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A gasoline can from the Midwest Can Company
.Gasoline (American English) or petrol (British English) is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture which is primarily used as a fuel in internal combustion engines.^ A gasoline engine is a type of internal combustion engine that burns gasoline for fuel.
  • Gasoline Engine - RitchieWiki 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.ritchiewiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Hide copyright information ) Copyright gasoline engine see internal-combustion engine .
  • gasoline engine – FREE gasoline engine information | Encyclopedia.com: Find gasoline engine research 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A gasoline engine is also referred to as a petrol engine as petrol is another, primarily British term for gasoline.
  • Gasoline Engine - RitchieWiki 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.ritchiewiki.com [Source type: Reference]

It is also used as a solvent, mainly known for its ability to dilute paints.
.It consists mostly of aliphatic hydrocarbons obtained by the fractional distillation of petroleum, enhanced with iso-octane or the aromatic hydrocarbons toluene and benzene to increase its octane rating.^ Gasoline or petrol is a petroleum -derived liquid mixture consisting mostly of aliphatic hydrocarbons and enhanced with aromatic hydrocarbons toluene , benzene or iso-octane to increase octane ratings , primarily used as fuel in internal combustion engines .

^ Gasoline or petrol is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting mostly of aliphatic hydrocarbons and enhanced with aromatic hydrocarbons toluene, benzene or iso-octane (non-aromatic) to increase octane ratings, primarily used as fuel in internal combustion engines.

^ Many of the non-aliphatic hydrocarbons naturally present in gasoline (especially aromatic ones like benzene), as well as many anti-knocking additives, are carcinogenic.
  • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]

.Small quantities of various additives are common, for purposes such as tuning engine performance or reducing harmful exhaust emissions.^ Finished motor gasoline - : A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in spark-ignition engines.
  • gasoline@Everything2.com 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Regular unleaded petrol (ULP) was introduced to market in 1986, to enable new vehicles to operate with a catalytic converter, a device designed to reduce exhaust emissions.
  • petrol prices | tools and advice | Review | carsguide.com.au 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.carsguide.com.au [Source type: News]

^ One of a new generation of occasional use saws, the MS 171 STIHL chainsaw features reduced-emission engine technology — an advantage for the user because it reduces fuel consumption while reducing exhaust emissions.

.Some mixtures also contain significant quantities of ethanol as a partial alternative fuel.^ Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is the most commonly used alternative fuel for vehicles, consisting mainly of a mixture of propane and butane.
  • petrol prices | tools and advice | Review | carsguide.com.au 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.carsguide.com.au [Source type: News]

^ As different gasolines contain mainly hydrocarbons, the only significant difference between grades is the octane rating of the fuel.

^ In the petroleum business, the specific gravity and temperature of the fuel (gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, ethanol and other petroleum products) are significant.

.Most current or former Commonwealth countries use the term petrol, abbreviated from petroleum spirit.^ Most Commonwealth countries or former Commonwealth countries, with the exception of Canada, use the term "petrol" (abbreviated from petroleum spirit).

^ Most Commonwealth countries or former Commonwealth countries, with the exception of Canada , use the term "petrol" (abbreviated from petroleum spirit ).

^ Many Commonwealth countries use the term petrol (abbreviated from petroleum spirit ).
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In North America, the word gasoline is the common term, where it is often shortened in colloquial usage to simply gas (although petrol is also accepted and used to a lesser extent in Canada).^ The term "gasoline" is commonly used in North America where it is often shortened in colloquial usage to "gas".

^ The term "gasoline" is commonly used in North America where it is often shortened in colloquial usage to " gas ".

^ The word "gasoline" is commonly shortened in colloquial usage to "gas" (see other meanings).
  • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]

.It is not a genuinely gaseous fuel (unlike, for example, liquefied petroleum gas, which is stored under pressure as a liquid, but returned to a gaseous state before combustion).^ This should be distinguished in usage from genuinely gaseous fuels used in internal combustion engines such as liquefied petroleum gas (which is stored pressurized as a liquid but is allowed to return naturally to a gaseous state before combustion).

^ This should be distinguished in usage from genuinely gaseous fuels used in internal combustion engines such as liquified petroleum gas (which is stored pressurised as a liquid but is allowed to return naturally to a gaseous state before combustion).

^ Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG or propane) .
  • NAFA Fleet Management Association | Energy Equivalents 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.nafa.org [Source type: Academic]

The term petrogasoline is also used. The Jamaican spelling is gasolene.
.In aviation, mogas, short for motor gasoline, is used to distinguish automobile fuel from aviation gasoline, or avgas.^ A gasoline -fueled automobile engine uses the Otto Cycle...
  • gasoline engine – FREE gasoline engine information | Encyclopedia.com: Find gasoline engine research 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Gasoline and Other Motor Fuels 20.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term mogas , short for motor gasoline , for use in cars is used to distinguish it from avgas, aviation gasoline used in (light) aircraft.
  • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]

.In British English, gasoline can refer to a different petroleum derivative historically used in lamps, but this usage is relatively uncommon.^ Do not use gasoline in kerosene heaters or lamps.
  • Handling Storing and Disposing of Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.mapllc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The word "gasoline" can also be used in British English to refer to a different petroleum derivative historically used in lamps; however, this use is now uncommon.

^ The term "gasoline" is commonly used in North America where it is often shortened in colloquial usage to "gas".

Contents

Early uses

Gasoline Pumps, Norway
.Before gasoline was used as fuel for engines, it was sold in small bottles as a treatment against lice and their eggs.^ Before internal-combustion engines were invented in the mid 19th century, gasoline was sold in small bottles as a treatment against lice and their eggs.

^ Gasoline was used then as a remedy for lice.

^ A gasoline -fueled automobile engine uses the Otto Cycle...
  • gasoline engine – FREE gasoline engine information | Encyclopedia.com: Find gasoline engine research 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.This treatment method is no longer common because of the inherent fire hazard and the risk of dermatitis.^ This treatment method is no longer common, due to the inherent fire hazard and risk of dermatitis and that gasoline is a carcinogen where continued contact might develop cancerous growths.
  • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This treatment method is no longer common, because of the inherent fire hazard and the risk of dermatitis.

^ This treatment method is no longer common, because of the inherent fire hazard and the risk of dermatitis .

[citation needed]
.In the United States, gasoline was also sold as a cleaning fluid to remove grease stains from clothing.^ In the U.S., gasoline was also sold as a cleaning fluid to remove grease stains from clothing.

^ United States Trading Company gasoline .
  • Gasoline - Gasoline and more 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

^ Remove gasoline-soaked clothing immediately.
  • Handling Storing and Disposing of Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.mapllc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Before dedicated filling stations were established, early motorists bought gasoline in cans to fill their tanks.^ Before dedicated filling stations were established, early motorists would buy gasoline in cans to fill their tanks.

^ Early on, they were known to motorists as "filling stations".

^ Air pollutants from service stations are fugitive volatile organic compounds from the filling of underground storage tanks and vehicle fuel tanks.

.Gasoline was also used in kitchen ranges and for lighting, and is still available in a purified form, known as camping fuel, white gas or Coleman fuel, for use in lanterns and portable stoves.^ Gasoline was also used in kitchen ranges and for lighting, and is still available in a highly purified form, known as camping fuel or white gas, for use in lanterns and portable stoves .

^ He used gasoline to light the fireplace.

^ Gasoline was also used in kitchen ranges and for lighting, and is still available in a highly purified form, known as camping fuel or white gas , for use in lanterns and portable stoves.

.During the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71), pétrole was stockpiled in Paris for use against a possible German-Prussian attack on the city.^ Greenpeace activists hold a banner on November 14, 2009 in front of a petrol station in the southern French city of Nice during a demonstation to protest against the use of oil sands by French oil giant Total, notably in Canada.
  • Petrol - News, Pictures and Video | Sky.com 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.sky.com [Source type: News]

^ A Greenpeace activist poses with a placard on November 14, 2009 in front of a petrol station in the southern French city of Nice during a demonstation to protest against the use of oil sands by French oil giant Total, notably in Canada.
  • Petrol - News, Pictures and Video | Sky.com 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.sky.com [Source type: News]

^ A Greenpeace activist holds a placard on November 14, 2009 in front of a petrol station in the southern French city of Nice during a demonstation to protest against the use of oil sands by French oil giant Total, notably in Canada.
  • Petrol - News, Pictures and Video | Sky.com 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.sky.com [Source type: News]

.Later in 1871, during the revolutionary Paris Commune, rumours spread around the city of pétroleuses (women using bottles of petrol to commit arson against city buildings).^ Later in 1871, during the revolutionary Paris Commune , rumours spread around the city of pétroleuses , women using bottles of petrol to commit arson against city buildings.

^ In an announcement sent to petrol stations around the capital and several other cities, Pertamina has limited retail purchases of gasoline ...
  • gasoline Resources | BNET 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC resources.bnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871), pétrole was stockpiled in Paris for use against a possible German-Prussian attack on the city.

Etymology

.The name gasoline is similar to that of other petroleum products of the day, most notably petroleum jelly, a highly purified heavy distillate, which was branded Vaseline.^ Other reputable gasoline brands will have similar additive packages in their quality products.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The name gasoline is similar to that of other petroleum products of the day, most notably petroleum jelly, a highly purified heavy distillate, which was branded Vaseline.

^ Gasoline is one of the products derived from distilling and refining petroleum.
  • How gasoline is made - manufacture, making, used, parts, industry, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process of gasoline, Byproducts/Waste, The Future 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The trademark Gasoline was never registered, and eventually became generic.^ The trademark Gasoline, however, was never registered, and thus became generic.

^ The trademark Gasoline , however, was never registered, and thus became generic.

^ Although it was never officially registered as a trademark, Carless's competitors used the term "Motor Spirit" until the 1930s.

[citation needed]
.The word "petrol" was first used in reference to the refined substance in 1892 (it was previously used to refer to unrefined petroleum), and was registered as a trade name by British wholesaler Carless, Capel & Leonard at the suggestion of Frederick Richard Simms.^ At that time, the word Petrol was a trade name.

^ The word "petrol" was first used in reference to the refined substance as early as 1892 (it was previously used to refer to unrefined petroleum), and was registered as a trade name by British wholesaler Carless, Capel & Leonard at the suggestion of Frederick Richard Simms .

^ At that time, the word Petrol was a trade name .

[1] .Carless's competitors used the term "motor spirit" until the 1930s.^ Although it was never officially registered as a trademark, Carless's competitors used the term "Motor Spirit" until the 1930s.

^ Most Commonwealth countries or former Commonwealth countries, with the exception of Canada, use the term "petrol" (abbreviated from petroleum spirit).

^ The term mogas , short for motor gasoline , for use in cars is used to distinguish it from avgas, aviation gasoline used in (light) aircraft.
  • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]

[2][3]
.In many countries gasoline is called Benzine or some variant.^ Gasoline , as it is known in North America, or petrol (abbreviated from petroleum spirit ), in many Commonwealth countries (sometimes also called motor spirit ) is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons, used as fuel in internal combustion engines .
  • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Gasoline & Octane (8) Gasoline is a mixture or blend of many things, but is loosly based upon the fossil fuel form called OCTANE (8).
  • Gasoline Research 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC greengasfuel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The maximum volatility of gasoline in many countries has been reduced in recent years to reduce the fugitive emissions during refueling.
  • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]

.The usage derives from the chemical benzene, not from Bertha Benz, who used chemists' shops to purchase the gasoline, a detergent called Ligroin at that time, for her famous drive from Mannheim to Pforzheim and back in 1888, commemorated by the Bertha Benz Memorial Route since 2008.[4] In other countries (Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, for example) it's called nafta or some variant.^ The usage does not derive from Bertha Benz , who used chemist shops to purchase the gasoline for her famous drive from Mannheim to Pforzheim in 1888, but from the chemical benzene .

^ Bertha Benz got petrol for her famous drive from Mannheim to Pforzheim and back from chemists' shops.
  • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Typically, gasoline contains more than 150 chemicals including small amounts of benzene, toluene, xylene, and sometimes lead .
  • Public Health Statement for Automotive Gasoline - Encyclopedia of Earth 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]

Chemical analysis and production

Oil refineries produce gasoline
A United States pumpjack
An oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico
.Gasoline is produced in oil refineries.^ Gasoline is produced in oil refineries .

^ Gasoline is produced in oil refineries.
  • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It appears from oil prices today, that everyone figured out that the drop in gasoline inventories at US refineries is a normal strategic move when crude oil prices are expected to decrease.

.Material that is separated from crude oil via distillation, called virgin or straight-run gasoline, does not meet the required specifications for modern engines (in particular octane rating; see below), but will form part of the blend.^ Gasoline is produced by the distillation, cracking, and reforming of crude oil.
  • ATSDR - MMG: Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Material that is separated from crude oil via distillation , called virgin or straight-run gasoline, does not meet the required specifications for modern engines (in particular octane rating; see below), but will form part of the blend.

^ Not if you are meeting the octane requirement of the engine.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The bulk of a typical gasoline consists of hydrocarbons with between 4 and 12 carbon atoms per molecule.^ The bulk of a typical gasoline consists of hydrocarbons with between 5 and 12 carbon atoms per molecule.
  • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The bulk of a typical gasoline consists of hydrocarbons with between 5 and 12 carbon atoms per molecule .

^ Gasoline contains over 500 hydrocarbons that may have between 3 to 12 carbons.
  • Information on Gasoline - Auto Repair, Eugene, Oregon 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.waynesgarage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]
.Many of these hydrocarbons are considered hazardous substances and are regulated in the United States by Occupational Safety and Health Administration.^ Many of these hydrocarbons are considered hazardous substances and are regulated in the United States by Occupational Safety and Health Administration .

^ The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulates levels of gasoline in the workplace.
  • Public Health Statement for Automotive Gasoline - Encyclopedia of Earth 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ L. Lethal concentrations at these levels are generally deemed "insignificant" according to NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) guidelines in its Registry of the Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances.
  • Hempcar.org-Pollution: Petrol vs Hemp 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.hempcar.org [Source type: Academic]

.The Material Safety Data Sheet for unleaded gasoline shows at least fifteen hazardous chemicals occurring in various amounts.^ Many of these hydrocarbons are considered hazardous substances and are regulated by OSHA. The MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) for unleaded gasoline shows at least 15 hazardous chemicals occurring in various amounts from 5% to 35% by volume of gasoline.
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Material Safety Data Sheet for unleaded gasoline shows at least fifteen hazardous chemicals occurring in various amounts.

^ Typically, gasoline contains more than 150 chemicals including small amounts of benzene, toluene, xylene, and sometimes lead .
  • Public Health Statement for Automotive Gasoline - Encyclopedia of Earth 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These include benzene (up to 5% by volume), toluene (up to 35% by volume), naphthalene (up to 1% by volume), trimethylbenzene (up to 7% by volume), MTBE (up to 18% by volume, in some states) and about ten others.^ In 2004, the United States consumed about 140 billion gallons of gasoline, more than any other country.

^ I recall he made some claim about 100 miles on 4oz of H2O. Thanks, NOW I can follow up.
  • The Oil Drum | Refining 101: Summer Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Contains > 60% Paraffins and naphthenes, N-hexane 13%, <5.0% Aromatic hydrocarbons (3.5% Toluene, 1% Ethylbenzene, <0.5% Benzene, 1% C8 and higher aromatics) and other stuff .
  • Zen Petrol Stoves - Liquid Petroleum Stoves 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7]
.The various refinery streams blended together to make gasoline all have different characteristics.^ The various refinery streams that are blended together to make gasoline all have different characteristics.
  • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Acting together we can make a difference.
  • snopes.com: Gas Out 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.snopes.com [Source type: General]

^ What makes them so different from gasoline vehicles?
  • Gasoline | LIVESTRONG.COM 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

Some important streams are:
.
  • Reformate, produced in a catalytic reformer with a high octane rating and high aromatic content, and very low olefins (alkenes).
  • Cat cracked gasoline or cat cracked naphtha, produced from a catalytic cracker, with a moderate octane rating, high olefins (alkene) content, and moderate aromatics level.^ Isomerate (various names) which is made by isomerising Natural Gasoline to increase its octane rating and is very low in aromatics and benzene content.
    • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Cat Cracked Gasoline or Cat Cracked Naphtha , produced from a catalytic cracker, with a moderate octane, high olefins (alkene) content, and moderate aromatics level.
    • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Reformate , produced in a catalytic reformer with a high octane rating and high aromatic content, and very low olefins (alkenes).
    • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Here, "cat" is short for "catalytic".
  • Hydrocrackate (heavy, mid, and light), produced from a hydrocracker, with medium to low octane rating and moderate aromatic levels.
  • Virgin or straight-run naphtha (has many names), directly from crude oil with low octane rating, low aromatics (depending on the grade of crude oil), some naphthenes (cycloalkanes) and no olefins (alkenes).
  • Alkylate, produced in an alkylation unit, with a high octane rating and which is pure paraffin (alkane), mainly branched chains.
  • Isomerate (various names) which is obtained by isomerising the pentane and hexane[citation needed] in light virgin naphthas to yield their higher octane isomers.
.(The terms used here are not always the correct terms.^ (The terms used here are not always the correct chemical terms.
  • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Gasoline - Petrol 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.They are the jargon normally used in the oil industry.^ Typically they are old fashioned, but they are the terms normally used in the oil industry.
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are the jargon normally used in the oil industry.

^ However there is no wide availability, unless in industrial quantities, and it is more commonly used to blend with normal diesel.
  • Petrol, Diesel, LPG, Hybrid... what’s best for you? 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.green-car-guide.com [Source type: News]

.The exact terminology for these streams varies by refinery and by country.^ The exact terminology for these streams varies by oil company and by country.
  • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The exact terminology for these streams varies by refinery and by country.

^ The various refinery streams that are blended together to make gasoline all have different characteristics.
  • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]

)
.Overall, a typical gasoline is predominantly a mixture of paraffins (alkanes), naphthenes (cycloalkanes), and olefins (alkenes).^ Saturated hydrocarbons ( aka paraffins, alkanes ) - stable, the major component of leaded gasolines.
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This mixture of paraffins and aromatics is commonly known as gasoline."
  • Technology Review: Making Gasoline from Carbon Dioxide 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

^ Natural Gasoline (has very many names), directly from crude oil with low octane rating, low aromatics (depending on the crude oil), some naphthenes (cycloalkanes) and zero olefins (alkenes).
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The exact ratios can depend on
  • the oil refinery that makes the gasoline, as not all refineries have the same set of processing units.
  • the crude oil feed used by the refinery.
  • the grade of gasoline, in particular the octane rating.
.Currently, many countries set tight limits on gasoline aromatics in general, benzene in particular, and olefin (alkene) content.^ Currently many countries set tight limits on gasoline aromatics in general, benzene in particular, and olefins (alkene) content.
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Gasoline - Petrol 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These days, gasoline in many countries has tight limits on aromatics in general, benzene in particular, and olefins (alkene) content.
  • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It reduces the emissions of NOx and volatile organic compounds, has lower benzene and sulfur levels, and limits the amounts of aromatic and olefinic compounds in the blends.
  • FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.exxon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such limits result in increasing demand for high octane pure paraffin (alkane) components, such as alkylate, and is forcing refineries to add processing units to reduce the benzene content.^ This is increasing the demand for high octane pure paraffin (alkane) components, such as alkylate, and is forcing refineries to add processing units to reduce the benzene content.
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Gasoline - Petrol 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Alkylate , produced in an alkylation unit, with a high octane rating and which is pure paraffin (alkane), mainly branched chains.
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Gasoline - Petrol 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In the meantime, just as high prices reduced demand, low prices will increase it.
  • Econbrowser: Gasoline prices down 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.econbrowser.com [Source type: General]

.Gasoline can also contain some other organic compounds such as organic ethers (deliberately added), plus small levels of contaminants, in particular sulfur compounds such as disulfides and thiophenes.^ Gasoline can also contain some other organic compounds : such as organic ethers (deliberately added), plus small levels of contaminants, in particular sulfur compounds such as disulfides and thiophenes .

^ Gasoline can also contain some other organic compounds: such as organic ethers, (deliberately added) plus small levels of contaminants, in particular sulfur compounds such as disulfides and thiophenes.
  • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Gasoline can also contain some other organic compounds: such as organic ethers (deliberately added), plus small levels of contaminants, in particular sulfur compounds such as disulfides and thiophenes.
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some contaminants, in particular thiols and hydrogen sulfide, must be removed because they cause corrosion in engines.^ Some contaminants, in particular mercaptans and hydrogen sulfide must be removed because they cause corrosion in engines.
  • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Some contaminants, in particular thiols and hydrogen sulfide, must be removed because they cause corrosion in engines.
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some contaminants, in particular thiols and hydrogen sulfide , must be removed because they cause corrosion in engines.

.Sulfur compounds are usually removed by hydrotreating, yielding hydrogen sulfide, which can then be transformed into elemental sulfur via the Claus process.^ The process can yield crude oil without the contaminating sulfur that much petroleum out of the ground contains.
  • Technology Review: Making Gasoline from Bacteria 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

^ However, most of the chemicals in gasoline are usually removed by purification processes before the water enters drinking water supplies.
  • Public Health Statement for Automotive Gasoline - Encyclopedia of Earth 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some contaminants, in particular mercaptans and hydrogen sulfide must be removed because they cause corrosion in engines.
  • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]

Density

.The specific density of gasoline ranges from 0.71–0.77, higher densities having a greater volume of aromatics.^ Typical modern refinery processes for gasoline components include Catalytic cracking - breaks larger, higher-boiling, hydrocarbons into gasoline range product that contains 30% aromatics and 20-30% olefins.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The yield of higher-valued products like gasoline and diesel oil from a barrel of crude using a cracking refinery would be greater, and that of a coking refinery would be greater still.

^ In the USA the gasoline composition is being changed to reduce fuel toxins ( olefins, aromatics ) as well as emissions of specific toxins.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] (0.026 lb/in3; 719.7 kg/m3; 6.073 lb/US gal; 7.29 lb/imp gal). .Gasoline floats on water, so water cannot generally be used to extinguish a gasoline fire.^ To generate power the utility company uses diesel for the generators and for processing of the water.
  • arubalife.net » Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.arubalife.net [Source type: General]

^ Verified Member ] Products/Services : General machinery,gasoline engine,gasoline generator,water pump,petrol generator,engine,generator,generator set,gasoline water pump,pump...
  • Petrol - Petrol Suppliers and Manufacturers info at alibaba.com 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

^ There is no information on how much gasoline may be in groundwater after a leak, but in some instances gasoline has been found floating on top of groundwater that is used to supply drinking water to homes.
  • Public Health Statement for Automotive Gasoline - Encyclopedia of Earth 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Volatility

A plastic container for storing gasoline used in Germany
.Gasoline is more volatile than diesel oil, Jet-A or kerosene, not only because of the base constituents, but because of the additives that are put into it.^ Gasoline is more volatile than diesel oil, Jet-A or kerosene , not only because of the base constituents, but because of the additives that are put into it.

^ Gasoline is more volatile than diesel oil or kerosene , not only because of the base constituents, but because of the additives that are put into it.
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gasoline is more volatile than diesel or kerosene, not only because of the base constituents, but because of the additives that are put into it.
  • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]

.The final control of volatility is often achieved by blending with butane.^ The final control of volatility is often via blending of butane.
  • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The final control of volatility is often achieved by blending with butane .

^ The final control of volatility is often by blending of butane.
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) test is used to measure the volatility of gasoline.^ Gasoline’s propensity to evaporate is measured by Reid vapor pressure (RVP).
  • The Oil Drum | Refining 101: Summer Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The gasoline needs to have the proper octane, and it needs to have the proper Reid vapor pressure (RVP).
  • The Oil Drum | Refining 101: Summer Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blending vapor pressure, RVP .
  • Zen Petrol Stoves - Liquid Petroleum Stoves 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The desired volatility depends on the ambient temperature: in hotter climates, gasoline components of higher molecular weight and thus lower volatility are used.^ The desired volatility depends on the ambient temperature: In hotter climates, gasoline components of higher molecular weight and thus lower volatility are used.
  • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The desired volatility depends on the ambient temperature: in hotter climates, gasoline components of higher molecular weight and thus lower volatility are used.
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similar with gasoline, as fuel for reciprocating piston engine, AVGAS is very volatile and is extremely flammable at normal operating temperatures.

.In cold climates, too little volatility results in cars failing to start.^ In cold climates, too little volatility results in cars failing to start.
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Incorrect fuel may result in difficult starting in cold weather, carburetter icing, vapour lock in hot weather, and crankcase oil dilution.
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gasoline, as delivered at the pump, also contains additives to reduce internal engine carbon buildups, improve combustion , and to allow easier starting in cold climates.
  • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]

.In hot climates, excessive volatility results in what is known as "vapor lock" where combustion fails to occur, because the liquid fuel has changed to a gaseous fuel in the fuel lines, rendering the fuel pump ineffective and starving the engine of fuel.^ Will the changes to the fuel specifications result in a change in the pump price?
  • Shell New Zealand - Frequently asked Questions - Petrol 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.shell.com [Source type: News]

^ Fuels for internal combustion engines .
  • Zen Petrol Stoves - Liquid Petroleum Stoves 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In hot climates, excessive volatility results in what is known as " vapour lock " where combustion fails to occur, because the liquid fuel has changed to a gaseous fuel in the fuel lines.

.(This effect mainly applies to camshaft-driven (engine mounted) fuel pumps that also lack a fuel return line.^ The fuels produced through this process are fully compatible with existing engines, pipelines and fuel pumps.

^ They are compatible with existing engines, pipelines, and fuel pumps.

^ Modern engines designs and gasolines are intended to reduce the emission of undesirable exhaust pollutants, consequently engine performance is mainly constrained by the fuel available.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Vehicles with fuel injection require the fuel to be pressurized, to within a set range.^ If very low octane fuels are used ( several octane numbers below the vehicle's requirement at optimal settings ), both performance and fuel economy will decrease.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The actual octane requirements of a vehicle is called the Octane Number Requirement ( ONR ), and is determined by using standard octane fuels that can be blends of iso-octane and normal heptane, or commercial gasolines.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, on vehicles with engine management systems, the fuel volume will be increased to bring the stoichiometry back to the preferred optimum setting.
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because camshaft speed is very near zero before the engine is started, an electric pump is used, it is located in the fuel tank so that the fuel may also cool the high pressure pump.^ What sort of engine is used to rate fuels?
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gasoline intended for use in engines is rated by octane number , an index of quality that reflects the ability of the fuel to resist detonation and burn evenly when subjected to high pressures and temperatures inside an engine.
  • gasoline Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, fuel containing lead may continue to be sold for off-road uses, including aircraft, racing cars, farm equipment, and marine engines until 2008.
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pressure regulation is achieved by returning unused fuel to the tank, thus vapor lock is almost never a problem in a vehicle with fuel injection.^ In fact, by making vehicles more fuel efficient and thus lowering the cost of driving, higher CAFE standards could lead to more driving rather than less.
  • Reducing Gasoline Consumption: Three Policy Options 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.cbo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most likely way that you might be exposed to gasoline is by breathing its vapors at a service station when you are filling your car's fuel tank.
  • Public Health Statement for Automotive Gasoline - Encyclopedia of Earth 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has one major advantage over CNG, the tanks do not have to be high pressure, and the fuel is stored as a liquid.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

)
.In the United States, volatility is regulated in large urban centers to reduce the emission of unburned hydrocarbons.^ In the United States, volatility is regulated in large urban centres to reduce the emission of unburned hydrocarbons.
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the United States, volatility is regulated in large urban centers to reduce the emission of unburned hydrocarbons.

^ The addition of tetramethyl lead and tetraethyl lead to raise the octane number is no longer permitted in the United States because it leads to dangerous emissions containing lead.
  • gasoline Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In large cities, so-called reformulated gasoline that is less prone to evaporation, among other properties, is required.^ In large cities, so-called reformulated gasoline that is less prone to evaporation, among other properties, is required.
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In an announcement sent to petrol stations around the capital and several other cities, Pertamina has limited retail purchases of gasoline ...
  • gasoline Resources | BNET 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC resources.bnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gasoline requires hydrocarbons with carbon atoms between 3 and 12, arranged in specific ways to provide the desirable properties.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Australia, summer petrol volatility limits are set by State Governments and vary between capital cities.^ In an announcement sent to petrol stations around the capital and several other cities, Pertamina has limited retail purchases of gasoline ...
  • gasoline Resources | BNET 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC resources.bnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ State taxes can vary considerably depending on the need and philosophy of the local government.

^ In Australia the volatility limit changes every month and differs for each main distribution center, but most countries simply have a summer, winter and perhaps intermediate limit.
  • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most countries simply have a summer, winter and perhaps intermediate limit.^ In Australia the volatility limit changes every month and differs for each main distribution center, but most countries simply have a summer, winter and perhaps intermediate limit.
  • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The passenger's personal pocketbook may matter most [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] Perhaps it's simply a matter of price.
  • gasoline Resources | BNET 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC resources.bnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It isn't all about butane, but it is about shifting lighter components out in the summer and back in during the winter, and butane tends to be the most important component.
  • The Oil Drum | Refining 101: Summer Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Volatility standards may be relaxed (allowing more gasoline components into the atmosphere) during emergency anticipated gasoline shortages.^ Volatility standards may be relaxed (allowing more gasoline components into the atmosphere) during emergency anticipated gasoline shortages.

^ Though relaxed volatility standards may increase the atmospheric concentration of volatile organic compounds in warm weather, higher volatility gasoline effectively increases a nation's gasoline supply because the amount of butane in the gasoline pool is allowed to increase.

^ Winter will allow you to go 20% gasoline or in an emergency but with the price of the parts it's probably not a good idea.
  • The Oil Drum | Refining 101: Summer Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, on 31 August 2005 in response to Hurricane Katrina, the United States permitted the sale of non-reformulated gasoline in some urban areas, which effectively permitted an early switch from summer to winter-grade gasoline.^ For example, on 31 August 2005 in response to Hurricane Katrina, the United States permitted the sale of non-reformulated gasoline in some urban areas, which effectively permitted an early switch from summer to winter-grade gasoline.
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, on 31 August 2005 in response to Hurricane Katrina, the United States activated an early switch to "winter gasoline" which has a volatility limit exceeding the usual summertime standard.
  • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]

^ One of the first gasoline additives was tetraethyl lead, which was phased out when lead in automotive gasoline was banned in the early 1980s in the United States.
  • Tox Town - Gasoline - Toxic chemicals and environmental health risks where you live and work - Text Version 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC toxtown.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As mandated by EPA administrator Stephen L. Johnson, this "fuel waiver" was made effective through 15 September 2005.[9]
.Besides lowering the volatility of the fuel, other means of controlling the emission of unburned hydrocarbons, for environmental concerns, exist and are used.^ Fifteen others were used as a control group.
  • Gasoline Fumes May Fuel Road Rage | Autopia | Wired.com 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ Gasoline is used as a fuel for internal combustion engines in cars, some trucks, lawn mowers, motorized equipment, and other vehicles.
  • Tox Town - Gasoline - Toxic chemicals and environmental health risks where you live and work - Text Version 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC toxtown.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For most hydrocarbon fuels, including those with either lead or oxygenates, the motor octane number (MON) will be lower than the research octane number (RON).
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All vehicles sold in the United States (since at least the 1980s, probably the 1970s or earlier) are required to have a fuel evaporative control system (called an EVAP system in automotive jargon) which collects expanding fuel vapor from the fuel tank in a charcoal-lined canister while the engine is stopped and then releases the collected vapors (through a "purge valve") into the engine intake for burning when the engine is running (usually only after it has reached normal operating temperature.^ E-bay fuel tank for Wisconsin engine.
  • Small Air Cooled Gasoline Engines - SmokStak 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.smokstak.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And the fuel that does burn in the engine is converted into toxic or carcinogenic substances in a higher proportion than from a four-stroke engine.
  • Alkylate petrol 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.gronkemi.nu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, fuel containing lead may continue to be sold for off-road uses, including aircraft, racing cars, farm equipment, and marine engines [5] .

) .The fuel evaporative control system is also required to include a gasketed filling cap which seals the fueling inlet to prevent vapors from escaping directly from the tank through it.^ If you plan to use alcohol blends, ensure your fuel handling system is compatible, and that you only use dry gasoline by filling up early in the morning when the storage tanks are cool.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, ePetrol Holdings Sdn Bhd appears to have lofty plans for ePetrol payment system, which include: Fuel and food subsidy; payment; Welfare Distribution; and others.

^ Number 1 Fuel Oil is particularly adapted to vaporizing type burners or where storage conditions require low pour point fuel.
  • Zen Petrol Stoves - Liquid Petroleum Stoves 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Modern vehicles with OBD-II emissions control systems will turn on the MIL (Malfunction Indicator Light, a.k.a.^ The higher the benzene content in petrol the higher the emissions of benzene produced, generally as a result of evaporative emissions from the vehicle fuel system.
  • Shell New Zealand - Frequently asked Questions - Petrol 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.shell.com [Source type: News]

^ As a result of this ruling, the Ethyl Corporation began a legal battle with the EPA, presenting evidence that MMT was harmless to automobile emissions-control systems.

^ The system has been comprehensively validated, including using vehicles with on-board emissions monitoring instruments.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

"check engine" light) if it is detected that the gas cap is missing or loose and so not sealing. (The general purpose of this light is to indicate when any of the emissions controls are not working properly.)

Octane rating

.An important characteristic of gasoline is its octane rating, which is a measure of how resistant gasoline is to the abnormal combustion phenomenon known as pre-detonation (also known as knocking, pinging, spark knock, and other names).^ The most important characteristic of gasoline is its octane rating , which is a measure of how resistant gasoline is to premature detonation which causes knocking .
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An important characteristic of gasoline is its octane rating, which is a measure of how resistant gasoline is to the abnormal combustion phenomenon known as detonation (also known as knocking, pinging, spark knock, and other names).

^ Is knock the only abnormal combustion problem?
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Deflagration is the normal type of combustion.^ Deflagration is the normal type of combustion.

.Octane rating is measured relative to a mixture of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (an isomer of octane) and n-heptane.^ Octane rating is measured relative to a mixture of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (an isomer of octane ) and n- heptane .

^ What does the Research Octane rating measure?
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What does the Motor Octane rating measure?
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are a number of different conventions for expressing the octane rating; therefore, the same fuel may be labeled with a different number, depending upon the system used.^ Can I mix different octane fuel grades?
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are a number of different conventions for expressing the octane rating; therefore, the same fuel may be labeled with a different number, depending upon the system used.

^ What do Fuel Octane ratings really indicate?
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The octane rating became important in the search for higher output powers from aircraft engines in the late 1930s and the 1940s as it allowed higher compression ratios to be used.^ The discovery that lead additives modified this behavior led to the widespread adoption of the practice in the 1920s and hence more powerful higher compression engines.
  • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]

^ All-round better The OHV allows a compact chamber for a higher compression ratio, better breathing and burning.
  • Macfarlane Generators - Yanmar Petrol Range 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.macgen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Fuel containing lead may continue to be sold for off-road uses, including aircraft, racing cars, farm equipment, and marine engines.
  • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]

World War II and octane ratings

.During World War II, Germany received much of its oil from Romania.^ World War II and octane .
  • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Good crude oil was no longer a factor during wartime and by war's end, American aviation fuel was commonly 130 to 150 octane.
  • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This will be the new "Pocket Stove" to replace the old World War II gasoline burner.
  • Zen Petrol Stoves - Liquid Petroleum Stoves 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From 2.8 million barrels (450×10^3 m3) in 1938, Romania’s exports to Germany increased to 13 million barrels (2.1×10^6 m3) by 1941, a level that was essentially maintained through 1942 and 1943, before dropping by half, due to Allied bombing and mining of the Danube.^ From 2.8 million barrels in 1938, Romania’s exports to Germany increased to 13 million barrels by 1941, a level that was essentially maintained through 1942 and 1943, before dropping by half, due to Allied bombing and mining of the Danube.

^ Total distillate stocks increased by 1.1 million barrels overall, but PADD V had an extraordinary increase in distillate inventories -- high enough to be unbelievable -- at 15.6 million barrels, where 13 million has historically been the peak operating level.

^ In the past week, refiners added 3.2 million barrels of crude oil to inventories despite a slight reduction in imports and a slight increase in crude feed rates to the refineries.

.Although these exports were almost half of Romania’s total production, they were considerably less than what the Germans expected.^ Although pump prices may respond more quickly to rising spot prices than they do to falling spot prices, movements in pump prices are the direct result of movements in spot prices.
  • What's Driving Gasoline Prices? - Economic Letter, Oct. 2007 - FRB Dallas 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.dallasfed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of those who made less than $30,000 a year, 69% said they changed their habits and 68% of those in the $30,000 to $74,000 annual income range.
  • Gasoline -- WalletPop 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.walletpop.com [Source type: General]

^ These cards are used by big company fleet drivers when they pay for diesel or petrol and as a by product information is collected every day on almost every petrol station's costs.
  • Cheap Petrol & Diesel: Cut your fuel spend by a third... 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.moneysavingexpert.com [Source type: General]

.Even with the addition of the Romanian deliveries, overland oil imports after 1939 could not make up for the loss of overseas shipments.^ Even with the addition of the Romanian deliveries, overland oil imports after 1939 could not make up for the loss of overseas shipments.

^ Those producing countries that were planning on $140+ oil to meet their budgets are facing a severe shortfall in income and could easily push more production into the market to try to make up the difference.

^ The license for the production of this additive was acquired in 1935 from the American holder of the patents, but without high-grade Romanian oil even this additive was not very effective.

.In order to become less dependent on outside sources, the Germans undertook a sizable expansion program of their own meager domestic oil pumping.^ In order to become less dependent on outside sources, the Germans undertook a sizable expansion program of their own meager domestic oil pumping.

^ Thus, the U.S. is dependent on foreign sources for 68 % of its oil.

^ Primarily as a result of this expansion, the Reich's domestic output of crude oil increased from approximately 3.8 million barrels in 1938 to almost 12 million barrels in 1944.

.After 1938, the Austrian oil fields were made available, and the expansion of Nazi crude oil output was chiefly concentrated there.^ After 1938, the Austrian oil fields were made available, and the expansion of Nazi crude oil output was chiefly concentrated there.

^ There is an overall shortage of crude oil.

^ Such disclosures shall be made by the seller when the purchaser places an order for such fuel oil or propane gas if there is no contract between the seller and purchaser.
  • CHAPTER 250* GASOLINE AND MOTOR OIL SALES 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.cga.ct.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Primarily as a result of this expansion, the Reich's domestic output of crude oil increased from approximately 3.8 million barrels (600×10^3 m3) in 1938 to almost 12 million barrels (1.9×10^6 m3) in 1944. Even this was not enough.^ Crude oil inventories grew by 4.3 million barrels to a total of 287.1 million.

^ Primarily as a result of this expansion, the Reich's domestic output of crude oil increased from approximately 3.8 million barrels in 1938 to almost 12 million barrels in 1944.

^ From 2.8 million barrels in 1938, Romania’s exports to Germany increased to 13 million barrels by 1941, a level that was essentially maintained through 1942 and 1943, before dropping by half, due to Allied bombing and mining of the Danube.

.Instead, Germany had developed a synthetic fuel capacity that was intended to replace imported or captured oil.^ Instead, Germany had developed a synthetic fuel capacity that was intended to replace imported or captured oil.

^ We’ve already noted that nearly half our domestic and imported oil is consumed primarily in the form of gasoline to fuel personal vehicles.

^ It was a concept pioneered in Nazi Germany when imports of petroleum were restricted due to war and Germany found a method to extract oil from coal.
  • PETROLEUM AND OIL RESERVES 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fuels were generated from coal, using either the Bergius process or the Fischer-Tropsch process.^ Fuels were generated from coal , using either the Bergius process or the Fischer-Tropsch process .

^ SDMO R2.7 Rental 3.1 kVA Petrol Generator Ideally suited to either professional or Hire use, the SDMO R2.7 has many features that makes this generator a serious contender for the Rental market .

^ Avoiding high sulfur fuels isn't such a bad idea for stove use either, if you are concerned about your health.
  • Zen Petrol Stoves - Liquid Petroleum Stoves 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Between 1938 and 1943, synthetic fuel output underwent a respectable growth from 10 to 36 million barrels (1.6–5.7×106 m3).^ Between 1938 and 1943, synthetic fuel output underwent a respectable growth from 10 million barrels to 36 million.

^ From 2.8 million barrels in 1938, Romania’s exports to Germany increased to 13 million barrels by 1941, a level that was essentially maintained through 1942 and 1943, before dropping by half, due to Allied bombing and mining of the Danube.

^ The total oil supplies available from all sources for the same period rose from 45 million barrels in 1938 to 71 million barrels in 1943.

The percentage of synthetic fuels compared with the yield from all sources grew from 22% to more than 50% by 1943. The total oil supplies available from all sources for the same period rose from 45 million barrels (7.2×10^6 m3) in 1938 to 71 million barrels (11.3×10^6 m3) in 1943.
.By the early 1930s, automobile gasoline had an octane rating of 40 and aviation gasoline a rating of 75-80. Aviation gasoline with such high octane numbers could only be refined through a process of distillation of high-grade petroleum.^ Aviation gasoline with such high octane numbers could only be refined through a process of distillation of high-grade petroleum.

^ Finished gasoline and distillate production were lower due to the lower refining rates.

^ The heart to petroleum refining is the fractional distillation process.
  • Zen Petrol Stoves - Liquid Petroleum Stoves 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Germany’s domestic oil was not of this quality.^ Germany’s domestic oil was not of this quality.

.Only the additive tetra-ethyl lead could raise the octane to a maximum of 87. The license for the production of this additive was acquired in 1935 from the American holder of the patents, but without high-grade Romanian oil even this additive was not very effective.^ The most popular additive was tetra-ethyl lead .

^ The most popular additive was tetra-ethyl lead.
  • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Only the additive tetra-ethyl lead could raise the octane to a maximum of 87.

.100 octane fuel, designated either 'C-2' (natural) or 'C-3' (synthethic) was introduced in late 1939 with the Daimler-Benz DB 601N engine, used in certain of the Luftwaffe`s Bf 109E and Bf 109F single-engined fighters, Bf 110C twin-engined fighters, and several bomber types.^ Can I tune the engine to use another octane fuel?
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What happens if I use the wrong octane fuel?
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What sort of engine is used to rate fuels?
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some later combat types, most notably the BMW 801D-powered Fw 190A, F and G series, and later war Bf 109G and K models, used C-3 as well.^ Some older activated carbon canisters may not function efficiently with oxygenated gasolines, but this is a function of the type of carbon used.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ F rated, blue windshield washer fluid is acceptable for use as well, and is available at most service stations.
  • Snow Performance: FAQ gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.snowperformance.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The nominally 87 octane aviation fuel designated 'B-4' was produced in parallel during the war.^ Aviation gasoline (high octane gasoline, not Jet fuel) .

^ Most people know that an increase in Compression Ratio will require an increase in fuel octane for the same engine design.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Good crude oil was no longer a factor during wartime and by war's end, American aviation fuel was commonly 130 to 150 octane.
  • Gasoline - WOI Encyclopedia Italia 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.wheelsofitaly.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the United States the oil was not "as good", and the oil industry had to invest heavily in various expensive boosting systems.^ In the US the oil was not "as good," and the oil industry had to invest heavily in various expensive boosting systems.

^ Because a greater proportion of the price of gasoline in the United States is due to the cost of oil, rather than taxes, the price of the retail product is subject to greater fluctuations (vs.

^ The United States has the 4th largest natural gas reserve in the world (gravmag.com/oil.html).

.This turned out to have benefits: the US industry started delivering fuels of increasing octane ratings by adding more of the boosting agents, and the infrastructure was in place for a post-war octane-agents additive industry.^ How can I increase the fuel octane?
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ World War II and octane ratings .

^ This turned out to have benefits: the US industry started delivering fuels of increasing octane ratings by adding more of the boosting agents, and the infrastructure was in place for a post-war octane-agents additive industry.

.Good crude oil was no longer a factor during wartime, and by war's end American aviation fuel was commonly 130 octane, and 150 octane was available in limited quantities for fighters from mid-1944. This high octane could easily be used in existing engines to deliver much more power by increasing the pressure delivered by the superchargers.^ This high octane could easily be used in existing engines to deliver much more power by increasing the pressure delivered by the superchargers .
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Gasoline - Petrol 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Does low octane fuel increase engine wear?
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Can I tune the engine to use another octane fuel?
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In late 1942, the Germans increased the octane rating of their high-grade 'C-3' aviation fuel to 150 octane.^ Aviation gasoline (high octane gasoline, not Jet fuel) .

^ High-octane aviation gasoline .

^ How can I increase the fuel octane?
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The relative volumes of production of the two grades B-4 and C-3 cannot be accurately given, but in the last war years perhaps two-thirds of the total was C-3. Every effort was being made toward the end of the war to increase isoparaffin production; more isoparaffin meant more C-3 available for fighter plane use.^ Their report entitled "Technical Report 145-45 Manufacture of Aviation Gasoline in Germany" chemically analyzed the different fuels and concluded that "Toward the end of the war the quality of fuel being used by the German fighter planes was quite similar to that being used by the Allies".
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their report entitled “Technical Report 145-45 Manufacture of Aviation Gasoline in Germany” chemically analyzed the different fuels, and concluded that “Toward the end of the war the quality of fuel being used by the German fighter planes was quite similar to that being used by the Allies.” .

^ At the same time, refinery outages meant that suppliers were slow to increase gasoline production.
  • What's Driving Gasoline Prices? - Economic Letter, Oct. 2007 - FRB Dallas 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.dallasfed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A common misconception exists concerning wartime fuel octane numbers.^ The misunderstanding that German fuels have a lower octane number (and thus a poorer quality) arises because the Germans quoted the lean mix octane number for their fuels while the Allies quoted the rich mix number for their fuels.

^ If very low octane fuels are used ( several octane numbers below the vehicle's requirement at optimal settings ), both performance and fuel economy will decrease.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For most hydrocarbon fuels, including those with either lead or oxygenates, the motor octane number (MON) will be lower than the research octane number (RON).
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are two octane numbers for each fuel, one for lean mix and one for rich mix, rich being greater.^ There are two octane numbers for each fuel, one for lean mix and one for rich mix, rich being always greater.

^ Can I mix different octane fuel grades?
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The misunderstanding that German fuels have a lower octane number (and thus a poorer quality) arises because the Germans quoted the lean mix octane number for their fuels while the Allies quoted the rich mix number for their fuels.

.The misunderstanding that German fuels had a lower octane number (and thus a poorer quality) arose because the Germans quoted the lean mix octane number for their fuels while the Allies quoted the rich mix number.^ There are two octane numbers for each fuel, one for lean mix and one for rich mix, rich being always greater.
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Germans would list this as a 100 octane fuel while the Allies would list it as 130 octane.
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Can I mix different octane fuel grades?
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Standard German high-grade 'C-3' aviation fuel used in the later part of the war had lean/rich octane numbers of 100/130. The Germans listed this as a 100 octane fuel, the Allies as 130 octane.^ Aviation gasoline (high octane gasoline, not Jet fuel) .

^ Are aviation gasoline octane numbers comparable?
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Standard German high-grade aviation fuel used in the later part of the war (given the designation C3) had lean/rich octane numbers of 100/130.

.After the war the US Navy sent a Technical Mission to Germany to interview German petrochemists and examine German fuel quality.^ After the war the US Navy sent a Technical Mission to Germany to interview German petrochemists and examine German fuel quality.
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Gasoline - Petrol 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Their report entitled "Technical Report 145-45 Manufacture of Aviation Gasoline in Germany" chemically analyzed the different fuels and concluded that "Toward the end of the war the quality of fuel being used by the German fighter planes was quite similar to that being used by the Allies".
  • Gasoline - Wikicars 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC wikicars.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their report entitled “Technical Report 145-45 Manufacture of Aviation Gasoline in Germany” chemically analyzed the different fuels, and concluded that “Toward the end of the war the quality of fuel being used by the German fighter planes was quite similar to that being used by the Allies.” .

Their report entitled “Technical Report 145-45 Manufacture of Aviation Gasoline in Germany” chemically analyzed the different fuels, and concluded that “Toward the end of the war the quality of fuel being used by the German fighter planes was quite similar to that being used by the Allies.”

Energy content

A plastic container used in the United States for storing gasoline.
.Gasoline contains about 32.0 MJ/L (8.89 kW·h/L, 132 MJ/US gal, 36.6 kWh/US gal) or 12.9 kWh/kg in comparison to batteries.^ However, according to industry sources, about 85 percent of all U.S. gasoline contains only one-tenth of the recommended deposit-control additive dosage.

^ Gasoline contains hydrocarbons with carbon atoms between 3 and 12, arranged in specific ways to provide the desirable properties.
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gasoline contains over 500 hydrocarbons that may have between 3 to 12 carbons, and gasoline used to have a boiling range from 30C to 220C at atmospheric pressure.
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is an average; gasoline blends differ, and therefore actual energy content varies from season to season and from batch to batch, by up to 4% more or less than the average, according to the US EPA. On average, about 19.5 US gallons (16.2 imp gal; 74 L) of gasoline are available from a 42-US-gallon (35 imp gal; 160 L) barrel of crude oil (about 46% by volume), varying due to quality of crude and grade of gasoline.^ One 16-oz bottle cleans up to 160 gallons of gasoline.

^ A barrel of crude oil contains 42 gallons.
  • Gasoline, Diesel, and Oil 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.zealllc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It averaged 35.7, which means a barrel of crude oil cost 35.7x as much as a gallon of wholesale gasoline since 1998 on average.
  • Gasoline, Diesel, and Oil 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.zealllc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The remaining residue comes off as products ranging from tar to naptha.^ Ideally, a ton of coal produces nearly 200 liters (1.25 bbl, 52 US gallons) of crude, with by-products ranging from tar to rare chemicals.
  • PETROLEUM AND OIL RESERVES 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And product imports remained very low -- almost all of them coming in through east coast (PADD I) refineries and ports.

[10]
Volumetric and mass energy density of some fuels compared with gasoline:[11]
Fuel type      MJ/L      MJ/kg BTU/gal
(imp)
BTU/gal
(U.S.)
    RON
87 Octane Gasoline/Petrol 32.0 44.4[12] 150,100 125,000 Min 91
Autogas (LPG) (60% Propane + 40% Butane) 26.8 46 108
Ethanol 23.5 31.1[13] 101,600 84,600 129
Methanol 17.9 19.9 77,600 64,600 123
Butanol 29.2 36.6 91-99
Gasohol (10% ethanol + 90% gasoline) 31.2 145,200 120,900 93/94
Diesel(*) 38.6 45.4 166,600 138,700 25
Biodiesel 33.3-35.7 [14]
Aviation gasoline (high octane gasoline, not jet fuel) 33.5 46.8 144,400 120,200
Jet fuel (kerosene based) 35.1 43.8 151,242 125,935
Liquefied natural gas 25.3 55 109,000 90,800
Hydrogen 10.1 (at 20 kelvins) 142 130[15]
(*) Diesel fuel is not used in a gasoline engine, so its low octane rating is not an issue; the relevant metric for diesel engines is the cetane number
.A high octane fuel such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) has a lower energy content than lower octane gasoline, resulting in an overall lower power output at the regular compression ratio an engine ran at on gasoline.^ Aviation gasoline (high octane gasoline, not Jet fuel) .

^ A high octane fuel such as LPG has a lower energy content than lower octane gasoline, resulting in an overall lower power output at the regular compression ratio an engine ran at on gasoline.

^ Energy content per kilogram is higher than for gasoline (higher hydrogen to carbon ratio).

However, with an engine tuned to the use of LPG (i.e. via higher compression ratios such as 12:1 instead of 8:1), this lower power output can be overcome. .This is because higher-octane fuels allow for a higher compression ratio—this means less space in a cylinder on its combustion stroke, hence a higher cylinder temperature which improves efficiency according to Carnot's theorem, along with fewer wasted hydrocarbons (therefore less pollution and wasted energy), bringing higher power levels coupled with less pollution overall because of the greater efficiency.^ Low compression ratio engines are less efficient because they can not deliver as much of the ideal combustion power to the flywheel.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 1950s saw the start of the increase of the compression ratio, requiring higher octane fuels.
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Improves performance, fuel economy and efficiency.

.The main reason for the lower energy content (per litre) of LPG in comparison to gasoline is that it has a lower density.^ Octane rating is not fundamentally related to the energy content, and the actual hydrocarbon and oxygenate components used in the gasoline will determine both the energy release and the antiknock rating.
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to Toyota, compressed natural gas produces lower particulate emissions, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and non-methane organic gases and less CO2 per unit of energy when compared to gasoline.

^ Even though the heating value of CNG (also known as its energy content) is significantly lower than that of gasoline, compressed natural gas has excellent octane properties.

.Energy content per kilogram is higher than for gasoline (higher hydrogen to carbon ratio).^ Energy content per kilogram is higher than for gasoline (higher hydrogen to carbon ratio).

^ The calorific values are fairly constant for families of HCs, which is not surprising, given their fairly consistent carbon:hydrogen ratios.
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For an engine that can be optimised for oxygenates, more fuel is required to obtain the same power, but they can burn slightly more efficiently, thus the power ratio is not identical to the energy content ratio.
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The weight-density of gasoline is about 740 kg/m³ (6.175 lb/US gal; 7.416 lb/imp gal).^ The weight-density of gasoline is about 737.22 kg/m³.

^ Gasoline contains about 34.6 megajoules per litre (MJ/l) or 131 MJ/US gallon.

.Different countries have some variation in what RON (Research Octane Number) is standard for gasoline, or petrol.^ Research octane number (RON) .

^ Are aviation gasoline octane numbers comparable?
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is a "delta Research Octane number"?
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the UK, ordinary regular unleaded petrol is 91 RON (not commonly available), premium unleaded petrol is always 95 RON, and super unleaded is usually 97-98 RON. However both Shell and BP produce fuel at 102 RON for cars with hi-performance engines, and the supermarket chain Tesco began in 2006 to sell super unleaded petrol rated at 99 RON. In the US, octane ratings in unleaded fuels can vary between 86-87 AKI (91-92 RON) for regular, through 89-90 AKI (94-95 RON) for mid-grade (European Premium), up to 90-94 AKI (95-99 RON) for premium (European Super).^ Most gasoline stations offer three octane grades of gasoline: regular (87 octane), mid-range (89 octane) and premium (91 octane).

^ In the UK, ordinary regular unleaded petrol is 91 RON (not commonly available), premium unleaded petrol is always 95 RON, and super unleaded is usually 97-98 RON. However both Shell and BP produce fuel at 102 RON for cars with hi-performance engines, and the supermarket chain Tesco began in 2006 to sell super unleaded petrol rated at 99 RON. In the US, octane ratings in fuels can vary between 86-87 AKI (91-92 RON) for regular, through 89-90 (94-95) for mid-grade (European Premium), up to 90-94 (RON 95-99) for premium unleaded or E10 (Super in Europe) .

^ Can I mix different octane fuel grades?
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

????

Additives

Lead

.The mixture known as gasoline, when used in high compression internal combustion engines, has a tendency to autoignite (detonation) causing a damaging "engine knocking" (also called "pinging" or "pinking") noise.^ The tendency of a gasoline to cause "knock" is measured by its octane rating.

^ The mixture known as gasoline, when used in high compression internal combustion engines, has a tendency to ignite early ( pre-ignition or detonation ) causing a damaging " engine knocking " (also called "pinging" or "pinking") noise.

^ It causes a knocking or pinging sound, robs the engine of power and can lead to serious engine damage.

.Early research into this effect was led by A.H. Gibson and Harry Ricardo in England and Thomas Midgley and Thomas Boyd in the United States.^ Some of these effects may be due to lead or other additives in gasoline (lead is no longer added to gasoline in the United States).
  • ATSDR - MMG: Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The manograph was not suitable for further research, so Midgley and Boyd developed a high-speed camera to see what was happening.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early research into this effect was led by A.H. Gibson and Harry Ricardo in England and Thomas Midgley and Thomas Boyd in the United States.

.The discovery that lead additives modified this behavior led to the widespread adoption of their use in the 1920s and therefore more powerful higher compression engines.^ The discovery that lead additives modified this behavior led to the widespread adoption of the practice in the 1920s and therefore more powerful higher compression engines.

^ For an engine that can be optimised for oxygenates, more fuel is required to obtain the same power, but they can burn slightly more efficiently, thus the power ratio is not identical to the energy content ratio.
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It can use either electric power, or a gasoline or diesel engine to throw snow to another location or into a truc...
  • Gasoline | LIVESTRONG.COM 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.The most popular additive was tetra-ethyl lead.^ The most popular additive was tetra-ethyl lead .

^ The most common cause of deposits was the alkyl lead additives in gasoline, and the yellow glaze of various lead salts was used by mechanics to assess engine tune.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This then lead to the long search for antiknock agents, culminating in tetra ethyl lead [10].
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, with the discovery of the environmental and health damage caused by the lead, and the incompatibility of lead with catalytic converters found on virtually all newly sold US automobiles since 1975, this practice began to wane (encouraged by many governments introducing differential tax rates) in the 1980s.^ AMSOIL Octane Boost is also excellent as a lead substitute at same treat rates in collector automobiles, older off-road equipment and pleasure vehicles.

^ All around us gathered the lay-about commercial captains, many of whom had pronounced my well-worn sailboat a sinker.
  • Petrol - Humor: Fueled by Petrol 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC tucsoncitizen.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It causes a knocking or pinging sound, robs the engine of power and can lead to serious engine damage.

.Most countries are phasing out leaded fuel; different additives have replaced the lead compounds.^ Most countries are phasing out leaded fuel; different additives have replaced the lead compounds.

^ For most hydrocarbon fuels, including those with either lead or oxygenates, the motor octane number (MON) will be lower than the research octane number (RON).
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Leaded gasoline was phased out in sub-Saharan Africa with effect from 1 January 2006 .

.The most popular additives include aromatic hydrocarbons, ethers and alcohol (usually ethanol or methanol).^ The most popular additives include aromatic hydrocarbons , ethers and alcohol (usually ethanol or methanol ).

^ The two most important commercial types of alcohol are methanol, or wood alcohol; and ethanol, which is found in alcoholic beverages, such as beer, wine, and liquor.

^ In 1981, the EPA also decided that fuels with up to 2% weight of oxygen ( from alcohols and ethers (except methanol)) were "substantially similar" to 1974 unleaded gasoline, and thus were not "new" gasoline additives.
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the US, where lead had been blended with gasoline (primarily to boost octane levels) since the early 1920s, standards to phase out leaded gasoline were first implemented in 1973 - due in great part to studies conducted by Philip J. Landrigan.^ In the U.S., where lead was blended with gasoline (primarily to boost octane levels) since the early 1920s, standards to phase out leaded gasoline were first implemented in 1973.

^ Material that is separated from crude oil via distillation , called virgin or straight-run gasoline, does not meet the required specifications for modern engines (in particular octane rating; see below), but will form part of the blend.

^ In some parts of South America , Asia , Eastern Europe and the Middle East , leaded gasoline is still in use.

.In 1995, leaded fuel accounted for only 0.6% of total gasoline sales and less than 2000 short tons (1814 t) of lead per year.^ For most hydrocarbon fuels, including those with either lead or oxygenates, the motor octane number (MON) will be lower than the research octane number (RON).
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, if they build gasoline inventories using less expensive crude oil, they effectively (theoretically) "trap" high priced gasoline (and diesel) in their tanks -- which becomes important when end-of the year accounting occurs.

^ I have not seen Diesel at the pump cheaper than gasoline since ULSD was introduced (once or twice it has been dead equal in price, but only for a matter of hours).
  • The Oil Drum | Refining 101: Summer Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From 1 January 1996, the Clean Air Act banned the sale of leaded fuel for use in on-road vehicles.^ From January 1 , 1996 , the Clean Air Act banned the sale of leaded fuel for use in on-road vehicles.

^ However, fuel containing lead may continue to be sold for off-road uses, including aircraft, racing cars, farm equipment, and marine engines [5] .

^ The component of the heavy vehicle charge collected by the Commonwealth from fuel used by trucks and buses - the Road User Charge - would rise by 1.367 cents per litre and indexed to cover future road costs.

.Possession and use of leaded gasoline in a regular on-road vehicle now carries a maximum $10,000 fine in the US. However, fuel containing lead may continue to be sold for off-road uses, including aircraft, racing cars, farm equipment, and marine engines.^ However, fuel containing lead may continue to be sold for off-road uses, including aircraft, racing cars, farm equipment, and marine engines [5] .

^ Govermental intervention: The gasoline that we now use contain 10% Ethanol which is made from corn.
  • Gasoline | LIVESTRONG.COM 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ It is used as a fuel in cars, trucks, and light aircraft.
  • ATSDR - MMG: Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

[16] .The ban on leaded gasoline led to thousands of tons of lead not being released into the air by automobiles.^ The ban on leaded gasoline led to thousands of tons of lead not being released in the air by automobiles.

^ A growing number of countries have drawn up plans to ban leaded gasoline in the near future.

^ In 1990 the Clean Air Act started forcing major compositional changes on gasoline, and these changes will continue into the 21st Century because gasoline is a major pollution source.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Similar bans in other countries have resulted in lowering levels of lead in people's bloodstreams.^ Similar bans in other countries have resulted in lowering levels of lead in people's bloodstreams .

^ A growing number of countries have drawn up plans to ban leaded gasoline in the near future.

^ Some other countries are removing the alkyl lead compounds for health reasons, and replacing them with aromatics and oxygenates.
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17][18]
.A side effect of the lead additives was protection of the valve seats from erosion.^ A side effect of the lead additives was protection of the valve seats from erosion.

^ Some of these effects may be due to lead or other additives in gasoline (lead is no longer added to gasoline in the United States).
  • ATSDR - MMG: Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ There is one aftermarket additive that may be cost-effective, the lubricity additive used with unleaded gasolines to combat valve seat recession on engines that do not have seat inserts.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many classic cars' engines have needed modification to use lead-free fuels since leaded fuels became unavailable.^ Many classic cars ' engines have needed modification to use lead-free fuels since leaded fuels became unavailable.

^ What sort of engine is used to rate fuels?
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, fuel containing lead may continue to be sold for off-road uses, including aircraft, racing cars, farm equipment, and marine engines [5] .

.However, "Lead substitute" products are also produced and can sometimes be found at auto parts stores.^ However, "Lead substitute" products are also produced and can sometimes be found at auto parts stores.

^ Alkyl lead additives can only substitute for some of the aromatics in gasoline, consequently they do not eliminate aromatics, which will produce benzene emissions [34].
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, because lead was found to be toxic to people and the environment, as well as catalytic converters and oxygen sensors, it is no longer formulated in gasoline.

These were scientifically tested and some were approved by the Federation of British Historic Vehicle Clubs at the UK's Motor Industry Research Association (MIRA) in 1999.[19]
.In some parts of South America, Asia, Eastern Europe and the Middle East, leaded gasoline is still in use.^ Some aviation SI engines still use boost fluids.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Major consumption in 1993 of gasoline and middle distillates ( which may include some heating fuels, but not fuel oils ) in million tonnes.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Clean Air Act also specifies some regions that exceed air quality standards have to use reformulated gasolines (RFGs) all year, starting January 1995.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Leaded gasoline was phased out in sub-Saharan Africa effective 1 January 2006. A growing number of countries have drawn up plans to ban leaded gasoline in the near future.^ Remember that winter gasoline will pressure up as the weather heats up, and the contained butane will start to vaporize out of the mix.
  • The Oil Drum | Refining 101: Summer Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Up until the late 1960s, alkyl leads were added to gasolines in increasing concentrations to obtain octane.
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From 1970 until 1990 gasolines were slowly changed as lead was phased out.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, in Britain there is now a growing market for using Four Star leaded petrol in classic cars and motorcycles because of detonation and valve seat erosion.^ So get out there and do your research on the various Hybrid cars in the market.

^ However, there are some who simply need their car due to job nature or family obligations.

^ Slow-fill is pretty cool because you can drive it into your garage and provided you have setup correctly, you can refill your car there.

.A sole petroleum wholesaler, the Bayford Group, is EU-licenced to distribute the leaded fuel and it is sold at select outlets around the UK. Not all counties are covered and the fuel costs approximately twice that of unleaded petrol.^ Then again it could all be brought in from abroad where the cost of fuel is much much lower then in the UK, or is that the hidden plan no-one is admitting too.
  • Fuel/Diesel/Petrol prices across Europe 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.see-search.com [Source type: News]

^ The move to unleaded fuels continues worldwide, however several countries have increased the aromatics content ( up to 50% ) to replace the alkyl lead octane enhancers.
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some countries are increasing the aromatic content ( up to 50% in some super unleaded fuels ) to replace the alkyl lead octane enhancers.
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

MMT

.Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) has been used for many years in Canada and recently in Australia to boost octane.^ The most famous of these is methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), which was used in the USA until banned by the EPA from 27 Oct 1978 [30], but is approved for use in Canada and Australia.
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most famous of these is methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), which was used in the USA until banned by the EPA from 27 Oct 1978 [18], but is approved for use in Canada and Australia.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We used the Octane Boost in conjunction with 93-octane pump gasoline.

.It also helps old cars designed for leaded fuel run on unleaded fuel without need for additives to prevent valve problems.^ The "Volt" concept car's hydrogen fuel cell isn't perfected yet, so the generator will run off of gas or ethanol.
  • Technology Review: Making Gasoline from Carbon Dioxide 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

^ The US 87 (RON+MON/2) unleaded gasoline is required to have a 82+ MON, thus preventing very high sensitivity fuels [25].
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The octane rating of the fuel is the appropriate parameter, and it is not rare for an engine to require a higher Octane fuel to prevent run-on than to avoid knock [17].
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.US Federal sources state that MMT is suspected to be a powerful neurotoxin and respiratory toxin,[20] and a large Canadian study concluded that MMT impairs the effectiveness of automobile emission controls and increases pollution from motor vehicles.^ The EPA has stated it intends to review the whole MMT siuation and , if evidence supports removing MMT, they will revisit banning MMT. Automobile manufacturers believe MMT reduces the effectiveness of the latest emission control systems [31].
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MMT is more expensive than alkyl leads and has been reported to increase unburned hydrocarbon emissions and block exhaust catalysts [32].
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This team is probably the world leader in remote sensing of auto emissions to identify grossly polluting vehicles.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21]
.In 1977 use of MMT was banned in the US by the Clean Air Act until the Ethyl Corporation could prove that the additive would not lead to failure of new car emissions-control systems.^ The most famous of these is methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), which was used in the USA until banned by the EPA from 27 Oct 1978 [30], but is approved for use in Canada and Australia.
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments and CARB Phase 2 (1996) specifications for reformulated gasoline establish the following limits, compared with typical 1990 gasoline.
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because lead antiknock compounds were found to be detrimental to the performance of catalytic emission control system then under development, U.S. passenger car manufacturers in 1971 began to build engines designed to operate satisfactorily on gasolines of nominal 91 Research Octane Number.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a result of this ruling, the Ethyl Corporation began a legal battle with the EPA, presenting evidence that MMT was harmless to automobile emissions-control systems.^ The EPA has stated it intends to review the whole MMT siuation and , if evidence supports removing MMT, they will revisit banning MMT. Automobile manufacturers believe MMT reduces the effectiveness of the latest emission control systems [31].
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reformulation does not always lower all emissions, as evidenced by the following aldehydes from an engine with an adaptive learning management system [33].
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surveys of vehicle populations have demonstrated that emissions systems had been tampered with on over 40% of the gross polluters, and an additional 20% had defective emission control equipment [64].
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1995 the US Court of Appeals ruled that the EPA had exceeded its authority, and MMT became a legal fuel additive in the US. MMT is nowadays manufactured by the Afton Chemical Corporation division of Newmarket Corporation.^ In 1981 the EPA ruled that fuels could contain aliphatic alcohols ( except MeOH ) and/or ethers at concentrations until the oxygen content is 2.0 mass%.
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some other fuel additives work, especially those that are carefully formulated into the gasoline by the manufacturer at the refinery.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1981, the EPA also decided that fuels with up to 2% alcohols and ethers (except methanol) were "substantially similar" to 1974 unleaded gasoline, and thus were not "new" gasoline additives.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22]

Ethanol

.In the United States, ethanol is sometimes added to gasoline but sold without an indication that it is a component.^ Gasoline sold for aircraft or other engines to be of United States standard.
  • CHAPTER 250* GASOLINE AND MOTOR OIL SALES 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.cga.ct.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Abuse of leaded gasoline has been reported to cause brain disease (i.e., lead encephalopathy) (lead is no longer added to gasoline in the United States).
  • ATSDR - MMG: Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Diane Feinstein contends ethanol’s volatility may be the cause for increasing smog levels in Southern California since the waiver was denied and more ethanol was added to the state’s gasoline supply.
  • The Oil Drum | Refining 101: Summer Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In several states, ethanol is added by law to a minimum level which is currently 5.9%.^ Diane Feinstein contends ethanol’s volatility may be the cause for increasing smog levels in Southern California since the waiver was denied and more ethanol was added to the state’s gasoline supply.
  • The Oil Drum | Refining 101: Summer Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most fuel pumps display a sticker stating that the fuel may contain up to 10% ethanol, an intentional disparity which allows the minimum level to be raised over time without requiring modification of the literature/labelling.^ Naphtha requires a lot of oxygen to burn and therefore may be a little easier to extinguish than other petroleum fuels.
  • Zen Petrol Stoves - Liquid Petroleum Stoves 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To make up for this, they offer an optional Midi Pump to increase fuel output and to pressurize the stove prior to startups on those cold days.
  • Zen Petrol Stoves - Liquid Petroleum Stoves 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Minimum Oxidation Stability This ensures the fuel remains chemically stable, and does not form additional gums during periods in distribution systems, which can be up to 3-6 months.
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The bill which was being debated at the time the disclosure of the presence of ethanol in the fuel was mandated has recently passed.
In the EU, 5% ethanol can be added within the common gasoline spec (EN 228). .Discussions are ongoing to allow 10% blending of ethanol.^ To ensure sufficient gasoline base was available for ethanol blending, the EPA also ruled that gasoline containing up to 2 vol% of MTBE could subsequently be blended with 10 vol% of ethanol [16].
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most gasoline sold in Sweden has 5% ethanol added.^ Most suppliers of quality gasolines will formulate similar additives into their products, and cheaper lines are less like to have such additives added.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But the primary reason for the added expense in summer is that butane is considerably less expensive (most of the time) than gasoline.
  • The Oil Drum | Refining 101: Summer Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Brazil, the Brazilian National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP) requires that gasoline for automobile use has 25% of ethanol added to its composition.^ And the best part is that it costs a measly $1.25 per gallon (usatoday.com/money/autos/2007-05-08-natural-gas-usat_N.htm)!

^ Cars currently use gasoline that is derived from fossil fuels, thus when gasoline is burned to completion, it produces additional CO2 that is added to the atmospheric burden.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reformulated gasoline requires a minimum 2.1% oxygen by weight when averaging, which corresponds to approximately 11.7 volume percent MTBE or 5.8 volume percent ethanol.
  • Zen Petrol Stoves - Liquid Petroleum Stoves 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Dye

.In the United States the most commonly used aircraft gasoline, avgas, or aviation gas, is known as 100LL (100 octane, low lead) and is dyed blue.^ Are aviation gasoline octane numbers comparable?
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gasoline sold for aircraft or other engines to be of United States standard.
  • CHAPTER 250* GASOLINE AND MOTOR OIL SALES 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.cga.ct.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Motor fuel" means (A) all products commonly or commercially known or sold as gasoline, including casinghead and absorption or natural gasoline, regardless of their classification or uses, (B) any liquid prepared, advertised, offered for sale or sold for use, or commonly and commercially used, as a fuel in internal combustion engines, including any liquid commonly referred to as "gasohol" which is prepared, advertised, offered for sale or sold for use, or commonly and commercially used, as a fuel in internal combustion engines, but excluding aviation fuel and liquefied petroleum gases.
  • CHAPTER 250* GASOLINE AND MOTOR OIL SALES 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.cga.ct.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Red dye has been used for identifying untaxed (non-highway use) agricultural diesel.^ This product is for use in off-highway diesel engines.
  • Zen Petrol Stoves - Liquid Petroleum Stoves 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High Sulfur Diesel Fuel (red dyed, agricultural diesel) (Not Recommended) .
  • Zen Petrol Stoves - Liquid Petroleum Stoves 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The UK uses red dye to differentiate between regular diesel fuel, (often referred to as DERV from Diesel-Engined Road Vehicle), which is undyed, and diesel intended for agricultural and construction vehicles like excavators and bulldozers.^ We also have numerous commercial, industrial, trucking, excavating, construction, logging, police, racing and many more accounts that we support and service on a regular basis.

^ During the late 1930s - mid 1960s, the Research method became the important rating because it more closely represented the octane requirements of the motorist using the fuels/vehicles/roads then available.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This facilitates rapid switching between reference fuels and samples.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Red diesel is still occasionally used on HGVs which use a separate engine to power a loader crane.^ It can use either electric power, or a gasoline or diesel engine to throw snow to another location or into a truc...
  • Gasoline | LIVESTRONG.COM 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Some aviation SI engines still use boost fluids.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The water/methanol mixtures are used to provide increased power for short periods, up to 40% more - assuming adequate mechanical strength of the engine.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This is a declining practice however, as many loader cranes are powered directly by the tractor unit.

Oxygenate blending

.Oxygenate blending adds oxygen to the fuel in oxygen-bearing compounds such as MTBE, ETBE and ethanol, and so reduces the amount of carbon monoxide and unburned fuel in the exhaust gas, thus reducing smog.^ This was done to remove smog (carbon monoxide).
  • Technology Review: Making Gasoline from Carbon Dioxide 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

^ Such disclosures shall be made by the seller when the purchaser places an order for such fuel oil or propane gas if there is no contract between the seller and purchaser.
  • CHAPTER 250* GASOLINE AND MOTOR OIL SALES 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.cga.ct.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The "Volt" concept car's hydrogen fuel cell isn't perfected yet, so the generator will run off of gas or ethanol.
  • Technology Review: Making Gasoline from Carbon Dioxide 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

.In many areas throughout the US oxygenate blending is mandated by EPA regulations to reduce smog and other airborne pollutants.^ The oxygenates and other new additives may increase the extent of water and soil pollution by acting as co-solvents for HCs.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Smog has been a major pollution problem ever since coal-fired power stations were developed in urban areas, but their emissions are being cleaned up.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, the EPA has declared that summer gasoline blends may not exceed 7.8 psi in some locations, and 9.0 psi in others.
  • The Oil Drum | Refining 101: Summer Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, in Southern California, fuel must contain 2% oxygen by weight, resulting in a mixture of 5.6% ethanol in gasoline.^ This has resulted in the need for a 1 psi waiver for ethanol-containing fuels.
  • The Oil Drum | Refining 101: Summer Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gasoline is a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons containing straight, branched, and cycloalkanes, which contain 5 to 18 carbons, olefins (alkenes), and aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzene, toluene, and xylenes.
  • ATSDR - MMG: Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Existent Gum is used to measure the gum in the fuel at the time tested, whereas the Oxidation Stability measures the time it takes for the gasoline to break down at 100C with 100psi of oxygen.
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The resulting fuel is often known as reformulated gasoline (RFG) or oxygenated gasoline.^ Are all oxygenated gasolines also reformulated gasolines?
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, identifying and repairing or removing gross polluters can be far more cost-effective than playing around with reformulated gasolines and oxygenates.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the introduction of oxygenates and reformulated gasolines, the volatile organic carbon (VOC) species in the exhaust also changed.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The federal requirement that RFG contain oxygen was dropped 6 May 2006 because the industry had developed VOC-controlled RFG that did not need additional oxygen.^ The RFGs also contain oxygenates.
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It should be noted that because oxygenates contain oxygen that can not provide energy, they will have significantly lower energy contents.
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I figure there is some additional drop because of rainy weather (additional rolling resistance), but the mileage difference is significant and noticeable for me.
  • The Oil Drum | Refining 101: Summer Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23]
.MTBE use is being phased out in some states due to issues with contamination of ground water.^ To fully move the U.S. away from oil, we must use bio-fuels as an alternative to gasoline rather than as an additive; we also must phase out petro-diesel in favor of bio-diesel.

^ Some of these effects may be due to lead or other additives in gasoline (lead is no longer added to gasoline in the United States).
  • ATSDR - MMG: Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The 115/145 grade is being phased out, but even the 100LL has more octane than any automotive gasoline.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In some places, such as California, it is already banned. Ethanol and to a lesser extent the ethanol derived ETBE are common replacements. .Since most ethanol is derived from biomatter such as corn, sugar cane or grain, it is referred to as bio-ethanol.^ The two most important commercial types of alcohol are methanol, or wood alcohol; and ethanol, which is found in alcoholic beverages, such as beer, wine, and liquor.

^ This should include bio-diesel/bio-fuels, and not the kind made from valuable food crops, such as corn.

.A common ethanol-gasoline mix of 10% ethanol mixed with gasoline is called gasohol or E10, and an ethanol-gasoline mix of 85% ethanol mixed with gasoline is called E85.^ Ethanol, too, can be burned in an internal-combustion engine, when combined with gasoline to make gasohol.

^ Note that the EPA has issued a waiver that does not require gasoline with 9-10% ethanol to meet the required specifications between 1st May - 15 September.
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To ensure sufficient gasoline base was available for ethanol blending, the EPA also ruled that gasoline containing up to 2 vol% of MTBE could subsequently be blended with 10 vol% of ethanol [16].
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most extensive use of ethanol takes place in Brazil, where the ethanol is derived from sugarcane.^ Wet milling only accounts for about eighteen percent of all ethanol production whereas dry milling is the most commonly used at eighty two percent of production.

^ This is where the money making process takes place and is important to remember when learning how to make ethanol.

.In 2004, over 3.4 billion US gallons (2.8 billion imp gal/13 million m³) of ethanol was produced in the United States for fuel use, mostly from corn, and E85 is slowly becoming available in much of the United States, though many of the relatively few stations vending E85 are not open to the general public.^ This stuff was not available to the general public.

^ Cars currently use gasoline that is derived from fossil fuels, thus when gasoline is burned to completion, it produces additional CO2 that is added to the atmospheric burden.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, it looks like she is losing this battle for political reasons: In the face-off between California and Corn Belt states over ethanol, California lost again this month.
  • The Oil Drum | Refining 101: Summer Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24] .The use of bioethanol, either directly or indirectly by conversion of such ethanol to bio-ETBE, is encouraged by the European Union Directive on the Promotion of the use of biofuels and other renewable fuels for transport.^ The power to run the methanol fuel cells would come from any source for direct use, e.g., wind, solar, wave, geo-thermal, nuclear, etc.
  • Technology Review: Making Gasoline from Carbon Dioxide 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

^ This should include bio-diesel/bio-fuels, and not the kind made from valuable food crops, such as corn.

^ Alcohol fuels can be made from sources other than imported crude oil, and the nations that have researched/used alcohol fuels have mainly based their choice on import substitution.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However since producing bio-ethanol from fermented sugars and starches involves distillation, ordinary people in much of Europe cannot legally ferment and distill their own bio-ethanol at present (unlike in the US where getting a BATF distillation permit has been easy since the 1973 oil crisis.^ Alcohols have been used in gasolines since the 1930s, and MTBE was first used in commercial gasolines in Italy in 1973, and was first used in the US by ARCO in 1979.
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since switching to AMSOIL motor oil, Bailey gets 24 mpg and uses regular gasoline.

)

Other additives

.Gasoline, as delivered at the pump, also contains additives to reduce internal engine carbon buildups, improve combustion, and to allow easier starting in cold climates.^ Fuels for internal combustion engines .
  • Zen Petrol Stoves - Liquid Petroleum Stoves 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Improves engine idle, response and starting.

^ Allows easier start-ups.

Health concerns

Uncontrolled burning of gasoline produces large quantities of soot.
.Many of the non-aliphatic hydrocarbons naturally present in gasoline (especially aromatic ones like benzene), as well as many anti-knocking additives, are carcinogenic.^ Gasoline is a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons containing straight, branched, and cycloalkanes, which contain 5 to 18 carbons, olefins (alkenes), and aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzene, toluene, and xylenes.
  • ATSDR - MMG: Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This should be "free" from aromatic hydrocarbons and olefins such as benzene and many of the toxic additives in regular unleaded gasoline for your auto.
  • Zen Petrol Stoves - Liquid Petroleum Stoves 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the hydrocarbons found in gasoline vaporize readily at room temperature.
  • ATSDR - MMG: Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Because of this, any large-scale or ongoing leaks of gasoline pose a threat to the public's health and the environment, should the gasoline reach a public supply of drinking water.^ These may be the better choice of gasoline for stove use as it should be less likely to clog your stove or cause health problems than regular gasolines.
  • Zen Petrol Stoves - Liquid Petroleum Stoves 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But butane is also abundant, so that means that gasoline supplies increase in the winter because more butane is thrown into the mix.
  • The Oil Drum | Refining 101: Summer Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But in a ruling shocking in its disregard for public health, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency refused for a second time to scrap the rule requiring California to blend ethanol in its gasoline.
  • The Oil Drum | Refining 101: Summer Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The chief risks of such leaks come not from vehicles, but from gasoline delivery truck accidents and leaks from storage tanks.^ Each delivery of gasoline in a quantity of fifty gallons or more and each delivery of kerosene, fuel oil or similar substance in a quantity of five gallons or more shall be the complete contents of a vehicle tank or it shall be through a meter.
  • CHAPTER 250* GASOLINE AND MOTOR OIL SALES 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.cga.ct.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The major toxic risk from gasolines comes from breathing the tailpipe, evaporative, and refuelling emissions, rather than occasional skin contact from spills.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No matter what changes are made to gasoline, if owners "tune" their engines for power, then the majority of such "tuned" vehicle will become gross polluters.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because of this risk, most (underground) storage tanks now have extensive measures in place to detect and prevent any such leaks, such as sacrificial anodes.^ If you have icing problems, the addition of 100-200mls of methanol to a full tank of dry gasoline will prevent icing under most conditions.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each such tank or meter shall be sealed by a sealer of weights and measures before being used.
  • CHAPTER 250* GASOLINE AND MOTOR OIL SALES 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.cga.ct.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gasoline is rather volatile (meaning it readily evaporates), requiring that storage tanks on land and in vehicles be properly sealed.^ Vehicles will soon be required to trap the refuelling emissions in larger carbon canisters, as well as the normal evaporative emissions that they already capture.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It also requires much more storage space than regular fuel which often means that you have to create additional storage space in your trunk or build an additional tank under the car.

^ The EIA summarizes the key points : As gasoline evaporates, volatile organic compounds (VOC’s) enter the atmosphere and contribute to ozone formation.
  • The Oil Drum | Refining 101: Summer Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The high volatility also means that it will easily ignite in hot weather conditions, unlike diesel for example. Appropriate venting is needed to ensure the level of pressure is similar on the inside and outside. Gasoline also reacts dangerously with certain common chemicals.
.Gasoline is also one of the sources of pollutant gases.^ These changes will continue into the 21st Century, because gasoline use in SI engines is a major pollution source.
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even gasoline which does not contain lead or sulfur compounds produces carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide in the exhaust of the engine which is running on it.^ Gasoline is a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons containing straight, branched, and cycloalkanes, which contain 5 to 18 carbons, olefins (alkenes), and aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzene, toluene, and xylenes.
  • ATSDR - MMG: Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ According to Toyota, compressed natural gas produces lower particulate emissions, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and non-methane organic gases and less CO2 per unit of energy when compared to gasoline.

^ Carbon, together with other elements, forms so many millions of organic compounds that even introductory textbooks on organic chemistry consist of many hundreds of pages.

.Furthermore, unburnt gasoline and evaporation from the tank, when in the atmosphere, react in sunlight to produce photochemical smog.^ Cars currently use gasoline that is derived from fossil fuels, thus when gasoline is burned to completion, it produces additional CO2 that is added to the atmospheric burden.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The EIA summarizes the key points : As gasoline evaporates, volatile organic compounds (VOC’s) enter the atmosphere and contribute to ozone formation.
  • The Oil Drum | Refining 101: Summer Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Addition of ethanol increases the volatility of gasoline.^ The blending of ethanol into the gasoline pool has been controversial because (among other things) it increases the vapor pressure of gasoline blends.
  • The Oil Drum | Refining 101: Summer Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diane Feinstein contends ethanol’s volatility may be the cause for increasing smog levels in Southern California since the waiver was denied and more ethanol was added to the state’s gasoline supply.
  • The Oil Drum | Refining 101: Summer Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some blends of oxygenated fuels with ordinary gasoline can result in undesirable increases in volatility due to volatile azeotropes, and that some oxygenates can have negative lead responses.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Through misuse as an inhalant, gasoline also contributes to damage to health. .Petrol sniffing is a common way of obtaining a high for many people and has become epidemic in some poorer communities and indigenous groups in America, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and some Pacific Islands.^ New low sulfur diesel doesn't lubricate as well as high sulfur diesel and many manufactures have added lubricants and other additives to prolong engine life.
  • Zen Petrol Stoves - Liquid Petroleum Stoves 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many people pay for them with cash, checks or debit cards, but there can some big advantages to using a credit ...
  • Gasoline | LIVESTRONG.COM 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Coleman Fuel, MSR Fuel, White Gas [North America, Australia, and New Zealand], Shellite, Fuelite, Zippo fuel, Ronsonol fuel, heptane, Blazo, cigarette lighter fluid, some charcoal lighter fluid) .
  • Zen Petrol Stoves - Liquid Petroleum Stoves 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25] .In response, Opal fuel has been developed by the BP Kwinana Refinery in Australia, and contains only 5% aromatics (unlike the usual 25%) which inhibits the effects of inhalation.^ Improves performance Maximizes power Improves ignition Helps fuel burn cleaner Removes carbon deposits Reduces engine knock Improves responsiveness Inhibits corrosion .

^ In practice, the fuel mixture is usually weakened when using boost fluid injection, and the ratio of the two fuel fluids is approximately 100 parts of avgas to 25 parts of boost fluid.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fuel has a high octane and usually only trace quantities of unsaturates.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26]
.Like other alkanes, gasoline burns in the vapor phase and, coupled with its volatility, this makes leaks highly dangerous when sources of ignition are present.^ The blending of ethanol into the gasoline pool has been controversial because (among other things) it increases the vapor pressure of gasoline blends.
  • The Oil Drum | Refining 101: Summer Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The less volatile hydrocarbons in gasoline are not released in significant quantities during normal use, and the more volatile alkanes are considerably less toxic than many other chemicals encountered daily.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethanol, too, can be burned in an internal-combustion engine, when combined with gasoline to make gasohol.

.Many accidents involve gasoline being used in an attempt to light bonfires; rather than helping the material on the bonfire to burn, some of the gasoline vaporises quickly after being poured and mixes with the surrounding air, so when the fire is lit a moment later the vapor surrounding the bonfire instantly ignites in a large fireball, engulfing the unwary user.^ Cars currently use gasoline that is derived from fossil fuels, thus when gasoline is burned to completion, it produces additional CO2 that is added to the atmospheric burden.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the hydrocarbons found in gasoline vaporize readily at room temperature.
  • ATSDR - MMG: Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ March 16, 2007 - 9:51pm The 2 1/2 ton truck used by the U.S. in the Vietnam era was a multi-fuel that in theory would burn Gasoline, Diesel, Jet fuel etc.
  • The Oil Drum | Refining 101: Summer Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The vapor is also heavier than air and tends to collect in garage inspection pits.^ Gasoline vapors are heavier than air and may collect in low-lying areas.
  • ATSDR - MMG: Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Alkanes even heavier than those on this list tend to be waxy solids, an example being paraffin wax, for making candles.

^ Its vapors are heavier than air and may cause asphyxiation in enclosed, poorly ventilated, or low-lying areas.
  • ATSDR - MMG: Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

Usage and pricing

2009 EU, Romanian gas station
UK petrol prices
.The US accounts for about 44% of the world’s gasoline consumption.^ US gasoline consumption in billions of liters per day vs. Source: Foreign Policy "Prime Numbers: Pain at the Pump" .
  • Gasoline | LIVESTRONG.COM 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

[27] .In 2003 The US consumed 476.474 gigalitres (1.25871×1011 US gal; 1.04810×1011 imp gal),[28] which equates to 1.3 gigalitres of gasoline each day (about 360 million US or 300 million imperial gallons).^ US gasoline consumption in billions of liters per day vs. Source: Foreign Policy "Prime Numbers: Pain at the Pump" .
  • Gasoline | LIVESTRONG.COM 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ When TEL is added, the lead response of a large number of paraffins is well above that of iso-octane ( about +45 for 3ml TEL/US Gal ), and this can lead to Performance Numbers that can not be used in conventional automotive engines [10].
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We know that the U.S. consumes 21 million barrels per day of oil.

.The US used about 510 billion litres (138 billion US gal/115 billion imp gal) of gasoline in 2006, of which 5.6% was mid-grade and 9.5% was premium grade.^ US gasoline consumption in billions of liters per day vs. Source: Foreign Policy "Prime Numbers: Pain at the Pump" .
  • Gasoline | LIVESTRONG.COM 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Most gasoline stations offer three octane grades of gasoline: regular (87 octane), mid-range (89 octane) and premium (91 octane).

^ "I've used AMSOIL now for my wife's anemic Camry 2.2 litre and have calculated that I have saved about $120," he said.

[29]
Western countries have among the highest usage rates per person.
Based on externalities, some countries, e.g. in .Europe and Japan, impose heavy fuel taxes on fuels such as gasoline.^ But hydrogen gas is much more difficult to transport and store than are liquid fuels, such as gasoline, which contain far more energy by volume than hydrogen does.
  • Technology Review: Making Gasoline from Carbon Dioxide 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

^ It is preferable to purchase a higher octane fuel such as racing fuel, aviation gasolines, or methanol.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

United States

Because a greater proportion of the price of gasoline in the United States is due to the cost of oil, rather than taxes, the price of the retail product is subject to greater fluctuations (vs. outside the US) when calculated as a percentage of cost-per-unit, but is less variable in absolute terms. .From 1998 to 2004 the price of gasoline was between $1 to $2 USD per U.S. gallon.^ Price per gallon is cheaper.

^ July 1, 1998, to October 1, 1998 re reduction in per-gallon price of gasoline and amended Subsec.
  • CHAPTER 250* GASOLINE AND MOTOR OIL SALES 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.cga.ct.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I had not even paid attention, the price of a gallon of gasoline in Des Moines is $3.07 with Ethanol.
  • Gasoline | LIVESTRONG.COM 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

[30] After 2004, the price increased until the average gas price reached a high of $4.11 per U.S. gallon in mid-2008, but has receded to approximately $2.60 per U.S. gallon as of September 2009.[30]
.Unlike other goods in the United States, gasoline is sold with tax included.^ Gasoline sold for aircraft or other engines to be of United States standard.
  • CHAPTER 250* GASOLINE AND MOTOR OIL SALES 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.cga.ct.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Abuse of leaded gasoline has been reported to cause brain disease (i.e., lead encephalopathy) (lead is no longer added to gasoline in the United States).
  • ATSDR - MMG: Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Each person applying for any such license shall, in such application, state the location of each place or station where such person intends to sell or offer for sale any such gasoline or other product.
  • CHAPTER 250* GASOLINE AND MOTOR OIL SALES 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.cga.ct.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Taxes are added by federal, state and local governments. .As of 2009, the federal tax is 18.4¢ per gallon for gasoline and 24.4¢ per gallon for diesel (excluding Red diesel).^ "Red Diesel" may be much cheaper than the taxed auto diesel in your country.
  • Zen Petrol Stoves - Liquid Petroleum Stoves 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ July 1, 1998, to October 1, 1998 re reduction in per-gallon price of gasoline and amended Subsec.
  • CHAPTER 250* GASOLINE AND MOTOR OIL SALES 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.cga.ct.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31] .Among states, the highest gasoline tax rates, including the federal taxes as of 2005, are New York (62.9¢/gal), Hawaii (60.1¢/gal), & California (60¢/gal).^ Recently the EPA ban was overturned, and MMT can be used up to 0.031gMn/US Gal in all states except California ( where it remains banned ).
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32] .However, many states' taxes are a percentage and thus vary in amount depending on the cost of the gasoline.^ Thus, identifying and repairing or removing gross polluters can be far more cost-effective than playing around with reformulated gasolines and oxygenates.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How your vehicle responds to oxygenated gasoline depends on the engine management system and state of tune.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.About 9 percent of all gasoline sold in the US in May 2009 was premium gas, according to the Energy Information Administration.^ Where can more information about gasoline be found?
  • ATSDR - MMG: Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ All about gasoline, and diesel, too!
  • Gasoline | LIVESTRONG.COM 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Even though the heating value of CNG (also known as its energy content) is significantly lower than that of gasoline, compressed natural gas has excellent octane properties.

Consumer Reports magazine says “If your car can run on regular, run it on regular.” The Associated Press said that premium gas—which is a higher octane and costs several cents a gallon more than regular unleaded-should be used only if the manufacturer says it is “required.” [33]

Stability

.Good quality gasoline should be stable almost indefinitely if stored properly.^ Stability Motor gasolines may be stored up to six months, consequently they must not form gums which may precipitate.
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such storage should be in an airtight container, to prevent oxidation or water vapors mixing, and at a stable cool temperature, to reduce the chance of the container leaking.^ Remember that winter gasoline will pressure up as the weather heats up, and the contained butane will start to vaporize out of the mix.
  • The Oil Drum | Refining 101: Summer Gasoline 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The very high specific heat and heat of vaporisation of water means that the combustion temperature will decrease.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This may include enhanced cetane number, detergent for system cleanliness, heat content minimum, stability during storage and use, low temperature performance, lubricity, corrosion protection and water handling characteristics.
  • Zen Petrol Stoves - Liquid Petroleum Stoves 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When gasoline is not stored correctly and is left for a period of time, gums and varnishes may build up and precipitate in the gasoline, causing "stale fuel". This may cause gums to build up in the fuel tank, lines, and carburetor or fuel injection components making it harder to start the engine.^ Reduces the oxidation process and prevents varnish and gum build-up in gasoline.

^ What causes an empty fuel tank?
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The narrow range of conditions for spontaneous ignition of the fuel/air mixture ( engine speed, charge temperature, cylinder pressure ) may be created when the engine is switched off.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However upon the resumption of regular vehicle usage, the buildups should eventually be cleaned up by the flow of fresh petrol.^ An initial clean-up dose of six ounces for ten gallons of gasoline restores up to 95 percent of an injector's original fuel flow.

^ An initial clean-up dose of six ounces of P.I. for 10 gallons of gasoline restores up to 95 percent of an injector's original fuel flow.

^ You should initially be guided by the vehicle manufacturer's recommendations, however you can experiment, as the variations in vehicle tolerances can mean that Octane Number Requirement for a given vehicle model can range over 6 Octane Numbers.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A fuel stabilizer may be used to extend the life of the fuel that is not or can not be stored properly.^ Even with a stove in tip top condition, you may still need to carry enough items to disassemble and clean possible trouble spots, especially if you are using less than ideal fuel or on an extended trek.
  • Zen Petrol Stoves - Liquid Petroleum Stoves 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Depending on the makeup of the fuel and the stove you are using, it may not work well and may produce a lot of smoke and soot.
  • Zen Petrol Stoves - Liquid Petroleum Stoves 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is because the refiners can choose the oxygenate they use to meet the regulations, and may choose to set some fuel properties, such as volatility, differently to their competitors.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fuel stabilizer is commonly used for small engines such as lawnmower and tractor engines to promote quicker and more reliable starting.^ What sort of engine is used to rate fuels?
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The normally-aspirated 3.0 litre engines could use unlimited amounts of 102RON fuel.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For an engine that can be optimised for oxygenates, more fuel is required to obtain the same power, but they can burn slightly more efficiently, thus the power ratio is not identical to the energy content ratio.
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Users have been advised to keep gasoline containers and tanks more than half full and properly capped to reduce air exposure, to avoid storage at high temperatures,[34] to run an engine for ten minutes to circulate the stabilizer through all components prior to storage, and to run the engine at intervals to purge stale fuel from the carburetor.^ AMSOIL Gasoline Stabilizer keeps fuel from deteriorating during storage.

^ Thus, identifying and repairing or removing gross polluters can be far more cost-effective than playing around with reformulated gasolines and oxygenates.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the 1910s, laws prohibited the storage of gasolines on residential properties, so Charles F. Kettering ( yes - he of ignition system fame ) modified an IC engine to run on kerosine.
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35]
Gummy, sticky resin deposits result from oxidative degradation of gasoline. This degradation can be prevented through the use of antioxidants such as phenylenediamines, alkylenediamines (diethylenetriamine, triethylenetetramine, etc), and alkylamines (diethylamine, tributylamine, ethylamine). .Other useful additives include gum inhibitors such as N-substituted alkylaminophenols and colour stabilizers such as N-(2-aminoethyl)piperazine, N,N-diethylhydroxylamine, and triethylenetetramine.^ As different brands use different additives and oxygenates, it is probable that important parameters, such as octane distribution, are different, even though the pump octane ratings are the same.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For purposes of categorizing fuels for stoves, "naphtha" is used to include all naphtha and gasoline-like fuels that have been refined to be as aromatic and additive free as practical for stove use.
  • Zen Petrol Stoves - Liquid Petroleum Stoves 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A variation on polyethylene is Teflon, used not only in nonstick cookware, but also in a number of other devices, such as bearings for low-temperature use.

[36]
.Improvements in refinery techniques have generally reduced the reliance on the catalytically or thermally cracked stocks most susceptible to oxidation.^ Because sulfur in gasoline inhibited the octane-enhancing effect of the alkyl lead, the sulfur content of the thermally-cracked refinery streams for gasolines was restricted.
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37] .Gasoline containing acidic contaminants such as naphthenic acids can be addressed with additives including strongly basic organo-amines such as N,N-diethylhydroxylamine, preventing metal corrosion and breakdown of other antioxidant additives due to acidity.^ Most stories of corrosion etc, are derived from anhydrous methanol corrosion of light metals (aluminum, magnesium), however the addition of either 0.5% water to pure methanol, or corrosion inhibitors to methanol/gasoline blends will prevent this.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reactions of the unsaturated HCs may produce gums ( these reactions can be catalysed by metals such as copper ), so antioxidants and metal deactivators are added.
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other reputable gasoline brands will have similar additive packages in their quality products.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hydrocarbons with a bromine number of 10 or above can be protected with the combination of unhindered or partially hindered phenols and oil soluble strong amine bases such as monoethanolamine, N-(2-aminoethyl)piperazine, cyclohexylamine, 1,3-cyclohexane-bis(methylamine), 2,5-dimethylaniline, 2,6-dimethylaniline, diethylenetriamine and triethylenetetramine.^ Oil-soluble Dye, initially added to leaded gasoline at about 10 ppm to prevent its misuse as an industrial solvent * Antioxidants, typically phenylene diamines or hindered phenols, are added to prevent oxidation of unsaturated hydrocarbons.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36]
."Stale" gasoline can be detected by a colorimetric enzymatic test for organic peroxides produced by oxidation of the gasoline.^ Existent Gum is used to measure the gum in the fuel at the time tested, whereas the Oxidation Stability measures the time it takes for the gasoline to break down at 100C with 100psi of oxygen.
  • Gasoline FAQ - Part 1 of 4 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38]

Other fuels

.Many of these alternatives are less damaging to the environment than gasoline, but the first generation biofuels are still not 100 percent clean.^ Even with a stove in tip top condition, you may still need to carry enough items to disassemble and clean possible trouble spots, especially if you are using less than ideal fuel or on an extended trek.
  • Zen Petrol Stoves - Liquid Petroleum Stoves 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The less volatile hydrocarbons in gasoline are not released in significant quantities during normal use, and the more volatile alkanes are considerably less toxic than many other chemicals encountered daily.
  • Automotive Gasoline FAQ 16 January 2010 23:21 UTC www.turborick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This fuel category might be slightly less toxic than gasoline but is still very caustic, and releases an unpleasant odor that lingers.
  • Zen Petrol Stoves - Liquid Petroleum Stoves 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Petrochem Carless :: History
  2. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary
  3. ^ Ron Hincks (2004). "Our Motoring Heritage: Petrol & Oil". Chrysler Collector (154): 16–20. 
  4. ^ Bertha Benz Memorial Route
  5. ^ Spanish Dict
  6. ^ Collins, Chris (2007). Implementing Phytoremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons. Methods in Biotechnology. 23. Humana Press. p. 100. ISBN 1588295419. 
  7. ^ Material safety data sheet Tesoro Petroleum Companies, Inc., U.S., 8 February 2003
  8. ^ Bell Fuels. "Lead-Free Gasoline Material Safety Data Sheet". NOAA. http://www.sefsc.noaa.gov/HTMLdocs/Gasoline.htm. Retrieved 6 July 2008. 
  9. ^ "Week 1: Nationwide fuel waiver issued to bolster fuel supplies". Response to 2005 Hurricanes. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 31 August 2005. http://www.epa.gov/katrina/activities/week1.html#aug31johnson. 
  10. ^ "Oil Industry Statistics from Gibson Consulting". http://www.gravmag.com/oil.html. Retrieved 31 July 2008. 
  11. ^ Appendix B, Transportation Energy Data Book from the Center for Transportation Analysis of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory
  12. ^ Thomas, George: Overview of Storage Development DOE Hydrogen ProgramPDF (99.6 KB) . Livermore, CA. Sandia National Laboratories. 2000.
  13. ^ Calculated from heats of formation. Does not correspond exactly to the figure for MJ/l divided by density.
  14. ^ Bioenergy Feedstock Development Programs at Oak Rodge National Laboratory
  15. ^ National Hydrogen Association FAQs
  16. ^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (29 January 1996). "EPA Takes Final Step in Phaseout of Leaded Gasoline". Press release. http://www.epa.gov/history/topics/lead/02.htm. 
  17. ^ Lourdes Schnaas, Stephen J. Rothenberg, María-Fernanda Flores, Sandra Martínez, Carmen Hernández, Erica Osorio,1 and Estela Perroni (2004). "Blood Lead Secular Trend in a Cohort of Children in Mexico City (1987–2002)" (Open-access full-text reprint). Environ. Health. Perspect. 112 (10): 1110–1115. doi:10.1289/ehp.6636. PMID 15238286. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1247386. 
  18. ^ Paulina Pino, Tomás Walter; Manuel J. Oyarzún A3, Matthew J. Burden; Betsy Lozoff (2004). "Rapid Drop in Infant Blood Lead Levels during the Transition to Unleaded Gasoline Use in Santiago, Chile". Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal 59 (4): 182–187. doi:10.3200/AEOH.59.4.182-187. 
  19. ^ Federation of British Historic Vehicle Clubs
  20. ^ "Comments of the Gasoline Additive MMT". http://www.epa.gov/otaq/regs/fuels/additive/mmt_cmts.htm. Retrieved 10 August 2008. 
  21. ^ "Final Report: Effects of MMT in Gasoline on Emissions from On-Road Motor Vehicles in Canada" (PDF). Canadian Vehicle Manufacturers’ Association, and Association of International Automobile Manufacturers of Canada. 11 November 2002. http://cvma.ca/eng/publications/FinalMMTReport.pdf. Retrieved 27 April 2009. 
  22. ^ "History of mmt". Afton Chemical. http://www.aftonchemical.com/Products/MMT/History+of+MMT%AE.htm. Retrieved 22 February 2008. 
  23. ^ "Removal of Reformulated Gasoline Oxygen Content Requirement (national) and Revision of Commingling Prohibition to Address Non-0xygenated Reformulated Gasoline (national)". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 22 February 2006. http://www.epa.gov/otaq/rfg_regs.htm#usage. 
  24. ^ "Alternative Fueling Station Locator". U.S. Department of Energy. http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/fuels/stations_locator.html. 
  25. ^ Petrol Sniffing Fact File Sheree Cairney, www.abc.net.au, Published 24/11/2005. Retrieved 13 October 2007, a modified version of the original article, now archived [1]
  26. ^ Fuel technology www.bp.com. Retrieved 8 June 2007.
  27. ^ http://www.worldwatch.org/node/5579 , http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/oilconsumption.html
  28. ^ EarthTrends: Energy and Resources - Transportation: Motor gasoline consumption Units: Million liters
  29. ^ "U.S. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products". United States Energy Information Administration. http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_prim_dcu_nus_a.htm. Retrieved 24 October 2007. 
  30. ^ a b Fuel Economy.gov, FAQ
  31. ^ http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/infrastructure/gastax.cfm
  32. ^ http://www.taxfoundation.org/UserFiles/Image/Fiscal%20Facts/gas-tax-690px.jpg
  33. ^ Associated Press, “Gassing up with premium probably a waste,” 19 August 2009.
  34. ^ "Fuel storage practices". http://www.alpharubicon.com/altenergy/gasstoretg.htm. 
  35. ^ "PER Notebook". http://www.perr.com/tip1.html. 
  36. ^ a b EP patent 0534668 Stabilization of gasoline mixtures
  37. ^ US patent 3994698 Gasoline additive concentrate composition
  38. ^ A1 AU patent 2000/72399 A1 Gasoline test kit

References

External links

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Images

Simple English

[[File:|thumb|A gasoline container]]

Gasoline, gas, or petrol is a fuel. It is made by boiling petroleum, a fossil fuel. The petroleum is heated to a very high temperature, then things start to separate. This is an expensive process. It is made mostly of octane (C8H18), a hydrocarbon.

Gasoline is sold at gas stations (petrol stations).

Uses

Gasoline is most often used in vehicles like cars, vans, etc. Gasoline can be used in a wide variety of other things that we use every day, such as lawnmowers, leaf blowers, and small boat motors. Some larger vehicles like trucks or ships may use diesel fuel instead of gasoline.

Dangers

Gasoline is very dangerous. It can explode when an electric spark lights it. It is also harmful if a human drinks it. It hurts the environment by creating poisonous gases.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 16, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Gasoline, which are similar to those in the above article.








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