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Tug of war is an easily organized, impromptu game that requires little equipment.
The Card Players, a 1895 painting by Paul Cézanne depicting a game of cards.
.A game is a structured activity, usually undertaken for enjoyment and sometimes used as an educational tool.^ Just enjoy the game for what it is -- an educational tool.

^ I use English names for games, but usually Japanese release dates.

^ This is the driving force behind the economic powerhouse that is the USA. The political agenda within this game is blatantly obvious and has ruined what might have been an educational activity.

.Games are distinct from work, which is usually carried out for remuneration, and from art, which is more concerned with the expression of ideas.^ He will be available to look at individual art pieces or portfolios and offer guidance on portfolio building for games, commercial work, or just for fun.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ Conner, I didn't say they would work, I just would like to see more options in the more free-market vein (just because it seems that many of the more liberal ideas are in the game).

^ Romans enjoyed gladiator fights, today we have more civilized forms on amusement, like sports, arts, even computer and console games).

.However, the distinction is not clear-cut, and many games are also considered to be work (such as professional players of spectator sports/games) or art (such as jigsaw puzzles or games involving an artistic layout such as Mahjong solitaire).^ He will be available to look at individual art pieces or portfolios and offer guidance on portfolio building for games, commercial work, or just for fun.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ Metal Gear The first game in the popular Metal Gear franchise, Metal Gear documents Solid Snake's first mission as a FOXHOUND operative and is considered by many to be the origin of stealth gameplay.
  • List of Major Game Releases - giantbomb.com 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.giantbomb.com [Source type: General]

^ Many video games ENCOURAGE literacy; one of my favorites, Oblivion, contains hundreds of actual books for the player to read in the game.

Key components of games are goals, rules, challenge, and interaction. .Games generally involve mental or physical stimulation, and often both.^ Cognitive and affective variables involved in recreational computer-generated games.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Interestingly in general the one point even anti gaming organisations agree on is that video games stimulate the brain regardless of their genre.

.Many games help develop practical skills, serve as a form of exercise, or otherwise perform an educational, simulational or psychological role.^ We got ZERO help from the original developers of the games.
  • video games (kottke.org) 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Helps develop reading skills.
  • discount Windows and Dos software and old computer games and hardware 2 February 2010 16:42 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Ron Newman helped build the U.S. game, calling on carpentry skills to construct goalposts out of discarded building materials.

.According to Chris Crawford, the requirement for player interaction puts activities such as jigsaw puzzles and solitaire "games" into the category of puzzles rather than games.^ (One of the ways the game can end is when one player has more than half the gold on his home island .
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ Category: Games Released: Sep 15, 2009 Price: Free Description: Calipoli is an all new puzzle action game for the iPhone.
  • Free iPhone iPod Games :: Applications :: News 20 September 2009 9:12 UTC freegamesforiphone.com [Source type: General]

^ Category: Games Released: Sep 17, 2009 Price: Free Description: KuBUS Lite is a 3-D elimination puzzle game with a brand new twist, literally!
  • Free iPhone iPod Games :: Applications :: News 20 September 2009 9:12 UTC freegamesforiphone.com [Source type: General]

[1]
.Attested as early as 2600 BC,[2][3] games are a universal part of human experience and present in all cultures.^ The fact that you fail to see any positive effects of video games demonstrates you have little understanding or experience of the diversity present in modern games.

^ "[Smolin's] theory of cosmic evolution by the natural selection of black-hole universes makes what we can experience into an infinitesimal, yet crucial, part of an ever-larger whole."
  • video games (kottke.org) 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BSU Basketball Basset State University Basketball featuring the BSU Hounds was a all text basketball game for the Apple IIe.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

The Royal Game of Ur, Senet, and Mancala are some of the oldest known games.[4]

Contents

Definitions

Ludwig Wittgenstein

.Ludwig Wittgenstein was probably the first academic philosopher to address the definition of the word game.^ Chernobyl (C64) Probably one of the very first simulation-based games.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

.In his Philosophical Investigations,[5] Wittgenstein demonstrated that the elements of games, such as play, rules, and competition, all fail to adequately define what games are.^ I am creating such a good economic surplus, and it was great to play this game; VOTE FOR ME .

^ The fact that you fail to see any positive effects of video games demonstrates you have little understanding or experience of the diversity present in modern games.

^ The game is played from a top-down perspective and the player controls all his or her troops in the game, from soldiers to doctors to saints.
  • Talk To Action | The Purpose Driven Life Takers (Part 1) 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC www.talk2action.org [Source type: General]

.He subsequently argued that the concept "game" could not be contained by any single definition, but that games must be looked at as a series of definitions that share a "family resemblance" to one another.^ I recommend that you give a serious look at the following games and their educational value: .

^ Last Hope Digital Starter Pack: Each of these packs contains two Pirates at Ocean's Edge Digital Game Packs and one of the following promotional ships: Last Hope .
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ Many video games ENCOURAGE literacy; one of my favorites, Oblivion, contains hundreds of actual books for the player to read in the game.

Roger Caillois

French sociologist Roger Caillois, in his book Les jeux et les hommes (Games and Men),[6] defined a game as an activity that must have the following characteristics:
  • fun: the activity is chosen for its light-hearted character
  • separate: it is circumscribed in time and place
  • uncertain: the outcome of the activity is unforeseeable
  • non-productive: participation does not accomplish anything useful
  • governed by rules: the activity has rules that are different from everyday life
  • fictitious: it is accompanied by the awareness of a different reality

Chris Crawford

Computer game designer Chris Crawford attempted to define the term game[1] using a series of dichotomies:
  1. Creative expression is art if made for its own beauty, and entertainment if made for money. (This is the least rigid of his definitions. .Crawford acknowledges that he often chooses a creative path over conventional business wisdom, which is why only one of his 13 games is a sequel.^ I kind of understand in that he means that most shooters nowadays have it, but if one doesnt have it then why should that mean the game loses marks?

    ^ I do not think that I am the only small business person that chooses to hand it’s business process to a large competitor.
    • The Future of Personal Computing ? « blog maverick 2 February 2010 16:42 UTC blogmaverick.com [Source type: General]

    ^ You can play the demo for a few turns and only play one scenario, or purchase the full game online for 23 bucks.

    )
  2. A piece of entertainment is a plaything if it is interactive. .Movies and books are cited as examples of non-interactive entertainment.
  3. If no goals are associated with a plaything, it is a toy.^ Computer games: Understanding interactive entertainment as combination of media and toys: Zeitschrift fur Medienpsychologie Vol 13(1) 2001, 22-32.
    • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ There is actually a small entertainment industry around the "Left Behind" books, including two movies generally regarded as abysmal .
    • Talk To Action | The Purpose Driven Life Takers (Part 1) 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC www.talk2action.org [Source type: General]

    .(Crawford notes that by his definition, (a) a toy can become a game element if the player makes up rules, and (b) The Sims and SimCity are toys, not games.^ With this iPhone application, PickUpGame, players can set up and join a pickup game in a very convenient way.
    • Free iPhone iPod Games :: Applications :: News 20 September 2009 9:12 UTC freegamesforiphone.com [Source type: General]

    ^ All new aspects of the Station Launcher will make game access easy and convenient, as well as automatically keeping all the games up-to-date.
    • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

    ^ A friend of mine signed up the account and I kinda played it more so it's mine now XD. Me likey thinking games, games that make you think.
    • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

    )
    .If it has goals, a plaything is a challenge.
  4. If a challenge has no “active agent against whom you compete,” it is a puzzle; if there is one, it is a conflict.^ Two Rooms is a simple Flash game, part puzzle and part fast-twitch, in which you move items around in two adjacent rooms in order to get one of your movers to a goal.
    • video games (kottke.org) 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There are sooo many, ummm… ( Screaming Mimi, she's angsty, she looks cool and if she doesn't get her way, she'll wail on you ) … yeah that one.
    • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

    ^ There is no limit on the number of locations that you can tag for a single session.
    • Free iPhone iPod Games :: Applications :: News 20 September 2009 9:12 UTC freegamesforiphone.com [Source type: General]

    (Crawford admits that this is a subjective test. .Video games with noticeably algorithmic artificial intelligence can be played as puzzles; these include the patterns used to evade ghosts in Pac-Man.^ "Best puzzle game I have played!"
    • Free iPhone iPod Games :: Applications :: News 20 September 2009 9:12 UTC freegamesforiphone.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Because I play video games.

    ^ I’ve played Video games since I was 5.

    )
  5. Finally, if the player can only outperform the opponent, but not attack them to interfere with their performance, the conflict is a competition. (Competitions include racing and figure skating.) However, if attacks are allowed, then the conflict qualifies as a game.
.Crawford's definition may thus be rendered as: an interactive, goal-oriented activity, active agents to play against, in which players (including active agents) can interfere with each other.^ The player interacts with the game, meaning that they are concentrating, actively making on-the-spot decisions, and improving co-ordination and reactions as well as imagination – in this sense, it is more brain enaging to play a computer game than to read a book!

^ You could have two players playing against each other and the field of other competitors.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ This, in my opinion, is considerably better to play against than a FFA deathmatch featuring 15 other continually jumping humans...

Other definitions

.
  • "A game is a system in which players engage in an artificial conflict, defined by rules, that results in a quantifiable outcome."^ The game also features a robust loot system; more than 30 loot items each for EQ and EQII are available, including player mounts, potions, clothing and spells.
    • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Beyond the Shooter Game: Examining Presence and Hostile Outcomes Among Male Game Players: Communication Research Vol 33(6) Dec 2006, 448-466.
    • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Breakout style/paddle game for atari systems, in which the player diffuses falling bombs by catching them in a bucket of water.
    • List of Major Game Releases - giantbomb.com 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.giantbomb.com [Source type: General]

    (Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman)[7]
  • "A game is a form of art in which participants, termed players, make decisions in order to manage resources through game tokens in the pursuit of a goal." (Greg Costikyan)[8]
  • "A game is an activity among two or more independent decision-makers seeking to achieve their objectives in some limiting context." (Clark C. Abt)[9]
  • "At its most elementary level then we can define game as an exercise of voluntary control systems in which there is an opposition between forces, confined by a procedure and rules in order to produce a disequilibrial outcome." (Elliot Avedon and Brian Sutton-Smith)[10]
  • "A game is a form of play with goals and structure." (Kevin Maroney)[11]

Gameplay elements and classification

Games can be characterized by "what the player does."[1] This is often referred to as gameplay. .Major key elements identified in this context are tools and rules which define the overall context of game and which in turn produce skill, strategy, and chance.^ The effects of computer games and lesson contexts on children's mnemonic strategies: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology Vol 62(2) Jul 1996, 173-189.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Rules and order I find have much more to do with kids not haveing poperly developed literature skills, not games.

^ My favorites are turn-based strategy games, seek & finds & first-person shooters.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

Tools

.Games are often classified by the components required to play them (e.g.^ Played on the Internet with hundreds of users able to interact in the same world, the game is often considered the start of modern MMO gaming.
  • List of Major Game Releases - giantbomb.com 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.giantbomb.com [Source type: General]

^ I often spend over an hour playing a game, however personally i see that as better than watching television and it is my chosen form of relaxation.

^ For example, chess makes use of your understanding of strategy, while a game of football requires good physicall condition and team-play to win.

miniatures, a ball, cards, a board and pieces, or a computer). .In places where the use of leather is well established, the ball has been a popular game piece throughout recorded history, resulting in a worldwide popularity of ball games such as rugby, basketball, football, cricket, tennis, and volleyball.^ View all the different sports results like Baseball, Football, Men's and Women's Tennis, Volleyball and more!
  • Free iPhone iPod Games :: Applications :: News 20 September 2009 9:12 UTC freegamesforiphone.com [Source type: General]

^ Make the game about Muslims passionately trying to convert people or having (reluctantly of course) to kill them and I would bet on a fire storm of protest throughout the West resulting in the game being banned in many places.
  • Talk To Action | The Purpose Driven Life Takers (Part 1) 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC www.talk2action.org [Source type: General]

^ JH] Could such a violent, dominionist Christian video game really break through to the popular culture?
  • Talk To Action | The Purpose Driven Life Takers (Part 1) 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC www.talk2action.org [Source type: General]

Other tools are more idiosyncratic to a certain region. .Many countries in Europe, for instance, have unique standard decks of playing cards.^ I've played the TT version ( of Pirates CSG ) a couple times, but I don't play regularly and I don't really have many of the physical cards.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ Lord British, Ultima was one of the first computer role playing games and it set many standards for the genre.
  • List of Major Game Releases - giantbomb.com 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.giantbomb.com [Source type: General]

.Other games such as chess may be traced primarily through the development and evolution of its game pieces.^ Computer and Video Games magazine (2001) (I've had to piece this list together through second-hand sources.

^ JH] Could such a violent, dominionist Christian video game really break through to the popular culture?
  • Talk To Action | The Purpose Driven Life Takers (Part 1) 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC www.talk2action.org [Source type: General]

^ Could such a violent video game really break through to the popular culture?
  • Talk To Action | The Purpose Driven Life Takers (Part 1) 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC www.talk2action.org [Source type: General]

.Many game tools are tokens, meant to represent other things.^ I liked the game, other than the fact that long term effects are not very well represented.

^ Only bad thing about this (and the other games in the same series (Curse of The Azure Bonds & Secret of The Silverblades)) were the limitation in leveling.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ The Romans had their gladiatorial games to keep the people’s minds off other things.

.A token may be a pawn on a board, play money, or an intangible item such as a point scored.^ We may only be able to infer such approval at this point, but the lines seem to be pretty well connected.
  • Talk To Action | The Purpose Driven Life Takers (Part 1) 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC www.talk2action.org [Source type: General]

.Games such as hide-and-seek or tag do not utilise any obvious tool; rather, their interactivity is defined by the environment.^ The games on PCs do not lend themselves to simple fighting games, but rather to more complex ones such as Role Playing Games (RPGs) and Real-Time Strategies (RTSs).

.Games with the same or similar rules may have different gameplay if the environment is altered.^ LittleBigPlanet A game based on LittleBigPlanet for the PS3, developed for the PSP. It features the same platforming gameplay, creation tools, and sharing abilities.
  • List of Major Game Releases - giantbomb.com 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.giantbomb.com [Source type: General]

^ Video games are the same as any other form of media with the difference of being interactive.

^ Flow experiences of children in an interactive social game environment: British Journal of Educational Technology Vol 38(3) May 2007, 455-464.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.For example, hide-and-seek in a school building differs from the same game in a park; an auto race can be radically different depending on the track or street course, even with the same cars.^ The object of the game is to race "The King" and get his car.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ This game is all about building full-featured camps with proper sanitation, parking spots, roads, stores and entertainment places.

^ If children spend their evenings hanging around in the park or street corners, they are not reading or learning.

Rules

.Whereas games are often characterized by their tools, they are often defined by their rules.^ They rule forever over the fields of rock bands…This game is overdue!
  • The Beatles, “Rock Band” Makers To Release New Video Game in 2009 : Rolling Stone : Rock and Roll Daily 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC www.rollingstone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Games often appeal to the reptilian brain - fear, action - but they have a different emotional palette.
  • video games (kottke.org) 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I bet only fans are going to buy the game, cause they want to enjoy the songs also the whant to act like the beatles on the instruments Beatles rule .
  • The Beatles, “Rock Band” Makers To Release New Video Game in 2009 : Rolling Stone : Rock and Roll Daily 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC www.rollingstone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While rules are subject to variations and changes, enough change in the rules usually results in a "new" game.^ There are enough negative things about this game that the article could have been honestly and accurately presented (also called journalistic integrity), and still resulted in an outcry against it.
  • Talk To Action | The Purpose Driven Life Takers (Part 1) 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC www.talk2action.org [Source type: General]

^ I think you need to be more specific to the type of games you’re targeting, as it’s clear you don’t know enough about the subject to make a post like this.

^ What Video Games Have to Teach us about Learning and Literacy./ New Literacies: Changing Knowledge and Classroom Learning: Literacy Vol 38(2) Jul 2004, 113-114.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

For instance, baseball can be played with "real" baseballs or with wiffleballs. .However, if the players decide to play with only three bases, they are arguably playing a different game.^ It is the games that they want people to play.
  • The Future of Personal Computing ? « blog maverick 2 February 2010 16:42 UTC blogmaverick.com [Source type: General]

^ So it decided, with the Wii, to play a different game entirely."
  • video games (kottke.org) 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The exaggerated nature of play meant that players could jump three times their height, defying the laws of physics.
  • List of Major Game Releases - giantbomb.com 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.giantbomb.com [Source type: General]

.Rules generally determine turn order, the rights and responsibilities of the players, and each player’s goals.^ When you have them all, its your goal to bring them in the right order .
  • Lost in the City Walkthrough Guide, Review, Discussion, Hints and Tips at Jay is Games 22 September 2009 22:46 UTC jayisgames.com [Source type: General]

^ In order to advance through the levels, the player must earn points while moving smiley faces left or right and up and down.
  • Free iPhone iPod Games :: Applications :: News 20 September 2009 9:12 UTC freegamesforiphone.com [Source type: General]

.Player rights may include when they may spend resources or move tokens.^ Players team up and take turns helping their team to guess the secret word on the iPhone or iPod Touch so that they may pass the device to the next player.
  • Free iPhone iPod Games :: Applications :: News 20 September 2009 9:12 UTC freegamesforiphone.com [Source type: General]

^ If you are nominating someone as Player of the Year, you may want to let them know in case they would prefer not to be considered.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ In order to advance through the levels, the player must earn points while moving smiley faces left or right and up and down.
  • Free iPhone iPod Games :: Applications :: News 20 September 2009 9:12 UTC freegamesforiphone.com [Source type: General]

.Common win conditions are being first to amass a certain quota of points or tokens (as in Settlers of Catan), having the greatest number of tokens at the end of the game (as in Monopoly), or some relationship of one’s game tokens to those of one’s opponent (as in chess's checkmate).^ M.U.L.E One of the first (and some may say the best) strategy games.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ Chernobyl (C64) Probably one of the very first simulation-based games.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ (One of the ways the game can end is when one player has more than half the gold on his home island .
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

Skill, strategy, and chance

A game’s tools and rules will result in its requiring skill, strategy, luck, or a combination thereof, and are classified accordingly.
.Games of skill include games of physical skill, such as wrestling, tug of war, hopscotch, target shooting, and stake, and games of mental skill such as checkers and chess.^ You can’t play cricket in the winter and war-games club and chess club were only once a week.

^ Games like Gears of War, Halo, and even Resistance now have a standard to include a Co-Op mode.

^ Videogames such as Halo, Gears of War, and even Resistance 2 on the PS3 now include Co-Op modes.

.Games of strategy include checkers, chess, go, arimaa, and tic-tac-toe, and often require special equipment to play them.^ Tic tac toe .
  • Online Games from Monsters and Critics - Play Free Games Online 16 January 2010 3:29 UTC onlinegames.monstersandcritics.com [Source type: General]
  • Free Flash Games Online Free Download Multiplayer Ubuntu 16 January 2010 3:29 UTC www.zoopgames.com [Source type: General]

^ I play Chess, I love to sing and dance, and I love NASCAR !!Go Smoke!!
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ Return to Game Select - Previously, the application would always display the "MMO" tab when going to the Game Select screen, even if one was returning from a Game Update screen from the "Strategy" tab.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

.Games of chance include gambling games (blackjack, mah-jongg, roulette, etc.^ May include games, educational, utilities, applications, etc.
  • discount Windows and Dos software and old computer games and hardware 2 February 2010 16:42 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Video games of chance and money: The American roulette: Revue Quebecoise de Psychologie Vol 10(3) 1989, 20-28.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

), as well as .snakes and ladders and rock, paper, scissors; most require equipment such as cards or dice.^ By Jay Taber (11 comments) Rock Paper Scissors GOP-sponsored vigilantism has happened before.
  • Talk To Action | The Purpose Driven Life Takers (Part 1) 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC www.talk2action.org [Source type: General]

^ Rock Paper Scissors Revolution A new game combines element of classic rock-paper-scissor game with fast paced defense/attack arcade.

.However, most games contain two or all three of these elements.^ Assuming these lists represent voices of authority in the gaming community, we can easily make a cumulative list averaging out the most universally popular games.

^ Last Hope Digital Starter Pack: Each of these packs contains two Pirates at Ocean's Edge Digital Game Packs and one of the following promotional ships: Last Hope .
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ The most popular video game character of all time is clearly Link, closely followed by Mario.

.For example, American football and baseball involve both physical skill and strategy while tiddlywinks, poker, and Monopoly combine strategy and chance.^ Earl Weaver Baseball Earl Weaver baseball for the Amiga was such an incredible combination of strategy and arcade action, that I dedicated five years of my youth to it.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ For example, chess makes use of your understanding of strategy, while a game of football requires good physicall condition and team-play to win.

.Many card and board games combine all three; most trick-taking games involve mental skill, strategy, and an element of chance, as do many strategic board games such as Risk, Settlers of Catan, and Carcassonne.^ Secondly, the fact that Pirates CSG is a cerebral game with many layers of strategy.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ Most of the strategy involved planning when to have a ship embark for a planet (some planets such as Neptune and Pluto would take a very long time to travel to) and how to utilize the powers of your ships most effectively.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ Although there are games which are simply about shooting aliens there are so many other genres such as strategy, rpg, mmorpg, simulation, and many other subgenre games which offer children many benefits, such as an interest in real world business, mathematical skills and some experience of social interaction.

Single-player games

.Most games require multiple players.^ The SOE Fan Faire is a unique social event in which players of SOE's most popular titles congregate to meet their online, game-playing peers.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ Players will be able to chat with their friends while they are in-game or out of game and the most exciting thing about this is that it works across games - Play EQII and chat with friends in SWG! .
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ On the other, a lot of games promote literacy – many puzzles and plots require a fair amount of reading before the player can progress.

.However, single-player games are unique in respect to the type of challenges a player faces.^ The SOE Fan Faire is a unique social event in which players of SOE's most popular titles congregate to meet their online, game-playing peers.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ I really can't remember when was the last time I played a single player as good as Killzone 2 (yes, I've played CoDs, Resistance games, Halo etc).

^ Misrepresentation: The game is, as I mentioned before, an RTS, not an FPS (if the game let the player play from an FPS perspective as a single foot soldier, this would be in the features list.
  • Talk To Action | The Purpose Driven Life Takers (Part 1) 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC www.talk2action.org [Source type: General]

.Unlike a game with multiple players competing with or against each other to reach the game's goal, a one-player game is a battle solely against an element of the environment (an artificial opponent), against one's own skills, against time, or against chance.^ The game gave the player an open world and multiple events to compete in.
  • List of Major Game Releases - giantbomb.com 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.giantbomb.com [Source type: General]

^ Access all of your Station games in one convenient location using a unified interface that eliminates the need to have multiple game shortcuts and seperate logins between all your Station games.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ (One of the ways the game can end is when one player has more than half the gold on his home island .
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

.Playing with a yo-yo or playing tennis against a wall is not generally recognized as playing a game due to the lack of any formidable opposition.^ A simple game, played entirely from a top-down view, it was you against the world on this little "decapitation island", if you will.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ The lack of a co-op mode makes it so I really don't have a desire to buy the game due to the lack of replay value in such a key area.

^ DM teamer game that I played with Ikthultu, when we were both in The Pirate Council, against Capt.Ron and Brian of the Ironclads, during the Guild Wars.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

.It is not valid to describe a computer game as single-player where the computer provides opposition.^ Dow Jones Or Jones its a computer game that you can play with 4 players.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ You see video games and my home computer provide me with an escape from this rat infested hellhole, my alcoholic mother, and my drug addicted older brother.

^ I really can't remember when was the last time I played a single player as good as Killzone 2 (yes, I've played CoDs, Resistance games, Halo etc).

.If the computer is merely record-keeping, then the game may be validly single-player.^ Studying computer game learning experience through eye tracking: British Journal of Educational Technology Vol 38(3) May 2007, 538-542.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I really can't remember when was the last time I played a single player as good as Killzone 2 (yes, I've played CoDs, Resistance games, Halo etc).

^ A single player could control a "tall ship" against a computer opponent or another player.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

.Many games described as "single-player" may be termed actually puzzles or recreations.^ Many video games ENCOURAGE literacy; one of my favorites, Oblivion, contains hundreds of actual books for the player to read in the game.

^ Basically, they destroyed the single player experience on purpose to make it more of a non competitive party game.
  • The Beatles, “Rock Band” Makers To Release New Video Game in 2009 : Rolling Stone : Rock and Roll Daily 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC www.rollingstone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Station Launcher will allow each player to customize their preferences in many areas, and will offer a new way for players to keep in contact with their friends who play SOE games.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

Types

.Games can take a variety of forms, from competitive sports to board games and video games.^ At least video games are competitive and sociable.

^ By Jason Kottke • Dec 5, 2006 • football games maddennfl NFL sports video games Sketchfighter 4000 is a gorgeous video game with .
  • video games (kottke.org) 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As someone who's nonplussed by fancy graphics in video games, I'll take that bet.
  • video games (kottke.org) 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sports

Association football is a popular sport worldwide.
.Many sports require special equipment and dedicated playing fields, leading to the involvement of a community much larger than the group of players.^ You could have two players playing against each other and the field of other competitors.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ With multiple nominations it is clear that Rikoo Rakoo is a valued member of the Vanguard Community and more than deserving of the 2008 Player of the Year.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ On the other, a lot of games promote literacy – many puzzles and plots require a fair amount of reading before the player can progress.

A city or town may set aside such resources for the organization of sports leagues.
.Popular sports may have spectators who are entertained just by watching games.^ You're the one who's been bawling like a bairn throughout this thread and just wrote a page trying to justify the low score given to this game.

^ They don't just rate them on whether they purely entertain: it's how the game changes things in the industry, what sort of future impact it might have, essentially, how innovative it is.

^ Those who ’sit for so long that their souls seem to have been sucked down the cathode ray tube’ are those sitting in front of the TV night after night, passively watching the entertainment(?

.A community will often align itself with a local sports team that supposedly represents it (even if the team or most of its players only recently moved in); they often align themselves against their opponents or have traditional rivalries.^ The middle circle moves only itself .
  • Lost in the City Walkthrough Guide, Review, Discussion, Hints and Tips at Jay is Games 22 September 2009 22:46 UTC jayisgames.com [Source type: General]

^ Assuming these lists represent voices of authority in the gaming community, we can easily make a cumulative list averaging out the most universally popular games.

^ His quick mind allows him to see options as they develop, relate them to his overall goal, and act, often before others even guess what he is up to.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

The concept of fandom began with sports fans.
Stanley Fish cited[citation needed] the balls and strikes of baseball as a clear example of social construction, the operation of rules on the game's tools. .While the strike zone target is governed by the rules of the game, it epitomizes the category of things that exist only because people have agreed to treat them as real.^ For an added challenge, see how much you can accomplish when you can only choose 3 or maybe 4 things you actually accomplish, that is closer to reality.

^ There will be people that read his article only and just parrot what he said without knowing the nuances of what is or isn't explicit in the game.
  • Talk To Action | The Purpose Driven Life Takers (Part 1) 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC www.talk2action.org [Source type: General]

^ The function of government is to do only those things the people must not be allowed to do for themselves.

.No pitch is a ball or a strike until it has been labeled as such by an appropriate authority, the plate umpire, whose judgment on this matter cannot be challenged within the current game.^ I love this "game" but am discouraged to see that the only way offered to balance or create a budget falls within current tax options.

.Certain competitive sports, such as racing and gymnastics, are not games by definitions such as Crawford's (see above) — despite the inclusion of many in the Olympic Games — because competitors do not interact with their opponents; they simply challenge each other in indirect ways.^ Some placed a great emphasis on recognizing games that were historically "relevant" or "innovative" while others simply celebrated games that were fun to play.

^ Despite their groundbreaking work in many genres, in the end it seems that PC games have been unable to really capture the public's imagination in the same way console games have.

^ Kids today aren’t reading book because they are games, it’s because kids of this generation (when I mean “this” generation, I mean kids born in the 90’s and 2000’s) have got access of different media of fiction such as film, TV, animation and videogames.

Lawn games

.Lawn games are outdoor games that can be played on a lawn; an area of mowed grass (or alternately, on graded soil) generally smaller than a "field" or pitch.^ We had a very early PC so that I could play word and number games to help with other areas of my condition.

^ The game got so damn obnoxious after about 2 rounds that I can't picture anyone playing it longer than 5 minutes.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ Boys' and girls' use of cognitive strategy when learning to play video games: Journal of General Psychology Vol 131(2) Apr 2004, 151-158.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Variations of many games that are traditionally played on a pitch are marketed as "lawn games" for home use in a front or back yard.^ I used to play this game on a Mac.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ Once I got used to the game and the cards, I started to play a little Std.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ Back to the Future There was a Back to the Future game that was played on the Amiga computer.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

Common lawn games include horseshoes, sholf, croquet, bocce, lawn bowls, and stake.

Tabletop games

.A tabletop game generally refers to any game where the elements of play are confined to a small area and which require little physical exertion, usually simply placing, picking up and moving game pieces.^ Some placed a great emphasis on recognizing games that were historically "relevant" or "innovative" while others simply celebrated games that were fun to play.

^ I used to play warhammer; before that I made up various games with model knights and so on.

^ Is it the comfort that comes from playing a familiar game, or that the game is simply so amazing that one can't help but play it so much and for so long?
  • UConn Video Game Organization 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC vgo.uconn.edu [Source type: General]

.Most of these games are, thus, played at a table around which the players are seated and on which the game's elements are located.^ Assuming these lists represent voices of authority in the gaming community, we can easily make a cumulative list averaging out the most universally popular games.

^ How about arguing with those that actually play these games?

^ Dow Jones Or Jones its a computer game that you can play with 4 players.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

.A variety of major game types generally fall under the heading of tabletop games.^ I can't wait until playing video games falls under the rubric of parenting.
  • video games (kottke.org) 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mochiusa, a strange character with a soft, pudding-like body, jumps and falls down— The game is produced with a variety of different actions.
  • Free iPhone iPod Games :: Applications :: News 20 September 2009 9:12 UTC freegamesforiphone.com [Source type: General]

^ Cell churches in general fall under the "buddy system" and spying on members sections.
  • Talk To Action | The Purpose Driven Life Takers (Part 1) 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC www.talk2action.org [Source type: General]

.It is worth noting that many games falling into this category, particularly party games, are more free-form in their play and can involve physical activity such as mime, however the basic premise is still that the game does not require a large area in which to play it, large amounts of strength or stamina, or specialized equipment other than what comes in the box (games sometimes require additional materials like pencil and paper that are easy to procure).^ I still have the game, and still play it.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ The aesthetic is great...it feels more like art than a game.
  • video games (kottke.org) 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sorry "truth," this game is more than a game.
  • Talk To Action | The Purpose Driven Life Takers (Part 1) 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC www.talk2action.org [Source type: General]

Dexterity/coordination games

.This class of games includes any game in which the skill element involved relates to manual dexterity or hand-eye coordination, but excludes the class of video games (see below).^ Tags related to video games: .
  • video games (kottke.org) 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fact that you fail to see any positive effects of video games demonstrates you have little understanding or experience of the diversity present in modern games.

^ You see video games and my home computer provide me with an escape from this rat infested hellhole, my alcoholic mother, and my drug addicted older brother.

.Games such as jacks, paper football, and Jenga require only very portable or improvised equipment and can be played on any flat level surface, while other examples, such as pinball, billiards, air hockey, foosball, and table hockey require specialized tables or other self-contained modules on which the game is played.^ This game is very easy to understand so play it .

^ I've not really found this level of complexity in any other game I've played.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ Some placed a great emphasis on recognizing games that were historically "relevant" or "innovative" while others simply celebrated games that were fun to play.

.The advent of home video game systems largely replaced some of these, such as table hockey, however air hockey, billiards, pinball and foosball remain popular fixtures in private and public game rooms.^ These lists inevitably represent a whole host of different agendas, outlooks, and opinions on what constitutes a "great" video game.

^ JH] Could such a violent, dominionist Christian video game really break through to the popular culture?
  • Talk To Action | The Purpose Driven Life Takers (Part 1) 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC www.talk2action.org [Source type: General]

^ Violent video game effects on children and adolescents: Theory, research, and public policy.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.These games and others, as they require reflexes and coordination, are generally performed more poorly by intoxicated persons but are unlikely to result in injury because of this; as such the games are popular as drinking games.^ Assuming these lists represent voices of authority in the gaming community, we can easily make a cumulative list averaging out the most universally popular games.

^ JH] Could such a violent, dominionist Christian video game really break through to the popular culture?
  • Talk To Action | The Purpose Driven Life Takers (Part 1) 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC www.talk2action.org [Source type: General]

^ Kids today aren’t reading book because they are games, it’s because kids of this generation (when I mean “this” generation, I mean kids born in the 90’s and 2000’s) have got access of different media of fiction such as film, TV, animation and videogames.

.In addition, dedicated drinking games such as quarters also involve physical coordination and are popular for similar reasons.^ JH] Could such a violent, dominionist Christian video game really break through to the popular culture?
  • Talk To Action | The Purpose Driven Life Takers (Part 1) 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC www.talk2action.org [Source type: General]

^ Could such a violent video game really break through to the popular culture?
  • Talk To Action | The Purpose Driven Life Takers (Part 1) 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC www.talk2action.org [Source type: General]

^ With such dedication to the same game for so long, and all of his wonderful talents, it is a pleasure to award player of the year to such a worthy individual.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

Board games

Parcheesi is an American adaptation of a board game originating in India.
.Board games use as a central tool a board on which the players' status, resources, and progress are tracked using physical tokens.^ Balance your accounts and keep track of your vendor purchases in the 'Finances' section and track business profitability using the built in reporting tools.
  • Free iPhone iPod Games :: Applications :: News 20 September 2009 9:12 UTC freegamesforiphone.com [Source type: General]

^ This game had a "3D" board which cubert (or q-bert possibly) used to avoid falling objects whilst attempting to change the colour of each cube by landing on it.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ Using peer tutoring in evaluating the usability of a physically interactive computer game with children: Interacting with Computers Vol 15(2) Apr 2003, 203-225.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

Many also involve dice and/or cards. .Most games that simulate war are board games (though a large number of video games have been created to simulate strategic combat; see "Video Games" below), and the board may be a map on which the players' tokens move.^ Do video games enhance strategic thinking?
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Please note that players currently connected to the EQ Test sever may need to relog to see the button on the voice bar.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ Video games: Issues in research and learning, Part 1: Simulation & Gaming Vol 36(4) Dec 2005, 437-439.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Virtually all board games involve "turn-based" play; one player contemplates and then makes a move, then the next player does the same, and a player can only act on their turn.^ This is not like all the other RTS games where one soldier is the same as all the others.
  • Talk To Action | The Purpose Driven Life Takers (Part 1) 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC www.talk2action.org [Source type: General]

^ The illusion of love: Does virtual pet provide the same companionship as a real one?
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Vizzini is the only one Westley outright kills in the entire movie, and even then it can be said that Vizzini's overbearing ego is what does him in.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

.This is opposed to "real-time" play as is found in some card games, most sports and most video games.^ Are we really expected to associate heroism with video game play?

^ The game was a real time-spender.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ I'm not really that knowledgeable about video games...

.Some games, such as chess and Go, are entirely deterministic, relying only on the strategy element for their interest.^ I can't be interested in a game I'm not going to buy?

^ There are some quite interesting trophies in the game btw, and their icons are really nice.

^ Although there are games which are simply about shooting aliens there are so many other genres such as strategy, rpg, mmorpg, simulation, and many other subgenre games which offer children many benefits, such as an interest in real world business, mathematical skills and some experience of social interaction.

.Children's games, on the other hand, tend to be very luck-based, with games such as Candy Land having virtually no decisions to be made.^ It's a game geared to very young children.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ Very popular educational game for children!
  • discount Windows and Dos software and old computer games and hardware 2 February 2010 16:42 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Chernobyl (C64) Probably one of the very first simulation-based games.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

.Most other board games combine strategy and luck factors; the game of backgammon requires players to decide the best strategic move based on the roll of two dice.^ M.U.L.E One of the first (and some may say the best) strategy games.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ The SOE Fan Faire is a unique social event in which players of SOE's most popular titles congregate to meet their online, game-playing peers.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ Basketball Had two player team and vs. First Bball game to allow player adjustments -- post player or shooter, and allowed a certain number of rating points for each.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

.Trivia games have a great deal of randomness based on the questions a person gets.^ TV/Gaming console – Great deal!
  • The Future of Personal Computing ? « blog maverick 2 February 2010 16:42 UTC blogmaverick.com [Source type: General]

^ Beatles fan getting it from my parents this games is going to be great…maybe they can get a rolling stones rock band too… .
  • The Beatles, “Rock Band” Makers To Release New Video Game in 2009 : Rolling Stone : Rock and Roll Daily 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC www.rollingstone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was a great game, except they asked you three logical questions before starting the game to make sure you were 18 and over.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

.German-style board games are notable for often having rather less of a luck factor than many board games.^ Its a critical distinction that they only have fiber to peering points rather than having direct access to homes.
  • The Future of Personal Computing ? « blog maverick 2 February 2010 16:42 UTC blogmaverick.com [Source type: General]

^ "We found that adhering closely to Biblical philosophies made the game more interesting rather than less," Lyndon said.
  • Talk To Action | The Purpose Driven Life Takers (Part 1) 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC www.talk2action.org [Source type: General]

^ As for the singing, I’d much rather sing along to the songs myself rather than having a game tell me how off-key I am.
  • The Beatles, “Rock Band” Makers To Release New Video Game in 2009 : Rolling Stone : Rock and Roll Daily 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC www.rollingstone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Board game groups include race games, roll-and-move games, abstract strategy games, word games, and wargames, as well as the trivia and German-style board games mentioned above.^ Weave around the board to make words of this unique and addictive game set in an ancient tribal land.
  • Free iPhone iPod Games :: Applications :: News 20 September 2009 9:12 UTC freegamesforiphone.com [Source type: General]

^ Games are good for you, they do increase the powers of your brain, but board games/wargames/etc can do the same as pc games, without most of the negative side effects.

^ In other words, Left Behind Games is invoking its association with Mr. Warren's Purpose Driven Church as part of its product marketing strategy.
  • Talk To Action | The Purpose Driven Life Takers (Part 1) 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC www.talk2action.org [Source type: General]

.Some board games fall into multiple groups and even incorporate elements of other genres: Cranium is one popular example, where players must succeed in each of four main skills: artistry, live performance, trivia, and language skill.^ Access all of your Station games in one convenient location using a unified interface that eliminates the need to have multiple game shortcuts and seperate logins between all your Station games.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ The game gave the player an open world and multiple events to compete in.
  • List of Major Game Releases - giantbomb.com 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.giantbomb.com [Source type: General]

^ (One of the ways the game can end is when one player has more than half the gold on his home island .
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

Card games

.Card games use a deck of cards as their central tool.^ Once I got used to the game and the cards, I started to play a little Std.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ Blackheart are the most useful cards in the game, but I love using things like The Inquisitor or Diablito too.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ On the other hand, the video game is anti-Christian, because it argues that the Kingdom of God can be advanced by using the methods and tools of the kingdoms of this world, namely guns and bombs.
  • Talk To Action | The Purpose Driven Life Takers (Part 1) 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC www.talk2action.org [Source type: General]

.These cards may be a standard Anglo-American (52-card) deck of playing cards (such as for bridge, poker, Rummy, etc), a regional deck using 32, 36 or 40 cards and different suit signs (such as for the popular German game skat), a tarot deck of 78 cards (used in Europe to play a variety of trick-taking games collectively known as Tarot, Tarock, and/or Tarocchi games), or a deck specific to the individual game (such as Set or 1000 Blank White Cards).^ Once I got used to the game and the cards, I started to play a little Std.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ Make cards, awards, signs, etc.
  • discount Windows and Dos software and old computer games and hardware 2 February 2010 16:42 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ I used to play this game on a Mac.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

.Uno and Rook are examples of games that were originally played with a standard deck and have since been commercialized with customized decks.^ I have not stopped playing games since.

^ I’ve played Video games since I was 5.

^ Half-Life: Counter-Strike Originally created as a modification of the original Half-Life, Counter-Strike has since become its own franchise, setting new standards in online team-based shooters, and was at one point the single most-played online game in the world with a huge competitive following.
  • List of Major Game Releases - giantbomb.com 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.giantbomb.com [Source type: General]

.Some collectible card games such as Magic: The Gathering are played with a small selection of cards which have been collected or purchased individually from large available sets.^ Individual and collective activities in educational computer game playing.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some placed a great emphasis on recognizing games that were historically "relevant" or "innovative" while others simply celebrated games that were fun to play.

^ I am creating such a good economic surplus, and it was great to play this game; VOTE FOR ME .

.Some board games include a deck of cards as a gameplay element, normally for randomization and/or to keep track of game progress.^ We're bringing some booster packs with us, so bring your decks and any cards you want to trade, and maybe you'll go home with some new stuff!
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ There are 30 total game cards that can be found in these packs that include: .
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ By Jason Kottke • May 3, 2007 • 8 comments • best of games lists video games Cynical-C is keeping track of what the .
  • video games (kottke.org) 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Conversely, some card games such as Cribbage use a board with movers, normally to keep score.^ Once I got used to the game and the cards, I started to play a little Std.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ I wasn't going to but I will, I have bemoaned MSofts charges for Live whilst some games use a P2P system with no server upkeep to pay for.

^ This game had a "3D" board which cubert (or q-bert possibly) used to avoid falling objects whilst attempting to change the colour of each cube by landing on it.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

.The differentiation between the two genres in such cases depends on which element of the game is foremost in its play; a board game using cards for random actions can usually use some other method of randomization, while Cribbage can just as easily be scored on paper.^ Once I got used to the game and the cards, I started to play a little Std.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ Or in some cases the video gaming console.

^ I used to play this game on a Mac.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

These elements as used are simply the traditional and easiest methods to achieve their purpose.

Dice games

.Dice games use a number of dice as their central element.^ The used tiles disappear, leaving you fewer combinations of numbers to work with to equal the sum of the dice.
  • Free iPhone iPod Games :: Applications :: News 20 September 2009 9:12 UTC freegamesforiphone.com [Source type: General]

^ To play the game, you simply touch the block where you want to enter a number and then you use the numeric keyboard to enter the number you want to put in the box.
  • Free iPhone iPod Games :: Applications :: News 20 September 2009 9:12 UTC freegamesforiphone.com [Source type: General]

^ The game challenges the player to eliminate every one of the tiles, numbered 1 through 9, with a pair of dice.
  • Free iPhone iPod Games :: Applications :: News 20 September 2009 9:12 UTC freegamesforiphone.com [Source type: General]

.Board games often use dice for a randomization element, and thus each roll of the dice has a profound impact on the outcome of the game, however dice games are differentiated in that the dice do not determine the success or failure of some other element of the game; they instead are the central indicator of the person's standing in the game.^ Some placed a great emphasis on recognizing games that were historically "relevant" or "innovative" while others simply celebrated games that were fun to play.

^ To keep this list in the style of all the others, I have thus tampered with it, and inserted games from each series which I think they would be statistically most likely to have chosen as the "best" game of each franchise.

^ Fan Faire is a great place for SOE gamers to mix and mingle with each other and meet some of the faces behind their favorite SOE games.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

Popular dice games include Yahtzee, Farkle, Bunco, Liar's dice/Perudo, and Poker dice. .As dice are, by their very nature, designed to produce apparently random numbers, these games usually involve a high degree of luck, which can be directed to some extent by the player through more strategic elements of play and through tenets of probability theory.^ It is my opinion that many games which don't deserve a 9/10 tend to get awarded that score through deference to a more appropriate one.

^ (Some Locked in Lite version) freeapps.html freeapps.php logs news.html news.php update webalizer.conf webalizer.current webalizer.hist www Scalable number of cards as your game progresses (Helps the kids stay focus and makes it more fun to play).
  • Free iPhone iPod Games :: Applications :: News 20 September 2009 9:12 UTC freegamesforiphone.com [Source type: General]

^ (One of the ways the game can end is when one player has more than half the gold on his home island .
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

.Such games are thus popular as gambling games; the game of Craps is perhaps the most famous example, though Liar's dice and Poker dice were originally conceived of as gambling games.^ Nintendo Power's 1997 list, though now almost ten years old, thus stands up well today, as the classics it recognized still remain amongst the most contemporarily popular.

^ Assuming these lists represent voices of authority in the gaming community, we can easily make a cumulative list averaging out the most universally popular games.

^ JH] Could such a violent, dominionist Christian video game really break through to the popular culture?
  • Talk To Action | The Purpose Driven Life Takers (Part 1) 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC www.talk2action.org [Source type: General]

Domino and tile games

.Domino games are similar in many respects to card games, but the generic device is instead a set of tiles called dominoes, which traditionally each have two ends, each with a given number of dots, or "pips", and each combination of two possible end values as it appears on a tile is unique in the set.^ Despite their groundbreaking work in many genres, in the end it seems that PC games have been unable to really capture the public's imagination in the same way console games have.

^ Weave around the board to make words of this unique and addictive game set in an ancient tribal land.
  • Free iPhone iPod Games :: Applications :: News 20 September 2009 9:12 UTC freegamesforiphone.com [Source type: General]

^ Many gamers spend an hour or two each night unwinding by playing a game, the same way that the older generation may sit and listen to music, or enjoy a glass of wine – in the same way we find out relaxation by playing computer games.

.The games played with dominoes largely center around playing a domino from the player's "hand" onto the matching end of another domino, and the overall object could be to always be able to make a play, to make all open endpoints sum to a given number or multiple, or simply to play all dominoes from one's hand onto the board.^ Games make for one sexy scapegoat after all.

^ The object of the game was to clear all the skyscrapers so the plane could land.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ Ikari Warriors One of the first good 2 player games around.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

.Sets vary in the number of possible dots on one end, and thus of the number of combinations and pieces; the most common set historically is double-six, though in more recent times "extended" sets such as double-nine have been introduced to increase the number of dominoes available, which allows larger hands and more players in a game.^ It is my opinion that many games which don't deserve a 9/10 tend to get awarded that score through deference to a more appropriate one.

^ With this iPhone application, PickUpGame, players can set up and join a pickup game in a very convenient way.
  • Free iPhone iPod Games :: Applications :: News 20 September 2009 9:12 UTC freegamesforiphone.com [Source type: General]

^ (One of the ways the game can end is when one player has more than half the gold on his home island .
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

.Muggins, Mexican Train, and Chicken Foot are very popular domino games.^ Very popular educational game for children!
  • discount Windows and Dos software and old computer games and hardware 2 February 2010 16:42 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ The gameplay is similar to the very popular falsh game Amorphous+.
  • Free iPhone iPod Games :: Applications :: News 20 September 2009 9:12 UTC freegamesforiphone.com [Source type: General]

.Texas 42 is a domino game more similar in its play to a "trick-taking" card game.^ Ultima Series Similar to the Dungeon and Dragons series (but prior to) and the Gauntlet video games, you played an adventurer on a quest for Lord British.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ Once I got used to the game and the cards, I started to play a little Std.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ Now, everyone can play alongside EQ and EQII players experiencing the fantasy and majestic allure of this tactical and intensive card game!
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

Variations of traditional dominoes abound: Triominoes are similar in theory but are triangular and thus have three values per tile. Similarly, a game known as Quad-Ominos uses four-sided tiles.
.Some other games use tiles in place of cards; Rummikub is a variant of the Rummy card game family that uses tiles numbered in ascending rank among four colors, very similar to Anglo-American playing cards.^ Once I got used to the game and the cards, I started to play a little Std.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ I used to play this game on a Mac.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ Some placed a great emphasis on recognizing games that were historically "relevant" or "innovative" while others simply celebrated games that were fun to play.

.Mah-Jongg is another game very similar to Rummy that uses a set of tiles with card-like values and art.^ "But megachurches are very likely to embrace this game."
  • Talk To Action | The Purpose Driven Life Takers (Part 1) 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC www.talk2action.org [Source type: General]

^ With this iPhone application, PickUpGame, players can set up and join a pickup game in a very convenient way.
  • Free iPhone iPod Games :: Applications :: News 20 September 2009 9:12 UTC freegamesforiphone.com [Source type: General]

^ In another first for Fan Faire, Smed will also unveil an all-new, SOE online game, which is set to formally launch in late August.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

.Lastly, some games use graphical tiles to form a board layout, on which other elements of the game are played.^ I used to play this game on a Mac.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ Fan Faire is a great place for SOE gamers to mix and mingle with each other and meet some of the faces behind their favorite SOE games.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ Staying connected with HP servers Liquid Development, a computer graphics production studio, uses HP ProLiant servers for design, development and distribution of image and graphic files for some of today's top video games.
  • HP Products & Services Videos - Personal Computing|Gaming Systems 2 February 2010 16:42 UTC h30429.www3.hp.com [Source type: General]

Settlers of Catan and Carcassonne are examples. .In each, the "board" is made up of a series of tiles; in Settlers of Catan the starting layout is random but static, while in Carcassonne the game is played by "building" the board tile-by-tile.^ I used to play warhammer; before that I made up various games with model knights and so on.

^ Ultima Series Similar to the Dungeon and Dragons series (but prior to) and the Gauntlet video games, you played an adventurer on a quest for Lord British.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ Once I got used to the game and the cards, I started to play a little Std.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

.Hive, an abstract strategy game using tiles as moving pieces, has mechanical and strategic elements similar to chess, although it has no board; the pieces themselves both form the layout and can move within it.^ After a childhood of board games, the attraction of a Naval chess game intrigued me in my later{cough} years.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ Gender differences in the use of a computer-based mathematics game: Strategies, motivation, and beliefs about mathematics and computers.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Use of the Rorschach Experience Balance statistic as a predictor of video game performance: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

Pencil and paper games

.Pencil and paper games require little or no specialized equipment other than writing materials, though some such games have been commercialized as board games (Scrabble, for instance, is based on the idea of a crossword puzzle, and tic-tac-toe sets with a boxed grid and pieces are available commercially).^ It is what sets it apart from other games of its type.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ Some placed a great emphasis on recognizing games that were historically "relevant" or "innovative" while others simply celebrated games that were fun to play.

^ He will be available to look at individual art pieces or portfolios and offer guidance on portfolio building for games, commercial work, or just for fun.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

.These games vary widely, from games centering on a design being drawn such as Pictionary and "connect-the-dots" games like sprouts, to letter and word games such as Boggle and Scattergories, to solitaire and logic puzzle games such as Sudoku and crossword puzzles.^ Troyis - A chess-like puzzle game.
  • video games (kottke.org) 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But heart is long as password - so you have to find a four-letter word, that is connected with heart .
  • Lost in the City Walkthrough Guide, Review, Discussion, Hints and Tips at Jay is Games 22 September 2009 22:46 UTC jayisgames.com [Source type: General]

^ Experience the best of two game worlds – classic word creation and arcade puzzle.
  • Free iPhone iPod Games :: Applications :: News 20 September 2009 9:12 UTC freegamesforiphone.com [Source type: General]

Guessing games

.A guessing game has as its core a piece of information that one player knows, and the object is to coerce others into guessing that piece of information without actually divulging it in text or spoken word.^ (One of the ways the game can end is when one player has more than half the gold on his home island .
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ Many video games ENCOURAGE literacy; one of my favorites, Oblivion, contains hundreds of actual books for the player to read in the game.

^ Pickup games are sports games that involve players don't necessarily know each other.
  • Free iPhone iPod Games :: Applications :: News 20 September 2009 9:12 UTC freegamesforiphone.com [Source type: General]

.Charades is probably the most well-known game of this type, and has spawned numerous commercial variants that involve differing rules on the type of communication to be given, such as Catch Phrase, Taboo, Pictionary, and similar.^ Assuming these lists represent voices of authority in the gaming community, we can easily make a cumulative list averaging out the most universally popular games.

^ The reviewer probably wanted to lower the score because you dont have 20 types of grenades as well.

^ Spawning 4 proper sequels, the game eventually made its way to home consoles, most notably with a haphazard 32X version.
  • List of Major Game Releases - giantbomb.com 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.giantbomb.com [Source type: General]

.The genre also includes many game shows such as Win, Lose or Draw, Password and $25,000 Pyramid.^ But the above posting (not the one I'm responding to) drawing out all such offensive material in the book series does not mean that the game is necessarily the same way.
  • Talk To Action | The Purpose Driven Life Takers (Part 1) 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC www.talk2action.org [Source type: General]

^ Game Update screen now includes "Show All Games" - There's a button on the Game Update screen that's now labeled "Show All Games," instead of "Back to Games".
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ By Jason Kottke • Apr 25, 2008 • games NYC video games Starcade was an 80s TV game show .
  • video games (kottke.org) 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Video games

.Video games are computer- or microprocessor-controlled games.^ Video games and the pleasures of control.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ How do motion-sensing video game controllers (like the Wii remote) work ?
  • video games (kottke.org) 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You see video games and my home computer provide me with an escape from this rat infested hellhole, my alcoholic mother, and my drug addicted older brother.

.Computers can create virtual tools to be used in a game between human (or simulated human) opponents, such as cards or dice, or can simulate far more elaborate worlds where mundane or fantastic things can be manipulated through gameplay.^ Access all of your Station games in one convenient location using a unified interface that eliminates the need to have multiple game shortcuts and seperate logins between all your Station games.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ Is this paramilitary mission simulator for children anything other than prejudice and bigotry using religion as an organizing tool to get people in a violent frame of mind?
  • Talk To Action | The Purpose Driven Life Takers (Part 1) 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC www.talk2action.org [Source type: General]

^ Gender differences in the use of a computer-based mathematics game: Strategies, motivation, and beliefs about mathematics and computers.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.A computer or video game uses one or more input devices, typically a button/joystick combination (on arcade games); a keyboard, mouse and/or trackball (computer games); or a controller or a motion sensitive tool.^ A controlled study of facilitated communication using computer games.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Video games and the pleasures of control.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Interactive media: An analysis of children's computer and video game use.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

(console games). .More esoteric devices such as paddle controllers have also been used for input.^ You start out as a lowly 001 Influence Device droid, but you can take control of more powerful droids bearing numbers as high as 999 along the way.
  • List of Major Game Releases - giantbomb.com 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.giantbomb.com [Source type: General]

^ Related Links: > > Consumer Support Forum > > More on HP TouchSmart PCs HP TouchSmart: Use the Input Panel 3 .
  • HP Products & Services Videos - Personal Computing|Gaming Systems 2 February 2010 16:42 UTC h30429.www3.hp.com [Source type: General]

^ Related Links: > > Consumer Support Forum > > More on HP TouchSmart PCs HP TouchSmart: Use the Input Panel 2 .
  • HP Products & Services Videos - Personal Computing|Gaming Systems 2 February 2010 16:42 UTC h30429.www3.hp.com [Source type: General]

.In computer games, the evolution of user interfaces from simple keyboard to mouse, joystick or joypad has profoundly changed the nature of game development.^ Hacker A natural game to put on a computer.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ I am not looking for ARCADE GAMES. This list is for games that were strictly for computer users.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ I disagree with “The writing is on the wall – computer games rot the brain”, I would agree with “The writing is on the wall – excessive participation in singular activities may be detrimental to balanced development”.

[citation needed]
.There are many genres of video game; the first commercial video game, Pong, was a simple simulation of table tennis.^ Video games are entertainment, plain and simple.

^ Chernobyl (C64) Probably one of the very first simulation-based games.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ Metal Gear The first game in the popular Metal Gear franchise, Metal Gear documents Solid Snake's first mission as a FOXHOUND operative and is considered by many to be the origin of stealth gameplay.
  • List of Major Game Releases - giantbomb.com 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.giantbomb.com [Source type: General]

.As processing power increased, new genres such as adventure and action games were developed that involved a player guiding a character from a third person perspective through a series of obstacles.^ FAMOUS inFAMOUS is a third-person open-world action-adventure game in which players take control of Cole, an urban explorer / bike messenger changed by a mysterious blast that grants him electricity-based superpowers.
  • List of Major Game Releases - giantbomb.com 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.giantbomb.com [Source type: General]

^ Karateka required the player to run through a small forest, fighting numerous guards, in order to reach the boss character and save the main character's girlfriend.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ JH] Could such a violent, dominionist Christian video game really break through to the popular culture?
  • Talk To Action | The Purpose Driven Life Takers (Part 1) 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC www.talk2action.org [Source type: General]

.This "real-time" element cannot be easily reproduced by a board game which is generally limited to "turn-based" strategy; this advantage allows video games to simulate situations such as combat more realistically.^ This was a great game, one of the first 'real time' strategy games.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ The game was a real time-spender.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ Chernobyl (C64) Probably one of the very first simulation-based games.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

.Additionally, the playing of a video game does not require the same physical skill, strength and/or danger as a real-world representation of the game, and can provide either very realistic, exaggerated or impossible physics, allowing for elements of a fantastical nature, games involving physical violence, or simulations of sports.^ The physical and emotional experience of violence in video games.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because I play video games.

^ Does the game use real bullets...
  • The Game, by John Brancato & Michael Ferris; and Larry Gross; and Andrew Kevin Walker 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC www.dailyscript.com [Source type: General]

.Lastly, a computer can, with varying degrees of success, simulate one or more human opponents in traditional table games such as chess, leading to simulations of such games that can be played by a single player.^ Dow Jones Or Jones its a computer game that you can play with 4 players.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ Computer games for girls: What makes them play?
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The bridge player: A brief acute psychotic episode in an elderly man due to playing computer games: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Vol 14(12) Dec 1999, 1075-1076.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.In more open-ended computer simulations, also known as sandbox-style games, the game provides a virtual environment in which the player may be free to do whatever they like within the confines of this universe.^ To keep this list in the style of all the others, I have thus tampered with it, and inserted games from each series which I think they would be statistically most likely to have chosen as the "best" game of each franchise.

^ Seems a bit scary when religious groups provides games like that....
  • Talk To Action | The Purpose Driven Life Takers (Part 1) 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC www.talk2action.org [Source type: General]

^ The game gave the player an open world and multiple events to compete in.
  • List of Major Game Releases - giantbomb.com 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.giantbomb.com [Source type: General]

.Sometimes, there is a lack of goals or opposition, which has stirred some debate on whether these should be considered "games" or "toys". (Crawford specifically mentions Will Wright’s SimCity as an example of a toy.^ This game seems to be a rare example of truthfulness from the Christian right, and they should be commended for it.
  • Talk To Action | The Purpose Driven Life Takers (Part 1) 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC www.talk2action.org [Source type: General]

^ Then there’s the Side Scrolling shoot’em’ups, these games aren’t as popular as FPS games, but I’m a fan of them.

^ To say that these children are being corrupted by the video games that they play because they lack literature would be a dismal failure of a debate considering that any good video game reviewer takes story into great consideration.

[1])

Online games

.From the very earliest days of networked and time-shared computers, online games have been part of the culture.^ I don't think this game shares anything with "Lost" other then part of the name.
  • Lost in the City Walkthrough Guide, Review, Discussion, Hints and Tips at Jay is Games 22 September 2009 22:46 UTC jayisgames.com [Source type: General]

^ No matter what you celebrate at this time of year, everyone here at Sony Online Entertainment wishes you a very magical holiday, and a happy new year!
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ SOE creates, develops and provides compelling entertainment for the personal computer, online, game console and wireless markets.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

.Early commercial systems such as Plato were at least as widely famous for their games as for their strictly educational value.^ The lack of a co-op mode makes it so I really don't have a desire to buy the game due to the lack of replay value in such a key area.

^ Number Munchers On the Apple IIe systems at my school, we had a variety of educational games.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ Ultima series RPG(role playing game) that made Origin systems extremely famous(and the owner, Lord British fabuloously wealthy)...
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

In 1958, Tennis for Two dominated Visitor's Day and drew attention to the oscilloscope at the Brookhaven National Laboratory; during the 1980s, Xerox PARC was known mainly for Maze War, which was offered as a hands-on demo to visitors.
.Modern online games are played using an Internet connection; some have dedicated client programs, while others require only a web browser.^ I don't play any other online games, currently.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ I can only play the web version!
  • Lost in the City Walkthrough Guide, Review, Discussion, Hints and Tips at Jay is Games 22 September 2009 22:46 UTC jayisgames.com [Source type: General]

^ Requires an internet connection.
  • Free iPhone iPod Games :: Applications :: News 20 September 2009 9:12 UTC freegamesforiphone.com [Source type: General]

.Some simpler browser games appeal to demographic groups (notably women and the middle-aged) that otherwise play very few video games.^ This game is very easy to understand so play it .

^ Amusement machine playing in childhood and adolescence: A comparative analysis of video games and fruit machines: Journal of Adolescence Vol 14(1) Mar 1991, 53-73.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Emotional Appeal of Violent Video Games for Adolescent Males: Communication Theory Vol 15(3) Aug 2005, 219-241.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
.The computer game is the most established of all sectors of the emergent new media landscape.^ Category: Games Released: Sep 15, 2009 Price: Free Description: Calipoli is an all new puzzle action game for the iPhone.
  • Free iPhone iPod Games :: Applications :: News 20 September 2009 9:12 UTC freegamesforiphone.com [Source type: General]

^ In another first for Fan Faire, Smed will also unveil an all-new, SOE online game, which is set to formally launch in late August.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ All new aspects of the Station Launcher will make game access easy and convenient, as well as automatically keeping all the games up-to-date.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

.The media is transformed from the traditional way of circulating in just one way to an interactive way.^ I agree with just about everything here, by the way, 360 is a blast everyone should have one and I can see you on Gears of War sometime.
  • The Future of Personal Computing ? « blog maverick 2 February 2010 16:42 UTC blogmaverick.com [Source type: General]

^ Just one remote for complete control of your digital entertainment and favorite online media.
  • HP Products & Services Videos - Personal Computing|Gaming Systems 2 February 2010 16:42 UTC h30429.www3.hp.com [Source type: General]

.This is the phenomenon that is broadening around the world of video game.^ The greatest music in the world is now going to be in a video game.
  • The Beatles, “Rock Band” Makers To Release New Video Game in 2009 : Rolling Stone : Rock and Roll Daily 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC www.rollingstone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By Jason Kottke • Jan 9, 2008 • games video games World of Warcraft Todd Levin begins a series on video .
  • video games (kottke.org) 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Beatles have went from music, to films, to accesories, and now they’re coming to video games LET IT BE now that they’ll be the greatest Rockband or GH of the world.
  • The Beatles, “Rock Band” Makers To Release New Video Game in 2009 : Rolling Stone : Rock and Roll Daily 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC www.rollingstone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is an obvious example of the ways in which online and offline space can be seen as "merged" rather than separate.^ He prefers to talk his way into treasure and out of trouble rather than fight.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

[12]
Media audiences’ characteristic has been changing in consequence of the social changes and development. .They are becoming active and interact more than ever before.^ They're an entertainment service, but more than that.
  • The Game, by John Brancato & Michael Ferris; and Larry Gross; and Andrew Kevin Walker 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC www.dailyscript.com [Source type: General]

^ Players of the Nintendo Wii are getting more exercise than they bargained for ; reports of "Wii elbow" abound.
  • video games (kottke.org) 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Different weapon types and grenades were available and they could become more powerful through power ups.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

.The players of the game in this phenomenon are just like the social formation in our society.^ Typically, players just join the game that has been started.
  • Free iPhone iPod Games :: Applications :: News 20 September 2009 9:12 UTC freegamesforiphone.com [Source type: General]

^ Without these kinds of players HMX won’t be able to turn a profit on mediocre music like they used to just less than a year ago.
  • The Beatles, “Rock Band” Makers To Release New Video Game in 2009 : Rolling Stone : Rock and Roll Daily 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC www.rollingstone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Just because you don’t like games, doesn’t mean you can put the blame on it.

.They are both self-regulating, creating their own social norms and subject to regulation and constraint through the code of the game and sometimes through the policing of the game by those who run it.^ We both had a lot of laughs from those games.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ Social regulation of online multiplayer games.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ So, their answer is to create a violent, anti-social video game of their own?!
  • Talk To Action | The Purpose Driven Life Takers (Part 1) 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC www.talk2action.org [Source type: General]

The values that are policed vary from game to game. .Many of the values encoded into game cultures reflect offline cultural values, but games also offer a chance to emphasis alternative or subjugated values in the name of fantasy and play.^ Now, everyone can play alongside EQ and EQII players experiencing the fantasy and majestic allure of this tactical and intensive card game!
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ You played a petty thief trying to gain entry into Kernovia's (first mentioned in a similar game called "The Pawn") legendary Guild of Theives by ransacking a castle and its surrounding area of all its valuables.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ The lack of co-op is a real put off for me though, I love playing through games with a friend, be it online or offline.

.The players of the game at the new century are now apparently expressing their profound self through the game.^ Now, everyone can play alongside EQ and EQII players experiencing the fantasy and majestic allure of this tactical and intensive card game!
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ New and improved: The effects of technological advancement and violent content in video games on player arousal, presence, attitudes, perceptions of interactivity, and aggression.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Self-esteem of computer games players in adolescence: Ceskoslovenska Psychologie Vol 44(3) 2000, 279-286.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.When they can play with their anonymous status, they are found to be more confident to express and to step out from the position they have never been out from.^ They are the best out there from A to B. I can’t wait to play Rock Band as long as the tracks are from the original releases!
  • The Beatles, “Rock Band” Makers To Release New Video Game in 2009 : Rolling Stone : Rock and Roll Daily 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC www.rollingstone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Right now, people who sold GM short, for example, earned income on which they will never pay taxes if they never close out their short positions.

^ Related Links: > > More on HP ProLiant servers > > More on Factory Express HP ProLiant servers: Confidence .
  • HP Products & Services Videos - Personal Computing|Gaming Systems 2 February 2010 16:42 UTC h30429.www3.hp.com [Source type: General]

.It offers new experiences and pleasures based in the interactive and immersible possibilities of computer technologies.^ Studying computer game learning experience through eye tracking: British Journal of Educational Technology Vol 38(3) May 2007, 538-542.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ High-resolution gaming: Interfaces, notifications, and the user experience: Interacting with Computers Vol 19(2) Mar 2007, 151-166.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Once the Internet masses catch on to this new style of computing, I really do feel as though it will be a fundamental change to the way that we interact with our computers.
  • The Future of Personal Computing ? « blog maverick 2 February 2010 16:42 UTC blogmaverick.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed]

Role-playing games

.Role-playing games, often abbreviated as RPGs, are a type of game in which the participants (usually) assume the roles of characters acting in a fictional setting.^ Clive Thompson on Weight Watchers as an RPG (role playing game) .
  • video games (kottke.org) 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is what sets it apart from other games of its type.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ College students' video game participation and perceptions: Gender differences and implications: Sex Roles Vol 56(7-8) Apr 2007, 537-542.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The original role playing games—or at least those explicitly marketed as such—are played with a handful of participants, usually face-to-face, and keep track of the developing fiction with pen and paper.^ The games are usually close, but those turtle usually prevail.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ How about arguing with those that actually play these games?

^ The role of violent video game content in adolescent development: Boys' perspectives: Journal of Adolescent Research Vol 23(1) Jan 2008, 55-75.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Together, the players may collaborate on a story involving those characters; create, develop, and "explore" the setting; or vicariously experience an adventure outside the bounds of everyday life.^ This games gives you an indepth and ongoing life story for every character, making every death a personal one, a tragic one.
  • Talk To Action | The Purpose Driven Life Takers (Part 1) 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC www.talk2action.org [Source type: General]

^ Players will be able to explore the dangers at the edge of known waters with the regular cards of the set, but there is so much more to explore!
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ The Sims 3 Electronic Art's follow up to the hugely successful Sims 2 introduces an improved character creation system, an open neighborhood, and a greater focus on character development.
  • List of Major Game Releases - giantbomb.com 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.giantbomb.com [Source type: General]

.Pen-and-paper role-playing games include, for example, Dungeons & Dragons and GURPS.^ Clive Thompson on Weight Watchers as an RPG (role playing game) .
  • video games (kottke.org) 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ultima Series Similar to the Dungeon and Dragons series (but prior to) and the Gauntlet video games, you played an adventurer on a quest for Lord British.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ Auto Duel Created by Lord British & Chuckles of Origin Systems, this was a futuristic pen & paper game that was ported to the computer.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

.Modern independent RPGs, however, often blur the line between the more traditional idea of the RPG and other traditional genres, or border on story-telling.^ This game brought the RPG genre into the mainstream in a way no other game had before.
  • List of Major Game Releases - giantbomb.com 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.giantbomb.com [Source type: General]

^ The fact is that I think that Banks’ literary fiction is complete and utter drivel, and more of an exercise in literary masturbation than a serious attempt to tell a story.

.The term role-playing game has also been appropriated by the video game industry to describe a genre of video games.^ Because I play video games.

^ I’ve played Video games since I was 5.

^ Amusement machine playing in childhood and adolescence: A comparative analysis of video games and fruit machines: Journal of Adolescence Vol 14(1) Mar 1991, 53-73.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.These may be single-player games where one player experiences a programmed environment and story, or they may allow players to interact through the internet.^ It is a single player experience only.

^ It is my opinion that many games which don't deserve a 9/10 tend to get awarded that score through deference to a more appropriate one.

^ (One of the ways the game can end is when one player has more than half the gold on his home island .
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

.The experience is usually quite different than traditional role-playing games.^ Clive Thompson on Weight Watchers as an RPG (role playing game) .
  • video games (kottke.org) 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Comment by IRJM on January 21, 2007 @ 5:30 am From observation and experience I am quite certain that obsessive computer game playing is bad for the brain; and that reading is good for it.

^ College students' video game participation and perceptions: Gender differences and implications: Sex Roles Vol 56(7-8) Apr 2007, 537-542.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Single-player games include Final Fantasy, Fable, The Elder Scrolls, and Mass Effect.^ Now, everyone can play alongside EQ and EQII players experiencing the fantasy and majestic allure of this tactical and intensive card game!
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ I really can't remember when was the last time I played a single player as good as Killzone 2 (yes, I've played CoDs, Resistance games, Halo etc).

^ New and improved: The effects of technological advancement and violent content in video games on player arousal, presence, attitudes, perceptions of interactivity, and aggression.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Online multi-player games, often referred to as Massively Multiplayer Online role playing games, or MMORPGs, include RuneScape, EverQuest 2, Guild Wars, MapleStory, Anarchy Online, and Dofus.^ Social regulation of online multiplayer games.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In fact, The early issues of Computer Gaming World used to hold monthly contests, pitting ship designs submitted by gamers/readers against others- for bragging rights and pitiful prizes, all before we even knew what massive multi online play was.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

^ SOE is hosting its annual Fan Faire event in Las Vegas for fans of its massively multiplayer online (MMO) gaming lineup including the hit titles EverQuest ® , EverQuest ® II, EverQuest ® Online Adventures, PlanetSide ®, Star Wars Galaxies™ and Vanguard: Saga of Heroes ® .
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

.As of 2009, the most successful MMORPG has been World of Warcraft, which controls the vast majority of the market.^ Success Story Theres been this major evolution over the last 8-15 years from just working in a 2D world to a 3D world, and now its really a model based design world.
  • HP Products & Services Videos - Personal Computing|Gaming Systems 2 February 2010 16:42 UTC h30429.www3.hp.com [Source type: General]

^ World of Warcraft World of Warcraft is an MMORPG that takes place in Blizzard Entertainment's Warcraft universe.
  • List of Major Game Releases - giantbomb.com 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.giantbomb.com [Source type: General]

^ World of Warcraft: Wrath of the Lich King Travel to the arctic continent of Northrend in Blizzard's second and latest expansion to the most popular MMORPG ever made.
  • List of Major Game Releases - giantbomb.com 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.giantbomb.com [Source type: General]

[13]

Simulation

.The term "game" can include simulation[14][15] or re-enactment of various activities or use in "real life" for various purposes: e.g., training, analysis, prediction.^ I used to play warhammer; before that I made up various games with model knights and so on.

^ Video games and real-life aggression: Review of the literature: Journal of Adolescent Health Vol 29(4) Oct 2001, 244-257.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Amusement machine playing in childhood and adolescence: A comparative analysis of video games and fruit machines: Journal of Adolescence Vol 14(1) Mar 1991, 53-73.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Well-known examples are war games and roleplaying.^ Based on influences from Star Trek, Star Wars, and early BBS strategy games, Trade Wars was an early example of the appeal of online gaming.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

.The root of this meaning may originate in the human prehistory of games deduced by anthropology from observing primitive cultures, in which children's games mimic the activities of adults to a significant degree: hunting, warring, nursing, etc.^ Treasure Hunt--a psychotherapeutic game to support cognitive-behavioural treatment of children: Verhaltenstherapie Vol 17(3) Sep 2007, 191-194.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Linking obesity and activity level with children's television and video game use: Journal of Adolescence Vol 27(1) Feb 2004, 71-85.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Success is not enough: Challenges to sustaining new forms of educational activity: Computers in Human Behavior Vol 16(3) May 2000, 271-286.
  • Computer games - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.These kinds of games are preserved in modern times.^ This kind of thing isnt uncommon it just happens that video games are the prized possesions of children these days not standard toys.

See also

Further reading

  • Avedon, Elliot; Sutton-Smith, Brian, The Study of Games. (Philadelphia: Wiley, 1971), reprinted Krieger, 1979. ISBN 0-89874-045-2

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Crawford, Chris (2003). Chris Crawford on Game Design. New Riders. ISBN 0-88134-117-7. 
  2. ^ Soubeyrand, Catherine (2000). "The Royal Game of Ur". The Game Cabinet. http://www.gamecabinet.com/history/Ur.html. Retrieved 2008-10-05. 
  3. ^ Green, William. "Big Game Hunter". 2008 Summer Journey (Time). http://www.time.com/time/specials/2007/article/0,28804,1815747_1815707_1815665,00.html. Retrieved 2008-10-05. 
  4. ^ "History of Games". MacGregor Historic Games. 2006. http://www.historicgames.com/gamestimeline.html. Retrieved 2008-10-05. 
  5. ^ Wittgenstein, Ludwig (1953/2002). Philosophical Investigations. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-23127-7. 
  6. ^ Caillois, Roger (1957). Les jeux et les hommes. Gallimard. 
  7. ^ Salen, Katie; Zimmerman, Eric (2003), Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals, MIT Press, p. 80, ISBN 0-262-24045-9 
  8. ^ Costikyan, Greg (1994), I Have No Words & I Must Design, http://www.costik.com/nowords.html, retrieved 2008-08-17 
  9. ^ Serious Games, Viking Press, 1970, p. 6, ISBN 0670634905 
  10. ^ Avedon, Elliot; Sutton-Smith, Brian (1971), The Study of Games, J. Wiley, p. 405, ISBN 0471038393 
  11. ^ Maroney, Kevin (2001), My Entire Waking Life, The Games Journal, http://www.thegamesjournal.com/articles/MyEntireWakingLife.shtml, retrieved 2008-08-17 
  12. ^ Flew, Terry and Humpphreys, Sal (2005) "Games: Technology, Industry, Culture" in Terry Flew, New Media: an Introduction (second edition), Oxford University Press, South Melbourne 101–144
  13. ^ Woodcock, Bruce Sterling (2008). "An Analysis of MMOG Subscription Growth". http://www.mmogchart.com/analysis-and-conclusions/. Retrieved 2008-11-16. 
  14. ^ "Roleplay Simulation for Teaching and Learning". Archived from the original on 2008-02-05. http://web.archive.org/web/20080205122144/http://www.roleplaysim.org/papers/. 
  15. ^ "Roleplay Simulation Gamer Site". Playburg.com. http://www.playburg.com. Retrieved 2009-07-29. 

is an easily organized, impromptu game that requires little equipment.]]
depicting a game of cards.]]

A game is a structured activity, usually undertaken for enjoyment and sometimes used as an educational tool. Games are distinct from work, which is usually carried out for remuneration, and from art, which is more concerned with the expression of ideas. However, the distinction is not clear-cut, and many games are also considered to be work (such as professional players of spectator sports/games) or art (such as jigsaw puzzles or games involving an artistic layout such as Mahjong solitaire, or some video games).[citation needed]

Key components of games are goals, rules, challenge, and interaction. Games generally involve mental or physical stimulation, and often both. Many games help develop practical skills, serve as a form of exercise, or otherwise perform an educational, simulational, or psychological role. According to Chris Crawford, the requirement for player interaction puts activities such as jigsaw puzzles and solitaire "games" into the category of puzzles rather than games.[1]

Attested as early as 2600 BC,[2][3] games are a universal part of human experience and present in all cultures. The Royal Game of Ur, Senet, and Mancala are some of the oldest known games.[4]

Contents

Definitions

Ludwig Wittgenstein

Ludwig Wittgenstein was probably the first academic philosopher to address the definition of the word game. In his Philosophical Investigations,[5] Wittgenstein demonstrated that the elements of games, such as play, rules, and competition, all fail to adequately define what games are. Wittgenstein concluded that people apply the term game to a range of disparate human activities that bear to one another only what one might call family resemblances.

Roger Caillois

French sociologist Roger Caillois, in his book Les jeux et les hommes (Games and Men),[6] defined a game as an activity that must have the following characteristics:

  • fun: the activity is chosen for its light-hearted character
  • separate: it is circumscribed in time and place
  • uncertain: the outcome of the activity is unforeseeable
  • non-productive: participation does not accomplish anything useful
  • governed by rules: the activity has rules that are different from everyday life
  • fictitious: it is accompanied by the awareness of a different reality

Chris Crawford

Computer game designer Chris Crawford attempted to define the term game[1] using a series of dichotomies:

  1. Creative expression is art if made for its own beauty, and entertainment if made for money. (This is the least rigid of his definitions. Crawford acknowledges that he often chooses a creative path over conventional business wisdom, which is why only one of his 13 games is a sequel.)
  2. A piece of entertainment is a plaything if it is interactive. Movies and books are cited as examples of non-interactive entertainment.
  3. If no goals are associated with a plaything, it is a toy. (Crawford notes that by his definition, (a) a toy can become a game element if the player makes up rules, and (b) The Sims and SimCity are toys, not games.) If it has goals, a plaything is a challenge.
  4. If a challenge has no "active agent against whom you compete," it is a puzzle; if there is one, it is a conflict. (Crawford admits that this is a subjective test. Video games with noticeably algorithmic artificial intelligence can be played as puzzles; these include the patterns used to evade ghosts in Pac-Man.)
  5. Finally, if the player can only outperform the opponent, but not attack them to interfere with their performance, the conflict is a competition. (Competitions include racing and figure skating.) However, if attacks are allowed, then the conflict qualifies as a game.

Crawford's definition may thus be rendered as: an interactive, goal-oriented activity, with active agents to play against, in which players (including active agents) can interfere with each other.

Other definitions

  • "A game is a system in which players engage in an artificial conflict, defined by rules, that results in a quantifiable outcome." (Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman)[7]
  • "A game is a form of art in which participants, termed players, make decisions in order to manage resources through game tokens in the pursuit of a goal." (Greg Costikyan)[8]
  • "A game is an activity among two or more independent decision-makers seeking to achieve their objectives in some limiting context." (Clark C. Abt)[9]
  • "At its most elementary level then we can define game as an exercise of voluntary control systems in which there is an opposition between forces, confined by a procedure and rules in order to produce a disequilibrial outcome." (Elliot Avedon and Brian Sutton-Smith)[10]
  • "A game is a form of play with goals and structure." (Kevin Maroney)[11]

Gameplay elements and classification

Games can be characterized by "what the player does."[1] This is often referred to as gameplay. Major key elements identified in this context are tools and rules that define the overall context of game and that in turn produce skill, strategy, and chance.[clarification needed]

Tools

Games are often classified by the components required to play them (e.g. miniatures, a ball, cards, a board and pieces, or a computer). In places where the use of leather is well established, the ball has been a popular game piece throughout recorded history, resulting in a worldwide popularity of ball games such as rugby, basketball, football, cricket, tennis, and volleyball. Other tools are more idiosyncratic to a certain region. Many countries in Europe, for instance, have unique standard decks of playing cards. Other games such as chess may be traced primarily through the development and evolution of its game pieces.

Many game tools are tokens, meant to represent other things. A token may be a pawn on a board, play money, or an intangible item such as a point scored.

Games such as hide-and-seek or tag do not utilise any obvious tool; rather, their interactivity is defined by the environment. Games with the same or similar rules may have different gameplay if the environment is altered. For example, hide-and-seek in a school building differs from the same game in a park; an auto race can be radically different depending on the track or street course, even with the same cars.

Rules

Whereas games are often characterized by their tools, they are often defined by their rules. While rules are subject to variations and changes, enough change in the rules usually results in a "new" game. For instance, baseball can be played with "real" baseballs or with wiffleballs. However, if the players decide to play with only three bases, they are arguably playing a different game. There are exceptions to this in that some games deliberately involve the changing of their own rules, but even then there are often immutable meta-rules.

Rules generally determine turn order, the rights and responsibilities of the players, and each player’s goals. Player rights may include when they may spend resources or move tokens. Common win conditions are being first to amass a certain quota of points or tokens (as in Settlers of Catan), having the greatest number of tokens at the end of the game (as in Monopoly), or some relationship of one’s game tokens to those of one’s opponent (as in chess's checkmate).

Skill, strategy, and chance

A game’s tools and rules will result in its requiring skill, strategy, luck, or a combination thereof, and are classified accordingly.

Games of skill include games of physical skill, such as wrestling, tug of war, hopscotch, target shooting, and stake, and games of mental skill such as checkers and chess. Games of strategy include checkers, chess, go, arimaa, and tic-tac-toe, and often require special equipment to play them. Games of chance include gambling games (blackjack, mah-jongg, roulette, etc.), as well as snakes and ladders and rock, paper, scissors; most require equipment such as cards or dice. However, most games contain two or all three of these elements. For example, American football and baseball involve both physical skill and strategy while tiddlywinks, poker, and Monopoly combine strategy and chance. Many card and board games combine all three; most trick-taking games involve mental skill, strategy, and an element of chance, as do many strategic board games such as Risk, Settlers of Catan, and Carcassonne.

Single-player games

Most games require multiple players. However, single-player games are unique in respect to the type of challenges a player faces. Unlike a game with multiple players competing with or against each other to reach the game's goal, a one-player game is a battle solely against an element of the environment (an artificial opponent), against one's own skills, against time, or against chance. Playing with a yo-yo or playing tennis against a wall is not generally recognized as playing a game due to the lack of any formidable opposition.

It is not valid to describe a computer game as single-player where the computer provides opposition. If the computer is merely record-keeping, then the game may be validly single-player.

Many games described as "single-player" may be termed actually puzzles or recreations.

Types

Games can take a variety of forms, from competitive sports to board games and video games.

Sports

is a popular sport worldwide.]]

Many sports require special equipment and dedicated playing fields, leading to the involvement of a community much larger than the group of players. A city or town may set aside such resources for the organization of sports leagues.

Popular sports may have spectators who are entertained just by watching games. A community will often align itself with a local sports team that supposedly represents it (even if the team or most of its players only recently moved in); they often align themselves against their opponents or have traditional rivalries. The concept of fandom began with sports fans.

Stanley Fish cited[citation needed] the balls and strikes of baseball as a clear example of social construction, the operation of rules on the game's tools. While the strike zone target is governed by the rules of the game, it epitomizes the category of things that exist only because people have agreed to treat them as real. No pitch is a ball or a strike until it has been labeled as such by an appropriate authority, the plate umpire, whose judgment on this matter cannot be challenged within the current game.

Certain competitive sports, such as racing and gymnastics, are not games by definitions such as Crawford's (see above) — despite the inclusion of many in the Olympic Games — because competitors do not interact with their opponents; they simply challenge each other in indirect ways.

Lawn games

Lawn games are outdoor games that can be played on a lawn; an area of mowed grass (or alternately, on graded soil) generally smaller than a "field" or pitch. Variations of many games that are traditionally played on a pitch are marketed as "lawn games" for home use in a front or back yard. Common lawn games include horseshoes, sholf, croquet, bocce, lawn bowls, and stake.

Tabletop games

A tabletop game generally refers to any game where the elements of play are confined to a small area and that require little physical exertion, usually simply placing, picking up and moving game pieces. Most of these games are, thus, played at a table around which the players are seated and on which the game's elements are located. A variety of major game types generally fall under the heading of tabletop games. It is worth noting that many games falling into this category, particularly party games, are more free-form in their play and can involve physical activity such as mime, however the basic premise is still that the game does not require a large area in which to play it, large amounts of strength or stamina, or specialized equipment other than what comes in the box (games sometimes require additional materials like pencil and paper that are easy to procure).

Dexterity/coordination games

This class of games includes any game in which the skill element involved relates to manual dexterity or hand-eye coordination, but excludes the class of video games (see below). Games such as jacks, paper football, and Jenga require only very portable or improvised equipment and can be played on any flat level surface, while other examples, such as pinball, billiards, air hockey, foosball, and table hockey require specialized tables or other self-contained modules on which the game is played. The advent of home video game systems largely replaced some of these, such as table hockey, however air hockey, billiards, pinball and foosball remain popular fixtures in private and public game rooms. These games and others, as they require reflexes and coordination, are generally performed more poorly by intoxicated persons but are unlikely to result in injury because of this; as such the games are popular as drinking games. In addition, dedicated drinking games such as quarters also involve physical coordination and are popular for similar reasons.

Board games

is an American adaptation of a board game originating in India.]]

Board games use as a central tool a board on which the players' status, resources, and progress are tracked using physical tokens. Many also involve dice and/or cards. Most games that simulate war are board games (though a large number of video games have been created to simulate strategic combat; see "Video Games" below), and the board may be a map on which the players' tokens move. Virtually all board games involve "turn-based" play; one player contemplates and then makes a move, then the next player does the same, and a player can only act on their turn. This is opposed to "real-time" play as is found in some card games, most sports and most video games.

Some games, such as chess and Go, are entirely deterministic, relying only on the strategy element for their interest. Children's games, on the other hand, tend to be very luck-based, with games such as Candy Land having virtually no decisions to be made. Most other board games combine strategy and luck factors; the game of backgammon requires players to decide the best strategic move based on the roll of two dice. Trivia games have a great deal of randomness based on the questions a person gets. German-style board games are notable for often having rather less of a luck factor than many board games.

Board game groups include race games, roll-and-move games, abstract strategy games, word games, and wargames, as well as the trivia and German-style board games mentioned above. Some board games fall into multiple groups and even incorporate elements of other genres: Cranium is one popular example, where players must succeed in each of four main skills: artistry, live performance, trivia, and language skill.

Card games

Card games use a deck of cards as their central tool. These cards may be a standard Anglo-American (52-card) deck of playing cards (such as for bridge, poker, Rummy, etc.), a regional deck using 32, 36 or 40 cards and different suit signs (such as for the popular German game skat), a tarot deck of 78 cards (used in Europe to play a variety of trick-taking games collectively known as Tarot, Tarock, and/or Tarocchi games), or a deck specific to the individual game (such as Set or 1000 Blank White Cards). Uno and Rook are examples of games that were originally played with a standard deck and have since been commercialized with customized decks. Some collectible card games such as Magic: The Gathering are played with a small selection of cards that have been collected or purchased individually from large available sets.

Some board games include a deck of cards as a gameplay element, normally for randomization and/or to keep track of game progress. Conversely, some card games such as Cribbage use a board with movers, normally to keep score. The differentiation between the two genres in such cases depends on which element of the game is foremost in its play; a board game using cards for random actions can usually use some other method of randomization, while Cribbage can just as easily be scored on paper. These elements as used are simply the traditional and easiest methods to achieve their purpose.

Dice games

Dice games use a number of dice as their central element. Board games often use dice for a randomization element, and thus each roll of the dice has a profound impact on the outcome of the game, however dice games are differentiated in that the dice do not determine the success or failure of some other element of the game; they instead are the central indicator of the person's standing in the game. Popular dice games include Yahtzee, Farkle, Bunco, Liar's dice/Perudo, and Poker dice. As dice are, by their very nature, designed to produce apparently random numbers, these games usually involve a high degree of luck, which can be directed to some extent by the player through more strategic elements of play and through tenets of probability theory. Such games are thus popular as gambling games; the game of Craps is perhaps the most famous example, though Liar's dice and Poker dice were originally conceived of as gambling games.

Domino and tile games

Domino games are similar in many respects to card games, but the generic device is instead a set of tiles called dominoes, which traditionally each have two ends, each with a given number of dots, or "pips", and each combination of two possible end values as it appears on a tile is unique in the set. The games played with dominoes largely center around playing a domino from the player's "hand" onto the matching end of another domino, and the overall object could be to always be able to make a play, to make all open endpoints sum to a given number or multiple, or simply to play all dominoes from one's hand onto the board. Sets vary in the number of possible dots on one end, and thus of the number of combinations and pieces; the most common set historically is double-six, though in more recent times "extended" sets such as double-nine have been introduced to increase the number of dominoes available, which allows larger hands and more players in a game. Muggins, Mexican Train, and Chicken Foot are very popular domino games. Texas 42 is a domino game more similar in its play to a "trick-taking" card game.

Variations of traditional dominoes abound: Triominoes are similar in theory but are triangular and thus have three values per tile. Similarly, a game known as Quad-Ominos uses four-sided tiles.

Some other games use tiles in place of cards; Rummikub is a variant of the Rummy card game family that uses tiles numbered in ascending rank among four colors, very similar to Anglo-American playing cards. Mah-Jongg is another game very similar to Rummy that uses a set of tiles with card-like values and art.

Lastly, some games use graphical tiles to form a board layout, on which other elements of the game are played. Settlers of Catan and Carcassonne are examples. In each, the "board" is made up of a series of tiles; in Settlers of Catan the starting layout is random but static, while in Carcassonne the game is played by "building" the board tile-by-tile. Hive, an abstract strategy game using tiles as moving pieces, has mechanical and strategic elements similar to chess, although it has no board; the pieces themselves both form the layout and can move within it.

Pencil and paper games

Pencil and paper games require little or no specialized equipment other than writing materials, though some such games have been commercialized as board games (Scrabble, for instance, is based on the idea of a crossword puzzle, and tic-tac-toe sets with a boxed grid and pieces are available commercially). These games vary widely, from games centering on a design being drawn such as Pictionary and "connect-the-dots" games like sprouts, to letter and word games such as Boggle and Scattergories, to solitaire and logic puzzle games such as Sudoku and crossword puzzles.

Guessing games

A guessing game has as its core a piece of information that one player knows, and the object is to coerce others into guessing that piece of information without actually divulging it in text or spoken word. Charades is probably the most well-known game of this type, and has spawned numerous commercial variants that involve differing rules on the type of communication to be given, such as Catch Phrase, Taboo, Pictionary, and similar. The genre also includes many game shows such as Win, Lose or Draw, Password and $25,000 Pyramid.

Video games

Video games are computer- or microprocessor-controlled games. Computers can create virtual tools to be used in a game between human (or simulated human) opponents, such as cards or dice, or can simulate far more elaborate worlds where mundane or fantastic things can be manipulated through gameplay.

A computer or video game uses one or more input devices, typically a button/joystick combination (on arcade games); a keyboard, mouse and/or trackball (computer games); or a controller or a motion sensitive tool. (console games). More esoteric devices such as paddle controllers have also been used for input. In computer games, the evolution of user interfaces from simple keyboard to mouse, joystick or joypad has profoundly changed the nature of game development.[citation needed]

There are many genres of video game; the first commercial video game, Pong, was a simple simulation of table tennis. As processing power increased, new genres such as adventure and action games were developed that involved a player guiding a character from a third person perspective through a series of obstacles. This "real-time" element cannot be easily reproduced by a board game, which is generally limited to "turn-based" strategy; this advantage allows video games to simulate situations such as combat more realistically. Additionally, the playing of a video game does not require the same physical skill, strength and/or danger as a real-world representation of the game, and can provide either very realistic, exaggerated or impossible physics, allowing for elements of a fantastical nature, games involving physical violence, or simulations of sports. Lastly, a computer can, with varying degrees of success, simulate one or more human opponents in traditional table games such as chess, leading to simulations of such games that can be played by a single player.

In more open-ended computer simulations, also known as sandbox-style games, the game provides a virtual environment in which the player may be free to do whatever they like within the confines of this universe. Sometimes, there is a lack of goals or opposition, which has stirred some debate on whether these should be considered "games" or "toys". (Crawford specifically mentions Will Wright’s SimCity as an example of a toy.[1])

Online games

From the very earliest days of networked and time-shared computers, online games have been part of the culture. Early commercial systems such as Plato were at least as widely famous for their games as for their strictly educational value. In 1958, Tennis for Two dominated Visitor's Day and drew attention to the oscilloscope at the Brookhaven National Laboratory; during the 1980s, Xerox PARC was known mainly for Maze War, which was offered as a hands-on demo to visitors.

Modern online games are played using an Internet connection; some have dedicated client programs, while others require only a web browser. Some simpler browser games appeal to demographic groups (notably women and the middle-aged) that otherwise play very few video games.[citation needed]

The computer game is the most established of all sectors of the emergent new media landscape. The media is transformed from the traditional way of circulating in just one way to an interactive way. This is the phenomenon that is broadening around the world of video game. It is an obvious example of the ways in which online and offline space can be seen as "merged" rather than separate.[12]

Media audiences’ characteristic has been changing in consequence of the social changes and development. They are becoming active and interact more than ever before. The players of the game in this phenomenon are just like the social formation in our society. They are both self-regulating, creating their own social norms and subject to regulation and constraint through the code of the game and sometimes through the policing of the game by those who run it. The values that are policed vary from game to game. Many of the values encoded into game cultures reflect offline cultural values, but games also offer a chance to emphasis alternative or subjugated values in the name of fantasy and play. The players of the game at the new century are now apparently expressing their profound self through the game. When they can play with their anonymous status, they are found to be more confident to express and to step out from the position they have never been out from. It offers new experiences and pleasures based in the interactive and immersible possibilities of computer technologies.[citation needed]

Role-playing games

Role-playing games, often abbreviated as RPGs, are a type of game in which the participants (usually) assume the roles of characters acting in a fictional setting. The original role playing games—or at least those explicitly marketed as such—are played with a handful of participants, usually face-to-face, and keep track of the developing fiction with pen and paper. Together, the players may collaborate on a story involving those characters; create, develop, and "explore" the setting; or vicariously experience an adventure outside the bounds of everyday life. Pen-and-paper role-playing games include, for example, Dungeons & Dragons and GURPS. Modern independent RPGs, however, often blur the line between the more traditional idea of the RPG and other traditional genres, or border on story-telling.[original research?]

The term role-playing game has also been appropriated by the video game industry to describe a genre of video games. These may be single-player games where one player experiences a programmed environment and story, or they may allow players to interact through the internet. The experience is usually quite different from traditional role-playing games. Single-player games include Final Fantasy, Fable, The Elder Scrolls, and Mass Effect. Online multi-player games, often referred to as Massively Multiplayer Online role playing games, or MMORPGs, include RuneScape, EverQuest 2, Guild Wars, MapleStory, Anarchy Online, and Dofus. As of 2009, the most successful MMORPG has been World of Warcraft, which controls the vast majority of the market.[13]

Business games

Business games can take a variety of forms, from interactive board games to interactive games involving different props (balls, ropes, hoops, etc.) and different kinds of activities. The purpose of these games is to link to some aspect of organizational performance and to generate discussions about business improvement. Many business games focus on torganizational behaviors. Some of these are computer simulations while others are simple designs for play and debriefing. Team building is a common focus of such activities.

Simulation

The term "game" can include simulation[14][15] or re-enactment of various activities or use in "real life" for various purposes: e.g., training, analysis, prediction. Well-known examples are war games and roleplaying. The root of this meaning may originate in the human prehistory of games deduced by anthropology from observing primitive cultures, in which children's games mimic the activities of adults to a significant degree: hunting, warring, nursing, etc. These kinds of games are preserved in modern times.[original research?]

See also

Sports and games portal

References

  1. ^ a b c d Crawford, Chris (2003). Chris Crawford on Game Design. New Riders. ISBN 0-88134-117-7. 
  2. ^ Soubeyrand, Catherine (2000). "The Royal Game of Ur". The Game Cabinet. http://www.gamecabinet.com/history/Ur.html. Retrieved 2008-10-05. 
  3. ^ Green, William (2008-06-19). "Big Game Hunter". 2008 Summer Journey (Time). http://www.time.com/time/specials/2007/article/0,28804,1815747_1815707_1815665,00.html. Retrieved 2008-10-05. 
  4. ^ "History of Games". MacGregor Historic Games. 2006. http://www.historicgames.com/gamestimeline.html. Retrieved 2008-10-05. 
  5. ^ Wittgenstein, Ludwig (1953/2002). Philosophical Investigations. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-23127-7. 
  6. ^ Caillois, Roger (1957). Les jeux et les hommes. Gallimard. 
  7. ^ Salen, Katie; Zimmerman, Eric (2003). Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals. MIT Press. p. 80. ISBN 0-262-24045-9 
  8. ^ Costikyan, Greg (1994). "I Have No Words & I Must Design". http://www.costik.com/nowords.html. Retrieved 2008-08-17 
  9. ^ Serious Games. Viking Press. 1970. p. 6. ISBN 0670634905 
  10. ^ Avedon, Elliot; Sutton-Smith, Brian (1971). The Study of Games. J. Wiley. p. 405. ISBN 0471038393 
  11. ^ Maroney, Kevin (2001). My Entire Waking Life. The Games Journal. http://www.thegamesjournal.com/articles/MyEntireWakingLife.shtml. Retrieved 2008-08-17 
  12. ^ Flew, Terry and Humpphreys, Sal (2005) "Games: Technology, Industry, Culture" in Terry Flew, New Media: an Introduction (second edition), Oxford University Press, South Melbourne 101–144
  13. ^ Woodcock, Bruce Sterling (2008). "An Analysis of MMOG Subscription Growth". http://www.mmogchart.com/analysis-and-conclusions/. Retrieved 2008-11-16. 
  14. ^ "Roleplay Simulation for Teaching and Learning". Archived from the original on 2008-02-05. http://web.archive.org/web/20080205122144/http://www.roleplaysim.org/papers/. 
  15. ^ "Roleplay Simulation Gamer Site". Playburg.com. http://www.playburg.com. Retrieved 2009-07-29. 

Further reading


Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010
(Redirected to The Game article)

From Wikisource

The Game
by Jack London
PD-icon.svg This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1923.
.The author died in 1916, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 80 years or less.^ Mary died in jail in Jamaica in 1721, either in childbirth or of a virulent fever, having dared to live free and take life on her own terms.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

.This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.^ Many of the review scores quoted (like Army Of 2) were taken from other publications, who may not all be working to the same scale.


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
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From LoveToKnow 1911

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Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

.From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!^ More Games for your Wii?
  • Video Games & Computer Games 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gaming Today: Could you tell our readers a little bit more about yourself, your role in the development of Borderlands, and what you do at Gearbox?

^ If you like playing games on your mobile phone , then make sure you get a compatible phone, visit phones4u.co.uk for more info.
  • Free Online Games | Casual Games | Free Flash Games | Play Online Games | flash games 247 16 January 2010 3:29 UTC games.sify.com [Source type: General]

.We define a game to be an organized mental exercise with a set of rules and any number of participants.^ As a vivid fan of fun fairs, you and your friends decided to participate in some of the game competitions which the organizers have planned in the event.
  • Free iPhone iPod Games :: Applications :: News 20 September 2009 9:12 UTC freegamesforiphone.com [Source type: General]

^ Apshai actually had a number of sequels and ruled the early RPGs until more complex games were developed.
  • In The 80s - Vintage Computer Games of the Eighties 2 February 2010 14:11 UTC www.inthe80s.com [Source type: General]

Under this definition, chess, solitaire, tic-tac-toe, crossword puzzles, and Super Mario Bros. are all games. .Basketball is much more physical than mental, but as there is strategy involved, it is still a game.^ But there is much more to the story than that.
  • Pirates Constructible Strategy Game Online - An Online Seafaring Adventure! 2 February 2010 17:37 UTC piratesonline.station.sony.com [Source type: General]

^ Sorry "truth," this game is more than a game.
  • Talk To Action | The Purpose Driven Life Takers (Part 1) 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC www.talk2action.org [Source type: General]

^ There it is, in the promotional stills they themselves released to promote the game - corpses piling up in the streets.
  • Talk To Action | The Purpose Driven Life Takers (Part 1) 7 January 2010 8:53 UTC www.talk2action.org [Source type: General]

Calvinball is not a game in this sense, although it's still fun to play. :)
The Main Page contains links to pages for individual games. .One can also browse the computer and video game platforms.^ You see video games and my home computer provide me with an escape from this rat infested hellhole, my alcoholic mother, and my drug addicted older brother.

^ Many video games ENCOURAGE literacy; one of my favorites, Oblivion, contains hundreds of actual books for the player to read in the game.

^ Shadow Complex The award-winning video game Shadow Complex is a modern and masterful side-scrolling action-adventure platformer designed in the Metroid & Castlevania style.
  • List of Major Game Releases - giantbomb.com 23 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.giantbomb.com [Source type: General]

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Simple English

[[File:|thumb|right| Jenga, a game]]

A game is something that people do for fun. It is different from work. In many games, people play against other people.

There are different kinds of games. For example, in video games, people often use controllers to control what happens on a screen, such as a television screen. In board games, players often move pieces on a flat surface called a board. Some examples of board games include Monopoly, chess, and checkers. In card games, players use playing cards.

Contents

Definitions

Simple English Wiktionary has the word meaning for:

Ludwig Wittgenstein

Ludwig Wittgenstein was probably the first academic philosopher to address the definition of the word game. In his Philosophical Investigations,[1] Wittgenstein demonstrated that the elements (parts) of games, such as play, rules, and competition, all fail to correctly define what games are. He concluded that people apply the term game to a range of different human activities that are only related a little bit.

Roger Caillois

French sociologist Roger Caillois, in his book Les jeux et les hommes (Games and Men),[2] said that a game is an activity that must have the following traits:

  • fun: the activity is chosen because it is fun
  • separate: it is circumscribed in time and place
  • uncertain: the outcome of the activity is not known at the beginning
  • non-productive: participation does not accomplish anything useful
  • governed by rules: the activity has rules that are different from everyday life
  • fictitious: it is accompanied by the awareness of a different reality

Chris Crawford

Computer game designer Chris Crawford attempted to define the term game[3] using a series of dichotomies:

  1. Creative expression is art if made for its own beauty, and entertainment if made for money. (This is the least rigid of his definitions. Crawford acknowledges that he often chooses a creative path over conventional business wisdom, which is why only one of his 13 games is a sequel.)
  2. A piece of entertainment is a plaything if it is interactive. Movies and books are cited as examples of non-interactive entertainment.
  3. If no goals are associated with a plaything, it is a toy. (Crawford notes that by his definition, (a) a toy can become a game element if the player makes up rules, and (b) The Sims and SimCity are toys, not games.) If it has goals, a plaything is a challenge.
  4. If a challenge has no “active agent against whom you compete,” it is a puzzle; if there is one, it is a conflict. (Crawford admits that this is a subjective test. Video games with noticeably algorithmic artificial intelligence can be played as puzzles; these include the patterns used to evade ghosts in Pac-Man.)
  5. Finally, if the player can only outperform the opponent, but not attack them to interfere with their performance, the conflict is a competition. (Competitions include racing and figure skating.) However, if attacks are allowed, then the conflict qualifies as a game.

Crawford's definition may thus be rendered as: an interactive, goal-oriented activity, active agents to play against, in which players (including active agents) can interfere with each other.

Other definitions

  • "A game is a system in which players engage in an artificial conflict, defined by rules, that results in a quantifiable outcome." (Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman)[4]
  • "A game is a form of art in which participants, termed players, make decisions in order to manage resources through game tokens in the pursuit of a goal." (Greg Costikyan)[5]
  • "A game is an activity among two or more independent decision-makers seeking to achieve their objectives in some limiting context." (Clark C. Abt)[6]
  • "At its most elementary level then we can define game as an exercise of voluntary control systems in which there is an opposition between forces, confined by a procedure and rules in order to produce a disequilibrial outcome." (Elliot Avedon and Brian Sutton-Smith)[7]
  • "A game is a form of play with goals and structure." (Kevin Maroney)[8]

Other pages

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Wikimedia Commons has images, video, and/or sound related to:

References

  1. Wittgenstein, Ludwig (1953/2002). Philosophical Investigations. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-23127-7. 
  2. Caillois, Roger (1957). Les jeux et les hommes. Gallimard. 
  3. Crawford, Chris (2003). Chris Crawford on Game Design. New Riders. ISBN 0-88134-117-7. 
  4. Salen, Katie; Zimmerman, Eric (2003), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals], MIT Press, p. 80, ISBN 0-262-24045-9 
  5. Costikyan, Greg (1994), I Have No Words & I Must Design, http://www.costik.com/nowords.html, retrieved 2008-08-17 
  6. [Expression error: Unexpected < operator Serious Games], Viking Press, 1970, p. 6, ISBN 0670634905 
  7. Avedon, Elliot; Sutton-Smith, Brian (1971), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator The Study of Games], J. Wiley, p. 405, ISBN 0471038393 
  8. Maroney, Kevin (2001), My Entire Waking Life, The Games Journal, http://www.thegamesjournal.com/articles/MyEntireWakingLife.shtml, retrieved 2008-08-17 
krc:Оюн

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 13, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Game, which are similar to those in the above article.








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