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UP 18, preserved at the Illinois Railway Museum.

A gas turbine - electric locomotive, or GTEL, is a locomotive that uses a gas turbine to drive an electric generator or alternator. The electric current thus produced is used to power traction motors. This type of locomotive was first experimented with during the Second World War, but reached its peak in the 1950s to 1960s. Few locomotives use this system today.

Contents

Description

A GTEL uses a turbo-electric drivetrain in which a turboshaft engine drives an electrical generator or alternator via a system of gears. The electrical power is distributed to power the traction motors that drive the locomotive. In overall terms the system is very similar to a conventional diesel-electric, with the large diesel engine replaced with a smaller gas turbine of similar power.

A gas turbine offers some advantages over a piston engine. There are few moving parts, decreasing the need for lubrication and potentially reducing maintenance costs, and the power-to-weight ratio is much higher. A turbine of a given power output is also physically smaller than an equally powerful piston engine, allowing a locomotive to be very powerful without being inordinately large. However, a turbine's power output and efficiency both drop dramatically with rotational speed, unlike a piston engine, which has a comparatively flat power curve. This makes GTEL systems useful primarily for long-distance high-speed runs.

Union Pacific operated the largest fleet of such locomotives of any railroad in the world, and was the only railroad to use them for hauling freight. Most other GTELs have been built for small passenger trains, and only a few have seen any real success in that role. With a rise in fuel costs (eventually leading to the 1973 oil crisis), gas turbine locomotives became uneconomical to operate, and many were taken out of service. Additionally, Union Pacific's locomotives required more maintenance than originally anticipated, due to fouling of the turbine blades by the Bunker C oil used as fuel.

History

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Switzerland

In 1939 the Swiss Federal Railways ordered a GTEL with a 1620 kW (2170 hp) of maximum engine power from Brown Boveri. It was completed in 1941, and then underwent testing before entering regular service. The Am 4/6 was the first gas turbine - electric locomotive. It was intended primarily to work light, fast, passenger trains on routes which normally handle insufficient traffic to justify electrification.

United Kingdom

In 1949 the Brown Boveri completed the BR 18000. It was a 1840 kW (2470 hp) GTEL, ordered by the Great Western Railway and used for express passenger services.

In 1951 the Metropolitan Vickers built the BR 18100 for the British Railways. It had an aircraft-type gas turbine of 3,000 horsepower (2.2 MW). Maximum speed was 90 miles per hour (145 km/h).

The British Rail APT-E, prototype of the Advanced Passenger Train, was turbine-powered. Like the French TGV, later models were electric instead. This choice was made because British Leyland, the turbine supplier, ceased production of the model used in the APT-E.[citation needed]

France

SNCF The first TGV prototype, TGV 001, was powered by a gas turbine, but steep oil prices prompted the change to overhead electric lines for power delivery.

United States

Union Pacific ran a large fleet of turbine-powered freight locomotives starting in the 1950s. These were widely used on long-haul routes, and were cost-effective despite their poor fuel economy due to their use of "leftover" fuels from the petroleum industry. At their height the railroad estimated that they powered about 10% of Union Pacific's freight trains, a much wider use than any other example of this class. As other uses were found for these heavier petroleum byproducts, notably for plastics, the units became too expensive to operate and they were retired from service by 1969.

In April 1950, Westinghouse completed an experimental 4,000 hp (3,000 kW) turbine locomotive, #4000, known as the Blue Goose, with a B-B-B-B wheel arrangement. The locomotive used two 2,000 hp (1,500 kW) turbine engines, was equipped for passenger train heating with a steam generator that utilized the waste exhaust heat of the right hand turbine, and was geared for 100 mph. While it was demonstrated successfully in both freight and passenger service on the PRR, MKT, and CNW, no production orders followed, and it was scrapped in 1953.[1]

Canada

In 2002, Bombardier Transportation announced the launch of the JetTrain, a high-speed trainset consisting of tilting carriages and a locomotive powered by a Pratt & Whitney turboshaft engine. No JetTrains have yet been sold for actual service.

Soviet Union

Two gas turbine-electric locomotive types underwent testing in the Soviet Union. The G1-01 freight GTEL was intended to consist of two locomotives of a C-C wheel arrangement, but only one section was built. The test program began in 1959 and lasted into the early 1970s. The GP1 was a similar design, also with a C-C wheel arrangement, introduced in 1964. Two units were built, GP1-0001 and GP1-0002, which were also used in regular service. Both types had a maximum power output of 2,600 kW (3,500 hp).

Russian Federation

In 2006 the GEM-10 switcher GTEL was introduced. The turbine's maximum power output is 1,000 kW (1,300 hp) and it runs on liquefied natural gas. The GEM-10 has a C-C wheel arrangement. The TGEM10-0001 is a two-unit (cow-calf) switcher GTEL, with a B-B+B-B wheel arrangement, and uses the same turbine and fuel as the GEM-10. The GT1-001 freight GTEL, introduced in 2007, runs on liquefied natural gas and has a maximum power output of 8,300 kW (11,100 hp). The locomotive has a B-B-B+B-B-B wheel arrangement, and up to three GT1s can be coupled. On January 23, 2009 the locomotive conducted a test run with a 159 car train weighing 15,000 metric tons.

References

  1. ^ Lee, Thos.R.:"Turbines Westward",pages 48,49,T.Lee Publications,1975, ISBN 0-916244-01-6

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