Gastroenterology: Wikis

  
  
  

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Gastroenterologist
Occupation
Names Doctor, Medical Specialist
Type Specialty
Activity sectors Medicine
Description
Education required Doctor of Medicine
Fields of employment Hospitals, Clinics
Average salary USD $319,000 (M.D./D.O.)

Gastroenterology (MeSH heading)[1] is the branch of medicine whereby the digestive system and its disorders are studied. Etymologically, the name is a combination of three Ancient Greek words gaster (gen.: gastros) (stomach), enteron (intestine), and logos (reason).

Diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract, which includes the organs from mouth to anus, along the alimentary canal, are the focus of this specialty. Physicians practicing in this field of medicine are called gastroenterologists. They have usually completed the eight years of pre-medical and medical education, the yearlong internship (if this is not a part of the residency), three years of an internal medicine residency, and two to three years in the gastroenterology fellowship. Specialists in GI radiology, hepatobiliary or gastric medicine, or in GI oncology will then complete a two- or three- year fellowship. Gastroenterology is not the same as gastroenterological surgery or of colon and rectal (proctology) surgery, which are specialty branches of general surgery. Important advances have been made in the last fifty years, contributing to rapid expansion of its scope.

Hepatology, or hepatobiliary medicine, encompasses the study of the liver, pancreas, and biliary tree and is traditionally considered a sub-specialty.

Contents

History

Drawings of Bozzini's "Lichtleiter"

Citing from Egyptian papyri, Nunn identified significant knowledge of gastrointestinal diseases among practising physicians during the periods of the pharaohs. Irynakhty, of the tenth dynasty, c. 2125 B.C., was a court physician specialising in gastroenterology and proctology.[2]

Among ancient Greeks, Hippocrates attributed digestion to concoction. Galen's concept of the stomach having four faculties was widely accepted up to modernity in the seventeenth century.

Eighteenth century:

Nineteenth century:

McClendon's pH-probe

Twentieth century:

Twenty-first century:

Disease classification

1. International Classification of Disease(ICD 2007)/WHO classification:

  • Chapter XI,Diseases of the digestive system,(K00-K93)[2]

2. MeSH subject Heading:

  • Gastroenterology (G02.403.776.409.405)[3]
  • Gastroenterological diseases(C06.405)[4]

3. National Library of Medicine Catalogue(NLM classification 2006):

  • Digestive system(W1)[5]

Gastroenterological societies

Research Resources for Gastroenterology

See also

References

  1. ^ nlm.nih.gov
  2. ^ Nunn JF. Ancient Egyptian Medicine. 2002. ISBN 0-80613-504-2.
  3. ^ Edgardo Rivera, MD James L. Abbruzzese, MD; Pancreatic, Hepatic, and Biliary Carcinomas, MEDICAL ONCOLOGY: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW [1]
  4. ^ DeStoll M: Rationis Mendendi, in Nosocomio Practico vendobonensi. Part 1 LugduniBatavarum, Haak et Socios et A et J Honkoop 1788, OCLC: 23625746
  5. ^ Gilger, Mark A. MD,Gastroenterologic endoscopy in children: past, present, and future. Gastroenterology and nutrition Current Opinion in Pediatrics. 13(5):429-434, October 2001.
  6. ^ The Origin of Endoscopes, Olympus history
  7. ^ Anton Sebastian,A Dictionary of the History of Medicine, ISBN 1850700214
  8. ^ Prout, W. On the nature of the acid and saline matters usually existing in the stomachs of animals. – Philos. Transactions, 1824, 1, 45.
  9. ^ McClendon J. F. New hydrogen electrodes and rapid methods of determining hydrogen ion concentrations. – Amer. J. Physoil., 1915, 38, 2, 180.
  10. ^ Alvarez W. C. The electrogastrogram and what it shows. JAMA, 78(15):1116-18, 1922.

External links

Publications/Journals at the Open Directory Project








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