Gangut class battleship: Wikis

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Gangut battleship.jpg
Battleship Gangut in World War I
Class overview
Builders: Admiralty Shipyard, St.Petersburg
Baltic Yard, St.Petersburg
Operators: Naval Ensign of Russia.svg Imperial Russian Navy
 Soviet Navy
Preceded by: Andrei Pervozvanny class battleship
Succeeded by: Imperatritsa Mariya class battleship
Borodino class battlecruiser
In commission: 1914-1957
Completed: Gangut, Petropavlovsk, Sevastopol, Poltava
Lost: 1
Retired: 3
General characteristics
Type: Battleship
Displacement: 25,850 tons full load
Length: 180 m (590 ft)
Beam: 26.6 m (87 ft)
Draught: 9.2 m (30 ft)
Propulsion: 4 shaft Parsons-type steam turbines, 25 mixed fired Yarrow boilers, 42,000 hp
Speed: 23 knots (43 km/h)
Range: 5,000 nautical miles (9,000 km) at 10 knots (20 km/h). 1,170 tons oil and 3,000 tons coal
Complement: 1,126
Armament: 12 × 305 mm (12.0 in) MK-3-12 guns in four triple turrets
16 × 120 mm (4.7 in) guns
4 × 47 mm guns
4 × 18-inch (457 mm) torpedo tubes.
Armour: 229mm (9 inch) belt
203mm(8 inch turrets)
76mm (3 inch) main deck
203mm (8 inch) Barbettes
254mm (10 inch) conning tower

The Gangut-class were the first "dreadnought" battleships built for the Imperial Russian Navy. The ships were authorised by the Duma (Russian Parliament) in 1908. Because of lack of experience the Russians asked several foreign yards for design advice. A convoluted design history involving Italian, German (Blohm & Voss) and British (John Brown and Company) companies ensued. The ships were ordered in 1909. Four ships were built. Two were named after victorious battles of Peter the Great in the Great Northern War, two were named after battles in the Crimean War. Three of the ships replaced similarly named ships of the Petropavlovsk-class lost in the Russo-Japanese War.

Contents

Design

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Original Design

Right elevation and deck plan as depicted in Brassey's Naval Annual 1912
"MK-3-12" guns on the "Sevastopol"

The ships were designed based on the lessons of the Russo-Japanese war as perceived by the Russians. During Tsushima the Russians suffered many casualties and significant damage due to Japanese hits on the upper parts of their battleships therefore the Ganguts had a dispersed armour belt covering a much larger portion of the hull with thinner armour. The superstructure was also significantly smaller due to war experience. Four triple 12 inch gun turrets were chosen in a similar configuration to the Italian battleship Dante Alighieri. The bow shape was adapted for Baltic conditions including extensive sea ice.

Armament

The main armament comprised four triple turrets armed with Obukhov 305 mm 52 calibre guns. The guns proved to be accurate and reliable ref and fired a 470 kg (1038 lbs) shell. The turrets had a traverse of 0-155 degrees (bow and stern) and 25 to 155 degrees midships. Gun elevation was -5 to 25 degrees. The secondary armament consisted of 120mm guns in casemates. Unfortunately these weapons were located below the 305 mm guns leading to blast damage from the heavy weapons. Fire control was provided by two 6m rangefinders located on the forward and aft superstructures.

Protection

The protection was thinner but more laterally extensive then contemporay British or German ships reflecting the lessons of Tsushima as percieved by the Russians. The armour was manufactured by Izhorskiye Zavody

Machinery

The ships were powered by Parsons type steam turbines and Yarrow type small watertube boilers. There were two boiler rooms separated by B turret and one machinery room between X and Y turrets.

Modernisation

In the 1930s the three operational ships (i.e., all but Poltava) were extensively reconstructed with new oil-fired machinery and new anti-aircraft guns. The small superstructure no longer adequate for command and control was enlarged and a sea plane and catapult added on no3 turret. British radar was added during World War II. New bows were added to improve sea keeping and anti-torpedo bulges were added to some of the ships. An extensive modernisation programme was planned for the Marat (Project 27). This project would have involved new machinery, secondary armament and re-arranging the turrets but was cancelled on the outbreak of war. A plan to re-build the wreck of the Marat post war was also considered (Project 27) but cancelled.[1]

Ships

Gangut (Гангут)

Gangut was built by Admiralty Shipyard, St.Petersburg, laid down 1909, launched in October 1911, and completed in December 1914. Originally named after the 1714 naval Battle of Gangut outside the Hanko Peninsula (Hangö udd in Swedish), renamed Oktyabrskaya Revolyutsiya (October Revolution) in 1918, the ship served in the Baltic Fleet during World War II and was scrapped in 1959.

Petropavlovsk (Петропавловск)

Petropavlovsk was built by Baltic Yard, St.Petersburg, laid down 1909, launched in November 1911, and completed in December 1914. Originally named after the battle of Petropavlovsk of the Crimean War. Sunk at her moorings by British HM Coastal Motor Boat 4 ( Augustus Agar) but salvaged and repaired. Renamed Marat after the French revolutionary leader Jean-Paul Marat in 1921, the ship served in the Baltic during the World War II Siege of Leningrad. She was sunk at her moorings by German Stuka bombers on 23 September 1941. The wreck continued in action as a floating battery for the remainder of the siege. She was raised in 1950 and served as the training ship Volkhov until being scrapped in 1953.

Sevastopol (Севастополь)

Sevastopol, built by Baltic Yard, St.Petersburg, was laid down 1909, launched in October 1911, and completed in November 1914. Originally named after the city of Sevastopol in the Crimea, renamed Parizhskaya Kommuna after the Paris Commune of 1871, she was transferred to the Black Sea Fleet in 1929, because all of the Black Sea Imperatritsa Mariya class Dreadnoughts were lost during the Revolution and subsequent Russian Civil War. The ship fought in World War II, was renamed Sevastopol in 1943, and was scrapped in 1957.

Poltava (Полтава)

Poltava was built by Admiralty Shipyard, St.Petersburg, laid down 1909, launched in July 1911, and completed in December 1914. Named after the Battle of Poltava (1709), the ship survived World War I in such a bad state that she was never repaired. In 1925 she was renamed Frunze, after the revolutionary leader Mikhail Frunze, and converted into a training hulk. She was sunk by German artillery during the siege of Leningrad in 1941, the wreck was raised and scrapped in 1950.

See also

References

  • M. Whitley, Battleships of World War II, Cassell 1998
  • Conways All the Worlds Fighting Ships 1906-1921

Notes

  1. ^ В. П. Кузин (1995). "Линейный корабль пр.27" (in (Russian)). Судостроение (11-12). http://www.navycollection.narod.ru/ships/Russia/Battleships/LK_Proect_27/history.html.  

External links


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