Gallipoli: Wikis

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Satellite image of the Gallipoli peninsula and surrounding area

The Gallipoli peninsula (Turkish: Gelibolu Yarımadası) is located in Turkish Thrace, the European part of Turkey, with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Dardanelles straits to the east. Gallipoli derives its name from the Greek Kallipolis (Καλλίπολις), meaning "Beautiful City."

Contents

Ottoman era

After the devastating 1354 earthquake, the Greek city of Gallipoli was almost abandoned, but swiftly reoccupied by Turks from Anatolia, the Asiatic side of the straits, making Gallipoli the first Ottoman position in Europe, and the staging area for their expansion across the Balkans.[1]

The peninsula, a part of the Byzantine Empire, was gradually conquered by the Ottoman Empire from 13th century to the 15th century. The Greeks living there were allowed to continue their everyday life. Gallipoli (Turkish: Gelibolu) was made a district (Kaymakamlik) in the province (Vilayet) of Adrianople, with about thirty thousand inhabitants: comprising Greeks, Turks, Armenians and Jews.

Gallipoli became a major encampment for British and French forces in 1854 during the Crimean War, and the harbour was also a stopping-off point on the way to Constantinople.[2][3]

Gallipoli did not experience any more wars until World War I, when British and colonial forces invaded the peninsula in 1915, seeking to secure a route to relieve their ally Imperial Russia in the east. The Ottomans set up defensive fortifications along the peninsula, with German help, and the invaders were eventually repulsed

In 1920 after the defeat of the Russian White army of General Pyotr Wrangel, a significant number of emigre soldiers and their families evacuated to Gallipoli from the Crimea. From there, many went to European countries, such as Yugoslavia, where they found refuge. A stone monument was erected and a special "Gallipoli cross" was created to commemorate the soldiers, who stayed in Gallipoli. The stone monument was destroyed during an earthquake, but in January 2008 reconstruction of the monument had begun with the consent of the Turkish government.

Gallipoli Campaign

The Allied landing and subsequent campaign on the peninsula during World War I is usually known in Britain as the Dardanelles Campaign and in Turkey as the Battle of Çanakkale. In Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Newfoundland and Labrador, the terms Gallipoli Campaign or just Gallipoli alone are used to describe the eight month campaign.

In early 1915, in an attempt to seize the strategic advantage in it the war, the British authorised an attack on the peninsula aiming to capture Constantinople. The first phase was purely naval on the Allied side, as Lord Kitchener would not authorise troops to be shifted from the Western Front. The lead British admiral had a crisis of nerves, and his second-in-command withdrew after one day with moderate casualties. Kitchener then authorised a combined naval-army operation, but the element of surprise was long gone. On 25 April 1915, a force of British Empire and French troops landed at multiple places along the peninsula. However, some of the landings went wrong and troops were landed in the wrong positions causing confusion that lost valuable time. To make matters worse, this was followed up by only tentative advances inland as most of the arriving armies were left on the beaches, allowing for the Ottomans to pour in reinforcements to the area. The battles over the next eight months saw high casualties on both sides due to the exposed terrain, weather and closeness of the front lines. In addition, many casualties resulted from an epidemic of dysentery, caused by poor sanitary conditions.[4] The New Zealand Wellington Battalion reached, and briefly occupied, the high point of Chunuk Bair, before being beaten back by Turkish troops, who were never again dislodged from the summit. The subsequent Allied withdrawal meant an end to the idea of defeating the Ottoman Empire quickly, as well as the possibility of gaining a victory over the major Central Powers enemy Germany through an attack on the "soft underbelly" of its power.

The campaign is often referred to for its successful stealthy retreat, which was completed with minimal casualties, the ANZAC forces completed their retreat by 19 December 1915 and the remaining British elements by 9 January 1916.

Total Allied deaths were around 21,000 British, 10,000 French, 8,700 Australians, 2,700 New Zealanders and 1,370 Indians. Total Turkish deaths were around 86,700 - nearly twice as many as all the Allies combined. New Zealanders suffered the highest percentage of Allied deaths when compared with population size, but the percentage of Turkish deaths was almost twice theirs.

This campaign became a turning point in the national consciousness of several of the participants. Both Australia and New Zealand still celebrate Anzac Day and the Turks consider it a point of national pride. Many mementos of the Gallipoli campaign can be seen in the museum at the Australian War Memorial in Canberra, Australia, and at the Auckland War Memorial Museum in Auckland, New Zealand. This campaign also put a dent in the armour of Winston Churchill, then the First Lord of the Admiralty, who had commissioned the plans to invade the Dardanelles. He talks about this campaign vividly in his memoirs.

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Mustafa Kemal

The Gallipoli campaign gave an important boost to the career of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, a little-known low-ranking army officer, who became a national hero, was promoted to Pasha, and eventually became the founder of the modern Turkish state, with the collapse of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I. Mustafa Kemal (with other Turkish officers) halted and eventually repelled the Allied advance; Mustafa Kemal exceeding his authority and contravening orders to do so. His famous speech "I do not command you to fight, I command you to die. In the time it will take us to die we can be replenished by new forces" (Turkish: "Ben size taaruzu değil, ölmeyi emrediyorum. Biz ölünceye kadar geçecek zaman zarfında yerimize başka kuvvetler ve kumandanlar geçebilir") has become a way of emphasising his dominant personality. Following Mustafa Kemal's command to die; the 57th Regiment led by lieutenant colonel Hüseyin Avni had fulfilled the order where the entire regiment had fallen. His victory in the battle contributed to him becoming The Father of Turkey (Atatürk).

Anzac Day

Anzac Day takes place every year on the 25th of April, the day the Anzac troops landed at, what is known as, Anzac Cove. Attendance at the Anzac Day dawn service at Gallipoli has become popular since the 75th anniversary. Upwards of 10,000 people have attended services in Gallipoli.

Until 1999, the Gallipoli dawn service was held at the Ari Burnu war cemetery at Anzac Cove, but the growing numbers of people attending resulted in the construction of a more spacious site on North Beach, Gallipoli, known as the "Anzac Commemorative Site".

On 25 April 2005, to mark the 90th anniversary of the Gallipoli landing, government officials from Australia and New Zealand, most of the last surviving Gallipoli veterans, and many Australian and New Zealand tourists traveled to Turkey for a special dawn service at Gallipoli. Anzac Day is the most important national day of commemoration for Australians. The previous Prime Minister of Australia, John Howard, and the then Prime Minister of New Zealand, Helen Clark were also in attendance, and Clark was accompanied by the official NZ Defense Force party, veterans of several past wars and 10 New Zealand college students, who won the New Zealand 'Prime Minister's Essay Competition' with their work on Gallipoli.

A common tradition amongst the people of Australia and New Zealand is to bake Anzac biscuits to remember the soldiers who died fighting for "King and country". It has become a tradition because the biscuits were often sent to loved ones based in Gallipoli because the ingredients did not spoil easily and kept well during naval transportation.

In the Gallipoli Peninsula Historical National Park, an 11,000 people capacity portable tribune has been built in the Anzac Cove and Lone Pine Commonwealth War Graves Commission Cemetery Lone Pine Memorial region.

Influence on the arts

The Gallipoli Campaign is the subject of a 1981 movie, entitled Gallipoli, directed by Peter Weir and starring Mel Gibson.

New Zealand writer Maurice Shadbolt produced a play Once on Chunuk Bair in 1982. A film version Chunuk Bair (Daybreak Pictures) was released in 1991.

Eric Bogle wrote a popular song And the Band Played Waltzing Matilda (1972) after watching, in Australia, a parade of elderly veterans of the Gallipoli campaign. Versions of this song were recorded by June Tabor, The Skids and The Pogues, as well as Tommy Makem, Liam Clancy and John Williamson.

"Cliffs of Gallipoli", a song by Sabaton (band), was inspired by the battle.

The BBC produced a feature-length television drama, All the King's Men, (not to be confused with the novel of the same name by Robert Penn Warren), that focused attention on a unit (the "Sandringham Company") that was decimated at Gallipoli and included men from King George V's estate at Sandringham House.

The campaign is the subject of a 2005 documentary, named Gallipoli, by the Turkish filmmaker Tolga Örnek, showing the bravery and the suffering on both sides through the use of surviving diaries and letters of the soldiers. For this film, he has been awarded an honorary medal in the general division of the Order of Australia.[5]

Gallipoli is the basis for the 1999 novel Solomons Song by Bryce Courtenay.

The Battle of Gallipoli features as a significant part of Louis de Bernières's novel Birds Without Wings.

Ecclesiastical history

Callipolis remains a Roman Catholic titular bishopric in the former Roman province of Thrace.

Callipolis was a suffragan of Heraclea. Lequien (I, 1123) mentions only six Greek bishops, the first as being present at the First Council of Ephesus in 431, when the See was united to that of Coela (Coelia or Coele), the last about 1500. His list could easily be increased, for the Greek Orthodox See still exists; it was raised in 1904 to the rank of a metropolis without suffragans, after the manner of most Greek metropolitan Sees. Lequien (III, 971) also gives the names of eight Latin bishops, from 1208 to 1518. (See Eubel, I, 269, note.) There are numerous schools and a small museum; a large cemetery is the resting place of many French soldiers, who died of disease (chiefly cholera) during the Crimean War. The port is poor and trade unimportant, for want of roads. A Catholic mission was conducted in the Ottoman days by Assumpionist Fathers; there are also a number of Armenian and Greek Catholics, with priests of their respective rites.

Personages

Famous people from Gallipoli

  • Salih Yazıcı, 14th c. scribe; writer of the masnavi Shemsiyye, a work of divinations in the Turkish language
  • Ahmed Bican writer
  • Mehmed Yazıcıoğlu, writer of the Muhammediyye, one of the key works of islamic Ottoman Literature
  • Mustafa Ali (*1541–1600) Ottoman historian, politician and writer

See also

Sources and references

  1. ^ Crowley, Roger. 1453: The Holy War for Constantinople and the Clash of Islam and the West. New York: Hyperion, 2005. p 31 ISBN 1-4013-0850-3.
  2. ^ Crimea.
  3. ^ Crimea, Victorian Web.
  4. ^ Palmer, Phillip E. S.; Reeder, Maurice Merrick (2001). Imaging of Tropical Diseases. 2. Birkhäuser. pp. 163. ISBN 3540624716,. 
  5. ^ Turkish filmmaker honoured | The Australian

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Turkish monument in Cape Helles (Seddülbahir)
Turkish monument in Cape Helles (Seddülbahir)

Gallipoli (Turkish: Gelibolu) is a peninsula locality in north-western Turkey, close to Istanbul. The Gallipoli Peninsula is the site of extensive First World War battlefields and memorials on the north bank of the Dardanelles. A commemorative site for the Allied (British Empire, France) and Turkish forces who fought, died and were wounded there, the area around Anzac Cove is particularly significant for Australians and New Zealanders, whose armies received their baptism in fire on the cliffs there, and - although not ultimately victorious - carved a fine military reputation under extreme adversity. The 1915 landings and battles are commemorated by Australians and New Zealanders on ANZAC Day, 25 April, every year. At this time especially, Gallipoli becomes a place of pilgrimage for many Aussies and Kiwis who want to honour the memory of their forbears.

Climate Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Daily highs (°C) 8 9 11 16 21 26 28 29 25 19 14 11
Nightly lows (°C) 3 4 5 9 13 17 20 20 16 12 8 6

Average temperature values in nearby Canakkale are as in the list to the right.

Get in

By car

The national park which is home to battlefields lies close to main Istanbul-Canakkale road (numbered D-550/E87/E90).

  • Driving from Istanbul involves passing Eastern Thrace (European Turkey) from its eastern extremity to its southwestern one, mostly closely following Marmara Sea coastline. Here’s a quick description of the route: First you should take D-100 or O-3/E80 (motorway/toll-road) to west, generally signed as the direction to ‘Edirne’ in or near Istanbul. Quit the motorway (if you are already on that) in Kınalı exit (follow ‘Tekirdağ’ signs) to D-100, and in the major intersection you’ll soon arrive, take straight road (D-110/E84, again follow ‘Tekirdağ’ signs). Within one and a half to two hours after you left Istanbul, you’ll reach Tekirdağ, the first major city on your route. Note that the blue signs to right (‘Malkara’/’Keşan’) immediately after you enter Tekirdağ will direct you to the ring road, which draws an arch around the city. If you plan to have a meal in this lovely coastal city, you should follow the white ‘Şehir Merkezi’ sign in order to drive through the city. You can find some decent restaurants near the harbour (there are traffic lights nearby). Taking ring road doesn’t really have a time gain over taking the coastal avenue in the city by the way, as the ring road has yet to be upgraded into motorway standards. After you left Tekirdağ behind, you’ll pass by Malkara and soon Keşan, in about one hour. In the major crossroad in Keşan, turn left (D-550/E87/E90, follow ‘Gelibolu’/’Çanakkale’ signs). You’ll drive through a mountain pass surrounded by some nice pine woods (slow down around here, as some of the curves are unexpectedly and unforeseenly stiff), and in about 45 minutes after you left Keşan, you’ll pass by Gelibolu town: Although a nice town in itself, this is not where you are heading off to, but rather the town which gave its name to the whole peninsula. In about half an hour after Gelibolu town, you’ll see road signs for the national park (Milli Park) towards right, before reaching Eceabat, which is a few kilometres away. Soon, you’ll arrive to the battlefields. Total dinstance is about 340 km. Expect to drive for at least 4 hours, breaks discluded.
  • From Canakkale, you should take the ferry to Kilitbahir or Eceabat, and from there on turn left or right according to which exact battlefield you want to visit, although both directions can take you to any field within the park. The road towards left (lying along the Strait) is more scenic but windy and less well-kept, so it usually takes longer than the right one lying a little more inland. Note that turning right from the ferry jetty will not directly take you to the park, because that road actually the main road to Istanbul. After leaving Eceabat a few kilometres behind, you should quit that road by turning left towards the park.

Get around

Coach tours of the battlefields are available from Canakkale and Eceabat, and also straight from Istanbul around Anzac Day (April 25th) every year. A much better way of seeing the battlefields at your own pace is by hiring a car from Cannakale or Istanbul. If staying in Cannakale, a ferry crossing to Eceabat or Kilitbahir is involved. Ferries operate regularly throughout the day and are not too expensive. The battlefields around Cape Helles and particularly Anzac Cove / Pine Ridge are linked by an excellent road network. Most sites lie close to the road although some can only be reached by foot - there are usually paths of some description and the most you will have to walk is a few hundred metres. Suvla Bay is less accessable as the road is very poorly surfaced.

Atatürk's—founder of Turkish Republic—words for Anzacs who shed their blood in Gallipoli (click to enlarge)
Atatürk's—founder of Turkish Republic—words for Anzacs who shed their blood in Gallipoli (click to enlarge)

There are three main battlefield areas - Cape Helles (Turkish: Seddülbahir), Anzac / Pine Ridge and Suvla Bay (which has fewer places to visit). Depending on how detailed your itinerary is, it would be possible to visit the main sites of interest, particularly around Cape Helles and Anzac/Pine Ridge, in a single day. More realistically, two or three days allows plenty of time for an extensive tour, taking in all the battlefield sites, cemeteries and memorials. Must sees include:

The Cannakale Martyrs Memorial (near Cape Helles); The British Memorial at Cape Helles; Anzac Cove; Pine Ridge Australian Memorial; New Zealand Monument, Chunuk Bair; Ataturk Statue, Chunuk Bair

Do

Aside from the 1915 battlefields, why not visit the new Gallipoli Milli Park visitors centre where there are excellent displays relating to the natural history of the peninsula. You can also visit the ancient fortress of Kilitbahir south of Eceabat or take a ferry across the Straits to Asia; from Canakkale, drive to what is reputed to be the site of Ancient Troy (signposted Troia) about 30 kilometres to the south. The ruins of the legendary city - complete with (reconstructed) wooden horse - are open to the public.

Eat & Drink

On the peninsula itself, Eceabat is the only sizeable town close to the battlefields where you will find a good selection of places to eat. There is a restaurant in the Gallipoli 'Milli Park' visitors' centre north of Eceabat. Food and drink can be bought in smaller towns such as Alcitepe close to Cape Helles. It is, of course, important to have plenty of water with you in summer when temperatures can be quite hot. Some of the major battlefield sites have stalls selling cold drinks as well as ice cream.

Sleep

Canakkale is a popular place for tourists to Gallipoli and offers a wide range of hotels. Eceabat offers less choice of places to stay but is nonetheless a pleasant alternative, much closer to the battlefields themselves, less crowded and avoids the need for ferry crossings, thus saving time and money. Brand new hotel Crowded House in Eceabat has private and dorm rooms suitable for all kind of travellers. Hotel Aqua offers good en-suite rooms overlooking the Straits at a very reasonable price.

Stay safe

The Turkish government has been keen to ensure the safety of visitors to the sites and security measures are in place at busy times around Anzac Day 25th April. There is no sense of danger and Gallipoli is a very safe destination - local people are friendly and welcoming towards visitors. The Turks show great respect for the Allied war sites and it is of course very important to show similar respect towards Turkish sites.

  • Gokceada, the biggest Turkish island in the Aegean Sea, has a direct ferry service from Kabatepe harbour, located at the western shore of the peninsula.
Routes through Gallipoli
KirklareliKeşan  N noframe S  Canakkale () → Izmir
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

There is more than one meaning of Gallipoli discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia. We are planning to let all links go to the correct meaning directly, but for now you will have to search it out from the list below by yourself. If you want to change the link that led you here yourself, it would be appreciated.


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