only one motion for one movable body, so there is but one movable body for that motion.
    • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

    .I have many confirmations of this proposition, but for the present one alone suffices, which is this.^ I have many confirmations of this proposition, but for the present one alone suffices, which is this.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .I suppose the parts of the universe to be in the best arrangement, so that none is out of its place, which is to say that Nature and God have perfectly arranged their structure.^ I suppose the parts of the universe to be in the best arrangement, so that none is out of its place, which is to say that Nature and God have perfectly arranged their structure.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They know that as to the arrangement of the parts of the universe, I hold the sun to be situated motionless in the center of the revolution of the celestial orbs while the earth revolves about the sun.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Modern History Sourcebook: Galileo: Letter to Grand Duchess 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Therefore, Salvati says near the end of the book: "God could have made nature in many ways, which our minds would not be able to grasp.
    • | 400 years invention of the telescope | 1608-2008 - Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.inventionofthetelescope.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This being so, it is impossible for those parts to have it from Nature to be moved in straight, or in other than circular motion, because what moves straight changes place, and if it changes place naturally, then it was at first in a place preternatural to it, which goes against the supposition.^ This being so, it is impossible for those parts to have it from Nature to be moved in straight, or in other than circular motion, because what moves straight changes place, and if it changes place naturally, then it was at first in a place preternatural to it, which goes against the supposition.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I suppose the parts of the universe to be in the best arrangement, so that none is out of its place, which is to say that Nature and God have perfectly arranged their structure.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ More than any other writer of the century, he argued that nature displayed mathematical regularity in its most minute details.

    .Therefore, if the parts of the world are well ordered, straight motion is superfluous and not natural, and they can only have it when some body is forcibly removed from its natural place, to which it would then return by a straight line, for thus it appears that a part of the earth does [move] when separated from its whole.^ The sun does NOT orbit the Earth, it only appears to move in the sky.
    • Museum - Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC web.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And to remove it, Aristotle’s axiom that to a simple body only one simple motion can be natural appears to be sufficient.
    • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Earth is not the center of the world, or immovable, but moves according to the whole itself and also with diurnal motion.
    • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.studyworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .I said "it appears to us," because I am not against thinking that not even for such an effect does Nature make use of straight line motion.^ I said "it appears to us," because I am not against thinking that not even for such an effect does Nature make use of straight line motion.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The scientist does not study nature because it is useful; he studies it because he delights in it, and he delights in it because it is beautiful.
    • Science Quotes 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.lhup.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I assume a B.A. As a Jesuit he would have had a doctorate in theology, even though he does not appear to have advanced to the fourth vow.
    • Geometry.Net - Scientists: Guldin Paul 20 November 2009 5:54 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: Academic]

    • A note on this statement is included by Stillman Drake in his Galileo at Work, His Scientific Biography (1981): Galileo adhered to this position in his Dialogue at least as to the "integral bodies of the universe." by which he meant stars and planets, here called "parts of the universe." But he did not attempt to explain the planetary motions on any mechanical basis, nor does this argument from "best arrangement" have any bearing on inertial motion, which to Galileo was indifference to motion and rest and not a tendency to move, either circularly or straight.

Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (1632)

A dialogue between fictional characters Sagredo (named after Galileo's friend Giovanni Francesco Sagredo), Salviati (named after Galileo's freind Filippo Salviati) and Simplicio (named after long dead philosopher Simplicius of Cilicia), from the translations by Stilman Drake (1953), unless otherwise noted.
If there were as great a scarcity of soil as of jewels or precious metals, there would not be a prince who would not spend a bushel of diamonds and rubies and a cartload of gold just to have enough earth to plant a jasmine in a little pot, or to sow an orange seed and watch it sprout, grow, and produce its handsome leaves, its fragrant flowers, and fine fruit.
If you could see the earth illuminated when you were in a place as dark as night, it would look to you more splendid than the moon.
.
Among all the great men who have philosophized about this remarkable effect, I am more astonished at Kepler than at any other.
^ Among the great men who have philosophized about [the action of the tides], the one who surprised me most is Kepler.
  • Physics Galileo Galilei: Discussion of Quotes Galileo Galilei Dialogue, Metaphysics Motion Force 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among all the great men who have philosophized about this remarkable effect, I am more astonished at Kepler than at any other.
  • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Of this truly remarkable effect several experiences were related, to which some persons gave credence while others denied them.
  • Galileo Galilei Quotes - Dictionary of Science Quotations and Scientist Quotes 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Galileo Unmasked at Last!! 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.reformation.org [Source type: Original source]

.Despite his open and acute mind, and though he has at his fingertips the motions attributed to the earth, he nevertheless lent his ear and his assent to the moon's dominion over the waters, to occult properties, and to such puerilities.
  • I cannot without great astonishment — I might say without great insult to my intelligence — hear it attributed as a prime perfection and nobility of the natural and integral bodies of the universe that they are invariant, immutable, inalterable, etc., while on the other hand it is called a great imperfection to be alterable, generable, mutable, etc.^ My mind feels a great repugnance to this.
    • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The earth is generable, corruptible, alterable, etc., while celestial bodies are ingenerable, incorruptible, inalterable, etc.
    • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo's Dialog 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Sagredo Variant translation: I cannot without great wonder, nay more, disbelief, hear it being attributed to natural bodies as a great honor and perfection that they are impassable, immutable, inalterable, etc.: as conversely, I hear it esteemed a great imperfection to be alterable, generable, and mutable.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .For my part I consider the earth very noble and admirable precisely because of the diverse alterations, changes, generations, etc.^ For my part I consider the earth very noble and admirable precisely because of the diverse alterations, changes, generations, etc.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo's Dialog 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is my opinion that the earth is very noble and admirable by reason of the many and different alterations, mutations, and generations which incessantly occur in it.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ 'Tea is a very important part of my life, it's my passion,' Tjok reveals.'With certainty, I believe this is the most luxurious collection of teas in Australia.
    • Galileo Restaurant, Sydney, Sydney restaurant | Cuisine - French, High and Afternoon Tea restaurant 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.bestrestaurants.com.au [Source type: General]

    that occur in it incessantly.
    .If, not being subject to any changes, it were a vast desert of sand or a mountain of jasper, or if at the time of the flood the waters which covered it had frozen, and it had remained an enormous globe of ice where nothing was ever born or ever altered or changed, I should deem it a useless lump in the universe, devoid of activity and, in a word, superfluous and essentially non-existent.^ If, not being subject to any changes, it were a vast desert of sand or a mountain of jasper, or if at the time of the flood the waters which covered it had frozen, and it had remained an enormous globe of ice where nothing was ever born or ever altered or changed, I should deem it a useless lump in the universe, devoid of activity and, in a word, superfluous and essentially non-existent.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If, not being subject to any changes, it were a vast desert of sand or a mountain of jasper, or if at the time of the flood the waters which covered it had frozen, and it had remained an enormous globe of ice where nothing was ever born or ever altered or changed, I should deem it a useless lump in the universe, devoid of activity and, in a word, superfluous and essentially nonexistent.
    • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo's Dialog 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Please call the box office or visit for specific show dates and times because performance schedules vary and are subject to change.
    • Bertolt Brecht’s Galileo opens at UConn’s Connecticut Repertory Theatre :: Mansfield Today 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC mansfield.htnp.com [Source type: General]

    .This is exactly the difference between a living animal and a dead one; and I say the same of the moon, of Jupiter, and of all other world globes.^ The difference for me would be the same as between a living and a dead creature.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I say the same concerning the Moon, Jupiter, and all the other globes of the Universe.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This is exactly the difference between a living animal and a dead one; and I say the same of the moon, of Jupiter, and of all other world globes.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo's Dialog 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: Original source]


    .The deeper I go in considering the vanities of popular reasoning, the lighter and more foolish I find them.^ The deeper I go in considering the vanities of popular reasoning, the lighter and more foolish I find them.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo's Dialog 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This seems very reasonable and natural, for those who believe an argument to be false may much more easily find the fallacies in it than men who consider it to be true and conclusive.
    • Modern History Sourcebook: Galileo: Letter to Grand Duchess 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC helix.ucsd.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The real story is much more complex and finds persons on various sides of the debate for various reasons.
    • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    .What greater stupidity can be imagined than that of calling jewels, silver, and gold "precious," and earth and soil "base"? People who do this ought to remember that if there were as great a scarcity of soil as of jewels or precious metals, there would not be a prince who would not spend a bushel of diamonds and rubies and a cartload of gold just to have enough earth to plant a jasmine in a little pot, or to sow an orange seed and watch it sprout, grow, and produce its handsome leaves, its fragrant flowers, and fine fruit. It is scarcity and plenty that make the vulgar take things to be precious or worthless; they call a diamond very beautiful because it is like pure water, and then would not exchange one for ten barrels of water.^ It is scarcity and plenty that makes things esteemed and despised by the vulgar, who will say that there is a most beautiful diamond, for it resembles a clear water, and yet would not part from it for ten tons of water.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They were no more stupid than we are.
    • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ What greater stupidity can be imagined than that of calling jewels, silver, and gold "precious," and earth and soil "base"?
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo's Dialog 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Those who so greatly exalt incorruptibility, inalterability, etc.^ Those who so greatly exalt incorruptibility, inalterability, etc.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo's Dialog 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ First, bodies that are generable corruptible, alterable, etc., are quite different from those that are ingenerable, incorruptible, inalterable, etc.
    • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo's Dialog 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Links here , here and here lead to an amazing number of names familiar to those who work with astronomy, telescopes, etc.
    • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    are reduced to talking this way, .I believe, by their great desire to go on living, and by the terror they have of death.^ I believe, by their great desire to go on living, and by the terror they have of death.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo's Dialog 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ These men who so extol incorruptibility, inalterability, and so on, speak thus, I believe, out of the great desire they have to live long and for fear of death, not considering that, if men had been immortal, they would not have come into the world.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ That both these pontiffs were convinced anti-Copernicans cannot be doubted , nor that they believed the Copernican system to be unscriptural and desired its suppression.
    • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

    .They do not reflect that if men were immortal, they themselves would never have come into the world. Such men really deserve to encounter a Medusa's head which would transmute them into statues of jasper or of diamond, and thus make them more perfect than they are.^ They were no more stupid than we are.
    • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Such men really deserve to encounter a Medusa’s head which would transmute them into statues of jasper orof diamond, and thus make them more perfect than they are.
    • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Such men really deserve to encounter a Medusa's head which would transmute them into statues of jasper or of diamond, and thus make them more perfect than they are.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo's Dialog 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Sagredo
    • Variant translation: I cannot without great wonder, nay more, disbelief, hear it being attributed to natural bodies as a great honor and perfection that they are impassable, immutable, inalterable, etc.: as conversely, I hear it esteemed a great imperfection to be alterable, generable, and mutable. It is my opinion that the earth is very noble and admirable by reason of the many and different alterations, mutations, and generations which incessantly occur in it.^ SIMP. This cannot be, because the generations, mutations, etc.
      • Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo's Dialog 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ I cannot without great astonishment — I might say without great insult to my intelligence — hear it attributed as a prime perfection and nobility of the natural and integral bodies of the universe that they are invariant, immutable, inalterable, etc., while on the other hand it is called a great imperfection to be alterable, generable, mutable, etc.
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ SAGR. I cannot without great astonishment -- I might say without great insult to my intelligence -- hear it attributed as a prime perfection and nobility of the natural and integral bodies of the universe that they are invariant, immutable, inalterable, etc., while on the other hand it is called a great imperfection to be alterable, generable, mutable, etc.
      • Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo's Dialog 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: Original source]

      .And if, without being subject to any alteration, it had been one great heap of sand, or a mass of jade, or if, since the time of the deluge, the waters freezing which covered it, it had continued an immense globe of crystal, wherein nothing had ever grown, altered, or changed, I should have esteemed it a wretched lump of no benefit to the Universe, a mass of idleness, and in a word superfluous, exactly as if it had never been in Nature.^ And if, without being subject to any alteration, it had been one great heap of sand, or a mass of jade, or if, since the time of the deluge, the waters freezing which covered it, it had continued an immense globe of crystal, wherein nothing had ever grown, altered, or changed, I should have esteemed it a wretched lump of no benefit to the Universe, a mass of idleness, and in a word superfluous, exactly as if it had never been in Nature.
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ If, not being subject to any changes, it were a vast desert of sand or a mountain of jasper, or if at the time of the flood the waters which covered it had frozen, and it had remained an enormous globe of ice where nothing was ever born or ever altered or changed, I should deem it a useless lump in the universe, devoid of activity and, in a word, superfluous and essentially non-existent.
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ If, not being subject to any changes, it were a vast desert of sand or a mountain of jasper, or if at the time of the flood the waters which covered it had frozen, and it had remained an enormous globe of ice where nothing was ever born or ever altered or changed, I should deem it a useless lump in the universe, devoid of activity and, in a word, superfluous and essentially nonexistent.
      • Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo's Dialog 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: Original source]

      .The difference for me would be the same as between a living and a dead creature.^ The difference for me would be the same as between a living and a dead creature.
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ That vindicated Copernicus, for in the Ptolemaic system Venus, moving back and forth at the same distance between the Earth and the Sun, would only go from crescent to crescent.
      • Beginning of Modern Science & Modern Philosophy 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ In that way there might also be drawn two others; but they would be the same as the first three, differing only in that whereas now they merely touch, they would then intersect.
      • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo's Dialog 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: Original source]

      .I say the same concerning the Moon, Jupiter, and all the other globes of the Universe.^ I say the same concerning the Moon, Jupiter, and all the other globes of the Universe.
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ This is exactly the difference between a living animal and a dead one; and I say the same of the moon, of Jupiter, and of all other world globes.
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo's Dialog 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Ultimately it required a telescope that could see the moons of Jupiter before it became clear that not all heavenly objects orbit the Earth.
      • Darwin vs Galileo: Who cut us down to size? - 17 December 2008 - New Scientist 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


      .The more I delve into the consideration of the vanity of popular discourses, the more empty and simple I find them.^ The more I delve into the consideration of the vanity of popular discourses, the more empty and simple I find them.
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ If now we examine the matter carefully we find no addition or increment more simple than that which repeats itself always in the same manner.
      • Galileo and Free Fall 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ The deeper I go in considering the vanities of popular reasoning, the lighter and more foolish I find them.
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo's Dialog 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: Original source]

      .What greater folly can be imagined than to call gems, silver, and gold noble, and earth and dirt base?^ What greater stupidity can be imagined than that of calling jewels, silver, and gold "precious," and earth and soil "base"?
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo's Dialog 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ What greater folly can be imagined than to call gems, silver, and gold noble, and earth and dirt base?
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ God could have made birds with bones of massive gold, with veins full of molten silver, with flesh heavier than lead and with tiny wings .

      .For do not these persons consider that if there were as great a scarcity of earth as there is of jewels and precious metals, there would be no king who would not gladly give a heap of diamonds and rubies and many ingots of gold to purchase only so much earth as would suffice to plant a jessamine in a little pot or to set a tangerine in it, that he might see it sprout, grow up, and bring forth such goodly leaves, fragrant flowers, and delicate fruit?
      It is scarcity and plenty that makes things esteemed and despised by the vulgar, who will say that there is a most beautiful diamond, for it resembles a clear water, and yet would not part from it for ten tons of water.^ This person will represent what someone on Earth would see.
      • Astrophysics Science Division Kids Web Search 20 November 2009 5:54 UTC imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ It is scarcity and plenty that make the vulgar take things to be precious or worthless; they call a diamond very beautiful because it is like pure water, and then would not exchange one for ten barrels of water.
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo's Dialog 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ For do not these persons consider that if there were as great a scarcity of earth as there is of jewels and precious metals, there would be no king who would not gladly give a heap of diamonds and rubies and many ingots of gold to purchase only so much earth as would suffice to plant a jessamine in a little pot or to set a tangerine in it, that he might see it sprout, grow up, and bring forth such goodly leaves, fragrant flowers, and delicate fruit?
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      .'These men who so extol incorruptibility, inalterability, and so on, speak thus, I believe, out of the great desire they have to live long and for fear of death, not considering that, if men had been immortal, they would not have come into the world. These people deserve to meet with a Medusa's head that would transform them into statues of diamond and jade, that so they might become more perfect than they are.^ These men who so extol incorruptibility, inalterability, and so on, speak thus, I believe, out of the great desire they have to live long and for fear of death, not considering that, if men had been immortal, they would not have come into the world.
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ These men have by degrees come to be satisfied.
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Modern History Sourcebook: Galileo: Letter to Grand Duchess 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC helix.ucsd.edu [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ I believe, by their great desire to go on living, and by the terror they have of death.
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo's Dialog 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: Original source]

      .
      • Part of this passage, in Italian, I detrattori della corruptibilitá meriterebber d'esser cangiati in statue., has also ben translated into English as "Detractors of corruptibility deserve being turned into statues."^ Part of this passage, in Italian, I detrattori della corruptibilitá meriterebber d'esser cangiati in statue.
        • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
        • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
        • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

        ^ English as "Detractors of corruptibility deserve being turned into statues."
        • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
        • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
        • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

        ^ Author Dava Sobel translated the correspondence from Italian into English, weaving the letters and other historical accounts into the unique portrait Galileo's Daughter: A Historical Memoir of Science, Faith and Love (Walker, 1999).
        • Galileo's Contradiction: The Astronomer Who Riled the Inquisition Fathered 2 Nuns: Scientific American 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.scientificamerican.com [Source type: General]

        .
        • Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo. (PDF), Le Opere di Galileo Galilei vol.^ A. Favaro, Opere di Galileo , vol.
          • The end of the Myth of Galileo Galilei by Atila S. Guimaraes 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.traditioninaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

          ^ (PDF) , Le Opere di Galileo Galilei vol.
          • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
          • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
          • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

          ^ Bibliografía adicional: The standard edition of Galileo's works is Le opere di Galileo Galilei, 20 vol.

          VII, pg. .58.
  • If what we are discussing were a point of law or of the humanities, in which neither true nor false exists, one might trust in subtlety of mind and readiness of tongue and in the greater experience of the writers, and expect him who excelled in those things to make his reasoning most plausible, and one might judge it to be the best.^ If what we are discussing were a point of law or of the humanities, in which neither true nor false exists, one might trust in subtlety of mind and readiness of tongue and in the greater experience of the writers, and expect him who excelled in those things to make his reasoning most plausible, and one might judge it to be the best.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ SALV. If what we are discussing were a point of law or of the humanities, in which neither true nor false exists, one might trust in subtlety of mind and readiness of tongue and in the greater experience of the writers, and expect him who excelled in those things to make his reasoning most plausible, and one might judge it to be the best.
    • Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo's Dialog 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For those of us who are writers who spend years researching great historic people of the past it makes one wonder what else might be hidden and undocumented in some of these old private libraries in Britain, Italy, France Ireland and even in America.
    • Galileo, Reconsidered | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]
    • Galileo, Reconsidered | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

    .But in the natural sciences, whose conclusions are true and necessary and have nothing to do with human will, one must take care not to place oneself in the defense of error; for here a thousand Demostheneses and a thousand Aristotles would be left in the lurch by every mediocre wit who happened to hit upon the truth for himself.^ But in the natural sciences, whose conclusions are true and necessary and have nothing to do with human will, one must take care not to place oneself in the defense of error; for here a thousand Demostheneses and a thousand Aristotles would be left in the lurch by every mediocre wit who happened to hit upon the truth for himself.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But in the natural sciences, whose conclusions are true and necessary and have nothing to do with human will, one must take care not to place oneself in the defense of error; for here a thousand Demostheneses and a thousand Aristotles would be left in the lurch by every mediocre wit who happened to hit upon the truth for himself Therefore, Simplicio, give up this idea and this hope of yours that there may be men so much more leaned, erudite, and well-read than the rest of us as to he able to make that which is false become true in defiance of nature.
    • Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo's Dialog 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He also was bold enough to publicly disagree with one of the most respected and undisputed names in science, Aristotle, by saying that if you dropped two objects at the same height that have different weights, they would both land at the same time.
    • The My Hero Project - Galileo 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.myhero.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Therefore, Simplicio, give up this idea and this hope of yours that there may be men so much more learned, erudite, and well-read than the rest of us as to be able to make that which is false become true in defiance of nature.
    • Salviati, p.^ There may be more comments in this discussion.
      • Slashdot | 400 Years Ago, Galileo Discovered Four Jovian Moons 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • Slashdot Science Story | 400 Years Ago, Galileo Discovered Four Jovian Moons 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC science.slashdot.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Therefore, Simplicio, give up this idea and this hope of yours that there may be men so much more learned, erudite, and well-read than the rest of us as to be able to make that which is false become true in defiance of nature.
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Third, I say that if there were a true demonstration that the sun is at the center of the world and the earth in the third heaven, and that the sun does not circle the earth but the earth circles the sun, then one would have to proceed with great care in explaining the Scriptures that appear contrary, and say rather that we do not understand them than that what is demonstrated is false.

      .61
  • If you could see the earth illuminated when you were in a place as dark as night, it would look to you more splendid than the moon.
    • Salviati, p.^ If you could see the earth illuminated when you were in a place as dark as night, it would look to you more splendid than the moon.
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ "[I]f you could see the earth illuminated when you were in a place as dark as night, it would look to you more splendid than the moon."
      • Galileo Galilei - Free Encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.wacklepedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ The mountainous configuration of the moon's surface was there first described, and the so-called " phosphorescence " of the dark portion of our satellite attributed to its true cause--namely, illumination by sunlight reflected from the earth.

      .88
  • In the long run my observations have convinced me that some men, reasoning preposterously, first establish some conclusion in their minds which, either because of its being their own or because of their having received it from some person who has their entire confidence, impresses them so deeply that one finds it impossible ever to get it out of their heads. Such arguments in support of their fixed idea as they hit upon themselves or hear set forth by others, no matter how simple and stupid these may be, gain their instant acceptance and applause.^ I am aware of some ideas whirling around in my own imagination which have been confusedly roused in me by these arguments.
    • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Find out how to support AiG .
    • The Galileo affair: history or heroic hagiography? 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Such arguments in support of their fixed idea ...
    • Physics Galileo Galilei: Discussion of Quotes Galileo Galilei Dialogue, Metaphysics Motion Force 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .On the other hand whatever is brought forward against it, however ingenious and conclusive, they receive with disdain or with hot rage — if indeed it does not make them ill.^ On the other hand whatever is brought forward against it, however ingenious and conclusive, they receive with disdain or with hot rage–if indeed it does not make them ill.
    • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On the other hand whatever is brought forward against it, however ingenious and conclusive, they receive with disdain or with hot rage — if indeed it does not make them ill.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On the other hand whatever is brought forward against it, however ingenious and conclusive, they receive with disdain or with hot rage - if indeed it does not make them ill.
    • Physics Galileo Galilei: Discussion of Quotes Galileo Galilei Dialogue, Metaphysics Motion Force 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Beside themselves with passion, some of them would not be backward even about scheming to suppress and silence their adversaries.
    • p.^ Beside themselves with passion, some of them would not be backward even about scheming to suppress and silence their adversaries.
      • Physics Galileo Galilei: Discussion of Quotes Galileo Galilei Dialogue, Metaphysics Motion Force 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ A better question to ask would be why humanity allowed it and why the people who seemed particularly enthusiastic about it considered themselves "enlightened" or "progressive".
      • Galileo's telescope reaches 400th anniversary | Technology | guardian.co.uk 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

      ^ By his reasoning, d/t 2 would still be some constant in that extreme case (even though he couldn't say what the numerical value was.
      • Galileo and Free Fall 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .322
  • Among all the great men who have philosophized about this remarkable effect, I am more astonished at Kepler than at any other.^ Other than that, it's great great great!
    • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

    ^ Among the great men who have philosophized about [the action of the tides], the one who surprised me most is Kepler.
    • Physics Galileo Galilei: Discussion of Quotes Galileo Galilei Dialogue, Metaphysics Motion Force 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Among all the great men who have philosophized about this remarkable effect, I am more astonished at Kepler than at any other.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Despite his open and acute mind, and though he has at his fingertips the motions attributed to the earth, he nevertheless lent his ear and his assent to the moon's dominion over the waters, to occult properties, and to such puerilities.
    • In regard to Kepler's belief of the moon affecting the tides of the Earth, p.^ In it he criticizes Kepler, who attributed tides to the influence of the moon.
      • Galileo Galilei | Calendars 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ In regard to Kepler's belief of the moon affecting the tides of the Earth, p.
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Despite his open and acute mind, and though he has at his fingertips the motions attributed to the earth, he nevertheless lent his ear and his assent to the moon's dominion over the waters, to occult properties, and to such puerilities.
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      328

Letter to Fr. Vincenzo Renieri (c. 1633)

Who knows but men will reduce me from the profession of a philosopher to that of historian of the Inquisition!
.
I returned to the villa of Bellosguardo, and afterwards to Arcetri, where I still breathe salubrious air near my dear native-country Florence.
^ I returned to the villa of Bellosguardo, and afterwards to Arcetri , where I still breathe salubrious air near my dear native-country Florence.
  • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Afterward, he was allowed to live in the beautiful villa Arcetri, near Florence, where he soon recovered entire liberty.
  • The end of the Myth of Galileo Galilei by Atila S. Guimaraes 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.traditioninaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I was obliged to retract, like a good Catholic, this opinion of mine; and as a punishment my dialogue was prohibited; and after five months being dismissed from Rome (at the time that the city of Florence was infected with plague ), the habitation which with generous pity was assigned to me, was that of the dearest friend I had in Siena , Monsignor the Archbishop Piccolomini , whose most agreeable conversation I enjoyed with such quite and satisfaction of mind, that having there resumed my studies, I discovered and demonstrated a great number on the mechanical conclusions on the resistance of solids … after about five months, the pestilence having ceased, the confinement of that house was changed by His Holiness for the freedom of the country so agreeable to me, whence I returned to the villa of Bellosguardo, and afterwards to Arcetri , where I still breathe salubrious air near my dear native-country Florence.
  • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

Stay sane.
Letter to Galileo's "intimate friend and disciple, the Father Vincenzo Renieri" (1606-1647), who was chair of the mathematics department at the University of Pisa from 1640 to 1647, as quoted in A Selection from Italian Prose Writers : with a double translation: for the use of students of the Italian language on the Hamiltonian system (1828)
.
  • After the publication of my dialogues, I was summoned to Rome by the Congregation of the holy Office, where, being arrived on the 10th of February 1633, I was subjected to the infinite clemency of that tribunal, and of the Sovereign Pontiff, Urban the Eighth; who, notwithstanding, thought me deserving of his esteem.^ February 1633 – Galileo arrives in Rome.
    • Our Galileo, Will we do better this time? « the Air Vent 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC noconsensus.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Letter to Galileo's "intimate friend and disciple, the Father Vincenzo Renieri " (1606-1647), who was chair of the mathematics department at the University of Pisa from 1640 to 1647, as quoted in A Selection from Italian Prose Writers : with a double translation: for the use of students of the Italian language on the Hamiltonian system (1828) After the publication of my dialogues, I was summoned to Rome by the Congregation of the holy Office , where, being arrived on the 10th of February 1633, I was subjected to the infinite clemency of that tribunal, and of the Sovereign Pontiff, Urban the Eighth ; who, notwithstanding, thought me deserving of his esteem.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ With his publications he quickly attracted the punitive attention of the Roman Catholic Church which summoned Galileo to Rome to face the Inquisition in 1632.
    • Themed Reviews (Galileo Galilei) 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.childrenslit.com [Source type: General]

    • pp. .145-146
  • I am certainly interested in a tribunal in which, for having used my reason, I was deemed little less than a heretic.^ I am certainly interested in a tribunal in which, for having used my reason, I was deemed little less than a heretic .
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The amazing thing is that he used a telescope that had less magnification (20x) and smaller aperture than a cheap chinese $10 set of chinese binoculars.
    • Today is the 400th Anniversary of Galileo Discovering Ganymede - sci.astro | Google Groups 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Therefore it is better Aristotelian philosophy to say "Heaven is alterable because my senses tell me so," than to say, "Heaven is inalterable because Aristotle was so persuaded by reasoning.
    • Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems 16 September 2009 23:21 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo's Dialog 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Who knows but men will reduce me from the profession of a philosopher to that of historian of the Inquisition!^ Who knows but men will reduce me from the profession of a philosopher to that of historian of the Inquisition!
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Among the great men who have philosophized about [the action of the tides], the one who surprised me most is Kepler.
    • Physics Galileo Galilei: Discussion of Quotes Galileo Galilei Dialogue, Metaphysics Motion Force 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I cannot remain satisfied merely to know that the injustice of this is recognized by those who are acquainted with these men and with me, as perhaps it is not known to others.
    • Modern History Sourcebook: Galileo: Letter to Grand Duchess 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC helix.ucsd.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .But they behave to me in order that I may become the ignoramus and the fool of Italy...^ But they behave to me in order that I may become the ignoramus and the fool of Italy ...
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    • p. .244
  • I was obliged to retract, like a good Catholic, this opinion of mine; and as a punishment my dialogue was prohibited; and after five months being dismissed from Rome (at the time that the city of Florence was infected with plague), the habitation which with generous pity was assigned to me, was that of the dearest friend I had in Siena, Monsignor the Archbishop Piccolomini, whose most agreeable conversation I enjoyed with such quite and satisfaction of mind, that having there resumed my studies, I discovered and demonstrated a great number on the mechanical conclusions on the resistance of solids … after about five months, the pestilence having ceased, the confinement of that house was changed by His Holiness for the freedom of the country so agreeable to me, whence I returned to the villa of Bellosguardo, and afterwards to Arcetri, where I still breathe salubrious air near my dear native-country Florence.^ I was obliged to retract, like a good Catholic, this opinion of mine; and as a punishment my dialogue was prohibited; and after five months being dismissed from Rome (at the time that the city of Florence was infected with plague ), the habitation which with generous pity was assigned to me, was that of the dearest friend I had in Siena , Monsignor the Archbishop Piccolomini , whose most agreeable conversation I enjoyed with such quite and satisfaction of mind, that having there resumed my studies, I discovered and demonstrated a great number on the mechanical conclusions on the resistance of solids … after about five months, the pestilence having ceased, the confinement of that house was changed by His Holiness for the freedom of the country so agreeable to me, whence I returned to the villa of Bellosguardo, and afterwards to Arcetri , where I still breathe salubrious air near my dear native-country Florence.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I returned to the villa of Bellosguardo, and afterwards to Arcetri , where I still breathe salubrious air near my dear native-country Florence.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Your dear friend and servant Galileo has been for the last month hopelessly blind; so that this heaven, this earth, this universe, which I by my marvelous discoveries and clear demonstrations had enlarged a hundred thousand times beyond the belief of the wise men of bygone ages, henceforward for me is shrunk into such a small space as is filled by my own bodily sensations.
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Galileo Galilei - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 19:019 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    Stay sane.
    • p. 251-253

Letter to Giovanni Battista Baliani (1639)

.Letter to Giovanni Battista Baliani (1 August 1639), as translated in Galileo at Work : His Scientific Biography (1978) by Stillman Drake, p.^ Drake, Stillman (1978).

^ S Drake, Galileo's work on free fall in 1604, Physis - Riv.
  • References for Galileo 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC