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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A kaiyu-shiki or strolling Japanese garden
The tropical garden found in the Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore in Singapore

A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display, cultivation, and enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature. The garden can incorporate both natural and man-made materials. The most common form is known as a residential garden. Western gardens are almost universally based around plants. Zoos, which display wild animals in simulated natural habitats, were formerly called zoological gardens.[1][2]

The etymology of the word refers to enclosure: it is from Middle English gardin, from Anglo-French gardin, jardin, of Germanic origin; akin to Old High German gart, an enclosure. [3] The words yard, court, and Latin hortus (meaning "garden," hence horticulture and orchard), are cognates-- all referring to an enclosed space. [4]

The term "garden" in British English refers to an enclosed area of land, usually adjoining a building.[5] This would be referred to as a yard in American English.

Some traditional types of eastern gardens, such as Zen gardens, use plants such as parsley. Xeriscape gardens use local native plants that do not require irrigation or extensive use of other resources while still providing the benefits of a garden environment. Gardens may exhibit structural enhancements, sometimes called follies, including water features such as fountains, ponds (with or without fish), waterfalls or creeks, dry creek beds, statuary, arbors, trellises and more.

Some gardens are for ornamental purposes only, while some gardens also produce food crops, sometimes in separate areas, or sometimes intermixed with the ornamental plants. Food-producing gardens are distinguished from farms by their smaller scale, more labor-intensive methods, and their purpose (enjoyment of a hobby rather than produce for sale). Flower gardens combine plants of different heights, colors, textures, and fragrances to create interest and delight the senses.

Gardening is the activity of growing and maintaining the garden. This work is done by an amateur or professional gardener. A gardener might also work in a non-garden setting, such as a park, a roadside embankment, or other public space. Landscape architecture is a related professional activity with landscape architects tending to specialise in design for public and corporate clients.

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Garden design

Garden design is the creation of plans for layout and planting of gardens and landscapes. Garden design may be done by the garden owner themselves, or by professionals. Most professional garden designers are trained in principles of design and in horticulture, and have an expert knowledge and experience of using plants. Some professional garden designers are also landscape architects, a more formal level of training that usually requires an advanced degree and often a state license. Elements of garden design include the layout of hard landscape, such as paths, rockeries, walls, water features, sitting areas and decking, as well as the plants themselves, with consideration for their horticultural requirements, their season-to-season appearance, lifespan, growth habit, size, speed of growth, and combinations with other plants and landscape features. Consideration is also given to the maintenance needs of the garden, including the time or funds available for regular maintenance, which can affect the choices of plants regarding speed of growth, spreading or self-seeding of the plants, whether annual or perennial, and bloom-time, and many other characteristics.

The most important consideration in any garden design is, how the garden will be used, followed closely by the desired stylistic genres, and the way the garden space will connect to the home or other structures in the surrounding areas. All of these considerations are subject to the limitations of the budget. Budget limitations can be addressed by a simpler garden style with fewer plants and less costly hardscape materials, seeds rather than sod for lawns, and plants that grow quickly; alternately, garden owners may choose to create their garden over time, area by area.

Elements of a garden

The elements of a garden consist of the following:

Natural conditions and materials:

Rain from sky

Man-made elements:

Uses for the garden space

A garden can have aesthetic, functional, and recreational uses:

  • Cooperation with nature
  • Observation of nature
  • Relaxation
    • Family dinners on the terrace
    • Children playing in the yard
    • Reading and relaxing in the hammock
    • Maintaining the flowerbeds
    • Pottering in the shed
    • Basking in warm sunshine
    • Escaping oppressive sunlight and heat
  • Growing useful produce
    • Flowers to cut and bring inside for indoor beauty
    • Fresh herbs and vegetables for cooking

Types of gardens

Checkered garden in Tours, France

Gardens may feature a particular plant or plant type(s);

Gardens may feature a particular style or aesthetic:

Types of garden:

Watering gardens

See rainwater, sprinkler system, drip irrigation, tap water, greywater and hand pump.

History of gardening

Gardens in literature

Other similar spaces

Other outdoor spaces that are similar to gardens include:

  • A landscape is an outdoor space of a larger scale, natural or designed, usually unenclosed and considered from a distance.
  • A park is a planned outdoor space, usually enclosed ('imparked') and of a larger size. Public parks are for public use.
  • An arboretum is a planned outdoor space, usually large, for the display and study of trees.
  • A farm or orchard is for the production of food stuff.
  • A botanical garden is a type of garden where plants are grown both for scientific purposes and for the enjoyment and education of visitors.
  • A zoological garden, or zoo for short, is a place where wild animals are cared for and exhibited to the public.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Garden history : philosophy and design, 2000 BC--2000 AD, Tom Turner. New York: Spon Press, 2005. ISBN 0415317487
  2. ^ The earth knows my name : food, culture, and sustainability in the gardens of ethnic Americans, Patricia Klindienst. Boston: Beacon Press, c2006. ISBN 0807085626
  3. ^ [1] Etymology of the modern word gardin at Merriam Webster.
  4. ^ http://www.yourdictionary.com/library/garden.html Etymology of words referring to enclosures, probably from a Sanskrit stem. Also walled cities, as in Stalingrad, and the Russian word for city, gorod. Gird and girdle are also related.
  5. ^ The Compact Oxford English Dictionary

External links

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Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Contents

Garden is a city in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan.

Get around

Here in Garden Village there are 3 major types of transportation car, (the most efficient) your feet, & the most common 4 wheelers.

See

Well, there not much to see here. There's 2 bars, a post office, historical museum, 2 stores, 2 churches, Bed & Breakfast, Big Bay De Noc Fisherys, Garden Orchards, a park, Artistans shop & Marygrove. About 15 minutes or so away there is Fayette campground, there's the old ghost town there.

Do

Once again, there's not much, they occasionally have a band play in the park, then there is the 4th of July celebration.

Buy

The Village Artistans Shop, some of the village artists sell there work here, most of the art is UP's nature and such.

  • Sherry's Port Bar & Family Restaurant, (906) 644-2545.
  • Garden House Bar & Grill, (906) 644-2844.
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Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010
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From Wikisource

The Garden
disambiguation
This is a disambiguation page, which lists works which share the same title. If an article link referred you here, please consider editing it to point directly to the intended page.


The Garden may refer to:


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

GARDEN (from O. Fr. garden, mod. Fr. jardin; this, like our words "gareh," a paddock attached to a building, and "yard," comes from a Teutonic word for an enclosure which appears in Gothic as gards and O. H. Ger. gart, cf. Dutch gaarde and Ger. garten), the ground enclosed and cultivated for the growth of fruit, flowers or vegetables (see Horticulture). The word is also used for grounds laid out ornamentally, used as places of public entertainment. Such were the famous Ranelagh and Vauxhall Gardens in London; it is similarly used in zoological gardens, and as a name in towns for squares, terraces or streets. From the fact that Epicurus taught in the gardens at Athens, the disciples of his school of philosophy were known as of Cur.?) T (so Diog. Laertius x. 10); and Cicero (De finibus v. I. 3, and elsewhere) speaks of the Horti Epicuri. Thus as the "Academy" refers to the Platonic and the "Porch" (crob.) to the Stoic school, so the "Garden" is the name given to the Epicurean school of philosophy. Apollodorus was known as K'h?rort pavvos, the tyrant of the garden.


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also garden

German

Noun

Garden

  1. Plural form of Garde.

Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Alexander Garden article)

From Wikispecies

(I.1730 - 15.IV.1791)


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Horticulture article)

From BibleWiki

Contents

The Garden.

That department of the science of agriculture which relates to the cultivation of gardens. The garden is called "gan" or "gannah" in the later Biblical books, and in the Mishnah "ginnah." Originally the word "gan" was probably applied to all kinds of gardens; but in later Biblical times an orchard came to be denoted by the Persian word "pardes," which, as connoting the religious idea of paradise, was introduced into the vocabularies of all civilized nations ("Z. D. M. G." xxxii. 761; S. Fränkel, "Die Aramäischen Fremdwörter im Arabischen," p. 149), and gained a wider recognition than the Biblical expression "Eden." The words "gannah" and "pardes" are both used in Ecclesiastes (see "pare" in Rashi to Psalm 1. 9; Ibn Ezra to Eccl 2:5; Song 4:13; Bacher, Ibn Ezra, p. 170). In ancient Israel the garden was probably an orchard, vineyard, or kitchen-garden, although the royal gardens had doubtless more the nature of a park. The references to the nut-orchard in Song 6:11—a passage often interpreted symbolically—and to the "orchard of pomegranates" ("pardes rimmonim") in the same book (ib. iv. 13) indicate the late origin of the Song of Solomon and the strong foreign influence under which it was composed. The description of the garden in Song 4:13-14 is not that of an existing Palestinian garden, but of a purely imaginary one. The Biblical words "kerem," doubtless at first applied only to a vineyard, and "karmel," denoting cultivated land in contrast to the fallow field, were also used later to designate a garden.

The garden, which was divided into beds ("'arugot"), was naturally laid out near water, or was provided with cisterns and channels for irrigation (compare the stories of Bath sheba and Susanna). The place-name "'En Gannim" (lit. "garden spring") occurs twice in Palestine (Baedeker-Socin, "Palästina," 5th ed., p. 255). There are direct Biblical references to gardens near Jerusalem; and another is found in the name "Gate of Gennath" (i.e., "garden gate"), which is mentioned by Josephus (Baedeker-Socin, l.c. p. 28). The gardener has often been confounded with the farmer (in the Mishnah "aris," which in the Midrash, however, probably does mean also "gardener"). An overseer of the royal forests, "shomer ha-pardes," is mentioned in Neh 2:8; otherwise "noẓer" and "noṭer," the equivalents of the Aramaic "naṭora" and the Arabic "naṭura," are used. In post-Biblical times there are many references to gardens and gardeners; and the number of terms used to denote them increases correspondingly. Side by side with the Biblical "gannot u-pardesim" (gardens and parks)—a favorite phrase in Mishnaic times—the Persian words "baga" and "bustana," found also in Syriac and other related languages, appear in the Talmud, indicating the prevalence of Persian horticulture (comp. "Sha'are Ẓedeḳ," p. 87d). In tannaiticworks, side by side with "gan," is used the form "ginnah"; the older form "gannah," found in the Mishnah, being due apparently to incorrect tradition. The plural "gannim" seems to have become obsolete by that time.

Halakot.

The Halakah gave occasion for many references to gardens in the Mishnah, some of which references may be noted here. It is declared that the garden should always be fenced in, though this custom is not uniformly observed (B. B. i. 4a; Yer. B. B. i. 12d). The garden generally lay near the house (B. M. x. 5; Yer. B. B. iii. 14b). As a person had to pass through the courtyard into the garden, the two are often contrasted (Ma'as. iii. 10; Ter. viii. 3; Yer. B. B. i. 12d; Yer. Giṭ. viii. 49b); domestic fowls could easily go from the yard into the kitchen-garden and do damage there (Tosef., B. Ḳ. ii. 347; Ḥul. xii. 1; Tosef., Ḥul. x. 511; Tosef., Beẓah, i. 201). Swarming bees frequently settled in neighboring gardens (Tosef., B. Ḳ. x. 369).

Legal ordinances refer to: the right of the poor to enter gardens (Sheb. ix. 7); the right of a merchant to pass through a garden belonging to one person into that of another whose fruit he desires to buy (B. B. vi. 6; comp. Mek., Beshallaḥ, 30b); the damages to be paid for cattle entering a garden (B. Ḳ. vi. 2); and the right of planting gardens and parks upon the site of a city destroyed for idolatry (Sanh. x. 6; Tosef., Sanh. xiv. 437).

The Biblical command not to cut down fruit-trees is treated in detail by Talmudic and rabbinical authorities, including the latest casuists; for example, in connection with the questions whether a nut-tree standing among vines may be cut down ("Ẓemaḥ Ẓedeḳ," No. 41), and whether worthless grape-vines may be uprooted to make room for something else (Steinach, "Yoreh De'ah," No. 63; on the cutting down of fruit-trees in general see "Simlat Binyamin," p. 169c). The existence of parks around synagogues is not sanctioned, in view of their resemblance to "asherim" ("Ben Chananja," vi. 688, viii. 589), although, according to Philo, many synagogues in Alexandria were surrounded by trees, as is the Elijah synagogue in that city to-day. As irrigation was necessary in post-Biblical times, there are many halakic and midrashic references to it (Gen. R. xv. 3; Lev. R. xv. 3).

Manure was applied both in Biblical and in Talmudic times, dung, the blood of animals, fine sand, ashes, leaves, straw, chaff, the scum of oil, and the residue of the fruits of the field being used. Blood was used exclusively for gardens; ashes and oilscum, only for orchards; sand, for orchards and vegetable gardens; dung, chiefly for gardens. Gardens were often laid out in terraces on mountainsides (B. M. x. 4-6). The owner is called "ba'al haginnah," the term being also used haggadically of God (Yer. B. M. iii. 50d). A garden may be so small that the vintner may just enter within the enclosure with his basket ('Eduy. ii. 4), though the minimum size is fixed by some at 130 square meters; by R. Akiba at 32.7 square meters (B. B. i. 6, vii. 2). Plants were sometimes raised in pots.

Traces of Greek influence upon Palestinian horticulture are few; indeed, this science was brought to Europe from the Aramean countries. The grape-pole (δίκρανον) was of Greek origin, as were the following plants: the laurel (δάπνη), iris (ἴρις), ivy (κισσός), mint (μίνθα), narcissus (νάρκισσος), rue (πήγανον), box, and the oleander (ῥοδοδάφνη).

A famous garden of Mishnaic time was the rose-garden at Jerusalem, said to date from the time of the Prophets (Ma'as. ii. 5), but this, it is declared, was the only garden or park permitted in that city (Tosef., Neg. vi. 625; B. Ḳ. 82b). The parks of Sebaste must be mentioned, as well as those of Jericho, and the gardens of Ashkelon ('Ar. iii. 2; Tosef., 'Ar. ii. 544; Sifra, Beḥuḳḳotai, ed. Weiss, p. 114a). Of the Middle Ages the garden of the community of Worms should be mentioned ("Liḳ-ḳuṭe Maharil," p. 109b; "Monatsschrift," xlv. 62).

The gardener is called "gannan" (Talmudic, "ginna'a" or "gannana"). The guardians are called "shomere gannot u-fardesim." The planter is called "shattala" (B. M. 93a; Yer. B. M. viii. 11c). Babli mentions a gardener in the service of Rabina. In the Haggadah, aside from God Himself, Noah is designated as the first gardener; he planted also cedar-trees (Gen. R. xxx.). He said to his children after the Flood, "You will go and build cities for yourselves, and will plant in them all the plants that are on the earth, and all the trees that bear fruit" (Book of Jubilees, vii. 35). Abraham is also considered as a planter, as is Solomon, the appurtenances of the latter's kingship being, among other things, vineyards, gardens, and parks (Kallah, ed. Coronel, p. 16a). Because the Egyptians forced the children of Israel to lay out gardens and parks, in order to prevent them from multiplying (Seder Eliyahu R. vii. 42, ed. Friedmann), the plague of hail was sent upon their land, in order to fulfil the words of Ps 7847.

Haggadic References.

The Haggadah often refers to gardens and parks, especially the gardens of the emperor. The passages in which such references occur have been collected by Ziegler, "Die Königsgleichnisse des Midrasch," pp. 286 et seq. Similes and metaphors in which reference is made to imperial gardens are found as early as the tannaitic period; e.g., in Tosef., Ḥag. ii. 234, and in the Mekilta; also in Exodus Rabbah, Tanḥuma, and Pesiḳta—hence within the domain of the Roman empire—while the Babylonian sources contain hardly any such figures. These figures show a deeper and more intimate observation of nature than is found in later rabbinic times. The Haggadah in general confines itself to the Biblical figures that have suggested the comparison. Canticles especially has stimulated the imagination of the haggadists.

In Biblical times the garden was perhaps also used as a burial-ground (2Kg 21:18, 26; comp. Jn 19:41), though later on the Jewish cemeteries did not present the appearance of gardens. R. Hananeel cites an old Babylonian tradition, according to which Abba Arika planted trees upon graves, but only a small part of them took root and blossomed, and such as did were all on the graves of those that had not died before their time ("'Aruk," vi. 157). The following proverbs referring to gardens may be mentioned: "As the garden, so the gardener";"Whoever rents one garden may eat birds; whoever rents more than one at the same time will be eaten by the birds" (Dukes, "Rabbinische Blumenlese," Nos. 202, 456; Weissberg, "'Mishle Ḳadmonim," p. 6).

Book-Titles.

The Jews of the Middle Ages did not possess a highly developed sense of natural beauty, nor were they much given to horticulture. Poets writing in Hebrew were restricted, for the names of flowers, to the Biblical vocabulary. Foreign influence is shown in the predilection for horticultural names as book-titles, and in the division of books into "flower-beds"; for example, "Gan Elohim" ("R. E. J." xli. 304); "Gan 'Eden," the numerical value of which corresponds to the number of chapters in Maimonides' "Moreh" (Steinschneider, "Hebr. Uebers." p. 429); "Pardes," in which the methods of Scriptural exegesis were summed up (Bacher, in Stade's "Zeitschrift," 1893, p. 294, Jew. Encyc. iii. 171); "Ginnat Weradim" (rose-garden), occurring twice as a book-title; "Ginnat Egoz" (nut-garden), "Ginnat ha-Bitan" (palace garden), occurring once each; "Kaftor wa-Feraḥ" (if the original meaning of the words, which in the Bible are descriptive of the golden candlestick, may be taken to assign the title to this class), used as a book-title three times; and "Kerem," occurring sixteen times in different combinations, six of these being "Kerem Shelomoh." "Maskit ha-Orot ke-Pardes ha-Niẓẓanim" is the title of Ghazali's work in Isaac b. Joseph Alfasi's translation (Steinschneider, l.c. p.346). "Neṭa'" (plantation) is found twelve times in titles, three of these being "Niṭ'e Na'amanim," and five "Neṭa' Sha'ashu'im." "Sefer ha-Peraḥ" = "Flores" of Abu Ma'asher; "Shoshan ha-Refu'ah" = Lilium medicinœ; "Peraḥ ha-Refu'ah"=Flosmedicinœ (Steinschneider, l.c. pp. 531, 785, 800); there is also a Karaite "Sefer ha-Niẓẓanim" (Steinschneider, l.c. p. 450). Joseph al-Ḳirḳisani's commentary on the passages of the Pentateuch referring to the Law is "Al-Riyaḍ wal-Ḥada'iḳ" (beds and gardens; see Steinschneider, "Arabische Literatur der Juden," p.79). Better known is Rashi's "Sefer ha-Pardes." Under "'Arugat ha-Bosem" (Steinschneider, "Hebr. Uebers." pp. 411, 753) Benjacob records ten titles of books; under "Pardes," eighteen; and in combination with "Peraḥ," eighteen. Aside from "Sefer ha-Gan," occurring twice, sixteen titles are combinations of "gan," while "shoshannah" (lily) enters into twenty-three titles; comp. also the titles "'Arugat Bosem ha-Mezimmah," "Pardes Rimmone ha-Ḥokmah," "Pardes ha-Ḥokmah," "Gan Te'udot" ("Z. D. M. G." xxvii. 555, 557, 559; Steinschneider, l.c. pp. 389, 392, 394). See Botany; Flowers in the Home; Plants.

This entry includes text from the Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906.
Facts about HorticultureRDF feed

Simple English

A Garden is usually a piece of land that is used for growing flowers, trees, shrubs, and other plants. The act of caring for a garden by watering the flowers and plants and removing the weeds is called gardening.

Contents

Types of gardens

There are many types of gardens. People have small private gardens in the backyard outside their house. Some gardens are built indoors in malls, public buildings, or greenhouses. Greenhouses are special buildings where plants are grown. A greenhouse has a transparent glass or plastic roof and walls that let sunlight in.

Water gardens are plants that are grown in ornamental (decorative) pools and ponds. People doing water gardening plant water lilies and other aquatic (water) plants.

Gardening can be done outside of the home, as well. There are in city gardens, botanical gardens (places where plants are grown), zoos which have gardens, and theme parks which have gardens. These types of gardens are cared for by people called gardeners or groundskeepers.

Gardens compared with farms

Gardens are related to farms (agriculture); both gardens and farms are used for growing plants. But farms are much larger than gardens. A farm may have hundreds of square kilometers of plants and crops. A garden in a person's backyard is usually only measures a few square meters.

Farms are businesses which sell the crops, fruit, and vegetables that are produced. Some gardens are businesses, which charge a fee to enter the garden. However, private gardens in people's backyards are used as a hobby or as a recreation, not as a business.

Features of gardens

In addition to plants, many gardens also have landscaping features such as pathways, seats, rock gardens, ponds, fountains, a small stream with or without a waterfall. Some incorporate gazebos and structural designs to accommodate for places to sit or to place a hammock for a siesta. Roman gardens will have its own columns, fountains and statures placed at strategic places depending on its sizes and uses. Japanese gardens also have its own unique designs based on what the owner want to feature.

Role of gardens

Some gardens are created in people's backyards, outside their home (note that in Britain the whole area is called a "garden", not a "yard"). People with gardens in their backyards use gardens as a place to do gardening. Gardening is a type of physical activity which can use enough energy and increase your heart rate that it can be rated as a form of exercise for to relax and exercise certain muscles depending on whether on the activity you do that day such as planting, pruning, weeding, or simply just walk around your garden continuously for 15 minutes or more.

Many people find gardens relaxing especially if the garden is full flowers with strong scents. Some flowers like roses, bougainvilleas, orchids and many others are just beautiful to look at. Many people think that gardens are very beautiful and a place to relax and /or entertain. A garden can have a place to barbecue, to sit and to read.

In many countries and cultures, designing pretty gardens is considered to be an art. In Japan, for instance, Zen monks build decorative gardens with stone and waterfall features using natural materials such as bamboo , rock and BONSAI trees like spruce, pine, and other trees with they trained into miniature forms. In Europe in the 1700s, kings and queens had formal gardens built (for example, the gardens at Versailles, France). In China they also feature Chinese forms of gardens. Now some enterprising people start to have herbal gardens to feature useful herbs used in alternative, traditional, and homeopathic medicine

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