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Fossil range: Early Cambrian–Recent[1]
Air-breathing land gastropod Helix pomatia, the Roman snail
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
Cuvier, 1797

" Paleozoic uncertain …"
" Basal taxa …"
clade Patellogastropoda
clade Vetigastropoda
clade Cocculiniformia
clade Neritimorpha
clade Caenogastropoda
clade Heterobranchia

The class Gastropoda or gastropods (also previously known as univalves and sometimes also spelled Gasteropoda) form a major part of the phylum Mollusca. Gastropods are more commonly known as snails and slugs, and include those that live in the sea, in freshwater and on land. This class of animals is second only to the insects in its number of known species. Its fossil history goes back to the Late Cambrian.

Gastropoda is the most highly diversified class in the phylum Mollusca, with 60,000 to 80,000[2][3] living snail and slug species. The anatomy, behavior, feeding and reproductive adaptations of gastropods vary very significantly from one clade or group to another, therefore it is very difficult or impossible to make more than a very few general statements about these topics that will be valid for all of the gastropods.

There are 409 recent families of gastropods. Fossil gastropods represent another 202 families.[3] The gastropods include many thousands of species of marine snails and sea slugs, as well as freshwater snails and freshwater limpets, and the terrestrial (land) snails and slugs.

The class Gastropoda has an extraordinary diversification of habitats. Representatives live in gardens, in woodland, in deserts, and on mountains; in small ditches, great rivers and lakes; in estuaries, mudflats, the rocky intertidal, the sandy subtidal, in the abyssal depths of the oceans including the hydrothermal vents, and numerous other ecological niches, including parasitic ones.

Although the name "snail" can be, and often is, applied to all the members of this class, very commonly this word is restricted to those species which have an external shell large enough that the soft parts can withdraw completely into it. Those gastropods without a shell, and those which have only a very reduced or internal shell, are usually known as slugs.

The marine shelled species of gastropod include edible species such as abalone, conches, periwinkles, whelks, and numerous other sea snails which have coiled seashells. There are also a number of families of species such as all the various limpets, where the shell is coiled only in the larval stage, and is a simple conical structure after that.



Gastropods have a worldwide distribution, in the seas and oceans (about 30,000 species), in brackish water, in freshwater (about 5,000 species) and on land (about 24,000 described species, (Chapman, 2009)), from the near Arctic and Antarctic zones to the tropics.


The gastropods have become adapted to almost every kind of existence on earth, having colonized every medium available except the air. In habitats where there is not enough calcium carbonate to build a really solid shell, such as on some acidic soils on land, there are still various species of slugs, and also some snails which have a thin translucent shell, mostly or entirely composed of the protein conchiolin.

Some of the more familiar and better-known gastropods are terrestrial (the land snails and slugs), but more than two thirds of all named species live in a marine environment.

Snails such as Sphincterochila boissieri and Xerocrassa seetzeni have adapted to desert conditions, other snails have adapted to an existence in ditches, near deepwater hydrothermal vents, the pounding surf of rocky shores, caves, and many other diverse areas.


The anatomy of a common air-breathing land snail such as Helix aspersa. Note that much of this anatomy does not apply to gastropods in other clade or groups.
The anatomy of an aquatic snail with a gill, a male prosobranch gastropod. Note that much of this anatomy does not apply to gastropods in other clades.
Light yellow - body
Brown - shell and operculum
Green - digestive system
Light violet - gills
Yellow - osphradium
Red - heart
Pink -
Dark violet -
1. foot
2. cerebral ganglion
3. pneumostome
4. upper commissura
5. osphradium
6. gills
7. pleural ganglion
8. atrium of heart
9. visceral ganglion
10. ventricle
11. foot
12. operculum
13. brain
14. mouth
15. tentacle (chemosensory, 2 or 4)
16. eye
17. penis (everted, normally internal)
18. esophageal nerve ring
19. pedal ganglion
20. lower commissura
21. vas deferens
22. pallial cavity / mantle cavity / respiratory cavity
23. parietal ganglion
24. anus
25. hepatopancreas
26. gonad
27. rectum
28. nephridium

Snails are distinguished by an anatomical process known as torsion, where the visceral mass of the animal rotates 180º to one side during development, such that the anus is situated more or less above the head. (This process is unrelated to the coiling of the shell, which is a separate phenomenon.) Torsion is present in all gastropods, but the opisthobranch gastropods are secondarily de-torted.

Torsion occurs in two mechanistic stages. The first is muscular, and the second is mutagenetic. The effects of torsion are primarily physiological - the organism develops an asymmetrical nature with the majority of growth occurring on the left side. This leads to the loss of right-paired appendages (e.g. ctenidia (comb-like respiratory apparatus), gonads, nephridia, etc). Furthermore, the anus becomes redirected to the same space as the head. This is speculated to have some evolutionary function, as prior to torsion, when retracting into the shell, first the posterior end would get pulled in, and then the anterior. Now, the front can get be retracted more easily, perhaps suggesting a defensive purpose.

However, this "rotation hypothesis" is being challenged by the "asymmetry hypothesis" in which the gastropod mantle cavity originated from one side only of a bilateral set of mantle cavities[4].

Gastropods typically have a well-defined head with two or four sensory tentacles with eyes, and a ventral foot, which gives them their name (Greek gaster, stomach, and poda, feet). The larval shell of a gastropod is called a protoconch.

The shell

The shell of Zonitoides nitidus, a small land snail, has dextral coiling, which is typical of gastropod shells, but which is not universally found.
Upper image: dorsal view of the shell, showing the apex
Central image: lateral view showing the spire and aperture of the shell
Lower image: basal view showing the umbilicus

Most shelled gastropods have a shell which is in one piece, and which is typically coiled or spiraled. This coiled shell usually opens on the right-hand side (as viewed with the shell apex pointing upward). Numerous species have an operculum which in many species is a sort of a trapdoor to close the shell. This is usually made of a horn-like material, but in some molluscs it is calcareous. In the land slugs, the shell is reduced or absent, and the body is streamlined.

Body wall

Some sea slugs are very brightly colored. This serves either as a warning, when they are poisonous or contain stinging cells, or to camouflage them on the brightly-colored hydroids, sponges and seaweeds on which many of the species are found.

Lateral outgrowths on the body of nudibranchs are called cerata. These contain a part of digestive gland, which is called the diverticula.

Digestive system

The radula of a gastropod is usually adapted to the food that a species eats. The simplest gastropods are the limpets and abalones, herbivores that use their hard radula to rasp at seaweeds on rocks.

Many marine gastropods are burrowers, and have a siphon that extends out from the mantle edge. Sometimes the shell has a siphonal canal to accommodate this structure. A siphon enables the animal to draw a flow of water into their mantle cavity and over the gill. The siphon is used primarily to "taste" the water, in order to detect prey from a distance. Gastropods with siphons tend to be either predators or scavengers.

Respiratory system

Almost all marine gastropods breathe with a gill, but many freshwater species, and the majority of terrestrial species, have a pallial lung. The gastropods which have a lung all belong to one group with common descent, the Pulmonata, however, the gastropods with gills are paraphyletic. The respiratory protein in almost all gastropods is hemocyanin, but a pulmonate family Planorbidae have hemoglobin as respiratory protein.

In one large group of sea slugs, the gills are arranged as a rosette of feathery plumes on their backs, which gives rise to their other name, nudibranchs. Some nudibranchs have smooth or warty backs and have no visible gill mechanism, such that respiration may likely take place directly through the skin.

Circulatory system

Gastropods have open circulatory system and the transport fluid is hemolymph. Hemocyanin is present in the hemolymph as the respiratory pigment.

Excretory system

The primary organs of excretion in gastropods are nephridia, which produce either ammonia or uric acid as a waste product. The nephridium also plays an important role in maintaining water balance in freshwater and terrestrial species. Additional organs of excretion, at least in some species, include pericardial glands in the body cavity, and digestive glands opening into the stomach.

Sensory organs and nervous system

The upper pair of tentacles on the head of Helix pomatia have eyes, but the main sensory organs of the snail are sensory receptors for olfaction which are situated in the epithelium of the tentacles.

Sensory organs of gastropods include olfactory organs, eyes, statocysts and mechanoreceptors.[5] Gastropods have no hearing.[5]

In terrestrial gastropods (land snails and slugs), the olfactory organs, located on the tips of the 4 tentacles, are the most important sensory organ [5], The chemosensory organs of opisthobranch marine gastropods are called rhinophores.

In the majority of gastropods, eye spots are present, either at the tip of the tentacles or instead at the base of the tentacles. These "eyes" range from simple ocelli that cannot project an image and which can only distinguish light and dark, to more complex pit eyes and even lens eyes.[6] IN land snails and slugs, vision is not the most important sense, because they are mainly nocturnal animals.[5]

The nervous system of gastropods includes the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system. The central nervous system consist of ganglia connected by nerve cells. It includes paired ganglia: the cerebral ganglia, pedal ganglia, osphradial ganglia, pleural ganglia, parietal ganglia and the visceral ganglia. There are sometimes also buccal ganglia.[5]

Reproductive system

Courtship is a part of mating behavior in some gastropods including some of the Helicidae. Again, in some land snails, an unusual feature of the reproductive system of gastropods is the presence and utilization of love darts.

In many marine gastropods other than the opisthobranchs, there are separate sexes; most land gastropods however are hermaphrodites.

Life cycle

A 9-hour-old trochophore of Haliotis asinina
sf - shell field
mating behaviour of Elysia timida

The main aspects of the life cycle of gastropods include:

  • Egg laying and the eggs of gastropods
  • The Embryonic development of gastropods
  • The larvae or larval stadium: some gastropods may be trochophore and/or veliger
  • Estivation and hibernation (each of these are present in some gastropods only)
  • The growth of gastropods
  • Courtship of gastropods and mating of gastropods: fertilisation is internal or external according to the species. External fertilisation is common in marine gastropods.

Feeding behaviour

Marine gastropods include some that are herbivores, detritus feeders, predatory carnivores, scavengers, parasites, and also a few ciliary feeders, in which the radula is reduced or absent. In some species which have evolved into endoparasites, such as Parenteroxenos doglieli, many of the standard gastropod features are strongly reduced or absent.

A few sea slugs are herbivores and some are carnivores. Many have distinct dietary preferences and regularly occur in close association with their food species.

Some predatory carnivorous gastropods include, for example: Cone shells, Testacella, Daudebardia, Ghost slug and others.

Geological history

Fossil gastropod and attached mytilid bivalves on a Jurassic limestone bedding plane of the Matmor Formation in southern Israel.
Helix aspersa: a European pulmonate land snail which has been accidentally introduced in many countries throughout the world.

The first gastropods were exclusively marine, with the earliest representatives of the group appearing in the Late Cambrian (Chippewaella, Strepsodiscus). Early Cambrian forms like Helcionella and Scenella are no longer considered gastropods, and the tiny coiled Aldanella of earliest Cambrian time is probably not even a mollusk. By the Ordovician period the gastropods were a varied group present in a range of aquatic habitats. Commonly, fossil gastropods from the rocks of the early Palaeozoic era are too poorly preserved for accurate identification. Still, the Silurian genus Poleumita contains fifteen identified species. Fossil gastropods were less common during the Palaeozoic era than bivalves.

Most of the gastropods of the Palaeozoic era belong to primitive groups, a few of which still survive today. By the Carboniferous period many of the shapes we see in living gastropods can be matched in the fossil record, but despite these similarities in appearance the majority of these older forms are not directly related to living forms. It was during the Mesozoic era that the ancestors of many of the living gastropods evolved.

One of the earliest known terrestrial (land-dwelling) gastropods is Maturipupa which is found in the Coal Measures of the Carboniferous period in Europe, but relatives of the modern land snails are rare before the Cretaceous period, when the familiar Helix first appeared.

Cepaea nemoralis: another European pulmonate land snail which has been introduced to many other countries.

In rocks of the Mesozoic era gastropods are slightly more common as fossils, their shells are often well preserved. Their fossils occur in beds which were deposited in both freshwater and marine environments. The "Purbeck Marble" of the Jurassic period and the "Sussex Marble" of the early Cretaceous period which both occur in southern England are limestones containing the tightly packed remains of the pond snail Viviparus.

Rocks of the Cenozoic era yield very large numbers of gastropod fossils, many of these fossils being closely related to modern living forms. The diversity of the gastropods increased markedly at the beginning of this era, along with that of the bivalves.

Certain trail-like markings preserved in ancient sedimentary rocks are thought to have been made by gastropods crawling over the soft mud and sand. Although these trails are of debatable origin, some of them do resemble the trails made by living gastropods today.

Gastropod fossils may sometimes be confused with ammonites or other shelled cephalopods. An example of this is Bellerophon from the limestones of the Carboniferous period in Europe, the shell of which is planispirally coiled and can be mistaken for the shell of a cephalopod.

Gastropods are one of the groups that record the changes in fauna caused by the advance and retreat of the Ice Sheets during the Pleistocene epoch.


Turritella carinata from the Pliocene of Cyprus.

The taxonomy of the Gastropoda is under constant revision, and more and more of the old taxonomy is being abandoned as the results of DNA studies slowly become clearer. Nevertheless a few of the older terms such as "opisthobranch" and "prosobranch" are still sometimes used in a descriptive way.

The taxonomy of the Gastropoda as shown in various texts can differ in major ways, and on-going revisions of the higher taxonomic levels are to be expected in the near future.

In the older classification there were four subclasses[7]:

According to newer insights based on DNA sequencing, the taxonomy of the Gastropoda must be rewritten in terms of strictly monophyletic groups. Integrating these findings into a working taxonomy will continue to be a challenge in the coming years. At present, it is impossible to give a classification of the Gastropoda that has consistent ranks and also reflects current usage.

Convergent evolution, which appears to exist at especially high frequency within the class Gastropoda, may account for the observed differences between the phylogenies which are obtained from morphological data and the more recent studies based on gene sequences.

New changes in systematics have been made by Bouchet & Rocroi (2005)[3][8], resulting in a new taxonomy that is a step closer to the evolutionary history of the phylum.

This new classification system is based partly on the older systems of classification and partly on new cladistic research. In the past, the taxonomy of gastropods was largely based on phenetic morphological characters of the taxa. The recent advances are more based on molecular characters through research of DNA[9] and RNA. This has made the taxonomical ranks and their hierarchy controversial. The debate about these issues is not likely to end soon.

In this new taxonomy, Bouchet, Rocroi et al. have used unranked clades for taxa above the rank of superfamily (replacing the ranks suborder, order, superorder and subclass), while using the traditional Linnaean approach for all taxa below the rank of superfamily. Whenever monophyly has not been tested, or is known to be paraphyletic or polyphyletic, the term "group" or "informal group" has been used. The classification of families into subfamilies is often not well resolved, and should be regarded as the best possible hypothesis.

In 2004 Brian Simison and David R. Lindberg showed possible diphyletic origins of the Gastropoda based on mitochondrial gene order and amino acid sequence analyses of complete genes. [10]


  1. ^ 'Latest Early Cambrian', per Landing, E. (March 2002). "Latest Early Cambrian Small Shelly Fossils, Trilobites, and Hatch Hill Dysaerobic Interval on the Quebec Continental Slope". Journal of Paleontology 76 (2): 287–305. doi:10.1666/0022-3360(2002)076<0287:LECSSF>2.0.CO;2.   edit
  2. ^ Brittanica online: abundance of the Gastropoda
  3. ^ a b c Bouchet P. & Rocroi J.-P. (Ed.); Frýda J., Hausdorf B., Ponder W., Valdes A. & Warén A. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia: International Journal of Malacology, 47(1-2). ConchBooks: Hackenheim, Germany. ISBN 3-925919-72-4. 397 pp.
  4. ^ Louise R. Page (2006). "Modern insights on gastropod development: Reevaluation of the evolution of a novel body plan". Integrative and Comparative Biology 46 (2): 134–143. doi:10.1093/icb/icj018.  
  5. ^ a b c d e Chase R.: Sensory Organs and the Nervous System. in Barker G. M. (ed.): The biology of terrestrial molluscs. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK, 2001, ISBN 0-85199-318-4. 1-146, cited pages: 179-211.
  6. ^ Götting, Klaus-Jürgen (1994). "Schnecken". in Becker, U., Ganter, S., Just, C. & Sauermost, R.. Lexikon der Biologie. Heidelberg: Spektrum Akademischer Verlag. ISBN 3-86025-156-2.  
  7. ^ Paul Jeffery. Suprageneric classification of class Gastropoda. The Natural History Museum, London, 2001.
  8. ^ Poppe G.T. & Tagaro S.P. 2006. The new classification of Gastropods according to Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005. Visaya, février 2006: 10 pp.
  9. ^ Elpidio A. Remigio and Paul D.N. Hebert (2003). "Testing the utility of partial COI sequences for phylogenetic (full text on line)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 29 (3): 641–647. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00140-4. PMID 14615199.  
  10. ^ - Unitas malacologica, Newsletter number 21 december 2004 - a .pdf file
  • Chapman, A.D. (2009). Numbers of Living Species in Australia and the World, 2nd edition. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Accessed 12 January 2010. ISBN 978 0 642 56860 1 (printed); ISBN 978 0 642 56861 8 (online).
  • Shelagh M. Smith - Key to the British Marine Gastropoda, Contains 44 pages plus line drawings about A4 in size. Published by the Royal Scottish Museum in their Information Series (UK) in 1974 with no ISBN.

External links

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

GASTROPODA, the second of the five classes of animals constituting the phylum Mollusca. For a discussion of the relationship of the Gastropoda to the remaining classes of the phylum, see MoLLUSCA.

The Gastropoda are mainly characterized by a loss of symmetry, produced by torsion of the visceral sac. This torsion may be resolved into two successive movements. The first is a ventral flexure in the antero-posterior or sagittal plane; the result of this is to approximate the two ends of the alimentary canal. In development, the openings of the mantle-cavity and the anus are always originally posterior; later they are brought forward ventrally. During this first. movement flexure is also produced by the coiling of the visceral sac and shell; primitively the latter was bowl-shaped; but the ventral flexure, which brings together the two extremities of the digestive tube, gives the visceral sac the outline of a more or less acute cone. The shell necessarily takes this form also, and then becomes coiled in a dorsal or anterior plane - that is to say, it becomes exogastric. This condition may be seen in embryonic Patellidae, Fissurellidae and Trochidae (fig. 1, A), and agrees with the method of coiling of a mollusc without lateral torsion, such as Nautilus. But ultimately the coil becomes ventral or endogastric, in consequence of the second torsion movement then apparent.

A. B. C.

From Lankester's Treatise on Zoology. FIG. I. - Three stages in the development of Trochus, during the process of torsion. (After Robert.) A, Nearly symmetrical larva f, Foot.

(veliger). op, Operculum.

B, A stage '1 hours later than A. pac, Pallial cavity.

C, A stage 3 2 hours later than B. ve, Velum.

The shell is represented as fixed, while the head and foot rotate from left to right. In reality the head and foot are fixed and the shell rotates from right to left.

The second movement is a lateral torsion of the visceral mass, the foot remaining a fixed point; this torsion occurs in a plane approximately at right angles to that of the first movement, and carries the pallial aperture and the anus from behind forwards. If, at this moment, the animal were placed with mouth and ventral surface turned towards the observer, this torsion carries the circumanal complex in a clockwise direction (along the right side in dextral forms) through 180° as compared with its primitive condition. The (primitively) right-hand organs of the complex thus become lefthand, and vice versa. The visceral commissure, while still surrounding the digestive tract, becomes looped; its right half, with its proper ganglion, passes to the left side over the dorsal face of the alimentary canal (whence the name supra-intestinal), while the left half passes below towards the right side, thus originating the name infra-intestinal given to this half and to its ganglion. Next, the shell, the coil of which was at first exogastric, being also included in this rotation through 180°, exhibits an endogastric coiling (fig. 1, B, C). This, however, is not generally retained in one plane, and the spire projects, little by little, on the side which was originally left, but finally becomes right (in dextral forms, with a clockwise direction, if viewed from the side of the spire; but counter-clockwise in sinistral forms). Finally, the original symmetry of the circumanal complex vanishes; the anus leaves the centre of the pallial cavity and passes towards the right side (left side in sinistral forms); the organs of this side become atrophied and disappear. The essential feature of the asymmetry of Gastropoda is the atrophy or disappearance of the primitively left half of the circumanal complex (the right half in sinistral forms), including the gill, the auricle, the osphradium, the hypobranchial gland and the kidney.

In dextral Gastropods the only structure found on the topographically right side of the rectum is the genital duct. But this is not part of the primitive complex. It is absent in the most primitive and symmetrical forms, such as Haliotis and Pleurotomaria. Originally the gonads opened into the kidneys. In the most primitive existing Gastropods the gonad opens into the right kidney (Patellidae, Trochidae, Fissurellidae). The gonaduct, therefore, is derived from the topographically right kidney. The transformation has been actually shown to take place in the development of Paludina. In a dextral Gastropod the shell is coiled in a right-handed spiral from apex to mouth, and the spiral also projects to the right of the median plane of the animal.

When the shell is sinistral the asymmetry of the organs is usually reversed, and there is a complete situs inversus viscerum, the direction of the spiral of the shell corresponding to the position of the organs of the body. Triforis, Physa, Clausilia are examples of sinistral Gastropods, but reversal also occurs as an individual variation among forms normally dextral. But there are forms in which the involution is " hyperstrophic," that is to say, the turns of the spire projecting but slightly, the spire, after flattening out gradually, finally becomes re-entrant and transformed into a false umbilicus; at the same time that part which corresponds to the umbilicus of forms with a normal coil projects and constitutes a false spire; the coil thus appears to be sinistral, although the asymmetry remains dextral, and the coil of the operculum (always the opposite to that of the shell) sinistral (e.g. Lanistes among Streptoneura, Limacinidae among Opisthobranchia). The same, mutatis mutandis, may occur in sinistral shells.

The problem of the causes of the torsion of the Gastropod body has been much discussed. E. R. Lankester in the ninth edition of this work attributed it to the pressure of the shell and visceral hump towards the right side. He referred also to the nautiloid shell of the larva falling to one side. But these are two distinct processes. In the larva a nautiloid shell is developed which is coiled exogastrically, that is, dorsally, and the pallial cavity is posterior or ventral (fig. 2, C): the larva therefore resembles Nautilus in the relations of body and shell. The shell then rotates towards the left side through 180°, so that it becomes ventral or endogastric (fig. 2, D). The pallial cavity, with its organs, is by this torsion moved up the right side of the larva to the dorsal surface, and thus the left organs become right and vice versa. In the subsequent growth of ergc- pl.y- i ln b a. 9 'Ci ' a n' .B FIG. 3. - Sketch of a model designed so as to show the effect of torsion or rotation of the visceral hump in Streptoneurous Gastropoda.

A, Unrotated ancestral condithe sub-intestinal) visceral tion. ganglion.

B, Quarter-rotation.

C, Complete semi-rotation (the limit). pig, Pleural ganglion. cerg, Cerebral ganglion. pedg, Pedal ganglion.

abg, Abdominal ganglion. an, Anus.

bucc, Buccal mass.

ln, rn, Primarily left nephridium W, Wooden arc representing and primarily right nephthe base-line of the wall ridium.

of the visceral hump.

lvg, Primarily left (subsequently x, x', Pins fastening the elastic the sub-intestinal) visceral cord (representing the vis ganglion. ceral nerve loop) to W. rvg, Primarily right(subsequently the shell the spire comes to project on the right side, which was originally the left. Neither the rotation of the shell as a whole nor its helicoid spiral coiling is the immediate cause of the torsion of the body in the individual, for the direction of the torsion is indicated in the segmentation of the ovum, in which there is a complete A B From Lankester's Treatise on Zoology. FIG. 2. - Four stages in the development of a Gastropod showing the process of body torsion. (After Robert.) A, Embryo without flexure.

B, Embryo with ventral flexure of the intestine.

C, Embryo with ventral flexure and exogastric shell.

D, Embryo with lateral torsion and an endogastric shell.

a, Anus.


m, Mouth.

pa, Mantle.

pac, Pallial cavity.

y e, Velum.


burr.- p T 9 pl.y ped.g: reversal of the cleavage planes in sinistral as compared with dextral forms. The facts, however, strongly suggest that the original cause of the torsion was the weight of the exogastric shell and visceral hump, which in an animal creeping on its ventral surface necessarily fell over to one side. It is not certain that the projection of the spire to the originally left side of the shell has anything to do with the falling over of the shell to that side. The facts do not support such a suggestion. In the larva there is no projection at the time the torsion takes place. In some forms the coiling disappears in the adult, leaving the shell simply conical as in Patellidae, Fissurellidae, &c., and in some cases the shell is coiled in one plane, e.g. Planorbis. In all these cases the torsion and asymmetry of the body are unaffected.

The characteristic torsion attains its maximum effect among the majority of the Streptoneura. It is followed in some specialized Heteropoda and in the Euthyneura by a torsion in the opposite direction, or detorsion, which brings the anus farther back and untwists the visceral commissure (see Euthyneura, below). This conclusion has shown that the Euthyneura do not represent an archaic form of Gastropoda, but are themselves derived from streptoneurous forms. The difference between the two sub-classes has been shown to be slight; certain of the more archaic Tectibranchia (Actaeon) and Pulmonata (Chilina) still have the visceral commissure long and not untwisted. The fact that all the Euthyneura are hermaphrodite is not a fundamental difference; several Streptoneura are so, likewise Valvata, Oncidiopsis, Marsenina, Odostomia, Bathysciadium, Entoconcha). Classification. - The class Gastropoda is subdivided as follows: Sub-class I. Streptoneura.

Order 1. Aspidobranchia.

Sub-order 1. Docoglossa.

„ 2. Rhipidoglossa.

Order 2. Pectinibranchia.

Sub-order 1. Taenioglossa.

Tribe 1. Platypoda.

„ 2. Heteropoda.

Sub-order 2. Stenoglossa.

Tribe 1. Rachiglossa.

„ 2. Toxiglossa.

Sub-class II. Euthyneura.

Order 1. Opisthobranchia.

Sub-order 1. Tectibranchia.

Tribe 1. Bullomorpha.

„ 2. Aplysiomorpha.

„ 3. Pleurobranchomorpha. Sub-order 2. Nudibranchia.

Tribe 1. Tritoniomorpha.

„ 2. Doridomorpha.

„ 3. Eolidomorpha.

„ 4. Elysiomorpha. Order 2. Pulmonata.

Sub-order I. Basommatophora.

„ 2. Stylommatophora. Tribe I. Holognatha.

„ 2. Agnatha.

„ 3. Elasmognatha. „ 4. Ditremata.

Sub-Class I. - Streptoneura In this division the torsion of the visceral mass and visceral commissure is at its maximum, the latter being twisted into a figure of eight. The right half of the commissure with its ganglion is supra-intestinal, the left half with its ganglion infra-intestinal. In some cases each pleural ganglion is connected with the opposite branch of the visceral commissure by anastomosis with the pallial nerve, a condition which is called dialyneury; or there may be a direct connective from the pleural ganglion to the visceral ganglion of the opposite side, which is called zygoneury. The head bears only one pair of tentacles. The radular teeth are of several different kinds in each transverse row. The heart is usually posterior to the branchia (proso-branchiate). The sexes are usually separate.

The old division into Zygobranchia and Azygobranchia must be abandoned, for the Azygobranchiate Rhipidoglossa have much greater affinity to the Zygobranchiate Haliotidae and Fissurellidae than to the Azygobranchia in general. This is shown by the labial commissure and pedal cords of the nervous system, by the opening of the gonad into the right kidney, and by other points. Further, the Pleurotomariidae have been discovered to possess two branchiae. The sub-class is now divided into two orders: the Aspidobranchia in which the branchia or ctenidium is bipectinate and attached only at its base, and the Pectinibranchia in which the ctenidium is monopectinate and attached to the mantle throughout its length.

Order 1. Aspidobranchia. - These are the most primitive Gastropods, retaining to a great degree the original symmetry of the FIG. 4. - The Common Limpet (Patella vulgata) in its shell, seen from the pedal surface. (Lankester.) x, y, The median antero-posterior axis.

a, Cephalic tentacle.

b, Plantar surface of the foot.

c, Free edge of the shell.

d, The branchial efferent vessel carrying aerated blood to the auricle, and here interrupting the circlet of gill lamellae.

e, Margin of the mantle-skirt.

f, Gill lamellae (not ctenidia, but organs of the pallial complex, having two kidneys, in some cases two branchiae, and two auricles. The gonad has no accessory organs and except in Neri- tidae no duct, but discharges into the right kidney.

Forms adapted to terrestrial life and to aerial respiration occur in various divisions of Gastropods, and do not constitute a single homogeneous group. Thus the Helicinidae, which are terrestrial, are now placed among the Aspidobranchia. In these there are neither branchia nor osphradium, and the pallial chamber which retains its large open ing serves as a lung. De- nt generation of the shell occurs in some members of the order. It is largely covered by the mantle in some Fissurellidae, is entirely internal in Pupilia and absent in Titiscaniidae. The common limpet is a specially interesting and abundant example of the more primitive Aspidobranchia. The foot of the limpet is a nearly circular disk of muscular tissue; in front, projecting from and raised above it, are the head and neck (figs. 4, 13). The visceral hump forms a low conical dome above the subcircular foot, and standing out all round the base of this dome so as completely to overlap the head and foot, is the circular mantle-skirt. The depth of free mantle skirt is greatest in front, where the head and neck are covered in by it. Upon the surface of the visceral dome, and extending special pallial growths, comparable with those of Pleurophyllidia).

g, The branchial efferent vessel.

h, Factor of the branchial advehent vessel.

i, Interspaces between the muscular bundles of the root of the foot, causing the separate areae seen in fig. 5, c. ecr k FIG. 5. - Dorsal surface of the Limpet removed from its shell and deprived of its black pigmented epithelium; the internal organs are seen through the transparent body-wall. (Lankester.) c, Muscular bundles forming the root of the foot, and adherent to the shell.

Free mantle-skirt. [same. Tentaculiferous margin of the Smaller (left) nephridium. Larger (right) nephridium.

Pericardium. [cardium. Fibrous septum, behind the periLiver.


Anterior area of the mantle-skirt over-hanging the head (cephalic hood).


e, em, k, lx, n, int, ecr, to the edge of the free mantle-skirt, is the conical shell. When the shell is taken away (best effected by immersion in hot water) the surface of the visceral dome is found to be covered by a black-coloured epithelium, which may be removed, enabling the observer to note the posi. tion of some organs lying below the transparent integument (fig. 5). The muscular columns (c) attaching the foot to the shell form a ring incomplete in front, external to which is the free mantleskirt. The limits of the large area formed by the flap over the head and neck (ecr) can be traced, and we note the anal i - papilla showing through FIG. 6. - Anterior portion of the same and opening on the right Limpet, with the overhanging cephalic shoulder, so to speak, of hood removed. (Lankester.) the animal into the large anterior region of the sub-pallial space. Close to this the small renal organ (i, mediad) and the larger renal organ (k, to the right and posteriorly) are seen, also the pericardium (1) and a coil of the intestine (int) embedded in the compact liver.

On cutting away the anterior part of the mantle-skirt so as to expose the sub-pallial chamber in the region of the neck, we find the right and left renal papillae (discovered by Lankester in 1867) on either side of the anal papilla (fig. 6), but no gills. If a similar examination be made of the allied genus Fissurella (fig. 17, d), we find right and left of the two renal apertures a right and left gillplume or ctenidium, which here as in Haliotis and Pleurotornaria retain their original paired condition. In Patella no such plumes exist, but right and left of the neck are seen a pair of minute oblong yellow bodies (fig. 6, d), which were originally described by Lankester as orifices possibly connected with the evacuation of the generative products. On account of their position they were termed by him the " capito-pedal orifices," being placed near the junction of head and foot. J. W. Spengel has, however, in a most ingenious way shown that these bodies are the representatives of the typical pair of ctenidia, here reduced to a mere rudiment. Near to each rudimentary ctenidium Spengel has discovered an olfactory patch or osphradium (consisting of modified epithelium) and an olfactory nerve-ganglion (fig. 8). It will be remembered that, according to Spengel, the osphradium of mollusca is definitely and intimately related to the gill-plume or ctenidium, being always placed near the base of that organ; further, Spengel has shown that the nerve-supply of this olfactory organ is always derived from the visceral loop. Accord ingly, the nerve-supply FIG. 7. - The same specimen viewed from the left front, so as to show the subanal tract (ff) of the larger nephridium, by which it communicates with the pericardium. o, Mouth; other letters as in a totally distinct series of functional gills, which are not derived from the modification of the typical molluscan ctenidium. These gills are in the form of delicate lamellae (fig. 4, f), which form a series extending completely round the inner face of the depending mantle FIG. 8. - A, Section in a plane vertical to the surface of the neck of Patella through a, the rudimentary ctenidium (Lankester's organ), and b, the olfactory epithelium (osphradium); c, the olfactory (osphradial) ganglion. (After Spengel.) B, Surface view of a rudimentary ctenidium of Patella excised and viewed as a transparent object. (Lankester.) skirt. This circlet of gill-lamellae led Cuvier to class the limpets as Cyclobranchiata, and, by erroneous identification of them with the series of metamerically repeated ctenidia of Chiton, to associate the latter mollusc with the former. The gill-lamellae of Patella are processes of the mantle comparable with the plait-like folds often observed on the roof of the branchial chamber in other Gastropoda (e.g. Buccinusn and Haliotis). They are termed pallial gills. The only other molluscs in which they are exactly represented are the curious Opisthobranchs Phyllidia and Pleurophyllidia (fig. 55). In these, as in Patella, the typical ctenidia are aborted, and the branchial function is assumed by close-set lamelliform processes arranged in a series beneath the mantle-skirt on either side of the foot. In fig. 4, d, the large branchial vein of Patella bringing blood from the gill-series to the heart is seen; where it crosses the series of lamellae there is a short interval devoid of lamellae.

The heart in Patella consists of a single auricle (not two as in Haliotis and Fissurella) and a ventricle; the former receives the blood from the branchial vein, the latter distributes it through a large aorta which soon leads into irregular blood-lacunae.

The existence of two renal organs in Patella, and their relation to the pericardium (a portion of the coelom), is important. Each renal organ is a sac lined with glandular epithelium (ciliated cell, with concretions) communicating with the exterior by its papilla, and by ce, Cerebral ganglia.

a narrow passage with the pericardium. c'e, Cerebral commissure. The connexion with the pericardium of pl, Pleural ganglion. the smaller of the two renal organs was pe, Pedal ganglion. demonstrated by Lankester in 1867, at a pie, Pedal nerve. time when the fact that the renal organ s,s', Nerves (right and of the Mollusca, as a rule, opens into the left) to the mantle. pericardium, and is therefore a typical o, Olfactory ganglion, nephridium, was not known. Subsequent connected by nerve investigations carried on under the directo the streptoneur tion of the same naturalist have shown ous visceral loop. that the larger as well as the smaller renal sac is in communication with the pericardium. The walls of the renal sacs are deeply plaited and thrown into ridges. Below the surface these walls are excavated with blood-vessels, so that the sac is practically a series of blood-vessels covered with renal epithelium, and forming 6 Cephalic tentacle.


Muscular substance forming the root of the foot.

The capito-pedal organs of Lankester (= rudimentary ctenidia). Mantle-skirt.

Papilla of the larger nephridium. Anus.

Papilla of the smaller nephridium. Smaller nephridium.

Larger nephridium.


Cut edge of the mantle-skirt.



k, 1, p, J affords a means of test ing the conclusion that we have in Lankester's 4 capito-pedal bodies the rudimentary ctenidia.

The accompanying dia grams (figs. 9, 10) of _ the nervous systems of ` Patella and of Haliotis, e as determined by Spengel, show the identity in the origin of the nerves passing from the visceral loop to Spengel's olfactory ganglion of the fig.. Limpet, and that of the g ' nerves which pass from the visceral loop of Haliotis to the olfactory patch or osphradium, which lies in immediate relation on the right and on the left side to the right and left gill-plumes (ctenidia) respectively. The same diagrams serve to demonstrate the streptoneurous condition of the visceral loop in Aspidobranchia.


Thus, then, we find that the limpet possesses a symmetrically disposed pair of ctenidia in a rudimentary condition, and justifies its position among Aspidobranchia. At the same time it possesses h. FIG. 9. - Nervous system of Patella; the visceral loop is lightly shaded; the buccal ganglia are omitted. (After Spengel.) a meshwork within a space communicating with the exterior. The larger renal sac (remarkably enough, that which is aborted in other FIG. 10. - Nervous system of Haliotis; the visceral loop is lightly shaded; the buccal ganglia are omitted. (After Spengel.) ce, Cerebral ganglion. s, s', Right and left mantle pi. pe, The fused pleural and pedal nerves. [of same.

ganglia. ab, Abdominal ganglion or site pe, The right pedal nerve. o, o, Right and left olfactory, The cerebro-pleural conganglia and osphradia re nective. [tive. ceiving nerve from vis, The cerebro-pedal connecceral loop.

Anisopleura) extends between the liver and the integument of the visceral dome very widely. It also bends round the liver as shown FIG. I I. - Nervous system of after Jhering.) Fissurella. (From Gegenbaur, pi, Pallial nerve.

p, Pedal nerve.

A, Abdominal ganglia in the streptoneurousvisceral commissure, with supraand sub-intestine ganglion on each side.

B, Buccal ganglia.

C, C, Cerebral ganglia.

es, Cerebral commissure.

o, Otocysts attached to the cerebro-pedal connectives.

ks4 ks:L FIG. 12. - Diagram of the two renal organs (nephridia), to show their relation to the rectum and to the pericardium. (Lankester.) f, Papilla of the larger nephridium.

g, Anal papilla with rectum leading from it.

h, Papilla of the smaller nephridium, which is only represented by dotted outlines. Pericardium indicated by a dotted outline - at its right side are seen the two renopericardial pores.

i, The sub-anal tract of the large nephridium given off near its papilla and seen through the unshaded smaller nephridium.

ks.a, Anterior superior lobe of the large nephridium.

ks.l, Left lobe of same.

ks.p, Posterior lobe of same. ks.i, Inferior sub-visceral lobe of same.

1, in fig. 12, and forms a large sac on half of the upper surface of the muscular mass of the foot. Here it lies close upon the genital body (ovary or testis), and in such intimate relationship with it that, when ripe, the gonad bursts into the renal sac, and its products are carried to the exterior by the papilla on the right side of the anus is FIG. 13. - Diagram of a vertical of a Limpet. Letters as in figs. (Lankester.) q, Intestine in transverse section.

r, Lingual sac (radular sac). rd, Radula.

s, Lamellated stomach.

t, Salivary gland.

u, Duct of same.

v, Buccal cavity w, Gonad.

(Robin, Dall). This fact led Cuvier erroneously to the belief that a duct existed leading from the gonad to this papilla. The position of the gonad, best seen in the diagrammatic section (fig. 13), is, as in other Aspidobranchia, devoid of a special duct communicating with the exterior. This condition, probably an archaic one, distinguishes the Aspidobranchia from other Gastropoda.

The digestive tract of Patella offers some interesting features. The odontophore is powerfully developed; the radular sac is extraordinarily long, lying coiled in a space between the mass of the liver and the muscular foot. The radula has 160 rows of teeth with twelve teeth in each row. Two pairs of salivary ducts, each leading from a salivary gland, open into the buccal chamber. The oesophagus leads into a remarkable stomach, plaited like the manyplies of a sheep, and after this the intestine takes a very large number of turns embedded in the yellow liver, until at last it passes between the two renal sacs to the anal papilla. A curious ridge (spiral ? valve) FIG. 14. - Vertical section in a plane running right and left through the anterior part of the visceral hump of Patella to show the two renal organs and their openings into the pericardium. (J. T. Cunningham.) Manyplies.

Epithelium of the dorsal surface.

h, Renal epithelium lining the renal sacs.

i, Aperture connecting the small sac with the pericardium.

k, Aperture connecting the large sac with the pericardium.

which secretes a slimy cord is found upon the inner wall of the intestine. The general structure of the Molluscan intestine has not been sufficiently investigated to render any comparison of this structure of Patella with that of other Mollusca possible. The eyes of the limpet deserve mention as examples of the most primitive kind of eye in the Molluscan series. They are found one on each cephalic tentacle, and are simply minute open pits or depressions of the epidermis, the epidermic cells lining them being pigmented and connected with nerves (compare fig. 14, art. Cephalopoda).

k antero-postero median section 6, 7, with following additions.

br.a, Branchial advehent vessel (artery).

br.v, Branchial efferent vessel (vein).

be, Blood-vessel.

odm, Muscles and cartilage of the odontophore.

cor, Heart within the pericardium.

Large or external or right renal organ.

Narrow process of the same running below the intestine and leading by k into the pericardium.

Small or median renal organ. Pericardium.





ab, g, The limpet breeds upon the southern English coast in the early part of April, but its development has not been followed. It has simply been traced as far as the formation of a diblastula which acquires a ciliated band, and becomes a nearly spherical trochosphere. It is probable that the limpet takes several years to attain full growth, and during that period it frequents the same spot, which becomes gradually sunk below the surrounding surface, especially if the rock be carbonate of lime. At low tide the limpet (being a strictly intertidal organism) is exposed to the air, and (according to trustworthy observers) quits its attachment and walks away in search of food (minute encrusting algae), and then once more returns to the identical spot, not an inch in diameter, which belongs, as it were, to it. Several million limpets-twelve million in Berwickshire alone-are annually used on the east coast of Britain as bait.

Sub-order I. Docoglossa.-Nervous system without dialyneury. Eyes are open invaginations without crystalline lens. Two osphradia present but no hypobranchial glands nor operculum. Teeth of radula beam-like, and at most three marginal teeth on each side. Heart has only a single auricle, neither heart nor pericardium traversed by rectum. Shell conical without spire.

Fam. 1.-Acmaeidae. A single bipectinate ctenidium on left side. Acmaea, without pallial branchiae, British. Scurria, with pallial branchiae in a circle beneath the mantle.

Fam. 2.-Tryblidiidae. Muscle scar divided into numerous impressions. Tryblidium, Silurian.

Fam. 3.-Patellidae. No ctenidia but pallial branchiae in a circle between mantle and foot. Patella, pallial branchiae forming a complete circle, no epipodial tentacles, British. Ancistromesus, radula with median central tooth. Nacella, epipodial tentacles present. Helcion, circlet of branchiae interrupted anteriorly, British.

Fam. 4.-Lepetidae. Neither ctenidia nor pallial branchiae. Lepeta, without eyes. Pilidium. Propilidium. Fam. 5.-Bathysciadidae. Hermaphrodite; head with appendage on right side; radula without central tooth. Bathysciadium, abyssal.

Sub-order 2. RHIPIDOGL0ssA.-Aspidobranchia with a palliovisceral anastomosis (dialyneurous); eye-vesicle closed, with crystalline lens; ctenidia, osphradia and hypobranchial glands paired or single. Radula with ver y numerous marginal teeth arranged like the rays of a fan. Heart with two auricles; ventricle traversed by the rectum, except in the Helicinidae. An epipodial ridge on each side of the foot and cephalic expansions between the tentacles often present.

Fam. 1.-Pleurotomariidae. Shell spiral; mantle and shell with an anterior fissure; two ctenidia; a horny operculum. Pleurotomaria, epipodium without tentacles. Genus includes several hundred extinct species ranging from the Silurian to the Tertiary. Five living species from the Antilles, Japan and the Moluccas. Moluccan species is 19 cm. in height.

Fam. 2.-Bellerophontidae. 300 species, all fossil, from Cambrian to Trias.

Fam. 3.-Euomphalidae. Also extinct, from Cambrian to Cretaceous.

Fam. 4.-Haliotidae. Spire of shell much reduced; two bipectinate ctenidia, the right being the smaller; no operculum. Haliotis. Fam. 5.-Velainiellidae, an extinct family from the Eocene.

FIG. 15.-Halio tistubercutata. d, Foot; i, tentacular processes of the mantle. (From Owen, after Cuvier.) Fam. 6.-Fissurellidae. Shell conical; slit or hole in anterior part of mantle; two symmetrical ctenidia; no operculum. Emarginula, mantle and shell with a slit, British. Scutum, mantle split anteriorly and reflected over shell, which has no slit. Puncturella, mantle and shell with a foramen in front of the apex, British. Fissurella, mantle and shell perforated at apex, British.

Fam. 7.-Cocculinidae. Shell conical, symmetrical, without slit or perforation. Cocculina, abyssal.

Fam. 8.-Trochidae. Shell spirally coiled; a single ctenidium; eyes perforated; a horny operculum; lobes between the tentacles. Trochus, shell umbilicated, spire pointed and prominent, British. Monodonta, no jaws, spire not prominent, no umbilicus, columella toothed. Gibbula, with jaws, three pairs of epipodial cirri without pigment spots at their bases, British. Margarita, five to seven pairs of epipodial cirri with a pigment spot at base of each.

Fam. 9.-Stomatellidae. Spire of shell much reduced; a single ctenidium. Stomatella, foot truncated posteriorly, an oper culum present, no epipodial tentacles. Gena, foot elongated posteriorly, no operculum.

Fam. Io.-Delphinulidae. Shell spirally coiled; operculum horny; intertentacular lobes absent. Delphinula. Fam. I I.-Liotiidae, shell globular, margin of aperture thickened. Liotia. Fam. 12.-Cyclostrematidae. Shell flattened, umbilicated; foot anteriorly truncated with angles produced into lobes. Cyclostrema. Teinostoma. Fam. 13.-Trochonematidae. All extinct, Cambrian to Cretaceous. Fam. 14.-Turbinidae. Shell spirally coiled; epipodial tentacles present; operculum thick and calcareous. Turbo. Astralium. Molleria. Cyclonema. Fam. 15.-Phasianellidae. Shell not nacreous, without umbilicus, with prominent spire and polished surface. Phasianella. Fam. 16.-Umboniidae. Shell flattened, not umbilicated, generally smooth; operculum horny. Umbonium. Isanda. Fam. 1 7.-Neritopsidae. Shell semi-globular, with short spire; operculum calcareous, not spiral. Neritopsis. Naticopsis, extinct.

Fam. 18.-Macluritidae. Extinct, Cambrian and Silurian.

Fam. 19.-Neritidae. Shell with very low spire, without umbilicus, internal partitions frequently absorbed; a single ctenidium; a cephalic penis present. Nerita, marine. Neritina, freshwater, British. Septaria, shell boat-shaped.

Fam. 20.-Titiscaniidae. Without shell and operculum, but with pallial cavity and ctenidium. Titiscania, Pacific.

Fam. 21.-Helicinidae. No ctenidium, but a pulmonary cavity; heart with a single auricle, not traversed by the rectum. Helicina. Eutrochatella. Stoastoma. Bourceria. Fam. 22.-Hydrocenidae. No ctenidium, but a pulmonary cavity; operculum with an npophysis. Hydrocena, Dalmatia. Fam. 23.-Proserpinidae. No operculum. Proserpina, Central America.

Order 2. Pectinibranchia.-In this order there is no longer any trace of bilateral symmetry in the circulatory, respiratory and excretory organs, the topographically right half of the pallial complex having completely disappeared, except the right kidney, which is FIG. 16. - Scutum, seen from the pedal surface. (Lankester.) o, Mouth.

T, Cephalic tentacle. br, One of the two symmetrical gills placed on the neck.

b FIG. 17.-Dorsal aspect of a specimen of Fissurella from which the shell has been removed, whilst the anterior area of the mantle-skirt has been longitudinally slit and its sides reflected. (Lankester.) a, Cephalic tentacle.

b, Foot. [plume.

d, Left (archaic right) gill e, Reflected mantle-flap. fi, The fissure or hole in the mantle-flap traversed by the longitudinal incision. J Right (archaic left) nephri dium's aperture.

g, Anus.

h, Left (archaic right) aperture of nephridium.

p, Snout.


represented by the genital duct. There is usually a penis in the male. (movement. The " introvert " in these Gastropods is not the pharynx The ctenidium is monopectinate and attached to the mantle along as in the Chaetopod worms, but a prae-oral structure, its apical limit being formed by the true lips and jaws, whilst the apical limit of the Chaetopod's introvert is formed by the jaws placed at the junction of pharynx and oesophagus, so that the Chaetopod's introvert is part of the stomodaeum or fore-gut, whilst that of the Gastropod is external to the alimentary canal altogether, being in front of the mouth, not behind it, as is the Chaetopod's. Further, the Gastropod's introvert is pleurembolic (and therefore acrecbolic), and is limited both in eversion and in introversion; it cannot be completely everted owing to the muscular bands (fig. 19, G), nor can it be fully introverted owing to the bands (fig. 19, F) which tie the axial pharynx to the adjacent wall of the apical part of the introvert. As in all such introand e-versible organs, eversion of the Gastropod proboscis is effected by pressure communicated by the muscular body-wall to the liquid contents (blood) of the body-space, accompanied by the relaxation of the muscles which directly pull upon either the sides or the apex of the tubular organ. The inversion of the proboscis is effected directly by the contraction of these a, Siphon. d, The foot, expanded as in crawling. muscles. In various members of the Pectini b, Head-tentacles. h, The mantle-skirt reflected over the sides branchia the mouth-bearing cylinder is in C, Head, the letter placed near the right eye. of the shell. troversible (i.e. is a proboscis) - with rare exceptions these forms have a siphonate its whole length, except in Adeorbis and Valvata; in the latter alone it is bipectinate. There is a single well-developed, often pectinated osphradium. The eye is always a closed vesicle, and the internal cornea is extensive. In the radula there is a single central tooth or none.

The former classification into Holochlamyda, Pneumochlamyda and Siphonochlamyda has been abandoned, as it was founded on adaptive characters not always indicative of true affinities. The order is now divided into two sub-orders: the Taenioglossa, in which there are three teeth on each side of the median tooth of the radula, and the Stenoglossa, in which there is only one tooth on each side of the median tooth. In the latter a pallial siphon, a welldeveloped proboscis and an unpaired oesophageal gland are always present, in the former they are usually absent. The siphon is an incompletely tubular outgrowth of the mantle margin on the left side, contained in a corresponding outgrowth of the edge of the shell-mouth, and serving to conduct water to the respiratory cavity.

The condition usually spoken of as a " proboscis " appears to be derived from the condition of a simple rostrum (having the mouth at its extremity) by the process of incomplete introversion of that simple rostrum. There is no reason in the actual significance of the word why the term " proboscis " should be applied to an alternately introversible and eversible tube connected with an animal's body, and yet such is a very customary use of the term. The introversible tube may be completely closed, as in the " proboscis " of Nemertine worms, or it may have a passage in it leading into a non-eversible oesophagus, as in the present case, and in the case of the eversible pharynx of the predatory Chaetopod worms. The diagrams here introduced (fig. 19) are intended to show certain important distinctions which obtain amongst the various " introverts," or intro-and e-versible tubes so frequently met with in animal bodies. Supposing the tube to be completely introverted and to commence its eversion, we then find that eversion may take place, either by a forward movement of the side of the tube near its attached base, as in the proboscis of the Nemertine worms, the pharynx of Chaetopods and the eye-tentacle of Gastropods, or by a forward movement of the inverted apex of the tube, as in the proboscis of the Rhabdocoel Planarians, and in that of Gastropods here under consideration. The former case we call "pleurecbolic " (fig. 19, A, B, C, H, I, K), the latter "acrecbolic " tubes or introverts (fig. 19, D, E, F, G). It is clear that, if we start from the condition of full eversion of the tube and watch the process of introversion, we shall find that the pleurecbolic variety is introverted by the apex of the tube sinking inwards; it may be called acrembolic, whilst conversely the acrecbolic tubes are pleurembolic. Further, it is obvious enough that the process either of introversion or of eversion of the tube may be arrested at any point, by the development of fibres connecting the wall of the introverted tube with the wall of the body, or with an axial structure such as the oesophagus; on the other hand, the range of movement of the tubular introvert may be unlimited or complete. The acrembolic proboscis or frontal introvert of the Nemertine worms has a complete range. So has the acrembolic pharynx of Chaetopods, if we consider the organ as terminating at that point where the jaws are placed and the oesophagus commences. So too the acrembolic eye-tentacle of the snail has a complete range of movement, and also the pleurembolic proboscis of the Rhabdocoel prostoma. The introverted rostrum of the Pectinibranch Gastropods presents in contrast to these a limited range of FIG. 19. - Diagrams explanatory of the nature of so-called proboscides or " introverts." (Lankester.) A, Simple introvert completely introverted.

B, The same, partially everted by eversion of the sides, as in the Nemertine proboscis and Gastropod eye-tentacle = pleurecbolic.

C, The same, fully everted.

D, E, A similar simple introvert in course of eversion by the forward movement, not of its sides, but of its apex, as in the proboscidean Rhabdocoels =acrecbolic.

F, Acrecbolic (= pleurembolic) introvert, formed by the snout of the proboscidiferous Gastropod. al, alimentary canal; d, the true mouth. The introvert is not a simple one with complete range both in eversion and introversion, but is arrested in introversion by the fibrous bands at c, and similarly in eversion by the fibrous bands at b. G, The acrecbolic snout of a proboscidiferous Gastropod, arrested short of complete eversion by the fibrous band b. H, The acrembolic (= pleurecbolic) pharynx of a Chaetopod fully introverted. al, alimentary canal; at d, the jaws; at a, the mouth; therefore a to d is stomodaeum, whereas in the Gastropod (F) a to d is inverted body-surface.

I, Partial eversion of H. K, Complete eversion of H.

mantle-skirt. On the other hand, many which have a siphonate mantle-skirt are not provided with an introversible mouth-bearing al- B c..

H 6 c ' '? c?

c x c ' 'Il" a r-v n c ?


'a ' - al- FIG. 18. - Animal and shell of Pyrula laevigata. (From Owen.) cylinder, but have a simple non-introversible rostrum, as it has been termed, which is also the condition presented by the mouth-bearing region in nearly all other Gastropoda. One of the best examples of the introversible mouth-cylinder or proboscis which can be found is that of the common whelk (Buccinum undatum) and its immediate allies. In fig. 23 the proboscis is seen in an everted state; it is only so carried when feeding, being withdrawn when the animal is at rest. Probably its use is to enable FIG. 20. - Male of Littorinaz littoralis, Lin., removed from its shell; the mantle-skirt cut along its right line of attachment and thrown over to the left side of the animal so as to expose the organs on its inner face.

a, Anus.

i, Intestine.

r, Nephridium (kidney).

r', Aperture of the nephridium. c, Heart.

br, Ctenidium (gill-plume).

pbr, Parabranchia (= the osphradium or olfactory patch).

x, Glandular lamellae of the inner face of the mantle-skirt.

y, Adrectal (purpuriparous) gland. 2, Testis.

vd, Vas deferens.

p, Penis.

mc, Columella muscle (muscular process grasping the shell).

v, Stomach.

h, Liver.

N.B. - Note the simple snout or rostrum not introverted as a " proboscis." the animal to introduce its rasping and licking apparatus into very narrow apertures for the purposes of feeding, e.g. into a small hole bored in the shell of another mollusc.

The very large assemblage of forms coming under this order comprises the most highly developed predaceous sea-snails, numerous vegetarian species, a considerable number of freshwater and some terrestrial forms. The partial dissection of a male specimen of the common periwinkle, Littorina littoralis, drawn in fig. 20, will serve to exhibit the disposition of viscera which prevails in the group. The branchial chamber formed by the mantle-skirt overhanging the head has been exposed by cutting along a line extending backward from the letters vd to the base of the columella muscle mc, and the whole roof of the chamber thus detached from the right side of the animal's neck has been thrown over to the left, showing the organs which lie upon the roof. No opening into the body-cavity has been made; the organs which lie in the coiled visceral hump show through its transparent walls. The head is seen in front resting on the foot and carrying a median non-retractile snout or rostrum, and a pair of cephalic tentacles at the base of each of which is an eye. In many Gastropoda the eyes are not thus sessile but raised upon special eye-tentacles (figs. 25, 56). To the right of the head is seen the muscular penis p, close to the termination of the vas deferens (spermatic duct) vd. The testis t occupies a median position in the coiled visceral mass. Behind the penis on the same side is the hook-like columella muscle, a development of the retractor muscle of the foot, which clings to the spiral column or columella of the shell (see fig. 33). This columella muscle is the same thing as the muscles adhering to the shell in Patella, and the posterior adductor of Lamellibranchs.

The surface of the neck is covered by integument forming the floor of the branchial cavity. It has not been cut into. Of the organs lying on the reflected mantle-skirt, that which in the natural state lay nearest to the vas deferens on the right side of the median line of the roof of the branchial chamber is the rectum i', ending in the anus a. It can be traced back to the intestine i near the surface of the visceral hump, and it is found that the apex of the coil formed by the hump is occupied by the liver h and the stomach v. Pharynx and oesophagus are concealed in the head. The enlarged glandular structure of the walls of the rectum is frequent in the Pectinibranchia, as is also though not universal the gland marked y, next to the rectum. It is the adrectal gland, and in the genera Murex and Purpura secretes a colourless liquid which turns purple upon exposure to the atmosphere, and was used by the ancients as a dye. Near this and less advanced into the branchial chamber is the single renal organ or nephridium r with its opening to the exterior r'. Internally this glandular sac presents a second slit or aperture which leads into the pericardium (as is now found to be the case in all Mollusca). The heart c lying in the pericardium is seen in close proximity to the renal organ, and consists of a single auricle receiving blood from the gill, and of a single ventricle which pumps it through the body by an anterior and posterior aorta. The surface x of the mantle between the rectum and the gill-plume is thrown into folds which in many sea-snails (whelks or Buccinidae, &c.) are very strongly developed. The whole of this surface appears to be active in the secretion of a mucous-like substance. The single gill-plume br lies to the left of the median line in natural position. It corresponds to the right of the two primitive ctenidia in the untwisted archaic condition of the molluscan body, and does not project freely into the branchial cavity, but its axis is attached (by concrescence) to the mantle-skirt (roof of the branchial chamber). It is rare for the gill-plume of a Pectinibranch Gastropod to stand out freely as a plume, but occasionally this more archaic condition is exhibited as in Valvata (fig. 30). Next beyond (to the left of) the gill-plume we find the so-called parabranchia, which is here simple, but sometimes lamellated as in Purpura (fig. 22). This organ has, without reason, been supposed to represent the second ctenidium of the typical mollusc, which it cannot do on account of its position. It should be to the right of the anus were this the case. Spengel showed that the parabranchia of Gastropods is the typical olfactory organ or osphradium in a highly developed condition. The minute structure of the epithelium which clothes it, as well as the origin of the nerve which is distributed to the parabranchia, proves it to be the same organ which is found universally in molluscs at the base of each gill-plume, and tests the indrawn current of water by the sense of ?,g smell. The nerve to this organ is given off from the superior (original right, see fig. 3) visceral ganglion.

The figures which are given here of various Pectinibranchia are in most cases ' YP sufficiently explained by the references attached to them. As an excellent general type of the nervous system, attention may be directed to that of Paludina drawn in fig. 21. On the whole the ganglia are strongly individualized in the Pectinibranchia, nerve-cell tissue being concentrated in the ganglia and absent from the cords. At the same time, the junction of the visceral loop above the intestine prevents in all Streptoneura the shortening of the visceral loop, and it is rare to find a fusion of the visceral ganglia with either pleural, pedal or cerebral - a fusion which can and does a, Anus.

take place where the visceral loop is not vg, Vagina.

above but below the intestine, e.g. in gp, Adrectal purpuri the Euthyneura (fig. 48), Cephalopoda parous gland.

and Lamellibranchia. As contrasted r', Aperture of the neph with the Aspidobranchia, we find that in ridium (kidney).

the Pectinibranchia the pedal nerves are br, Ctenidium (branchial distinctly nerves given off from the pedal plume).

ganglia, rather than cord-like nerve- br', Parabranchia (= the tracts containing both nerve-cells or comb-like osphra ganglionic elements and nerve-fibres. dium or olfactory Yet in some Pectinibranchia (Paludina) organ).

a ladder-like arrangement of the two pedal nerves and their lateral branches has been detected. The histology of the nervous system of Mollusca has yet to be seriously inquired into.

The alimentary canal of the Pectinibranchia presents little diversity of character, except in so far as the buccal region is concerned. Salivary glands are present, and in some carnivorous forms (Dolium) these secrete free sulphuric acid (as much as 2% is present in the secretion), which assists the animal in boring holes by means of its FIG. 21. - Nervous system of Paludina as a type of the streptoneurous condition. (From Gegenbaur, after Jhering.) B, Buccal (suboesophageal) ganglion.

C, Cerebral ganglion.

Co, Pleural ganglion. P, Pedal ganglion with otocyst attached.

Pedal nerve. Abdominal ganglion at the extremity of the twisted visceral " loop." P sp, Supra - intestinal visceral ganglion on the course of the right visceral cord.

sb, S u b - intestinal ganglion on the course of the left visceral cord.

P, A, FIG. 22. - Female of Purpura lapillus removed from its shell; the mantleskirt cut along its left line of attachment and thrown over to the right side of the animal so as to expose the organs on its inner face.

rasping tongue through the shells of other molluscs upon which it preys. A crop-like dilatation of the gut and a recurved intestine, embedded in the compact yellowish-brown liver, the ducts of which open into it, form the rest of the digestive tract and occupy a large bulk of the visceral hump. The buccal region presents a pair of shelly jaws placed laterally upon the lips, and a wide range of variation in the form of the denticles of the lingual ribbon or radula.

Well-developed glandular invaginations occur in different positions on the foot in Pectinibranchia. The most important of these opens by the ventral pedal pore, situated in the median line in the anterior half of the foot. This organ is probably homologous with the byssogenous gland of Lamellibranchs. The aperture, which was formerly supposed to be an aquiferous pore, leads into an extensive and often ramified cavity surrounded by glandular tubules. The gland has been found in both sub-orders of the Pectinibranchia, in Cyclostoma and Cypraea among the Taenioglossa, in Hemifusus, Cassis, Nassa, Murex, Fasciolariidae, Turbinellidae, Olividae, Marginellidae and Conidae among the Stenoglossa. It was discovered by J. T. Cunningham that in Buccinum the egg-capsules are formed by this pedal gland and not by any accessory organ of the generative system. Such horny egg-capsules doubtless have the same origin in all other species in which they occur, e.g. Fusus, Pyrula, Purpura, Murex, Nassa, Trophon, Voluta, &c. The float of the pelagic Janthina, to which the egg-capsules are attached, probably is also formed by the secretion of the pedal gland.

Other glands opening on or near the foot are: (I) The suprapedal gland opening in the middle line between the snout and the anterior border of the foot. It is most commonly found in sessile FIG. '23. - A, Triton variegation, to show the proboscis or buccal introvert (e) in a state of eversion.

a, Siphonal notch of the shell e, Everted buccal introvert (prooccupied by the siphonal boscis).

fold of the mantle-skirt f, Foot.

(Siphonochlamyda). g, Operculum.

b, Edge of the mantle-skirt rest- h, Penis.

ing on the shell. i, Under surface of the mantle c, Cephalic eye. skirt forming the roof of the d, Cephalic tentacle. sub-pallial chamber.

B, Sole of the foot of Pyrula tuba, to show a, the pore usually said to be " aquiferous " but probably the orifice of a gland; b, median line of foot.

forms and in terrestrial genera such as Cyclostoma; (2) the anterior pedal gland opening into the anterior groove of the foot, generally present in aquatic species; (3) dorsal posterior mucous glands in certain Cyclostomatidae. The foot of the Pectinibranchia, unlike the simple muscular disk of the Isopleura and Aspidobranchia, is very often divided into lobes, a fore, middle and hind lobe (pro-, mesoand meta-podium, see figs. 24 and 25). Very usually, but not universally, the metapodium carries an operculum. The division of the foot into lobes is a simple case of that much greater elaboration or breaking up into processes and regions which it undergoes in the class Cephalopoda. Even among some Gastropoda (viz. the Opisthobranchia) we find the lobation of the foot still further carried out by the development of lateral lobes, the parapodia, whilst there are many Pectinibranchia, on the other hand, in which the foot has a simple oblong form without any trace of lobes.

The development of the Pectinibranchia has been followed in several examples, e.g. Paludina, Purpura, Nassa, Vermetus, Neritina. As in other Molluscan groups, we find a wide variation in the early process of the formation of the first embryonic cells, and their arrangement as a diblastula, dependent on the greater or less amount of food-yolk which is present in the egg-cell when it commences its embryonic changes. In fig. 26 the early stages of Paludina vivipara are represented. There is but very little food-material in the egg of this Pectinibranch, and consequently the diblastula forms by invagination; the blastopore or orifice of invagination coincides with the anus, and never closes entirely. A well-marked trochosphere is formed by the development of an equatorial ciliated band; and subsequently, by the disproportionate growth of the lower hemisphere, the trochosphere becomes a veliger. The primitive shell-sac or shell-gland is well marked at this stage, and the pharynx is seen as a new ingrowth (the stomodaeum), about to fuse with and open into the primitively invaginated arch-enteron (fig. 26, F).

In other Pectinibranchia (and such variations are representative for all Mollusca, and not characteristic only of Pectinibranchia) we find that there is a very unequal division of the egg-cell at the commencement of embryonic development, as in Nassa. Consequently FIG. 24. - Animal and shell of Phorus exutus. a, Snout (not introversible). d, Proand meso-podium; to the right b, Cephalic tentacles. of this is seen the metapodium c, Right eye. bearing the sculptured operculum.

there is, strictly speaking, no invagination (emboly), but an overgrowth (epiboly) of the smaller cells to enclose the larger. The general features of this process and of the relation of the blastopore to mouth and anus have been explained in treating of the development of Mollusca generally. In such cases the blastopore may entirely close, and both mouth and anus develop as new ingrowths (stomodaeum and proctodaeum), whilst, according to the observations of N. Bobretzky, the closed blastopore may coincide in position with the mouth in some instances (Nassa, &c.), instead of with the anus. But in these epibolic forms, just as in the embolic Paludina, the embryo proceeds to develop its ciliated band and shellgland, passing through the earlier condition of a trochosphere to that of the veliger. In the veliger stage many Pectinibranchia (Purpura, Nassa, &c.) exhibit, in the dorsal region behind the head, a contractile area of the body-wall. This acts as a larval heart, but ceases to pulsate after a time. Similar rhythmically contractile shell of Rostellaria rectirostris. (From Owen.) f, Operculum.

h', Prolonged siphonal notch of the shell occupied by the siphon, or trough-like process of the mantle-skirt.

areas are found on the foot of the embryo Pulmonate Limax and on the yolk-sac (distended foot-surface) of the Cephalopod Loligo. The preconchylian invagination or shell-gland is formed in the embryo behind the velum, on the surface opposite the blastopore. It is surrounded by a ridge of cells which gradually extends over the visceral sac and secretes the shell. In forms which are naked in the adult state, the shell falls off soon after the reduction of the velum, but in Cenia, Runcina and Vaginula the shell-gland and shell are not developed, and the young animal when hatched has already the naked form of the adult.

FIG. 25. - Animal and a, Snout or rostrum.

b, Cephalic tentacle.

c, Eye.

d, Propodium and mesop e, Metapodium.



One further feature of the development of the Pectinibranchia deserves special mention. Many Gastropoda deposit their eggs, after fertilization, enclosed in capsules; others, as Paludina, are viviparous; others, again, as the Zygobranchia, agree with the Lamellibranch Conchifera (the bivalves) in having simple exits for the ova without glandular walls, and therefore discharge their eggs unenclosed in capsules freely into the sea-water; such unencapsuled eggs are merely enclosed each in its own delicate chorion. When FIG. 26. - Developmentof the River-Snail, Paludina, vivipara. (After Lankester, 17.) dc, Directive corpuscle (outcast cell). Arch-enteron or cavity lined by the enteric cell-layer or endo derm.

bl, Blastopore.

vr, Velum or circlet of ciliated cells. dv, Velar area or cephalic dome. sm, Site of the as yet unformed mouth.

A, Diblastula phase (optical section).

B, The diblastula has become a trochosphere by the development of the ciliated ring y r (optical section).

C, Side view of the trochosphere with commencing formation of the foot.

D, Further advanced trochosphere (optical section).

E, The trochosphere passing to the veliger stage, dorsal view showing the formation of the primitive shell-sac.

F, Side view of the same, showing foot, shell-sac (shgl), velum (vr), mouth and anus.


In this development the blastopore is not elongated; it persists as the anus. The mouth and stomodaeum form independently of the blastopore.

egg-capsules are formed they are often of large size, have tough walls, and in each capsule are several eggs floating in a viscid fluid. In some cases all the eggs in a capsule develop; in other cases one egg only in a capsule (Neritina), or a small proportion (Purpura, Buccinum), advance in development; the rest are arrested either after the first process of cell-division (cleavage) or before that process. The arrested embryos or eggs are then swallowed and digested by those in the same capsule which have advanced in development. This is clearly the same process in essence as that of the formation of a vitellogenous gland from part of the primitive ovary, or of the feeding of an ovarian egg by the absorption of neighbouring potential eggs; but here the period at which the sacrifice of one egg to another takes place is somewhat late. What it is that determines the arrest of some eggs and the progressive development of others in the same capsule is at present unknown.

In the tribe of Pectinibranchia called Heteropoda the foot takes the form of a swimming organ. The nervous system and sense organs are highly developed. The odontophore also is remarkably developed, its lateral teeth being mobile, and it serves as an efficient organ for attacking the other pelagic forms on which the Heteropoda prey. The sexes are distinct, as in all Streptoneura; and genital ducts and accessory glands and pouches are present, as in all Pectinibranchia. The Heteropoda exhibit a series of modifications in the form and proportions of the visceral mass and foot, leading from a condition readily comparable with that of a typical Pectinibranch such as Rostellaria, with the three regions of the foot strongly marked and a coiled visceral hump of the usual proportions, up to a condition in which the whole body is of a tapering cylindrical shape, the foot a plate-like vertical fin, and the visceral hump almost completely atrophied. Three steps of this modification may be FIG. 27. - Oxygyrus Keraudrenii (magnified 20 diameters). (From Owen.) .

Mouth and odontophore. n, Dorsal surface overhung by Cephalic tentacles. the mantle-skirt; the letter Eye. is close to the salivary gland. Propodium (B) and meso- o, Rectum and anus.

podium. p, Liver.

Metapodium. q, Renal organ (nephridium).

Operculum. s, Ventricle.

Mantle-chamber. u, The otocyst attached to the Ctenidium (gill-plume). cerebral ganglion.

Retractor muscle of foot. w, Testis.

Optic tentacle. x, Auricle of the heart.

y, Vesicle on genital duct.

z, Penis.

distinguished as three families : - Atlantidae, Carinariidae and Pterotrachaeidae. They are true Pectinibranchia which have taken to a pelagic life, and the peculiarities of structure which they exhibit are strictly adaptations consequent upon their changed mode of life. Such adaptations are the transparency and colourlessness of the tissues, and the modifications of the foot, which still shows in Atlanta the form common in Pectin:branchia (compare fig. 27 and fig. 24). The cylindrical body of Pterotrachaea is paralleled by the slug-like forms of Euthyneura. J. W. Spengel has shown that the visceral loop of the Heteropoda is streptoneurous. Special to the Heteropoda is the high elaboration of the lingual ribbon, and, as an agreement with some of the opisthobranchiate Euthyneura, but as a difference from the Pectinibranchia, we find the otocysts closely attached to the cerebral ganglia. This is, however, less of a difference than it was at one time supposed to be, for it has been shown by H. Lacaze-Duthiers, and also by F. Leydig, that the otocysts of Pectinibranchia even when lying close upon the pedal ganglion (as in fig. 21) yet receive their special nerve (which can sometimes be readily isolated) from the cerebral ganglion (see fig. II). Accordingly the difference is one of position of the otocyst and not of its nerve-supply. The Heteropoda are further remarkable for the high development of their cephalic eyes, and for the typical character of their osphradium (Spengel's olfactory organ). This is a groove, the edges of which are raised and ciliated, lying near the branchial plume in the genera which possess that organ, whilst in Firoloida, which has no branchial plume, the osphradium occupies a corresponding position. Beneath the ciliated groove is placed an elongated ganglion (olfactory ganglion) connected by a nerve to the supraintestinal (therefore the primitively dextral) ganglion of the long h, k, m, Stomach.

f, Foot.

mes, Rudiments of the skeleto-trophic tissues. pi, The pedicle of invagina tion, the future rectum. shgl, The primitive shell-sac or shell-gland.

m, Mouth.

an, Anus.


visceral nerve-loop, the strands of which cross one another - this being characteristic of Streptoneura (Spengel).

The Heteropoda belong to the " pelagic fauna " occurring near the surface in the Mediterranean and great oceans in company with the Pteropoda, the Siphonophorous Hydrozoa, Salpae, Leptocephali, and other specially-modified transparent swimming representatives of various groups of the animal kingdom. In development they pass through the typical trochosphere and veliger stages provided with boat-like shell.

Sub-order I. - Taenioglossa. Radula with a median tooth and three teeth on each side of it. Formula 3: I: 3.

Tribe I. - Platypoda. Normal Taenioglossa of creeping habit. The foot is flattened ventrally, at all events in its anterior part (Strombidae). Otocysts situated close to the pedal nerve-centres. Accessory organs are rarely found on the genital ducts, but occur in Paludina, Cyclostoma, Naticidae, Calyptraeidae, &c. Mandibles usually present. This is the largest group of Mollusca, including nearly sixty families, some of which are insufficiently known from the anatomical point of view.

Fam. I. - Paludinidae. Pedal centres in the form of ganglionated cords; kidney provided with a ureter; viviparous; fluviatile. Paludina. Neothauma, from Lake Tanganyika. Tylopoma, extinct, Tertiary.

Fam. 2. - Cyclophoridae. No ctenidium, pallial cavity transformed into a lung; aperture of shell circular; terrestrial.

FIG. 29. - Pterotrachea mutica seen from the right side. (After Keferstein.) a, Pouch for reception of the snout when retracted.

c, Pericardium.

ph, Pharynx.

oc, Cephalic eye.

g, Cerebral ganglion.

g', Pleuro-pedal ganglion.

pr, Foot (mesopodium).

Pomatias, shell turriculated. Diplommatina. Hybocystis. Cyclophorus, shell umbilicated, with a short spire and horny operculum. Cyclosurus, shell uncoiled. Dermatocera, foot with a horn-shaped protuberance at its posterior end. Spiraculum. Fam. 3. - Ampullariidae. To the left of the ctenidium a pulmonary sac, separated from it by an incomplete septum, am phibious. Ampullaria, shell dextral, coiled. Lanistes, shell sinistral, spire short or obsolete. Meladomus. Fam. 4. - Littorinidae. Oesophageal pouches present; pedal nerve-centres concentrated; a pedal penis near the right tentacle. Littorina, shell not umbilicated, littoral habit. Lacuna, foot with two posterior appendages, marine, entirely aquatic. Cremnoconchus, entirely aerial, Indian. Risella. Tectarius. D Fam. 5. - Fossaridae. Head with two lobes in some Rhipidoglossa. Fos- saria. Fam. 6. - Purpurinidae, extinct. Fam. 7. - Planaxidae. Shell with pointed spire; a short pallial siphon. Planaxis. Fam. 8. - Cyclostomatidae. Pallial cavity transformed into a lung; pedal centres concentrated; a deep pedal groove. Cyclostoma, shell turbinated, operculum calcareous, British. Omphalotropis. Fam. 9. - A ciculidae. Pallial cavity transformed into a lung; operculum horny; shell narrow and elongated. Acicula. Fam. 10. - Valvatidae. Ctenidium bipectinate, free; hermaphrodite; fluviatile. Valvata, British.

Fam. I 1. - Rissoidae. Epipodial fila L ments present; one or two pallial tentacles. Rissoa. Rissoina. Stiva. Fam. 12. - Litiopidae. An epipodium bearing three pairs of tentacles and an operculigerous lobe with two appendages; inhabitants of the Sargasso weed. Litiopa. Fam. 13. - A deorbiidae. Mantle with two posterior appendages; ctenidium large and capable of protrusion from pallial cavity. Adeorbis, British.

Fam. 14. - Jeffreysiidae. Head with two long labial palps; shell ovoid; operculum horny, semicircular, carinated. Jeffreysia. Fam. 15. - Homalogyridae. Shell flattened; no cephalic tentacles. Homalogyra, British. Ammoniceras. Fam. 16. - Skeneidae. Shell depressed, with rounded aperture; cephalic tentacles long. Skenea, British.

Fam. 17. - Choristidae. Shell spiral; four cephalic tentacles; eyes absent; two pedal appendages. Choristes. Fam. 18. - Assimineidae. Eyes at free extremities of tentacles. Assiminea, estuarine, British.

Fam. 19. - Truncatellidae. Snout very long, bilobed; foot short. Truncatella. Fam. 20. - Hydrobiidae. Shell with prominent spire; distant from right tentacle, generally appendiculated; brackish water or fluviatile. Hydrobia, British. Baikalia, from Lake Baikal. Pomatiopsis. Bithynella. Lithoglyphus. Spekia, viviparous, from Lake Tanganyika. Tanganyicia. Limnotrochus, from Lake Tanganyika. Chytra. Littorinida. Bithynia, British, fluviatile. Stenothyra. Fam. 21. - Melaniidae. Spire of shell somewhat elongated; mantle-border fringed; viviparous; fluviatile.

Melania. Faunus. Paludomus. Melanopsis. Nassopsis. Bythoceras, from Lake Tanganyika. o, Mouth.

Fam. 22. - Typhobiidae. Foot wide; op, Operculum.

shell turriculated, with carinated br, Ctenidium (branchial whorls, the carinae tuberculated or plume).

spiny. Typhobia. Bathanalia, from x, Filiform appendage (? Lake Tanganyika. rudimentary cteni Fam. 23. - P l e u r o c e r i d a e. Like dium).

Melaniidae, but mantle-border not The freely projecting fringed and reproduction oviparous. ctenidium of typical form Pleurocera. Anculotus. not having its axis fused Fam. 24. - Pseudomelaniidae. All exto the roof of the branchial tinct. chamber is the notable Fam. 25. - Subulitidae. All extinct. character of this genus. Fam. 26. - Nerineidae. All extinct.

Fam. 27. - Cerithiidae. Shell with numerous tuberculated whorls; aperture canaliculated anteriorly; short pallial siphon. Cerithium. Bittium. Potamides. Triforis. Laeocochlis. Cerithiopsis. Fam. 28. - Modulidae. Shell with short spire; no siphon. Modulus. FIG. 28. - Carinaria mediterranea. (From Owen.) A, The animal. B, The shell removed. C, D, Two views of the shell of Cardiopoda. ,a, Mouth and odontophore. h, Border of the mantle-flap. u, Cerebral ganglion.

b, Cephalic tentacles. i, Ctenidium (gill-plume). v, Pleural and pedal ganglion c, Eye. m, Stomach. w, Testis.

d, The fin-like mesopodium. n, Intestine. x, Visceral ganglion.

d', Its sucker. o, Anus. y, Vesicula seminalis.

e, Metapodium. p, Liver. [ventricle. z, Penis.

f, Salivary glands. t, Aorta, springing from the v, Stomach.

i, Intestine.

n, So-called nucleus.

br, Branchial plume (ctenidium).

w, Osphradium.

mt, Foot (metapodium).

z, Caudal appendage.

penis I' 0 FIG. 30. - Valvata cristata, Mull.

Fam. 29.-Vermetidae. Animal fixed by the shell, the last whorls of which are not in contact with each other; foot small; two anterior pedal tentacles. Vermetus. Siliquaria. Fam. 30.-Caecidae. Shell almost completely uncoiled, in one plane, with internal septa. Caecum, British.

Fam. 31.- Turritellidae. Shell very long; head large; foot broad. Turritella, British. Mesalia. Mathilda. Fam. 32.-Struthiolariidae. Shell conical; aperture slightly canaliculated; siphon slightly developed. Struthiolaria. Fam. 33.-Chenopodidae. Shell elongated; aperture expanded; siphon very short. Chenopus, British. A l a r i a, Spinigera, Diartema, extinct.

Fam. 34.-Strombidae. Foot narrow, compressed, without sole. Strombus. Pteroceras. Rostellaria. Terebellum. Fam. 35.-Xenophoridae. Foot transversely divided into two parts. Xenophorus. Eotrochus, Silurian.

Fam. 36.-Capulidae. Shell conical, not FIG. 31.-Shell of Crucibulum, seen coiled,but slightly in from below so as to show the inner whorl curved posteriorly; b, concealed by the cap-like outer whorl a. atongue-shaped pro jection between snout and foot. Capulus. Thyca, parasitic on asterids. Platyceras, extinct.

Fam. 37.-Hipponycidae. Shell conical; foot secreting a ventral calcareous plate; animal fixed. Hipponyx. Mitrularia. Fam. 38.-Calyptraeidae. Shell with short spire; lateral cervical lobes present; accessory genital glands. Calyptraea, British. Crepidula. Crucibulum. Fam. 39.-Naricidae. Foot divided into two, posterior half bearing the operculum; a wide epipodial velum; shell turbinated. Narica. Fam. 40.-Naticidae. Foot large, with aquiferous system; propodium reflected over head; eyes degenerate; burrowing habit. Natica, British. Amaura. Sigaretus. Fam. 41.-Lamellariidae. Shell thin, more or less covered by the mantle; no operculum. Lamellaria. Velutina. Marsenina, Oncidiopsis, hermaphrodite.

Fam. 42.-Trichotropidae. Shell with short spire, carinate and pointed. Trichotropis. Fam. 43.-Seguenziidae. Shell trochiform, with canaliculated aperture and twisted columella. Seguenzia, abyssal.

Fam. 44.-Janthinidae. Shell thin; operculum absent; tentacles bifid; foot secretes a float; pelagic. Janthina. Recluzia. Fam. 45.-Cypraeidae. Shell inrolled, solid, polished, aperture very narrow in adult; short siphon; anus posterior; osphradium with three lobes; mantle reflected over shell. Cypraea. Pustularia. Ovula. Pedicularia, attached to corals. Erato. Fam. 46.-Tritonidae. Shell turriculated and siphonated, thick, each whorl with varices; foot broad and truncated anteriorly; pallial siphon well developed; proboscis present. Triton. Per- sona. Ranella. Fam. 47.-Columbellinidae. All extinct.

Fam. 48.- Cassididae. Shell ventricose,with elongated aperture, and short spire; proboscis and siphon long;operculum with marginal nucleus. Cassis. Cassidaria. Oniscia. Fam.49-Oocorythidae. ' Shell globular and ventricose; aperture oval and canaliculated; operculum spiral. Oocorys, abyssal.

Fam. 50.-Doliidae. Shell ventricose, with short spire, and wide aperture; no varices and no operculum; foot very broad, with projecting anterior angles; siphon long. Dolium. Pyrula. Fam. 51.-Solariidae. Solarium. Torinia. Fluxina. Fam. 52.-Scalariidae. Shell turriculated, with elongated spire; proboscis short; siphon rudimentary. Scalaria. Eglisia. Crossea. Aclis. The three following families have neither radula nor jaws, and are therefore called Aglossa. They have a well-developed proboscis which is used as a suctorial organ; some are abyssal, but the majority are either commensals or parasites of Echinoderms.

Fam. 53.-Pyramidellidae. Summit of spire heterostrophic; a projection, the mentum, between head and foot; operculum present. Pyramidella. Turbonella. Odostomia, British. Myxa. Fam. 54.-Eulimidae. Visceral mass still coiled spirally; shell thin and shining. Eulima, foot well developed, with an operculum, animal usually free, but some live in the digestive cavity of Holothurians. Mucronalia, foot reduced, but still operculate, eyes present, animal fixed by its very long proboscis which is deeply buried in the tissues of an Echinoderm, no pseudopallium. Stylifer, the operculum is lost, animal fixed by a large proboscis which forms a pseudopallium covering the whole shell except the extremity of the spire, parasitic on all groups of Echinoderms. Entosiphon, visceral mass still coiled; shell much reduced, proboscis very long forming a pseudopallium which covers the whole body and projects beyond in the form of a siphon, foot and nervous system present, eyes, branchia and anus absent, parasite in the Holothurian Deima blakei in the Indian Ocean.

Fam. 55.-Entoconchidae. No shell; visceral mass not coiled; no sensory organs, nervous system, branchia or anus; body reduced to a more or less tubular sac; hermaphrodite and viviparous; parasitic in Holothurians; larvae are veligers, with shell and operculum. Entocolax, mouth at free extremity, animal fixed by aboral orifice of pseudopallium, Pacific. Entoconcha, body elongated and tubular, animal fixed by the oral extremity, protandric hermaphrodite, parasitic in testes of Holothurians causing their abortion. Enteroxenos, no pseudo pallium and no intestine, hermaphrodite, larvae with operculum.

Tribe 2.-Heteropoda. Pelagic Taenioglossa with foot large and laterally compressed to form a fin.

Fam. I. Atlantidae. Visceral sac and shell coiled in one plane; foot divided transversely into two parts, posterior part bearing an operculum, anterior part forming a fin provided with a sucker. Atlanta. Oxygyrus. Fam. 2.-Carinariidae. Visceral sac and shell small in proportion to the rest of the body, which cannot be withdrawn into the shell; foot elongated, fin-shaped, with sucker, but without operculum. Carinaria. Cardiopoda. Fam. 3.-Pterotrachaeidae. Visceral sac very much reduced; without shell or mantle; anus posterior; foot provided with sucker in male only. Pterotrachaea. Firoloida. Pterosoma. Sub-order 2.-Stenoglossa. Radula narrow with one lateral tooth on each side, and one median tooth or none.

Tribe I .-Rachiglossa. Radula with a median tooth and a single FIG. 34.-Female Janthina, with egg-float (a) attached to the foot; b, egg-capsules; c, ctenidium (gill-plume); d, cephalic tentacles.

tooth on each side of it. Formula I: I: 1. Rudimentary jaws present.

Fam. 1.-Turbinellidae. Shell solid, piriform, with thick folded columella; lateral teeth of radula bicuspidate. Turbinella. Cynodonta. Fulgur. Hemifusus. Tudicla. Strepsidura. Fam. 2.-Fasciolariidae. Shell elongated, with long siphon; lateral teeth of radula multicuspidate. Fasciolaria. Fusus. Clavella. Latirus. Fam. 3.-Mitridae. Shell fusiform and solid, aperture elongated, columella folded; no operculum; eyes on sides of tentacles. Mitra. Turricula. Cylindromitra. Imbricaria. Fam. 4.-Buccinidae. Foot large and broad; eyes at base of tAt6touti/iot FIG. 32.-Animal and shell of Ovula. b, Cephalic tentacles.

d, Foot.

h, Mantle-skirt, which is naturally carried in a reflected condition so as to cover the sides of the shell.

._..--..... ---- - ..a c FIG. 33.-Section of the shell of Triton, Cuv. (From Owen.) a, Apex.

ac, Siphonal notch of the mouth of the shell.

ac to pc, Mouth of the shell. w, w, Whorls of the shell. s, s, Sutures.


Occupying the axis, and exposed by the section, is seen the "columella " or spiral pillar. The upper whorls of the shell are seen to be divided into separate chambers by the formation of successively formed " septa." tentacles; operculum horny. Buccinum. Chrysodomus. Liomesus. Cominella. Tritonidea. Pisania. Euthria. Phos. Dipsacus. Fam. 5. - Nassidae. Foot broad, with two slender posterior appendages; operculum unguiculate. Nassa, marine, British. Canidia, fluviatile. Bullia. Fam. 6. - Muricidae. Shell with moderately long spire and canal, ornamented with ribs, often spiny; foot truncated anteriorly. Murex, British. Trophon, British. Typhis. Urosalpinx. Lachesis. Fam. 7. - Purpuridae. Shell thick, with short spire, last whorl large and canal short; aperture wide; operculum horny. Purpura, British. Rapana. Monoceros. Sistrum.. Concholepas. Fam. 8. - Haliidae. Shell ventricose, thin and smooth, with wide aperture; foot large and thick, without operculum. Halia. Fam. 9. - Cancellariidae. Shell ovoid, with short spire and folded columella; foot small, no operculum; siphon short. Cancellaria. Fam. Io. - Columbellidae. Spire of shell prominent, aperture narrow, canal very short, columella crenelated; foot large. Columbella. Fam. II. - Coralliophilidae. Shell irregular; radula absent; foot and siphon short; sedentary animals, living in corals.

Coralliophila. Rhizochilus. Leptoconchus. Magilus. Rapa. Fam. 12. - Volutidae. Head much flattened and wide, with eyes on sides; foot broad; siphon with internal appendages.

Voluta. Guivillea. Cymba. Fam. 13. - Olividae. Foot with anterior transverse groove; a posterior pallial tentacle; generally burrowing. Olivia. Olivella. Ancillaria. Agaronia. Fam. 14. - Marginellidae. Foot very large; mantle reflected over shell. Marginella. Pseudomarginella. 'Fam.' Harpidae. Foot very large; without operculum; shell with short spire and longitudinal ribs; siphon long. Harpa. Tribe 2.-Toxiglossa. No jaws. No median tooth in radula. Formula: I :o: I. Poison-gland present whose duct traverses the nerve-collar.

Fam. I. - Pleurotomatidae. Shell fusiform, with elongated spire; margin of shell and mantle notched. Pleurotoma. Clavatula. Mangilia. Bela. Pusionella. Pontiothauma. Fam. 2. - Terebridae. Shell turriculated, with numerous whorls; aperture and operculum oval; eyes at summits of tentacles; siphon long. Terebra. Fam. 3. - Conidae. Shell conical, with very short spire, and narrow aperture with parallel borders; operculum unguiform. Conus. Sub-Class II.-Euthyneura The most important general character of the Euthyneura is the absence of torsion in the visceral commissure, and the more posterior position of the anus and pallial organs. Comparative anatomy and embryology prove that this condition is due, not as formerly supposed to a difference in the relations of the visceral commissure which prevented it from being included in the torsion of the visceral hump, but to an actual detorsion which has taken place in evolution and is repeated to a great extent in individual development. In several of the more primitive forms the same torsion occurs as in Streptoneura, viz. in Actaeon and Limacina among Opisthobranchia, and Chilina among Pulmonata. Actaeon is prosobranchiate, the visceral commissure is twisted in Actaeon and Chilina, and even slightly still in Bulla and Scaphander; in Actaeon and Limacina the osphradium is to the left, innervated by the supra-intestinal ganglion. But in the other members of the sub-class the detorsion of the visceral mass has carried back the anus and circumanal complex from the anterior dorsal region to the right side, as in Bulla and Aplysia, or even to the posterior end of the body, as in Philine, Oncidium, Doris, &c. Different degrees of the same process of detorsion are, as we have seen, exhibited by the Heteropoda among the Streptoneura, and both in them and in the Euthyneura the detorsion is associated with degeneration of the shell. Where the modification is carried to its extreme degree, not only the shell but the pallial cavity, ctenidium and visceral hump disappear, and the body acquires a simple elongated form and a secondary external symmetry, as in Pterotrachaea and in Doris, Eolis, and other Nudibranchia. These facts afford strong support to the hypothesis that the weight of the shell is the original cause of the torsion of the dorsal visceral mass in Gastropods. But this hypothesis leaves the elevation of the visceral mass and the exogastric coiling of the shell in the ancestral form unexplained.

In those Euthyneura in which the shell is entirely absent in the adult, it is, except in the three genera Cenia, Runcina and Vaginula, developed in the larva and then falls off. In other cases (Tectibranchs) the reduced shell is enclosed by upgrowths of the edge of the mantle and becomes internal, as in many Cephalopods. A few Euthyneura in which the shell is not much reduced retain an operculum in the adult state, e.g. Actaeon, Limacina, and the marine Pulmonate, Amphibola. The detorted visceral commissure shows a tendency to the concentration of all its elements round the oesophagus, so that except in the Bullomorpha and in Aplysia the whole nervous system is aggregated in the cephalic region, either dorsally or ventrally. The FIG. 35. - A cera bullata. A single row of teeth of the Radula. (Formula, x.l.x.) radula has a number of uniform teeth on each side of the median tooth in each transverse row. The head in most cases bears two pairs of tentacles. All the Euthyneura are hermaphrodite.

In the most primitive condition the genital duct is single throughout its length and has a single external aperture; it is therefore said to be monaulic. The hermaphrodite aperture is on the right side near the opening of the pallial cavity, and a ciliated groove conducts the spermatozoa to the penis, which is situated more anteriorly. This is the condition in the Bullomorpha, the Aplysiomorpha, and in one Pulmonate, Pythia. In some cases while the original aperture remains undivided, the seminal groove is closed and so converted into a canal. This is the modification found in Cavolinia longirostris among the Bullomorpha, and in all the Auriculidae except Pythia. A further degree of modification occurs when the male duct takes its origin from the hermaphrodite duct above the external opening, so that there are two distinct apertures, one male and one female, the latter being the original opening. The genital duct is now said to be diaulic, as in Valvata, Oncidiopsis, Actaeon, and Lobiger among the Bullomorpha, in the Pleurobranchidae, in the Nudibranchia, except the Doridomorpha and most of the Elysiomorpha, and in the Pulmonata. Originally in this condition the female aperture is at some distance from the male, as in the Basommatophora and in other cases; but in some forms the female aperture itself has shifted and come to be contiguous with the male opening and penis as in the Stylommatophora. In all these cases the female duct bears a bursa copulatrix or receptaculum seminis. In some forms this receptacle acquires a separate external opening remaining connected with the oviduct internally. There are thus two female openings, one for copulation, the other for oviposition, as well as a male opening. The genital duct is now trifurcated or triaulic, a condition which is confined to certain Nudibranchs, viz. the Doridomorpha and most of the Elysiomorpha.

The Pteropoda, formerly regarded as a distinct class of the Mollusca, were interpreted by E. R. Lankester as a branch of the Cephalopoda, chiefly on account of the protrusible suckerbearing processes at the anterior end of Pneumonoderma. These he considered to be homologous with the arms of Cephalopods. He fully recognized, however, the similarity of Pteropods to Gastropods in their general asymmetry and in the torsion of the visceral mass in Limacinidae. It is now understood that they are Euthyneurous Gastropods adapted to natatory locomotion and pelagic life. The sucker-bearing processes of Pneumonoderma are outgrowths of the proboscis. The fins of Pteropods are now interpreted as the expanded lateral margins of the foot, termed parapodia, not homologous with the siphonof Cephalopods which is formed from epipodia. The Thecosomatous Pteropoda are allied to Bulla, the Gymnosomatous forms to Aplysia. The Euthyneura comprises two orders, Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata.


Order I.-Opisthobranchia. Marine Euthyneura, the more archaic forms of which have a relatively large foot and a small visceral hump, from the base of which projects on the right side a short mantle-skirt. The anus is placed in such forms far back beyond the mantle-skirt. In front of the anus, and only partially covered ry FIG. 36.

A, Veliger-larva of an Opisthobranch (Polycera). f, Foot; op, operculum; mn, anal papilla; ry, dry, two portions of unabsorbed nutritive yolk on either side of the intestine. The right otocyst is seen at the root of the foot.

B, Trochosphere of an Opisthobranch (Pleurobranchidium) showing - shgr, the shell-gland or primitive shell-sac; v, the cilia of the velum; ph, the commencing stomodaeum or oral invagination; ot, the left otocyst; pg, red-coloured pigment spot.

C, Diblastula of an Opisthobranch (Polycera) with elongated blastopore oi. (All from Lankester.) by the mantle-skirt, is the ctenidium with its free end turned backwards. The heart lies in front of, instead of to the side of, the attachment of the ctenidium - hence Opisthobranchia as opposed to " Prosobranchia," which correspond to the Streptoneura. A shell is possessed in the adult state by but few Opisthobranchia, but all pass through a veliger larval stage with a nautiloid shell (fig. 36). Many Opisthobranchia have by a process of atrophy lost the typical ctenidium and the mantleskirt, and have developed other organs in their place. As in some Pectinibranchia, the free margin of the mantle-skirt is frequently reflected over the shell when a shell exists; and, as in some Pectinibranchia, broad lateral outgrowths of the foot (parapodia) are often developed which may be thrown over the shell or naked dorsal surface of the body.

The variety of special developments of structure accompanying the atrophy of typical organs in the Opisthobranchia and general degeneration of organization is very great. The members of the order present the same wide range of superficial appearance as do the Pectinibranchiate Streptoneura, forms carrying well-developed spiral shells and large mantle-skirts being included in the group, together with flattened or cylindrical slug-like forms. But in respect of the substitution of other parts for the mantle-skirt and for the gill which the more degenerate Opisthobranchia exhibit, this order stands alone. Some Opisthobranchia are striking examples of degeneration (some Nudibranchia), having none of those regions or processes of the body developed which distinguish the archaic Mollusca from such flat-worms as the Dendrocoel Planarians. In deed, were it not for their retention of the characteristic odontophore we should have little or no indication that such forms as Phyllirhoe and Limapontia really belong to the Mollusca at all. The interesting little Rhodope veranyii, which has no odontophore, has been associated by systematists both with these simplified Opisthobranchs and with Rhabdocoel Planarians.

In many respects the sea-hare (Aplysia), of which several species are known (some occurring on the English coast), serves as a convenient example of the fullest development of the organization characteristic of Opisthobranchia. The woodcut (fig. 38) gives a faithful representation of the great mobility of the various parts of the body. The head is well marked and joined to the body by a somewhat constricted neck. It carries two pairs of cephalic tentacles and a pair of sessile eyes. The visceral hump is low and not drawn out into a spire. The foot is long, carrying the oblong visceral mass upon it, and projecting (as metapodium) a little beyond it(f). Laterally the foot gives rise to a pair of mobile fleshy lobes, the parapodia (ep), which can be thrown up so as to cover in the dorsal surface of the animal. Such parapodia are common, though by no means universal, among Opisthobranchia. The torsion of the visceral hump is not carried out very fully, the consequence being that the anus has a posterior position a little to the right of the median line above the metapodium, whilst the branchial chamber formed by the overhanging mantle-skirt faces the right side of the body instead of lying well to the front as in Streptoneura and as in Pulmonate Euthyneura. The gill-plume,which in A plysia is the typicalMolluscan ctenidium, is seen in fig. 39 projecting from the branchial sub-pallial space.

9 C FIG. 38. - Three views of Aplysia sp., in various conditions of expansion and retraction. (After Cuvier.) t, Anterior cephalic tentacles. m, Mantle-flap reflected over the 0, Posterior cephalic tentacles. thin oval shell.

e, Eyes. os, s, Orifice formed by the un f, Metapodium. closed border of the reflected ep, Epipodium. mantle-skirt, allowing the g, Gill-plume (ctenidium). shell to show.

...r - _ pe, The spermatic groove.

The relation of the delicate shell to the mantle is peculiar, since it occupies an oval area upon the visceral hump, the extent of which is indicated in fig. 38, C, but may be better understood by a glance at the figures of the allied genus Umbrella (fig. 40), in which the margin of the mantle-skirt coincides, just as it does in the limpet, with the margin of the shell. But in Aplysia the mantle is reflected over the edge of the shell, and grows over its upper surface so as to completely enclose it, excepting at the small central area s where the naked shell is exposed. This enclosure of the shell is a permanent development of the arrangement seen in many Streptoneura (e.g. Pyrula, Ovula, see figs. 18 and 32), where the border of the mantle can be, and usually is, drawn over the shell, though it is withdrawn (as it cannot be in Aplysia) when they are irritated. From the fact that Aplysia commences its life as a free-swimming veliger with a nautiloid shell not enclosed in any way by the border of the mantle, it is clear that the enclosure of the shell in the adult is a secondary process. Accordingly, the shell of Aplysia must not be confounded with a primitive shell in its shell-sac, such as we find realized in the shells of Chiton and in the plugs which form in the remarkable transitory " shell-sac " or " shell-gland " of Molluscan embryos (see figs. 26, 60). Aplysia, like other Mollusca, develops a primitive shellsac in its trochosphere stage of development, which disappears and is succeeded by a nautiloid shell (fig. 36). This forms the nucleus of the adult shell, and, as the animal grows, becomes enclosed by a reflection of the mantle-skirt. When the shell of an A plysia enclosed in its mantle is pushed well to the left, the sub-pallial space is fully exposed as in fig. 39, and the various apertures of the body are seen.

FIG. 37. - Phyllirhoe bucephala, twice the natural size, a transparent pisciform pelagic Opisthobranch. The internal organs are shown as seen by transmitted light. (After W. Keferstein.) a, Mouth.

b, Radular sac.

c, Oesophagus.

d, Stomach.

c', Intestine.

f', Anus.

g, g', g", g"', The four lobes of the liver.

h, The heart (auricle and ventricle). 1, The renal sac (nephridium).

l', The ciliated communication of the renal sac with the pericardium.

m, The external opening of the renal sac.

n, The cerebral ganglion.

o, The cephalic tentacles.

f, The genital pore.

y, The ovo-testes.

w, The parasitic hydromedusa Mnestra, usually found attached in this position by the aboral pole of its umbrella.


Posteriorly we have the anus, in front of this the lobate gill-plume, between the two (hence corresponding in position to that of the Pectinibranchia) we have the aperture of the renal organ. In front, near the anterior attachment of the gill-plume, is the osphradium (olfactory organ) dis h covered by J. W. Spengel, yellowish in colour, in the typical position, and overlying an olfactory ganglion with typical nerve-connexion (see fig. 43). To the right of Spengel's osphradium is the opening of a peculiar gland which has, when dissected out, the form of a bunch of grapes; its secretion is said to be poisonous. On the under side of the free edge of the mantle are situated the numerous small cutaneous glands which, in the large A plysia camelus (not in other species), form the purple secretion which was known to s the ancients. In front of the osphradium is the single genital pore, the aperture of the common or hermaphrodite duct. From this point there passes forward to the right side of the head a groove - the spermatic groove - down which the spermatic fluid passes. In other Euthyneura this groove may close up and form a canal. At its termination by the side of the head is the muscular introverted penis. In the hinder part of the foot (not shown in any of the diagrams) is the opening of a large mucusforming gland very often found in the Molluscan foot.

With regard to internal organization we may commence with the disposition of the renal organ (nephridium), the external opening of which has already been noted. The position of this opening and other features of the renal organ were determined by J. T. Cunningham.

There is considerable uncertainty with respect to the names of the species of Aplysia. There are two forms which are very common in the Gulf of Naples. One is quite black in colour, and measures when FIG. 40. - Umbrella mediterranea. a, mouth; b, cephalic tentacle; h, gill (ctenidium). The free edge of the mantle is seen just below the margin of the shell (compare with Aplysia, fig. 39). (From Owen.) outstretched 8 or 9 in. in length. The other is light brown and somewhat smaller, its length usually not exceeding 7 in. The first is flaccid and sluggish in its movements, and has not much power of contraction; its epipodial lobes are enormously developed and extend far forward along the body; it gives out when handled an abundance of purple liquid, which is derived from cutaneous glands situated on the under side of the free edge of the mantle. According to F. Blochmann it is identical with A. camelus of Cuvier. The other species is A. depilans; it is firm to the touch, and contracts forcibly when irritated; the secretion of the mantle-glands is not abundant, and is milky white in appearance. The kidney has similar relations in both species, and is identical with the organ spoken of by many authors as the triangular gland. Its superficial extent is seen when the folds covering the shell are cut away and the shell removed; the external surface forms a triangle with its base bordering the pericardium, and its apex directed posteriorly and reaching to the lefthand posterior corner of the shell-chamber. The dorsal surface of the kidney extends to the left beyond the shell-chamber beneath the skin in the space between the shell-chamber and the left parapodium.

When the animal is turned on its left-hand side and the mantlechamber widely opened, the gill being turned over to the left, a part of the kidney is seen beneath the skin between the attachment of the gill and the right parapodium (fig. 39). On examination this is found to be the under surface of the posterior limb of the gland, the upper surface of which has just been described as lying beneath the shell. In the posterior third of this portion, close to that edge which is adjacent to the base of the gill, is the external opening (fig. 39, o). When the pericardium is cut open from above in an animal otherwise entire, the anterior face of the kidney is seen forming the posterior wall of the pericardial chamber; on the deep edge of this face, a little to the left of the attachment of the auricle to the floor of the pericardium, is seen a depression; this depression contains the opening from the pericardium into the kidney.

To complete the account of the relations of the organ: the right anterior corner can be seen superficially in the wall of the mantlechamber above the gill. Thus the base of the gill passes in a slanting direction across the right-hand side of the kidney, the posterior end being dorsal to the apex of the gland, and the anterior end ventral to the right-hand corner.

As so great a part of the whole surface of the kidney lies adjacent to external surfaces of the body, the remaining part which faces the internal organs is small; it consists of the left part of the under surface; it is level with the floor of the pericardium, and lies over the globular mass formed by the liver and convoluted intestine.

Thus the renal organ of Aplysia is shown to conform to the Molluscan type. The heart lying within the adjacent pericardium has the usual form, a single auricle and ventricle. The vascular system is not extensive, the arteries soon ending in the well-marked spongy tissue which builds up the muscular foot, parapodia, and dorsal body-wall.

The alimentary canal commences with the usual buccal mass; the lips are cartilaginous, but not armed with horny jaws, though these are common in other Opisthobranchs; the lingual ribbon is multidenticulate, and a pair of salivary glands pour in their secretion. The oesophagus expands into a curious gizzard, which is armed internally with large horny processes, some broad and thick, others spinous, fitted to act as crushing instruments. From this we pass to a stomach and a coil of intestine embedded in the lobes of a voluminous liver; a caecum of large size is given off near the commencement of the intestine. The liver opens by two ducts into the digestive FIG. 41. - Gonad, and tract. accessory glands and The generative organs lie close to the ducts of Aplysia. (Lancoil of intestine and liver, a little to the kester.) left side. When dissected out they appear as represented in fig. 41. The essential reproductive organ or gonad consists of both ovarian and testicular cells (see fig. 42). It is an ovo-testis. From it passes a common or herma i, Ovo-testis.

h, Hermaphrodite duct. g, Albuminiparous gland.

f , Vesicula seminalis. k, Opening of the albuphrodite duct, which very soon becomes miniparous gland into P Y the hermaphrodite entwined in the spire of a gland - the duct.

albuminiparous gland. The latter opens e, Hermaphrodite duct into the common duct at the point k, (uterine portion). and here also is a small diverticulum of b, Vaginal portion of the the duct f. Passing on, we find not uterine duct. far from the genital pore a glandular c, Spermatheca. spherical body (the spermatheca c) open- d, Its duct.

ing by means of a longish duct into a, Genital pore. the common duct, and then we reach the pore (fig. 39, k). Here the female apparatus terminates. But when the male secretion of the ovo-testis is active, the seminal fluid passes from the genital pore along the spermatic groove (fig. 39) to the penis, and is by the aid of that eversible muscular organ introduced into the genital pore of a second Aplysia, whence it passes into the spermatheca, there to await the activity of the female element of the ovo-testis of this second Aplysia. After an interval FIG. 39. - A plysia leporina (camelus, Cuv.), with epipodia and mantle reflected away from the mid-line. (Lankester.) Anterior cephalic tentacle. Posterior cephalic tentacle; and b, the eyes.

Right epipodium.

Left epipodium.

Hinder part of visceral hump. Posterior extremity of the foot. Anterior part of the foot underlying the head.

The ctenidium (branchial plume).

The mantle-skirt tightly spread over the horny shell and pushed with it towards the left side.

The spermatic groove.

The common genital pore (male and female).

Orifice of the grape-shaped (supposed poisonous) gland.

The osphradium (olfactory organ of Spengel).

Outline of part of the renal sac (nephridium) below the surface.

External aperture of the nephridium. Anus.


between a fp, fa, k, 1, P, of some days - possibly weeks - the ova of the second Aplysia commence to descend the hermaphrodite duct; they become en FIG. 42. - Follicles of the hermaphrodite gonads of Euthyneurous Gastropods. A, of Helix; B, of Eolis; a, ova; b, developing spermatozoa; c, common efferent duct.

closed in a viscid secretion at the point where the albuminiparous gland opens into the duct intertwined with it; and on reaching the pcint where the spermathecal duct debouches they are impregnated by the spermatozoa which escape now from the spermatheca and meet the ova.

. The development of Aplysia from the egg presents many points of interest from the point of view of comparative embryology, but in relation to the morphology of the Opisthobranchia it is sufficient to point to the occurrence of a trochosphere and a veliger stage (fig. 36), and of a shell-gland or primitive shell-sac (fig. 36, shgr), which is succeeded by a nautiloid shell.

In the nervous system of Aplysia the great ganglion-pairs are well developed and distinct. The euthyneurous visceral loop is long, and presents only one ganglion (in Aplysia camelus, but two distinct ganglia joined to one another in Aplysia hybrida of the English coast), placed at its extreme limit, representing both the right and left visceral ganglia and the third or abdominal ganglion, which are so often separately present. The diagram (fig. 43) shows the nerve connecting this abdomino-visceral ganglion with the olfactory ganglion of Spengel. It is also seen to be connected with a more remote ganglion - the genital. Such special irregularities in the development of ganglia upon the visceral loop, and on one or more of the main nerves connected with it, are very frequent. Our figure of the nervous system of Aplysia does not give the small pair of buccal ganglia which are, as in all glossophorous Molluscs, present upon the nerves passing from the cerebral region to the odontophore.

For a comparison of various Opisthobranchs, Aplysia will be found to present a convenient starting-point. It is one of the more typical Opisthobranchs, that is to say, it belongs to the section Tectibranchia, but other members of the suborder, namely, Bulla and Actaeon (figs. 44 and 45), are less abnormal than Aplysia in regard to their shells and the form of the visceral hump. They have naked spirally twisted shells which may be concealed from view in the living animal by the expansion and reflection of the parapodia, but are not enclosed by the mantle, whilst Actaeon is remarkable for possessing an operculum like that of so many Streptoneura.

The great development of the parapodia seen in Aplysia is usual in Tectibranchiate Opisthobranchs. The whole surface of the body becomes greatly modified in those Nudibranchiate forms which have lost, not only the shell, but also the ctenidium. Many of these have peculiar processes developed on the dorsal surface (fig. 46, A, B), or retain purely negative characters (fig. 46, D). The chief modification of internal organization presented by these forms, as compared with Aplysia, is found in the condition of the alimentary canal. The liver is no longer a compact organ opening by a pair of ducts into the median digestive tract, but we find very numerous hepatic diverticula on a shortened axial tract (fig. 47). These diverticula extend usually one into each of the dorsal papillae or " cerata " when these are present. They are not merely digestive glands, but are sufficiently wide to act as receptacles of food, and in them the digestion of food proceeds just as in the axial portion of the canal. A precisely similar modification Fm. 44. - Bulla vexillum (Chemnitz), as seen crawling. a, oraI hood (compare with Tethys, fig. 46, B), possibly a continuation of the epipodia; b, b', cephalic tentacles. (From Owen.) of the liver or great digestive gland is found in the scorpions, where the axial portion of the digestive canal is short and straight, and the lateral ducts sufficiently wide to admit food into the ramifications of the gland there to be digested; whilst in the spiders the gland is reduced to a series of simple caeca.

The typical character is retained by the heart, pericardium, and the communicating nephridium or renal organ in all Opisthobranchs. An interesting example of this is furnished by the fish-like transparent Phyllirhoe (fig. 37), in which it is possible most satisfactorily to study in the living animal, by means of the microscope, the course of the blood-stream, and also the reno-pericardial communication. In many of the Nudibranchiate Opisthobranchs the nervous system presents a concentration of the ganglia (fig. 48), contrasting greatly with what we have seen in Aplysia. Not only are the pleural ganglia fused to the cerebral, but also the visceral to these (see in further illustration the condition attained by the Pulmonate Limnaeus, fig. 59), and the visceral loop is astonishingly short and insignificant (fig. 48, e'). That the parts are rightly thus identified is probable from J. W. Spengel's observation of the osphradium and its nervesupply in these forms; the nerve to that organ, which is placed somewhat anteriorly - on the dorsal surface - being given off from the hinder part (visceral) of the right compound ganglion - the fellow to that marked A in fig. 48. The Eolid-like Nudibranchs, amongst other specialities of structure, possess (in some cases at any rate) apertures at the apices of the " cerata " or dorsal papillae, which lead from the exterior into the hepatic caeca. Some amongst them (Tergipes, Eolis) are also remarkable for possessing peculiarly modified cells placed in sacs (cnidosacs) at the apices of these same papillae, which resemble the " thread-cells " of the Coelentera. According to T. S. Wright and J. H. Grosvenor these nematocysts are derived from the hydroids on which the animals feed.

The development of many Opisthobranchia has been examined - e.g. Aplysia, Pleurobranchidium, Elysia, Polycera, Doris, Tergipes. All pass through trochosphere and veliger stages, and in all a nautiloid or boat-like shell is developed, preceded by a well-marked " shell-gland " (see fig. 36). The transition from the free-swimming veliger larva with its nautiloid shell (fig. 36) to the adult form has not been properly observed, and many interesting points as to the true nature of folds (whether parapodia or mantle or velum) have yet to be cleared up by a knowledge of such development in forms like Tethys, Doris, Phyllidia, &c. As in other Molluscan groups, we find even in closely-allied genera (for instance, in Aplysia and Pleurobranchidium, and other genera), the f operculum. greatest differences as to the amount p of food-material by which the egg-shell is encumbered. Some form their diblastula by emboly, others by epiboly; and in the later history of the further development of the enclosed cells (archenteron) very marked variations occur in closely-allied forms, due to the influence of a greater or less abundance of food-material mixed with the protoplasm of the egg.

Sub-order I.-Tectibranchia. Opisthobranchs provided in the adult state with a shell and a mantle, except Runcina, Pleuro. branchaea, Cymbuliidae, and some Aplysiomgrpha. There is a ctenidium, except in some Thecosomata and Gymnosomata, and an osphradium.

Tribe I.-Bullomorpha. The shell is usually well developed, except in Runcina and Cymbuliidae, and may be external or internal. No operculum, except in Actaeonidae and Limacinidae. The pallial cavity is always well developed, and contains the ctenidium, at least in part; ctenidium, except in Lophocercidae, of folded type. With FIG. 43. - Nervous system of Aplysia, as a type of the longlooped Euthyneurous condition. The untwisted visceral loop is lightly shaded. (After Spengel.) ce, Cerebral ganglion.

p1, Pleural ganglion.

pe, Pedal ganglion.

ab. sp, Abdominal ganglion which represents also the supra-intestinal ganglion of Streptoneura and gives off the nerve to the osphradium (olfactory organ) o, and another to an unlettered socalled " genital " ganglion. T h e buccal nerves and ganglia are omitted.


d FIG. 45.-A ctaeon. h, shell; b, oral hood; d, foot; the exception of the Aplustridae, Lophocercidae and Thecosomata, the head is devoid of tentacles, and its dorsal surface forms a digging FIG. 46.

A, Eolis papillosa (Lin.), dorsal view.

a, b, Posterior and anterior cephalic tentacles. c, The dorsal"cerata." B, Tethys leporina, dorsal view.

a, The cephalic hood. e, Anus.

b, Cephalic tentacles. f, Large cerata.

c, Neck. g, Smaller cerata.

d, Genital pore. h, Margin of the foot.

C, Doris (Actinocyclus) tuberculatus (Cuv.), seen from the pedal surface.

m, Mouth. f, Sole of the foot.

b, Margin of the head. sp, The mantle-like epipodium.

D, E, Dorsal and lateral view of Elysia (Actaeon) viridis. ep, epipodial outgrowths. (After Keferstein.) disk or shield. The edges of the foot form parapodia, often transformed into fins. Posteriorly the mantle forms a large pallial lobe FIG. 48. - Central Nervous System of Fiona (one of the Nudibranchia), showing a tendency to fusion of the great ganglia. (From Gegenbaur, after Bergh.) A, Cerebral, pleural and visceral ganglia united.

B, Pedal ganglion.

C, Buccal ganglion.

D, Oesophageal ganglion connected with the buccal.

a, Nerve to superior cephalic tentacle.

b, Nerves to inferior cephalic tentacles.

c, Nerve to generative organs.

d, Pedal nerve.

e, Pedal commissure.

e', Visceral loop or commissure (?).

under the pallial aperture. Stomach generally provided with chitinous or calcified masticatory plates. Visceral commissure fairly long, except in Runcina, Lobiger and Thecosomata. Hermaphrodite genital aperture, connected with the penis by a ciliated groove, except in Actaeon, Lobiger and Cavolinia longirostris, in which the spermiduct is a closed tube. Animals either swim or burrow.

Fam. I. - Actaeonidae. Cephalic shield bifid posteriorly; margins of foot slightly developed; genital duct diaulic; visceral cornmissure streptoneur ous; shell thick, with prominent spire and elongated aperture; a horny operculum. Actaeon, British. Solidula. Tornatellaea, extinct. Adelactaeon. Bullina. Bullinula. Fam. 2. - Ringiculidae. Cephalic disk enlarged anteriorly, forming an open tube posteriorly; shell external, thick, with p:ominent spire; no operculum. Ringicula. Pugnus. Fam. 3. - Tornatinidae. Margins of foot not prominent; no radula; shell external, with inconspicuous spire. Tornatina, British. Retusa. Volvula. Fam. 4. - Scaphandridae. Cephalic shield short, truncated posteriorly; eyes deeply embedded; three calcareous stomachal plates; shell external, with reduced spire. Scaphander, British. Atys. Smaragd British.

Fam. 5. - Bullidae. Margins of foot well developed; eyes superficial; three chitinous stomachal plates; shell external, with reduced spire. Bulla, British. Haminea, British.

Fam. 6. - Aceratidae. Cephalic shield continuous with neck; twelve to fourteen stomachal plates; a posterior pallial filament passing through a notch in shell. Acera, British. Cylindrobulla. Volutella. Fam. 7. - Aplustridae. Foot very broad; cephalic shield with four tentacles; shell external, thin, without prominent spire. A plustrum. Hydatina. Micromelo. Fam. 8. - Philinidae. Cephalic shield broad, thick and simple; shell wholly internal, thin, spire much reduced, aperture very large. Philine, British. Cryptophthalmus. Chelinodura. Phanerophthalmus.. Colpodaspis, British. Colobocephalus. Fam. 9. - Doridiidae. Cephalic shield ending posteriorly in a median point; shell internal, largely membranous; no radula or stomachal plates. Doridium. Navarchus. Fam. Io. - Gastropteridae. Cephalic shield pointed behind; shell internal, chiefly membranous, with calcified nucleus, nautiloid; parapodia forming fins. Gastropteron. Fam. II. - Runcinidae. Cephalic shield continuous with dorsal integument; no shell; ctenidium projecting from mantle cavity. Runcina. Fam. 12. - Lophocercidae. Shell external, globular or ovoid; foot elongated, parapodia separate from ventral surface; genital duct diaulic. Lobiger. Lophocercus. The next three families form the group formerly known as Thecosomatous Pteropods. They are all pelagic, the foot being entirely transformed into a pair of anterior fins; eyes are absent, and the nerve centres are concentrated on the ven tral side of the oesophagus. f, Postero-dorsal surface. Fam. 13. - Limacinidae. Dextral g, Antero-ventral surface.

animals, with shell coiled h, Median dorsal spine.

pseudo-sinistrally; operculum i, Mouth of the shell.

with sinistral spiral; pallial cavity dorsal. Limacina, British. Peraclis, ctenidium present. Fam. 14. - Cymbuliidae. Adult without shell; a sub-epithelial pseudoconch formed by connective tissue; pallial cavity ventral. Cymbulia. Cymbuliopsis. Gleba. Desmopterus. Fam. 15. - Cavoliniidae. Shell not coiled, symmetrical; pallial cavity ventral. Cavolinia. Clio. Cuvierina. Tribe 2.-Aplysiomorpha. Shell more or less internal, much reduced or absent. Head bears two pairs of tentacles. Parapodia separate from ventral surface, and generally transformed into XI. 17 a FIG. 47. - Enteric Canal of Eolis papillosa. (From Gegenbaur, after Alder and Hancock.) ph, Pharynx.

m, Midgut, with its hepatic appendages h, all of which are not figured. e, Hind gut.

an, Anus.

C ?

e C' FIG. 49. - Cavolinia tridentata, Forsk. from the Mediterranean, magnified two diameters. (From Owen.) a, Mouth.

b, Pair of cephalic tentacles.

C, C, Pteropodial lobes of the foot.

d, Median web connecting these.

e, e, Processes of the mantle-skirt reflected over the surface of the shell.

The shell enclosing the visceral hump.

h, The median spine of the shell.

inella. Cylichna, British. Amphisphyra, g, FIG. 50. - Shell of Cavolinia tridentata, seen from the side.


swimming lobes. Visceral commissure much shortened, except in Aplysia. Genital duct monaulic; hermaphrodite duct connected with penis by a ciliated groove. Animals either swim or crawl. Fam. I. - A plysiidae. Shell partly or wholly internal, or absent; foot long, with well-developed ventral surface. Aplysia. Dolabella. Dolabrifer. Aplysiella. Phyllaplysia. Not- archus. The next six families include the animals formerly known as Gymnosomatous Pteropods, characterized by the absence of mantle and shell, the reduction of the ventral surface of the foot, and the parapodial fins at the anterior end of the body. They are all pelagic. Fam. 2. - Pneumonodermatidae. Pharynx evaginable, with suckers. Pneumonoderma. Dexiobranchaea. Spongiobranchaea. Schizobrachium. Fam. 3. - Clionopsidae. No buccal appendages or suckers; a very long evaginable proboscis; a quadriradiate terminal branchia. Clionopsis. Fam. 4. - Notobranchaeidae. Posterior branchia triradiate. Notobranchaea. Fam. 5. - Thliptodontidae. Head very large, not marked off from the body; neither branchia nor suckers; fins situated near the middle of the body. Thliptodon. Fam. 6. - Clionidae. No branchia FIG. 51. - Embryo of Cavolinia tridentate. (From Balfour, after Fol.) foot. FIG. 52. - Styliola acicula, foot. Rang. sp. enlarged. (From Owen.) C, C, The wing-like lobes of the foot.

d, Median fold of same.

e, Copulatory organ.

h, Pointed extremity of the shell.

yolk. i, Anterior margin of the n, Stomach. [shell.

o, Liver.

u, Hermaphrodite gonad.

of any kind; a short evaginable pharynx, bearing paired conical buccal appendages or " cephalocones." Clione. Paraclione. Fowlerina. Fam. 7. - Halopsychidae. No branchia; two long and branched buccal appendages. Halopsyche. Tribe 3. - Pleurobranchomorpha. Two pairs of tentacles. Foot without parapodia; no pallial cavity, but always a single ctenidium situated on the right side between mantle and foot. Genital duct diaulic, without open seminal groove; male and female apertures contiguous. Visceral commissure short, tendency to concentration of all ganglia in dorsal side of oesophagus.

Fam. 1. - Tylodinidae. Shell external and conical; anterior tentacles form a frontal veil; ctenidium extending only over right side; a distinct osphradium. Tylodina. Fam. 2. - Umbrellidae. Shell external, conical, much flattened; anterior tentacles very small, and situated with the mouth in a notch of the foot below the head; ctenidium very large. Umbrella. Fam. 3. - Pleurobranchidae. Shell covered by mantle, or absent; anterior tentacles form a frontal veil; mantle contains spicules. Pleurobranchus. Berthella. Haliotinella. Oscanius, British. Oscaniella. Oscaniopsis. Pleurobranchaea. Sub-order 2. - Nudibranchia. Shell absent in the adult; no ctenidium or osphradium. Body generally slug-like, and externally symmetrical. Visceral mass not marked off from the foot, except in Hedylidae. Dorsal respiratory appendages frequently present. Visceral commissure reduced; nervous system concentrated on dorsal side of oesophagus. Marine; generally carnivorous, and brightly coloured, affording many instances of protective resemblance.

Tribe I. - Tritoniomorpha. Liver wholly or partially contained in the visceral mass. Anus lateral, on the right side. Usually two rows of ramified dorsal appendages. Genital duct diaulic; male and female apertures contiguous.

Fam. 1. - Tritoniidae. Anterior tentacles form a frontal veil; foot rather broad. Tritonia, British. Marionia. Fam. 2. - Scyllaeidae. No anterior tentacles; dorsal appendages broad and foliaceous; foot very narrow; stomach with horny plates. Scyllaea, pelagic.

Fam. 3. - Phyllirhoidae. No anterior tentacles, and no dorsal appendages; body laterally compressed, transparent; pelagic. Phyllirhoe. Fam. 4. - Tethyidae. Head broad, surrounded by a funnel-shaped velum or hood; no radula; dorsal appendages foliaceous. Tethys. Melibe. Fam. 5. - Dendronotidae. Anterior tentacles forming a scalloped frontal veil; dorsal appendages and tentacles similarly ramified. Dendronotus. Campaspe. Fam. 6. - Bornellidae. Dorsum furnished on either side with papillae, at the base of which are ramified appendages. Bornella. Fam. 7. - Lomanotidae. Body flattened, the two dorsal borders prominent and foliaceous. Lomanotus, British.

Tribe 2. - Doridomorpha. Body externally symmetrical; anus median, posterior, and generally dorsal, surrounded by ramified pallial appendages, constituting a secondary branchia. Liver not ramified in the integuments. Genital duct triaulic. Spicules present in the mantle.

Fam. I. - Polyceratidae. A more or less prominent frontal a, Anus.

f, Median portion of the pn, Pteropodial lobe of the h, Heart.

i, Intestine.

m, Mouth.

ot, Otocyst.

q, Shell.

r, Nephridium.

s, Oesophagus.

Q, Sac containing nutritive mb, Mantle-skirt.

mc, Sub-pallial chamber. Kn, Contractile sinus.

FIG. 53. - Halopsyche gaudichaudii, Soul. (From Owen.) Much enlarged; the body-wall removed.

a, The mouth.

c, The pteropodial lobes of the foot. f, The centrally :placed hind-foot.

d, 1, e, Three pairs of tentacle-like processes placed at the sides of the mouth, and developed (in all probability) from the fore-foot.

o', Anus.

y, Genital pore.

k, Retractor muscles.

o and p, The liver.

u, v, w, Genitalia.

FIG. 54. - A ncula cristata, one of the pygobranchiate Opis thobranchs (dorsal view). (From Gegenbaur, after Alder and Hancock.) a, Anus.

br, Secondary branchia surrounding the anus.

1, Cephalic tentacles.

External to the branchia are seen ten club-like processes of the dorsal wall, these are the " cerata " which are characteristically developed in another sub-order of Opisthobranchs.


veil; branchiae non-retractile. Euplocamus. Polycera, British. Thecacera, British. Aegirus, British. Plocamopherus. Patio. Crimora. Triopa, British. Triopella. Fam. 2. - Goniodorididae. Mantle-border projecting; frontal veil reduced, and often covered by the anterior border of the mantle. Goniodoris, British. Acanthodoris, British. Idalia, British. Ancula, British. Doridunculus. Lamellidoris. Ancylodoris, the only fresh-water Nudibranch, from Lake Baikal. Fam. 3. - Heterodorididae. No branchia. Heterodoris. Fam. 4. - Dorididae. Mantle oval, covering the head and the greater part of the body; anterior tentacles,. ill-developed; branchiae generally retractile. Doris, British. Hexabranchus. Chromodoris. Fam. 5. - Doridopsidae. Pharynx suctorial; no radula; branchial rosette on the dorsal surface, above the mantle-border. Doridopsis. Fam. 6. - Corambidae. Anus and branchia posterior, below the mantle-border. Corambe. Fam. 7. - Phyllidiidae. Pharynx suctorial; branchiae surrounding the body, between the mantle and foot. Phyllidia. Fryeria. The last three families constitute the sub-tribe Porostomata, characterized by the reduction of the buccal mass, which is modified into a suctorial apparatus.

Tribe 3.-Eolidomorpha (Cladohepatica). The whole of the liver contained in the integuments and tegumentary papillae. Genital duct diaulic; male and female apertures contiguous. The anus is antero-lateral, except in the Proctonotidae, in which it is median. Tegumentary papillae not ramified, and containing cnidosacs with nematocysts.

Fam. 1. - Eolididae. Dorsal papillae spindle-shaped or clubshaped. Eolis, British. Facelina, British. Tergipes, British. Gonieolis. Cuthona. Embletonia. Galvina. Calma. Hero. Fam. 2. - Glaucidae. Body furnished with three pairs of lateral lobes, bearing the tegumentary papillae; foot very narrow; pelagic. Glaucus. Fam. 3. - Hedylidae. Body elongated; visceral mass marked off from foot posteriorly; dorsal appendages absent, or reduced to a single pair; spicules in the integument. Hedyle. Fam. 4. - Pseudovermidae. Head without tentacles; body elongated; anus on right side. Pseudovermis. Fam. 5. - Proctonotidae. Anus posterior, median; anterior tentacles, atrophied; foot broad. Janus, British. Proctonotus, British.

Fam. 6. - Dotonidae. Bases of the rhinophores surrounded by a sheath; dorsal papillae tuberculated and club-shaped, in a single row on either side of the dorsum; no cnidosacs. Doto, British. Gellina. Heromorpha. Fam. 7. - Fionidae. Dorsal papillae with a membranous expansion; male and female apertures at some distance from each other; pelagic. Fiona. Fam. 8. - Pleurophyllidae. Anterior tentacles in the form of a digging shield; mantle without appendages, but respiratory papillae beneath the mantle-border. Pleurophyllidia. Fam. 9. - Dermatobranchidae. Like the last, but wholly without branchiae. Dermatobranchus. Tribe 4.-Elysiomorpha. Liver ramifies in integuments and extends into dorsal papillae, but there are no cnidosacs. Genital duct always triaulic, and male and female apertures distant from each other. No mandibles, and radula uniserial. Never more than one pair of tentacles, and these are absent in Alderia and some species of Limapontia. Fam. i. - Hermaeidae. Foot narrow; dorsal papillae linear or fusiform, in several - series. Hermaea, British. Stiliger. Alderia, British.

Fam. 2. - Phyllo - branchidae. Foot broad; dorsal papillae flattened and foliaceous. Phyllobranchus. Cyerce. F a m. 3. - Plakobranchidae. Body depressed, without dorsal papillae, but with two very large lateral expansions, with dorsal plications. Plakobranchus. Fam. 4. - Elysiidae. Body elongated, with lateral expansions; tentacles large; foot narrow. Elysia, British. Tridachia. Fam. 5. - Limapontiidae. No lateral expansions, and no dorsal papillae; body planariform; anus dorsal, median and posterior. Limapontia, British. Actaeonia, British. Cenia. Order 2 (of the Euthyneura). - PuLMONATA. Euthyneurous Gastropoda, probably derived from ancestral forms similar to the Tectibranchiate Opisthobranchia by adaptation to a terrestrial life. The ctenidium is atrophied, and the edge of the mantle-skirt is fused to the dorsal integument by concrescence, except at one point which forms the aperture of the mantle-chamber, thus converted into a nearly closed sac. Air is admitted to this sac for respiratory and hydrostatic purposes, and it thus becomes a lung. An operculum is present only in Amphibola; a contrast being thus afforded with the operculate pulmonate Streptoneura (Cyclostoma, &c.), which differ in other essential features of structure from the Pulmonata. The Pulmonata are, like the other Euthyneura, hermaphrodite, with elaborately developed copulatory organs and accessory glands. Like other Euthyneura, they have very numerous small denticles on the lingual ribbon. In aquatic Pulmonata the osphradium is retained.

In some Pulmonata (snails) the foot is extended at right angles to the visceral hump, which rises from it in the form of a coil as in Streptoneura; in others the visceral hump is not elevated, but is extended with the foot, and the shell is small or absent (slugs).

Pulmonata are widely distinguished from a small number of Streptoneura at one time associated with them on account of their mantle-chamber being converted, as in Pulmonata, into a lung, and the ctenidium or branchial plume aborted. The terrestrial Streptoneura (represented in England by the common genus Cyclostoma) FIG. 56. - A Series of Stylommatophorous Pulmonata, showing transitional forms between snail and slug.

A, Helix pomatia. (From Keferstein.) B, Helicophanta brevipes. (From Keferstein, after Pfeiffer.) C, Testacella haliotidea. (From Keferstein.) D, Anion ater, the great black slug. (From Keferstein.) a, Shell in A, B, C, shell-sac (closed) in D; b, orifice leading into the subpallial chamber (lung).

have a twisted visceral nerve-loop, an operculum on the foot, a complex rhipidoglossate or taenio-glossate radula, and are of distinct sexes. The Pulmonata have a straight visceral nerve-loop, usually no operculum even in the embryo, and a multidenticulate radula, the teeth being equi-formal; and they are hermaphrodite. Some Pulmonata (Limnaea, &c.) live in fresh waters although breathing air. The remarkable discovery has been made that in deep lakes such Limnaei do not breathe air, but admit water to the lung-sac and live at the bottom. The lung-sac serves undoubtedly as a hydrostatic apparatus in the aquatic Pulmonata, as well as assisting respiration.

The same general range of body-form is shown in Pulmonata as in the Heteropoda and in the Opisthobranchia; at one extreme we have snails with coiled visceral hump, at the other cylindrical or flattened slugs (see fig. 56). Limpet-like forms are also found (fig. 57, Ancylus). The foot is always simple, with its flat crawling surface extending from end to end, but in the embryo Limnaea it shows a bilobed character, which leads on to the condition characteristic of Pteropoda.

FIG. 55. - Dorsal and Ventral View of Pleurophyllidia lineata (Otto), one of the Eolidomorph Nudibranchs. (After Keferstein.) b, The mouth.

1, The lamelliform sub-pallial gills, which (as in Patella) replace the typical Molluscan ctenidium.

FIG. 57. - A ncylus fluviatilis, a patelliform aquatic Pulmonate.


The adaptation of the Pulmonata to terrestrial life has entailed little modification of the internal organization. In one genus (Planorbis) the plasma of the blood is coloured red by haemoglobin, this being the only instance of the presence of this body in the blood of Glossophorous Mollusca, though it occurs in corpuscles in the blood of the bivalves Arca and Solen (Lankester).

The generative apparatus of the snail (Helix) may serve as an example of the hermaphrodite apparatus common to the Pulmonata and Opisthobranchia (fig. 58). From the ovo-testis, which lies near the apex of the visceral coil, a common hermaphrodite duct ve proceeds, which receives the duct of the compact white albuminiparous gland, Ed, and then becomes much enlarged, the additional width being due to the development of glandular folds, which are regarded as forming a uterus u. Where these folds cease the common duct splits into two portions, a male and a female. The male duct vd becomes fleshy and muscular near its termination at the genital pore, forming the penis p. Attached to it is a diverticulum fl, in which the spermatozoa which have descended from the ovo-testis are stored and modelled into sperm ropes or spermatophores. The female portion of the duct is more complex. Soon after quitting the uterus it is joined by a long duct leading from a glandular sac, the spermatheca (Rf). In this duct and sac the spermatophores received in copulation from another snail are lodged. In Helix hortensis the spermatheca is simple. In other species of Helix a second duct (as large in Helix aspersa as the chief one) is given off from the spermathecal duct, and in the natural state is closely adherent to the wall of the uterus. This second duct has normally no spermathecal gland at its termination, which is simple and blunt. But in rare cases in Helix aspersa a second spermatheca is found at the end of this second duct. Tracing the widening female duct onwards we now come to the openings of the digitate accessory glands d, d, which probably assist in the formation of the egg-capsule. Close to them is the remarkable dart-sac ps, a thick-walled sac, in the lumen of which a crystalline four-fluted rod or dart consisting of carbonate of lime is found. It is supposed to act in some way as a stimulant in copulation, but possibly has to do with the calcareous covering of the egg-capsule. Other Pulmonata exhibit variations of secondary importance in the details of this hermaphrodite apparatus.

The nervous system of Helix is not favourable as an example on account of the fusion of the ganglia to form an almost uniform ring of nervous matter around the oesophagus. The pond-snail (Limnaeus) furnishes, on the other hand, a very beautiful case of distinct ganglia and connecting cords (fig. 59). The demonstration which it affords of the extreme shortening of the Euthyneurous visceral nerve-loop is most instructive and valuable for comparison with and explanation of the condition of the nervous centres in Cephalopoda, as also of some Opisthobranchia. The figure (fig. 59) is sufficiently described in the letterpress attached to it; the pair of buccal ganglia joined by the connectives to the cerebrals are, as in most of our figures, omitted. Here we need only further draw attention to the osphradium, discovered by Lacaze-Duthiers, and shown by Spengel to agree in its innervation with that organ in all other Gastropoda. On account of the shortness of the visceral loop and the proximity of the right visceral ganglion to the oesophageal nerve-ring, the nerve to the osphradium and olfactory ganglion is very long. The position of the osphradium corresponds more or less closely with that of the vanished right ctenidium, with which it is normally associated. In Helix and Limax the osphradium has not been described, and possibly its discovery might clear up the doubts which have been raised as to the nature of the mantle-chamber of those genera. In Planorbis, which is sinistral (as are a few other genera or exceptional varieties of various Anisopleurous Gastropods). instead of being destral, 'the osphradium is on the left side, and receives its nerve from the left visceral ganglion, the whole series of unilateral organs being reversed. This is, as might be expected, what is found to be the case in all " reversed " Gastropods.

The shell of the Pulmonata, though always light and delicate, is in many cases a well-developed spiral " house," into which the creature can withdraw itself; and, although the foot possesses no operculum, yet in Helix the aperture of the shell is closed in the winter by a complete lid, the " hybernaculum," more or less calcareous in nature, which is secreted by the froot. In Clausilia a peculiar modification of this lid exists permanently in the adult, attached by an elastic stalk to the mouth of the shell, and known as the " clausilium." In Limnaeus the permanent shell is preceded in the embryo by a wellmarked shell-gland or primitive shell-sac (fig. 60), at one time supposed to be the developing anus, but shown by Lankester to be identical with the " shell-gland " discovered by him in other Mollusca (Pisidium, Pleurobranchidium, Neritina, &c.). As in other Gastropoda Anisopleura, this shell-sac may abnormally develop a plug of chitinous matter, but normally it flattens out and disappears, whilst the cap-like rudiment of the permanent shell is shed out from the dome-like surface of the visceral hump, in the centre of which the shell-sac existed for a brief period.

In Clausilia, according to the observations of C. Gegenbaur, the primitive shell-sac does not flatten out and disappear, but takes the form of a flattened closed sac. Within this closed sac a plate of calcareous matter is developed, and after a time the upper wall of the sac disappears, and the calcareous plate continues to grow as the nucleus of the permanent shell. In the slug Testacella (fig. 56, C) the shell-plate never attains a large size, though naked. In other slugs, namely, Limax and Anion, the shell-sac remains permanently closed over the shell-plate, which in the latter genus consists of a granular mass of carbonate of lime. The permanence of the primitive shell-sac in these slugs is a point of considerable interest. It is clear enough that the sac is of a different origin from that of Aplysia (described in the section treating of Opisthobranchia), being primitive instead of secondary. It seems probable that it is identical with one of the open sacs in which each shell-plate of a Chiton is formed, and the series of plate-like imbrications which are placed behind the single shell-sac on the dorsum of the curious slug, Plectrophorus, suggest the possibility of the formation of a series of shellsacs on the back of that animal similar to those which we find in Chiton. Whether the closed primitive shell-sac of the slugs (and with it the transient embryonic shell-gland of all other Mollusca) is precisely the same thing as the closed sac in which the calcareous pen or shell of the Cephalopod Sepia and its allies is formed, is a further question which we shall consider when dealing with the Cephalopoda. It is important here to note that Clausilia furnishes us with an exceptional instance of the continuity of the shell or secreted product of the primitive shell - sac with the adult shell. In most other Mollusca (Anisopleurous Gastropods, Pteropods and Conchifera) there is a want of such continuity; the primitive shell-sac contributes no factor to the permanent shell, or only a very minute FIG. 59. - Nervous System of the Pond knob - like particle Snail, Limnaeus stagnalis, as a type of the (Neritina and Palu- short-looped euthyneurous condition. The diva). It flattens out short visceral " loop " with its three ganglia and disappears before is lightly-shaded.

the work of forming ce, Cerebral ganglion.

the permanent shell pe, Pedal ganglion.

commences. And just pl, Pleural ganglion.

as there is a break ab, Abdominal ganglion. ° at this stage, so (as sp, Visceral ganglion of the left side; op observed by A. Krohn posite to it is the visceral ganglion of in Marsenia =Echino- the right side, which gives off the long spira) there may be a nerve to the olfactory ganglion and break at a later stage, osphradium o. the nautiloid shell In Planorbis and in Auricula (Pulmonata, formed on the larva allied to Limnaeus) the olfactory organ is being cast, and a new on the left side and receives its nerve from shell of a different form the left visceral:ganglion. (After Spengel.) being formed afresh on the surface of the visceral hump. It is, then, in this sense that we may speak of primary, secondary and tertiary shells in Mollusca, recognizing the fact that they may be merely phases fused by continuity of growth so as to form but one shell, or that in other cases they may be presented to us as separate individual things, in virtue of the non-development of the later phases, or in virtue of sudden changes in the activity of the mantle-surface causing the shedding FIG. 58. - Hermaphrodite Reproductive Apparatus of the Garden Snail (Helix horlensis). z, Ovo-testis.

y e, Hermaphrodite duct. Ed, Albuminiparous gland. u, Uterine dilatation of the hermaphrodite duct.

Digitate accessory glands on the female duct.

Calciferous gland or dart-sac on the female duct.

Spermatheca or receptacle of the sperm in copulation, opening into the female duct. Male duct (vas deferens).




d, 'ps, ' Rf, vd, 'd` ' 'J?1 ' Pe;:--pd 'ee ' or disappearance of one phase of shell-formation before a later one is entered upon.

The development of the aquatic Pulmonata from the egg offers considerable facilities for study, and that of Limnaeus has been elucidated by E. R. Lankester, whilst H. Rabl has with remarkable skill applied the method of sections to the study of the minute embryos of Planorbis. The chief features in the development of Limnaeus are exhibited in fig. 60. There is not a very large amount of food-material present in the egg of this snail, and accordingly the cells resulting from division are not so unequal as in many other cases. The four cells first formed are of equal size, and then four smaller cells are formed by division of these four so as to lie at one end of the first four (the pole corresponding to that at which the " directive corpuscles " are extruded and remain). The smaller cells now divide and spread over the four larger cells; at the same time a space - the cleavage cavity or blastocoel - forms in the centre of the mulberry-like mass. Then the large cells recommence the process of division and sink into the hollow of the sphere, leaving an elongated groove, the blastopore, on the surface. The invaginated cells (derived from the division of the four big cells) form the endoderm or arch-enteron; the outer cells are the ectoderm. The blastopore now closes along the middle part of its course, which coincides z s FIG. 60. - Embryo of Limnaeus stagnalis, at a stage when the Trochosphere is developing foot and shell-gland and becoming a Veliger, seen as a transparent object under slight pressure. (Lankester.) ph, Pharynx (stomodaeal inattachment to the ecto vagination). derm is coincident with the v, v, The ciliated band marking hindmost extremity of the out the velum. elongated blastopore of fig.

ng, Cerebral nerve-ganglion. 3, C.

re, Stiebel's canal (left side), tge, Mesoblastic (skeletotrophic probably an evanescent and muscular) cells invest embryonic nephridium. ing gs, the bilobed arch sh, The primitive shell-sac or enteron or lateral vesicles shell-gland ° of invaginated endoderm, pi, The rectal peduncle or whichwill develop into liver. pedicle of invagination; its f, The foot.

in position with the future " foot." One end of the blastopore becomes nearly closed, and an ingrowth of ectoderm takes place around it to form the stomodaeum or fore-gut and mouth. The other extreme end closes, but the invaginated endoderm cells remain in continuity with this extremity of the blastopore, and form the " rectal peduncle " or " pedicle of invagination " of Lankester, although the endoderm cells retain no contact with the middle region of the now closed-up blastopore. The anal opening forms at a late period by a very short ingrowth or proctodaeum coinciding with the blind termination of the rectal peduncle (fig. 60, pi). The body-cavity and the muscular, fibrous and vascular tissues are traced partly to two symmetrically disposed " mesoblasts," which bud off from the invaginated arch-enteron, partly to cells derived from the ectoderm, which at a very early stage is connected by long processes with the invaginated endoderm. The external form of the embryo goes through the same changes as in other Gastropods, and is not, as was held previously to Lankester's observations, exceptional. When the middle and hinder regions of the blastopore are closing in, an equatorial ridge of ciliated cells is formed, converting the embryo into a typical trochosphere.

The foot now protrudes below the mouth, and the post-oral hemisphere of the trochosphere grows more rapidly then the anterior or velar area. The young foot shows a bilobed form. Within the velar area the eyes and the cephalic tentacles commence to rise up, and on the surface of the post-oral region is formed a cap-like shell and an encircling ridge, which gradually increases in prominence and becomes the freely depending mantle-skirt. The outline of the velar area becomes strongly emarginated and can be traced through the more mature embr y os to the cephalic lobes or labial processes of the adult Limnaeus (fig. 61).

The increase of the visceral dome, its spiral twisting, and the gradual closure of the space overhung by the mantle-skirt so as to v / FIG. 61. - A, B, C. Three views of Limnaeus stagnalis, in order to show the persistence of the larval velar area v, as the circum-oral lobes of the adult. m, Mouth; f, foot; v, velar area, the margin v corresponding with the ciliated band which demarcates the velar area or velum of the embryo Gastropod (see fig. 4, D, E, F, H, I, v). (Original.) convert it into a lung-sac with a small contractile aperture, belong to stages in the development later than any represented in our figures. We may now revert briefly to the internal organization at a period when the trochosphere is beginning to show a prominent foot growing out from the area where the mid-region of the elongated blastopore was situated, and having therefore at one end of it the mouth and at the other the anus. Fig. 60 represents such an embryo under slight compression as seen by transmitted light. The ciliated band of the left side of the velar area is indicated by a line extending from v to v; the foot f is seen between the pharynx ph and the pedicle of invagination pi. The mass of the arch-enteron or invaginated endodermal sac has taken on a bilobed form, and its cells are swollen (gs and tge). This bilobed sac becomes entirely the liver in the adult; the intestine and stomach are formed from the pedicle of invagination, whilst the pharynx, oesophagus and crop form from the stomodaeal invagination ph. To the right (in the figure) of the rectal peduncle is seen the deeply invaginated shell-gland ss, with a secretion sh protruding from it. The shell-gland is destined in Limnaeus to become very rapidly stretched out, and to disappear. Farther up, within the velar area, the rudiments of the cerebral nerve-ganglion ng are seen separating from the ectoderm. A remarkable cord of cells having a position just below the integument occurs on each side of the head. In the figure the cord of the left side is seen, marked re. This paired organ consists of a string of cells which are perforated by a duct opening to the exterior and ending internally in a flame-cell. Such cannulated cells are characteristic of the nephridia of many worms, and the organs thus formed in the embryo Limnaeus are embryonic nephridia. The most important fact about them is that they disappear, and are in no way connected with the typical nephridium of the adult. In reference to their first observer they were formerly called " Stiebel's canals." Other Pulmonata possess, when embryos, Stiebel's canals in a more fully developed state, for instance, the common slug Limax. Here too they disappear during embryonic life. Similar larval nephridia occur in other Gastropoda. In the marine Streptoneura they are ectodermic projections which ultimately fall off; in the Opisthobranchs they are closed pouches; in Paludina and Bithynia they are canals as in Pulmonata.

Marine Pulmonata

Whilst the Pulmonata are essentially a terrestrial and fresh-water group, there is one genus of slug-like °:ti FIG. 62. - Oncidium tonganum, a littoral Pulmonate, found on the shores of the Indian and Pacific Oceans (Mauritius, Japan).

Pulmonates which frequent the sea-coast (Oncidium, fig. 62). Karl Semper has shown that these slugs have, in addition to the usual pair of cephalic eyes, a number of eyes developed upon the dorsal integument. These dorsal eyes are very perfect in elaboration, possessing lens, retinal nerve-end cells, retinal pigment and optic nerve. Curiously enough, however, they differ from the cephalic Molluscan eye in the fact that, as in the vertebrate eye, the filaments of the optic nerve penetrate the retina, and are connected with the re surfaces of the nerve-end cells nearer the lens instead of with the opposite end. The significance of this arrangement is not known, but it is important to note, as shown by V. Henson, S. J. Hickson and others, that in the bivalves Pecten and Spondylus, which also have eyes upon the mantle quite distinct from typical cephalic eyes, there is the same relationship as in Oncidiidae of the optic nerve to the retinal cells. In both Oncidiidae and Pecten the pallial eyes have probably been developed by the modification of tentacles, such as coexist in an unmodified form with the eyes. The Oncidiidae are, according to K. Semper, pursued as food by the leaping fish Periophthalmus, and the dorsal eyes are of especial value to them in aiding them to escape from this enemy.

Sub-order I.-Basommatophora. Pulmonata with an external shell. The head bears a single pair of contractile but not invaginable tentacles, at the base of which are the eyes. Penis at some distance from the female aperture, except in Amphibola and Siphonaria. All have an osphradium, except the Auriculidae, which are terrestrial, and it is situated outside the pallial cavity in those forms in which water is not admitted into the lung. There is a veliger stage in development, but the velum is reduced.

Fam. I. - Auriculidae. Terrestrial and usually littoral; genital duct monaulic, the penis being connected with the aperture by an open or closed groove; shell with a prominent spire, the internal partitions often absorbed and the aperture denticulated. Auricula. Cassidula. Alexia. Melampus. Carychium, terrestrial, British. Scarabus. Leuconia, British. Blauneria. Pedipes. Fam. 2. - Otinidae. Shell with short spire, and wide oval aperture; tentacles short. Otina, British. Camptonyx, terrestrial.

Fam. 3. - Amphibolidae. Shell spirally coiled; head broad, without prominent tentacles; foot short, operculated; marine. Amphibola. Fam. 4. - Siphonariidae. Visceral mass and shell conical; tentacles atrophied; head expanded; genital apertures contiguous; marine animals, with an aquatic pallial cavity containing secondary branchial laminae. Siphonaria. Fam. 5. - Gadiniidae. Visceral mass and shell conical; head flattened; pallial cavity aquatic, but without a branchia; genital apertures separated. Gadinia. Fam. 6. - Chilinidae. Shell ovoid, with short spire, wide aperture and folded columella; inferior pallial lobe thick; visceral commissure still twisted. Chilina. Fam. 7. - Limnaeidae. Shell thin, dextral, with prominent spire and oval aperture; no inferior pallial lobe. Limnaea, British. Amphipeplea, British.

Fam. 8. - Pompholygidae. Shell dextral, hyperstrophic, animal sinistral. Pompholyx. Choanomphalus. Fam. 9. - Planorbidae. Visceral mass and shell sinistral; inferior pallial lobe very prominent, and transformed into a branchia. Planorbis, British. Bulinus. Miratesta. Fam. Io. - Ancylidae. Shell conical, not spiral; inferior pallial lobe transformed into a branchia. Ancylus, British. Latia. Grundlachia. Fam. II. - Physidae. Visceral mass and shell sinistrally coiled; shell thin, with narrow aperture; no inferior pallial lobe. Physa, British. Aplexa, British.

Sub-order 2.- Stylommatophora. Pulmonata with two pairs of tentacles, except Janellidae and Vertigo; these tentacles are invaginable, and the eyes are borne on the summits of the posterior pair. Male and female genital apertures open into a common vestibule, except in Vaginulidae and Oncidiidae. Except in Oncidium, there is no longer a veliger stage in development.

Tribe I.-Holognatha. Jaw simple, without a superior appendage.

Fam. I. - Selenitidae. Radula with elongated and pointed teeth, like those of the Agnatha; a jaw present. Plutonia. Trigonochlamys. Fam. 2. - Zonitidae. Shell external, smooth, heliciform or flattened; radula with pointed marginal teeth. Zonites, British. Ariophanta. Orpiella. Vitrina. Helicarion. Fam. 3. - Limacidae. Shell internal. Limax, British. Parmacella. Urocyclus. Parmarion. Amalia. Agriolimax. Mesolimax. Monochroma. Paralimax. Metalimax. Fam. 4. - Philomycidae. No shell; mantle covers the whole surface of the body; radula with squarish teeth. Pkilomycus. Fam. 5. - Ostracolethidae. Shell largely chitinous, not spiral, its calcareous apex projecting through a small hole in the mantle. Ostracolethe. Fam. 6. - Arionidae. Shell internal, or absent; mantle restricted to the anterior and middle part of the body; radula with squarish teeth. Anion, British. Geomalacus. Ariolimax. Anadenus. Fam. 7. - Helicidae. Shell with medium spire, external or partly covered by the mantle; genital aperture below the right posterior tentacle; genital apparatus generally provided with a dart-sac and multifid vesicles. Helix, British. Bulimus. Hemphillia. Berendtia. Cochlostyla. Rhodea. Fam. 8. - Endodontidae. Shell external, spiral, generally ornamented with ribs; borders of aperture thin and not reflected; radula with square teeth; genital ducts without accessory organs. Endodonta. Punctum. Sphyradium. Laoma. Pyramidula. Fam. 9. - Orthalicidae. Shell external, ovoid, the last whorl. swollen, aperture oval with a simple border; radular teeth in. oblique rows. Orthalicus. Fam. Io. - Bulimulidae. Jaw formed of folds imbricated externally and meeting at an acute angle near the base. Bulimulus. Peltella. Amphibulimus. Fam. II. - Cylindrellidae. Shell turriculated, with numerous. whorls, the last more or less detached. Cylindrella. Fam. 12. - Pupidae. Shell external, with elongated spire and numerous whorls, aperture generally narrow; male genital duct without multifid vesicles. Pupa, British. Eucalodium. Vertigo, British. Buliminus, British. Clausilia, British. Balea. Zospeum. Megaspira. Strophia. Anostoma. Fam. 13. - Stenogyridae. Shell elongated, with a more or less. obtuse summit; aperture with a simple border. Achatina. Stenogyra. Ferussacia, British. Cionella. Caecilianella. Azeca. Opeas. Fam. 14. - Helicteridae. Shell bulimoid, dextral or sinistral; radular teeth, expanded at their extremities and multicuspidate. Helicter. Tornatellina. Tribe 2.- Agnatha. No jaws; teeth narrow and pointed; carnivorous.

Fam. I. - Oleacinidae. Shell oval, elongated, with narrow aperture; neck very long; labial palps prominent. Oleacina (Glandina). Streptostyla. Fam. 2. - Testacellidae. Shell globular or auriform, external or partly covered by the mantle. Streptaxis. Gibbulina. Aerope. Rhytida. Daudebardia. Testacella. Chlamydophorus. Schizo glossa. Fam. 3. - Rathouisiidae. No shell, a carinated mantle covering the whole body; male and female apertures distant, the female near the anus. Rathouisia. Atopos. Tribe 3.- Elasmognatha. Jaw with a well-developed dorsal appendage.

Fam. I. - Succineidae. Anterior tentacles much reduced; male and female apertures contiguous but distinct; shell thin,. spiral, with short spire. Succinea, British. Homalonyx. Hyalimax. Neohyalimax. Fam. 2. - Janellidae. Limaciform, with internal rounded shell; mantle very small and triangular; pulmonary chamber with tracheae; no anterior tentacles. Janella. Aneitella. Aneitea. Triboniophorus. Tribe 4.- Ditremata. Male and female apertures distant. Fam. 1. - Vaginulidae. No shell; limaciform; terrestrial; female aperture on right side in middle of body; anus posterior.

Vaginula. Fam. 2. - Oncidiidae. No shell; limaciform; littoral; female aperture posterior, near anus; a reduced pulmonary cavity with a distinct aperture. Oncidium. Oncidiella, British. Peronia. Authorities.-L. Boutan, " La Cause principale de l'asymetrie des mollusques gasteropodes," Arch. de zool. exper. (3), vii. (1899); A. Lang, " Versuch einer Erklarung der Asymmetric der Gastropoder," Vierteljahrsschr. naturforsch. Gesellschaft, Ziirichr 36 (1892); A. Robert, " Recherches sur le developpement des Troques," Arch. de zool. expel'. (3), x. (1903); P. Pelseneer, " Report on the Pteropoda," Zool. " Challenger " Expedit. pts. lviii., lxv., lxvi. (1887, 1888); P. Pelseneer, " Protobranches aeriens et Pulmones branchiferes," Arch. de biol. xiv. (1895); W. A. Herdman, " On the Structure and Functions of the Cerata or Dorsal Papillae in some Nudibranchiate Mollusca," Quart. Journ. Mic. Sci. (1892): J. T. Cunningham, " On the Structure and Relations of the Kidney in Aplysia," Mitt. Zool. Stat. Neapel, iv. (1883); Bohmig, " Zur feineren Anatomic von Rhodope veranyi, Kolliker," Zeitschr. f. wiss. Zool. vol. lvi. (1893).

TREATISES.-S. P. Woodward, Manual of the Mollusca (2nd ed., with appendix, London, 1869); E. Forbes and S. Hanley, History of British Mollusca (4 vols., London, 1853) Alder and Hancock, Monograph of British Nudibranchiate Mollusca (London, Roy. Society, 1845); P. Pelseneer, Mollusca. Treatise on Zool., edited by E. Ray Lankester, pt. v. (1906); E. Ray Lankester, " Mollusca," in 9th ed. of this Encyclopaedia, to which this article is much indebted. (J T. C.)

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Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary




Proper noun

Wikipedia has an article on:



  1. a taxonomic class, within phylum Mollusca - the gastropods or univalves
Wikispecies has information on:


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Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies


Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Spiralia
Cladus: Lophotrochozoa
Phylum: Mollusca
Classis: Gastropoda
Subclasses: Eogastropoda - Orthogastropoda - Incertae sedis


Gastropoda F. Cuvier, 1797


  • Bouchet, P.; Rocroi, J.-P. 2005: Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia, 47: 1-397.
  • Paul Jeffery & The Natural History Museum, London, 2001-3. Gastropod Classification. [1]
  • Ponder, W. F. & Lindberg, D. R., 1997. Towards a phylogeny of gastropod molluscs: an analysis using morphological characters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 119: 83-265.
  • Poppe, G.T.; Tagaro, S.P. 2006: The new classification of gastropods according to Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005. Visaya, Feb. 2006: 1-11. PDF

Vernacular names

Bahasa Melayu: Siput
Български: Коремоноги
Česky: Plži
Dansk: Snegl
Deutsch: Schnecken
Ελληνικά: Γαστερόποδα
English: Gastropods
Español: Gasterópodos
Français: Gastéropodes
한국어: 복족강
Հայերեն: Խխունջներ
Hrvatski: Puževi
Ido: Gasteropodo
Íslenska: Sniglar
Italiano: Gastropodi
עברית: חילזון
Lietuvių: Pilvakojai
Magyar: Csigák
Nederlands: Slakken
日本語: 腹足綱
‪Norsk (bokmål)‬: Snegler
Polski: Ślimaki
Português: Gastrópodes
Русский: Гастроподы
Suomi: Kotilot
Svenska: Snäckor
Türkçe: Karından bacaklılar
Українська: Черевоногі
中文: 腹足纲
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Gastropoda on Wikimedia Commons.

Simple English

File:Cypraea chinensis with partially extended
Cypraea chinensis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
Cuvier, 1797

Eogastropoda (true limpets and relatives)

[[File:|thumb|250px|Limpets, mussels and barnacles on a rock in the intertidal zone.]] The Gastropods, or univalves, are the largest and most successful class of molluscs. 60,000–75,000 known living species belong to it. Most of are marine, but many live in freshwater or on land. Their fossil record goes back to the later Cambrian.

Slugs and snails, abalones, limpets, cowries, conches, top shells, whelks, and sea slugs are all Gastropods. The gastropods are in origin sea-floor predators, though they did evolve into many other habitats. Many lines living today evolved in the Mesozoic era, taking advantage of the huge supply of food on the sea floor.


General description

Snails have torsion, a process where the body coils to one side during development. The significance of this procedure is not yet clear.[1]

They have a well-defined head with two or four sensory tentacles. They also have a head-foot, which it moves on. The eyes at the tip of the tentacles range from simple to more complex eyes. [2].

Most members have a shell, which is in one piece and coiled or spiralled; it usually opens on the right hand side (viewed with the shell apex pointing up). Some species have an operculum, a lid or trapdoor to close the shell. In some, the slugs, the shell is absent, and the body is streamlined. The best-known gastropods are land slugs and snails, but more than half of all species live in a marine environment. Marine gastropods include herbivores, detritus feeders, carnivores and a few ciliary feeders, in which the radula is reduced or absent. The radula is usually adapted to the food that a species eats.

The simplest gastropods are the limpets and abalones, both herbivores that use their hard radulas to rasp at seaweeds on rocks. Many marine gastropods are burrowers and have siphons or tubes that extend from the mantle and sometimes the shell. These act as snorkels, enabling the animal to continue to draw in a water current containing oxygen and food into their bodies. The siphons are also used to detect prey from a distance. These gastropods breathe with gills. Some freshwater species and almost all terrestric species have developed lungs.

Gastropods from several different families are caled sea slugs. They are often flamboyantly coloured, either as a warning if they are poisonous or to camouflage them on the corals and seaweeds on which many of the species are found. Their gills are often in a form of feathery plumes on their backs. This is what gives the name to the nudibranchs. Nudibranchs with smooth or warty backs have no visible gill mechanisms and respiration may take place directly through the skin. A few of the sea slugs are herbivores and some are carnivores. Many have distinct dietary preferences and regularly occur in association with certain species.


The taxonomy of the Gastropoda is at present under constant revision. Two major revisions have been published in the last twenty years,[3][4][5] and there will certainly be others. Much of the old taxonomy is being abandoned. The taxonomy of the Gastropoda can be different from author to author. With the arrival of DNA sequencing, further revisions of the higher taxonomic levels are to be expected.

According to modern ideas, the taxonomy of the Gastropoda should be written in terms of strictly monophyletic groups. It will be difficult to do this, and still have a practical taxonomy for working biologists. There are differences between the older groupings got from morphology, and those based on genome sequences.[6] Convergent evolution, which has occurred often in Gastropods, may account for these differences.

This was the traditional classification into four subclasses:

  • Prosobranchia: (gills in front of the heart).
  • Opisthobranchia: (gills to the right and behind the heart).
  • Gymnomorpha: (no shell)
  • Pulmonata: (with lungs instead of gills)

Geological history

The first gastropods were exclusively marine. The first of the group appeared in the Upper Cambrian (Chippewaella, Strepsodiscus). By the Ordovician period the gastropods were a varied group present in a few aquatic habitats. Commonly, fossil gastropods from the rocks of the early Palaeozoic era are too poorly preserved for accurate identification. Still, the Silurian genus Poleumita contains fifteen identified species. Fossil gastropods are less common during the Palaeozoic era than bivalves.

Most of the gastropods of that era belong to primitive groups. A few of these groups still survive today. By the Carboniferous period many of the shapes seen in living gastropods can be matched in the fossil record. Despite these similarities in appearance, the majority of these older forms are not directly related to living forms. It was during the Mesozoic era that the ancestors of many of the living gastropods evolved. One of the earliest known terrestrial (land-dwelling) gastropods is Maturipupa which is found in the Coal Measures of the Carboniferous period in Europe. In the case of the common fossil Bellerophon, from Carboniferous limestones in Europe, it is not known whether it is a gasropod or not.

Relatives of the modern land snails are rare before the Cretaceous period. The familiar Helix first appeared in that period.

In rocks of the Mesozoic era gastropods are more common as fossils and their shell is often well preserved. Their fossils occur in beds of both freshwater and marine environments. The "Purbeck Marble" of the Jurassic period and the "Sussex Marble" of the early Cretaceous period which both occur in southern England are limestones containing the tightly packed remains of the pond snail Viviparus.

Rocks of the Cainozoic era have very large numbers of gastropod fossils in them. Many of these fossils are closely related to modern living forms. The diversity of the gastropods increased markedly at the beginning of this era, along with that of the bivalves.

Gastropods are one of the groups that record the changes in fauna caused by the advance and retreat of the Ice Sheets during the Pleistocene epoch.

Gastropod pages

These pages illustrate the variety of gastropod forms. Abalone; Chiton; Conch; Cowry; Limpet; Nudibranch; Sea slug; Slug; Snail; Whelk;


  1. Page, Louise R. 2006. Modern insights on gastropod development: reevaluation of the evolution of a novel body plan. Integrative and Comparative Biology 46, 134–143. [1]
  2. Götting, Klaus-Jürgen (1994). "Schnecken". In Becker U. Ganter S. Just C. & Sauermost R.. Lexikon der Biologie. Heidelberg: Spektrum Akademischer Verlag. ISBN 3-86025-156-2. 
  3. Ponder W.F. & Lindberg D.R. 1996. Gastropod phylogeny—challenges for the 90s. p135–154. In: Taylor J. (ed) Origin and evolutionary radiation of the Mollusca. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  4. Ponder W. & Lindberg D.R. 1997. Towards a phylogeny of gastropod molluscs: an analysis using morphological characters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 119: 83–265.
  5. Bouchet P. & Rocroi J-P. (eds) together with Frýda J. Hausdorf B. Ponder W. Valdes A. & Warén A. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia: International Journal of Malacology, 47(1–2). ConchBooks: Hackenheim, Germany. ISBN 3-925919-72-4
  6. Jeffery, Paul 2001. Suprageneric classification of class GASTROPODA. The Natural History Museum, London.

Other websites

Look up Gastropoda in Wikispecies, a directory of species
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