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Gardnerella vaginalis: Wikis

  

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Gardnerella
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Actinobacteria
Order: Bifidobacteriales
Family: Bifidobacteriaceae
Genus: Gardnerella
Species: G. vaginalis
Binomial name
Gardnerella vaginalis
(Gardner and Dukes 1955) Greenwood and Pickett 1980

Gardnerella is a genus of gram-negative staining aerobic bacteria of which Gardnerella vaginalis is the only species.

Once classified as a species of Haemophilus, G. vaginalis grows as small, circular, convex, gray colonies on chocolate agar; it will also grow on HBT agar. A selective medium for G. vaginalis is colistin-oxolinic acid blood agar.

Contents

Clinical significance

Gardnerella vaginalis is a facultatively anaerobic gram-variable rod which can cause bacterial vaginosis in some women as a result of a disruption in the normal vaginal microflora. The resident aerobic lactobacillus population in the vagina are responsible for the acidic environment. Once the anaerobes have supplanted the normal vaginal bacteria, only prescription antibiotics with anaerobic coverage will eliminate the Gardnerella vaginalis and allow the balance to be restored.

While typically isolated in genital cultures, it may also be detected from other sources, such as blood, urine and pharynx. Not sexually transmitted. Although a chief cause of bacterial vaginosis, it may be isolated from women without any signs or symptoms of infection.

It has a gram-positive cell wall[1], but because the cell wall is so thin it can appear either gram-positive or gram-negative under the microscope. It is associated microscopically with clue cells, which are epithelial cells covered in bacteria. G. vaginalis produces a pore-forming toxin, vaginolysin, which affects only human cells.

Infections with G. vaginalis go along with proteolysis, giving nitrous products such as cadaverines and putrescines, which can cause a bad smell and loss of water.

Treatment

One method of treatment is metronidazole.[2]

References

  1. ^ J Harper and G Davis. Cell Wall Analysis of Gardnerella Vaginalis. Int J Syst Bacteriol 32 (1982), 48-50.
  2. ^ Jones BM, Geary I, Alawattegama AB, Kinghorn GR, Duerden BI (August 1985). "In-vitro and in-vivo activity of metronidazole against Gardnerella vaginalis, Bacteroides spp. and Mobiluncus spp. in bacterial vaginosis". J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 16 (2): 189–97. PMID 3905748. http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=3905748.  

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