Garuda Indonesia: Wikis


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Garuda Indonesia
Founded 26 January 1949 (as Garuda Indonesian Airways)
Focus cities
Frequent flyer program Garuda Frequent Flyer
Member lounge Garuda Indonesia Executive Lounge
Alliance SkyTeam (future)
Fleet size 70 (+64 orders)
Destinations 49
Company slogan Fly Ever Higher
Parent company Government of Indonesia
Headquarters Tangerang, Indonesia
Key people Emirsyah Satar (President and CEO)

PT (Persero) Garuda Indonesia is the national airline of Indonesia. It is named after the mythical bird Garuda. It is headquartered at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport in Tangerang.[1]

In Indian Vedic tradition, Garuda is the carrier of the Hindu god Vishnu; a representation of Garuda appears in the coat of arms of Indonesia. The airline is based in Jakarta at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, and also has a hub at Ngurah Rai International Airport, Bali[2][3]. The airline flies to a number of destinations in South-East,East Asia, the Middle East and Australia. It also previously flew to several destinations in Europe and North America. From June 2007 to July 2009, Garuda, along with all Indonesian airlines, was banned from flying to the EU.[4] However, this ban has been lifted since July 2009.[5]

Garuda Indonesia is listed as a 4-star airline by Skytrax, and is also listed among Skytrax's Quality Approved Airlines.[6] It is wholly owned by the Indonesian Government and employs 6,285 staff (at March 2007).



Douglas DC-3 Seulawah, the first Garuda Indonesia aircraft in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, contribution of Acehnese people.

Garuda Indonesia had its beginnings in the Indonesian war of independence against the Dutch in the late 1940s, when Garuda flew special transports with Douglas DC-3 aircraft. 26 January 1949 is generally recognized as the airline's founding date, at which time the airline was known as "Garuda Indonesian Airways." The first aircraft was a DC-3 known as Seulawah (Acehnese: "Gold Mountain") and was purchased for a sum of 120,000 Malayan dollars, which was provided by the Acehnese people (notably local merchants). [7] During the revolution, the airline supported Indonesian interests, such as carrying Indonesian leaders for diplomatic missions.

The government of Burma helped the airline significantly during the airline's beginnings. Accordingly, upon Garuda's formal joint incorporation with KLM on 31 March 1950, the airline presented the Burmese government with a DC-3. By 1953, the airline had 46 aircraft, although by 1955 its Catalina fleet had been retired. In 1956, Garuda made its first pilgrim flight to the city of Mecca.



The 1960s were times of growth for the airline; the fleet in 1960 included eight Convair 240s, eight Convair 340s, and three Convair 440s. In 1961 and late 1965, three Convair 990 jet aircraft and three Lockheed L-188 Electras were introduced, and a route was opened to Kai Tak International Airport in Hong Kong. After concentrating on domestic and regional services, the first flights to Europe were added on 28 September 1963, to Amsterdam and Frankfurt. In 1965, flights to Europe were expanded to include Rome and Paris via Bombay and Cairo, with the exclusive use of Convair 990 aircraft. That year, flights to China started, with Garuda flying to Canton via Phnom Penh. Also in 1965, the jet age arrived for Garuda, with a Douglas DC-8 that flew to Schiphol Airport in Amsterdam.

1970s - 1980s

A Garuda Indonesia Boeing 747-200 at Zurich, Switzerland. (1985)

The 1970s saw McDonnell Douglas DC-9 and Fokker F28 jets introduced, and at one point Garuda owned 36 Fokker jets, making Garuda the world's largest operator of F28s at that time. In the 1980s, Garuda introduced Airbus equipment such as the Airbus A300, as well as Boeing 737s, Boeing 747s, and McDonnell Douglas DC-10s.


The East Asian Economic Crisis of 1998 hit Indonesia and Garuda hard, resulting in severe cutbacks on unprofitable routes. Despite once having a comprehensive worldwide route network, Garuda currently operates no flights to Europe or North America. Largely due to historical links with the Netherlands, Garuda continued to operate flights to Amsterdam after the initial cutbacks, although these flights were also discontinued from 28 Oct 2004. The situation was exacerbated by the September 11 terrorist attacks, the Bali bombings, the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami and the SARS scare, all of which contributed to a downturn in air travel and Indonesian tourism. However, the airline has recovered favorably from its economic problems and seems to be in good economic shape entering the middle 2000s.[8]


A Garuda Indonesia Boeing 747-400 at Narita International Airport, Japan. (2005)
The Garuda Indonesia Boeing 737 old and new livery line up at Soekarno Hatta International Airport, Indonesia. The far right is the new livery. (2010)

In 2001, a low-cost airline subsidiary, CitiLink, was established to provide shuttle services between Indonesian cities.

Garuda may expand its route map again before the end of the decade, possibly after the scheduled completion of the new Medan airport, Kuala Namu International Airport, in 2009. This could include routes to major European hubs such as Paris, London, and Frankfurt, pending clearance by the European Union.

In June 2007, the EU banned Garuda Indonesia, along with all other Indonesian airlines, from flying into any European countries. This was despite spot checks conducted by South Korea, Saudi Arabia, and Japan on Garuda Indonesia that yielded satisfactory results. With the support of the international aviation industry for all Indonesian airlines, the EU promised to review its ban and sent a team of experts, led by the Air Safety Administrator Federico Grandini to Indonesia to consider lifting the ban.[9] In August 2007, the transportation minister of Indonesia announced that the EU would lift its ban hopefully somewhere in October, stating that the ban was attributed to communication breakdown between the two parties and that discussion was in the progress. In November 2007, Garuda announced its intention to fly to Amsterdam from Jakarta and Denpasar on the condition that the European Union lifted the ban on the airline. Airbus A330s and Boeing 777s are aircraft that could be used on these revitalised routes.[10] On November 28, 2007, the EU refused to lift its ban on Garuda flying to all European countries, despite lifting a ban on both Pakistan International Airlines and Blue Wing Airlines from Surinam. It announced the safety reforms already undertaken were a step in the right direction for the EU to consider lifting the ban, but still did not satisfy the EU's aviation safety standards.[11] The ban was lifted in July 2009.[12] In the wake of the ban being lifted, Garuda plans to start services to Amsterdam and is considering other European destinations in the near future. Management is also considering servicing the US where it currently has no services.[13]

In July 2007, the Deputy of Marketing, Ministry of Culture and Tourism of Indonesia announced that Garuda Indonesia had plans to start service to India, although the date has not been determined.[14]

In July 2009, following a third mission led by Federico Grandini,[15] the European Commission lifted Garuda Indonesia's ban from flying into Europe. This was followed by three other airlines.[16]

The Quantum Leap

A Garuda Indonesia Boeing 737 NG with new livery at Adisucipto International Airport, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. (2010)

Since EU lifted its ban to Garuda Indonesia and 3 other Indonesian carriers, Garuda announced its new livery, new logo, and an aggressive expansion plan known as the quantum leap. Within five years, Garuda will double its fleet from 62 to 116 aircraft. The quantum leap also plans to boost the passenger numbers to 27.6 million a year in the same period, up from 10.1 million currently, by increasing its domestic and international destinations from 41 to 62. Route expansions include Amsterdam with stopover in Dubai in 2010 and non-stop flight using Boeing 777 is planned in 2011. Other routes to the world hubs such as London, Frankfurt, Paris, Rome and Los Angeles are considered to be reopened.[17][18][19][20][21]

In a branding initiative developed by brand consultancy Landor Associates, the theme revolves around on the idea of ‘Nature’s Wing’. The airline's outdated logo has been replaced with a more modern one, refining its bird symbol. Landor designed the previous logo twenty-seven years ago. The new image aims to ‘capture the spirit of Indonesian hospitality’ and professionalism.[22]

On 10 June 2009, Garuda Indonesia revealed a new color scheme on the new Airbus A330-243 after 22 years of donning the current design. The overhauled tail consists of different shades of blue with the titles 'Garuda Indonesia' in the center of both sides of the fuselage. Garuda retains its Landor designed mythical bird on the fuselage in this new scheme and continues to use the bird as its corporate identity. With the introduction of this new paint scheme, Garuda will also introduce new uniform for its crew. Kebayas are expected to make their comeback to Garuda and this time they will be designed by the highly respected Batik maestro of Indonesia, Ms. Josephine Komara of the Bin House.[23]

Garuda Indonesia's new concept of service called "Garuda Indonesia Experience" include aspects of Indonesian culture, cuisine and hospitality. Mini Nasi Tumpeng Nusantara and Martebe juice (marquisa and terung Belanda) became Garuda Indonesia's signature dish.[24]

In-flight services

Garuda Indonesia's flight attendants serving refreshments.
Garuda Indonesia Tokyo-Denpasar in-flight meal.

Garuda Indonesia is a full-service airline, in contrast with the 'no frills' low-cost carrier. The class configuration is divided into executive (business) and economy class. The airline has been lacking products often associated with the top international airlines, such as personal TV screens in all classes and business class seats which convert into beds. However, the introduction of such products has started in June 2009 due to the recent restructuring and consolidation of the airline, which has delivered good profits to the airlines.[25]

Executive Class

Executive Class is available on board all Garuda Indonesia aircraft. The Airbus A330-243 has their newer Executive Class product with new Flat-Bed seats with 74" seat pitch and could recline up to 180 degrees. The seats feature an in-armrest 11-inch touch screen LCD with AVOD on each seat, in-seat laptop power supply, and personal reading light. The seats are in 2-2-2 configuration

The Boeing 747-400, Airbus A330-341, and Boeing 737 still have the old Executive Class seat. Seats on Boeing 747-400 has 46"-48" seat pitch with seat width of 16", where on Airbus A330-300 has 58" seat pitch with seat width of 21". Both are in 2-2-2 seat configuration. On the Boeing 737 aircraft, including the -300, -400, -500, and older -800 Series has seat pitch ranging from 41" to 44" with seat width of 19". On selected aircraft, in-seat TVs are available.

A range of hot and cold food and beverages is available, and snacks or meals are offered depending on the length of the flight. Fine wines are also offered on international flights.

Economy Class

Economy Class is available on board all Garuda Indonesia aircraft. Seat pitch are ranging from 30" to 35" depending on the aircraft with seat width of 17". The Airbus A330-243 aircraft and the newer Boeing 737-800 aircraft has the new Economy Class seats which offers 9-inch touch screen LCD with AVOD.

Hot and cold meals or snacks and beverages, are offered depending on the length of the flight. Fine wines are offered on international flights.

In-flight entertainment

A Garuda Indonesia PTV in the new Economy Class.

In-flight entertainment is available on board selected aircraft. The Airbus A330-341 and Boeing 747-400 aircraft feature cabin screens with Airshow, a moving map system to allow passengers to track the progress of their flight, as well as feature films and short movies. Audio programming is also available.

The Airbus A330-243 aircraft offers a new in-flight entertainment in all classes. This features 9-inch touch screen LCD in Economy Class and 11-inch touch screen LCD in Executive Class, where in Economy Class is located in the seat back and in Executive Class is located in the armrest. All PTVs are equipped with Audio & Video on Demand (AVOD) system. This AVOD system offers 25 choices of films, 10 TV programs, 35 music albums, and 25 interactive video games.

In addition, Garuda Indonesia ordered 10 Boeing 777-300ER's and 50 Boeing 737-800's during the Singapore Airshow. These new aircraft will be fitted with a new in-flight entertainment program and a new cabin ambience. the new released movies are expexted to be shown in the most high-tech LCD TV screen made by Bose Audio system.

Newspapers and magazines

Newspapers and magazines are provided to all passengers on board Garuda Indonesia flights free of charge.[26]


A 24-hour call center is available for local customer access and is a means of booking flights since the airline's website does not handle bookings for international flights. The e-ticket system has been introduced on all domestic flights and flights to Singapore originating from Jakarta.

Frequent flyer program

Garuda Frequent Flyer was launched in September 1999. [27] In 2005, Garuda Indonesia relaunched its frequent flyer program called Garuda Frequent Flyer (GFF) with a new look, new benefits, and new services. The new program allows members to earn miles on domestic and international flights and has four tiers of membership covering GFF Junior, Blue, Silver, Gold, and Platinum benefit levels.

Garuda Frequent Flyer Tiers[28]
Tier Level Benefits Requirements
  • Welcome Bonus 300 Miles
  • Earn miles for free travel awards
  • Priority wait-list on reservation
1 eligible flight
  • All the benefits of the Blue tier, plus:
  • Dedicated check-in counter at Jakarta airport
  • 5 kg free excess baggage
5,000 tier miles or 10 eligible flights within a year
  • All the benefits of the Silver tier, plus:
  • Executive Class check in counter
  • Access to the Garuda Indonesia Executive Lounge (Indonesia only)
  • 15 kg free excess baggage
  • Baggage handling priority
  • Special gift / invitation for selected members
  • Luggage tag
20,000 Tier Miles or 35 eligible flights within a year
  • All the benefits of the Gold tier, plus:
  • 20 kg free excess baggage
  • Free cancellation and refund fee
  • Access to the Garuda Indonesia Executive Lounge (Indonesia and Singapore)
50,000 Tier Miles or 75 eligible flights within a year

Executive Lounge

The Garuda Executive Lounge is open to passengers travelling in Executive Class, as well as those holding a Gold or Platinum Garuda Frequent Flyer card. Passengers with an Executive Card Plus card or Garuda Indonesia Citibank credit card can also gain access to the lounge. Lounges are located at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport and throughout Indonesia, offering food and drinks, wireless internet, showers, meeting rooms and business services.[29]


Garuda Indonesia had announced that its subsidiary, GMF AeroAsia would be listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2008. However, due to financial crisis in 2008, GMF delayed IPO until 2009. The Ministry of State Companies (Kementrian BUMN) also had announced a plan to privatize Garuda, that opened a possibility to offer its shares publicly.


Garuda currently operates flights to a total of 49 destinations (28 domestic, 21 international)[30] throughout East Asia, South Asia, and South East Asia, Australia and the Middle East, with Australia and Japan being vital tourism markets.

On 13 October 2009, Garuda Indonesia announced they will be resuming flights to Europe for the first time after removal from the EU blacklist. The flight, operating from 1 June 2010, will be to Amsterdam, Netherlands with a technical stop over at Dubai, United Arab Emirates operated by an Airbus A330-200 aircraft.[31][32]


Garuda Indonesia also offers flights to 16 other international destinations through code-share agreements with:

Airline Country Alliance
Mexico Mexico AeroMexico [33] SkyTeam
People's Republic of China Republic Of China China Airlines -
People's Republic of China China China Southern Airlines SkyTeam
Bahrain Bahrain Gulf Air -
People's Republic of China China Hainan Airlines -
Netherlands Netherland KLM [34] SkyTeam
South Korea South Korea Korean Air SkyTeam
Malaysia Malaysia Malaysia Airlines -
Philippines Philipines Philippine Airlines -
Qatar Qatar Qatar Airways -
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabian Airlines -
Singapore Singapore Silk Air -
Singapore Singapore Singapore Airlines Star Alliance
Turkey Turkey Turkish Airlines Star Alliance
Vietnam Vietnam Vietnam Airlines SkyTeam
Australia Australia Virgin Blue -
A Garuda Indonesia Boeing 737-300 bound for Jakarta, Indonesia pushing back at Singapore Changi Airport, Singapore. (2006)

Taking these codeshare routes into account, Garuda Indonesia's route map extends to Western Europe. Garuda Indonesia also hopes to join Skyteam, an international airline alliance soon, thereby becoming the second airline in Southeast Asia in that alliance. Vietnam Airlines (a SE Asian Airline) have been accepted to join SkyTeam in 2010, who Garuda Indonesia also have code-share agreements with. This would expand Skyteam's network to Indonesian, Australian and New Zealand destinations. Garuda's CEO has confirmed that the airline will join Skyteam in 2011, supported by Korean Air, KLM and Delta Air Lines.

On 19 June 2007, Garuda Indonesia and Hainan Airlines entered a code-sharing arrangement in a bid to strengthen both airlines' marketing positions in Indonesia and China. [35]. In this agreement, Garuda Indonesia will be the operating partner on the Jakarta-Beijing (vv) service, flying three times a week using the new Boeing 737-800.

An interline agreement between Garuda Indonesia and Australian airline Virgin Blue was confirmed in November 2007. This eases travel for passengers connecting from a Virgin Blue domestic flight to a Garuda Indonesia international service departing from either Sydney, Melbourne, Perth or Darwin.[36]

In June 2008, it was announced that Garuda would increase services between Australia and Bali. From June 25, Garuda will add an extra flight between Darwin and Denpasar, bringing the total number of services to three per week. Additionally, a fourth flight from Melbourne to Denpasar will begin on July 22. On September 2, another extra service will depart from Melbourne to bring the total number of flights per week to five, and a sixth flight will leave from Sydney. This extra capacity is in response to an increase in the number of Australians who travelled to Bali in the first quarter of 2008, and marks a resurgence in Balinese tourism, which was hard hit by the 2002 Bali bombings and 2005 Bali bombings.[37] Whilst in early 2009, Garuda opened the Bali-Brisbane route, a route that was once previously operated and axed.

In August 2008, a codeshare between Singapore Airlines and Garuda Indonesia on route between Singapore and Denpasar has been established. Singapore Airlines will be the operating carrier.

As of December 2009, 3 Skyteam Airlines has commited themselves for supporting Garuda Indonesia to join Skyteam. These 3 are Korean Air, KLM and Delta-Northwest. This makes Garuda eligible to apply for Skyteam with 3 airlines supporting them.



The Garuda Indonesia fleet consists of the following aircraft (at 21 February 2010):[38]

Garuda Indonesia Fleet
Aircraft In Fleet Orders Options Passengers
Airbus A330-243 4 10[39] 0 222 (36/186) Deliveries: May — October 2009
Features new livery
New cabin interior and AVOD IFE
Airbus A330-341 6 3 0 293 (42/251) Will be refitted with new interior and IFE
2 features new livery
1 with new interior and AVOD IFE
Boeing 737-300 12 0 0 110 (16/94) 1 sold to Webjet
Exit from service: 2010
Boeing 737-400 19 0 0 134 (14/120)
136 (16/120)
To be retired
2 or 3 will be converted for cargo[40]
Boeing 737-500 5 0 0 96 (12/84) 2 features new livery
Boeing 737-800 22 42[41] 0 156 (12/144) Deliveries: 2009-2014[42]
13 features new livery.
Boeing 747-400 3 0 0 428 (42/386) 1 features new livery[43]
Boeing 777-300ER 0 10 10 TBD Entry into service: 2011
Will feature first class
Total 70 64 10 Last updated: 21 February 2010

Garuda's aircraft are all serviced by GMF AeroAsia.[44] After the addition of the 4 Airbus A330-200 aircraft in 2009 that were delivered between May — October, Garuda also expect 10 Boeing 777-300ER to join its fleet starting 2011. The new addition will prepare Garuda to replace its ageing Boeing 747-400 aircraft and to enable the airline to open routes to Europe again. Garuda Indonesia has announced that Amsterdam would be the first of the European destinations to be reopened after the European Commission lifts the ban from the flag carrier.

In the future, Garuda will be utilizing all of its Boeing 747-400s to the Middle Eastern routes and the Airbus A330 families for the Australian, East Asian, Southeast Asian and some Domestic routes. Once the Boeing 777-300ER enters service, they will be used on the European and possibly the US flights. The A330 will be deployed for regional routes to Australia and Asian cities.

Previously operated

Garuda Indonesia Retired Fleet
Aircraft Total Notes
Airbus A300 B4-220FF, -600 9
Boeing 747-200 6
Convair 240 8
Convair 340 8 The first hajj flight using this aircraft.
Convair 440 8
Convair 990 3 The first jet aircraft in fleet.
de Havilland Heron 14
Douglas DC-3 20 First fleet in inventory.
Douglas DC-8 1 Leased
Fokker F28 36 After leaving service in 2001, some of the aircraft were donated to Citilink, to later be stored at CGK.
Lockheed L-188 Electra 3
McDonnell Douglas DC-9 24
McDonnell Douglas DC-10 28
PBY 5 Catalina 8
Total 176

Incidents and accidents

Since its first incident in 1950, Garuda Indonesia has suffered 14 fatal accidents and one hijacking. These are the major ones:

  • On 28 May 1968, Garuda Indonesia Convair-990 crashed at Juhu, in Bombay, India with all passengers surviving. The pilot mistook the much smaller Juhu Airport used for small trainer aircraft for Bombay's Santa Cruz International Airport and tried to land his aircraft. It overshot the runway falling just short of the traffic road ahead and several residential buildings when its nose wheel got stuck in a ditch at the end of the runway.
  • On 11 July 1979, a Fokker F28 on a domestic flight hit a volcano on approach to Medan Airport, Indonesia, all 61 on board killed.[45]
  • Garuda Indonesia Flight 206, a DC-9 aircraft was hijacked on 28 March 1981. This was the first serious Indonesian airline hijacking, since the first case was a desperate Marine hijacker who was killed by the pilot himself. The hijackers, a group called Commando Jihad, hijacked the DC-9 "Woyla", enroute from Palembang to Medan, and ordered the crew to fly the aircraft to Colombo, Sri Lanka. Since the aircraft didn't have enough fuel, it refueled in Penang, Malaysia and then at Don Muang, Thailand. The hijackers demanded the release of Commando Jihad members imprisoned in Indonesia, and US $ 1.5 million, as well as an aircraft to take those prisoners to an unspecified destination. . A total of five people were killed in the raid including the captain Herman Tante and three of the five hijackers. One of the Kopassus commandos, Achmad Kirang, was killed by one of the hijackers - he later died in a Bangkok hospital. The rest of the hostages were rescued. The two remaining hijackers who had surrendered were killed on the aircraft carrying them and the Kopassus troops back to Jakarta.[46]
  • On 20 March 1982, a Fokker F28 on a domestic flight overran the runway at Tanjung Karang-Branti Airport in bad weather, all 27 were killed when the aircraft burst into flames.[47]
  • On 4 April 1987, Garuda Indonesia Flight 035, a Douglas DC-9, hit a pylon and crashed on approach to Medana-Polonia Airport in bad weather with 24 fatalties.[48]
  • On 13 June 1996, Garuda Indonesia Flight 865, a McDonnell Douglas DC-10 departing Fukuoka, Japan overran the runway after aborting the takeoff well above rotation speed. The number-3 engine fuel line was severed, resulting in a massive fire and the total destruction of the rear end of the aircraft. Three of the 275 people on board were killed.[49]
  • On 26 September 1997, Garuda Indonesia Flight 152, an Airbus A300B4 aircraft flying from Jakarta, crashed in Sibolangit, 18 miles short of Medan airport in low visibility , killing all 234 aboard.[50]
  • On 16 January 2002, Garuda Indonesia Flight 421 was a Boeing 737-300 traveling from Lombok to Yogyakarta was forced to make an emergency landing in poor weather on the Bengawan Solo River. One person, a stewardess, was killed in the accident; 59 other passengers and crew survived.[51]
  • On 6 September 2004, Human Rights activist Munir Said Thalib was bound for Amsterdam via Singapore on a Garuda flight when he was poisoned with arsenic during his flight transit in Singapore, or sometime near that time. A former Garuda Indonesia airline pilot was convicted. It was concluded from Munir's autopsy and eye witnesses during the trial, that he had died two hours before arrival in Schiphol, Amsterdam.[52]
  • On 22 November 2004, Capt. Pilot Sri Hardono, commander of Garuda Indonesia Flight 501, a Boeing 737-500 from Pontianak to Jakarta, was suddenly ill shortly after take-off from Supadio Airport. Hardono immediately asked permission to the air traffic control to return to Supadio Airport. Hardono died shortly after the emergency landing while still in the cockpit. Heart attack was the cause of illness and death of Hardono. Due to the incident, the airport was temporarily closed for 40 minutes. However, no one else was injured nor killed in this incident.[53]
  • On 7 March 2007, Garuda Indonesia Flight 200, a Boeing 737-400 flying from Jakarta, crashed and burst into flames on landing at Adisucipto International Airport, Yogyakarta at 07.00am. 21 people were killed.[54]

Popular culture

A Garuda Indonesia Convair 990 jet aircraft can be seen at the background of the first panel, in the beginning of Tintin adventure, Flight 714, by Hergé, which was set in Kemayoran Airport.[55]


  1. ^ "Organization & Group." Garuda Indonesia. Retrieved on 22 June 2009.
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ "EU to audit Indonesian airlines with focus on safety, procedures
  5. ^ "List of airlines banned within the EU". European Commission's "Transport" website. Retrieved 2009-06-21. 
  6. ^ SKYTRAX Approved Airlines
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^ "EU to audit Indonesian airlines with focus on safety, procedures
  10. ^ e-Travel Blackboard
  11. ^ Indonesian president delays European visit after flight ban : Asia World
  12. ^ [1]
  13. ^
  14. ^ The Hindu Business Line : Garuda to fly into India
  15. ^ Indonesia optimistic EU Flight Ban will be lifted in June
  16. ^ The European Airline Banlist : Garuda to apply for Amsterdam flights
  17. ^ [2]
  18. ^ [3]
  19. ^ [4]
  20. ^ [5]
  21. ^ "The man who turned Garuda around" The Malaysian Insider 26 August 2009
  22. ^ [6]
  23. ^ Garuda Indonesia New Image
  24. ^ [7],, Retrieved 2009-11-30
  25. ^ Garuda Indonesia news
  26. ^ Garuda Indonesia Airline :: Official Website
  27. ^
  28. ^
  29. ^ Garuda on the ground
  30. ^ Garuda Indonesia website
  31. ^ Garuda Indonesia to resume flights to Europe
  32. ^ [8]
  33. ^ [ |- |}garuda_aeromexico_sepakat__i_code_sharing__i_]
  34. ^ [9]
  35. ^ Garuda Indonesia-News
  36. ^ MICEBTN
  37. ^ Blackboard news
  38. ^ Garuda Indonesia Fleet
  39. ^ [10]
  40. ^
  41. ^ [11]
  42. ^ Garuda Indonesia Orders New Planes
  43. ^ Garuda Indonesia first 747 in new livery
  44. ^ Client Base
  45. ^ Aviation Safety Network
  46. ^ Conboy, Ken (2003), Kopassus: Inside Indonesia's Special Forces Equinox Publishing, ISBN 979-95898-8-6pp.277-288
  47. ^ [12] Aviation-Safety Net
  48. ^ Accident description at the Aviation Safety Network
  49. ^ Air Disasters - 1996 Crash
  50. ^ Air Disasters - 1997 Crash
  51. ^ Air Disasters - 2002 Crash
  52. ^ Kontras website
  53. ^ Tempo Interaktif Pilot Garuda Diduga Meninggal Karena Serangan Jantung
  54. ^ Daily Telegraph March 2007 Crash
  55. ^ [13]


  1. ^

External links


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