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Gatifloxacin
Systematic (IUPAC) name
1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro- 8-methoxy-7-(3-methylpiperazin-1-yl)- 4-oxo-quinoline-3-carboxylic acid
Identifiers
CAS number 112811-59-3
ATC code J01MA16 S01AX21
PubChem 5379
DrugBank APRD00996
Chemical data
Formula C 19H22FN3O4  
Mol. mass 375.394 g/mol
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability  ?
Protein binding 20%
Metabolism  ?
Half life 7 to 14 hours
Excretion  ?
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.  ?
Legal status Rx only
Routes Oral (discontinued),
Intravenous (discontinued)
ophthalmic
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Gatifloxacin sold under the brand names Gatiflo, Tequin and Zymar, is an antibiotic of the fourth-generation fluoroquinolone family, that like other members of that family, inhibits the bacterial enzymes DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Bristol-Myers Squibb introduced Gatifloxacin in 1999 under the proprietary name Tequin for the treatment of respiratory tract infections, having licensed the medication from Kyorin Pharmaceutical Company of Japan. Allergan produces an eye-drop formulation called Zymar. In many countries, gatifloxacin is also available as tablets and in various aqueous solutions for intravenous therapy.

Contents

Side-effects and removal from the market

A Canadian study published in the New England Journal of Medicine in March 2006 claims Tequin can have "life threatening" side effects including serious diabetes.[1] An editorial by Dr. Jerry Gurwitz in the same issue called for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to consider giving Tequin a black box warning.[2] This editorial followed distribution of a letter dated February 15 by Bristol-Myers Squibb to health care providers indicating action taken with the FDA to strengthen warnings for the medication.[3] Subsequently it was reported on May 1, 2006 that Bristol-Myers Squibb would stop manufacture of Tequin, end sales of the drug after existing stockpiles were exhausted, and return all rights to Kyorin.[4]

Other serious side effects reported with gatifloxacin include hallucinations or liver damage.[5][6]

Contraindications

Diabetes[7]

Availability

Gatifloxacin is currently available only in the US and Canada as an ophthalmic solution.

In India it is sold in tablet as well as in eye drop formulations.

See also

References

  1. ^ Park-Wyllie, Laura Y.; David N. Juurlink, Alexander Kopp, Baiju R. Shah, Therese A. Stukel, Carmine Stumpo, Linda Dresser, Donald E. Low, Muhammad M. Mamdani (March 2006). "Outpatient Gatifloxacin Therapy and Dysglycemia in Older Adults". The New England Journal of Medicine 354 (13): 1352–1361. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa055191. PMID 16510739. http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/abstract/354/13/1352. Retrieved 2006-05-01.   Note: publication date 30 March; available on-line 1 March
  2. ^ Gurwitz, Jerry H. (March 2006). "Serious Adverse Drug Effects — Seeing the Trees through the Forest". The New England Journal of Medicine 354 (13): 1413–1415. doi:10.1056/NEJMe068051. PMID 16510740. http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/extract/354/13/1413. Retrieved 2006-05-01.  
  3. ^ Lewis-Hall, Freda (February 15, 2006). "Dear Healthcare Provider:" (PDF). Bristol-Myers Squibb. http://www.fda.gov/medwatch/safety/2006/tequin_DHCP.pdf. Retrieved May 1, 2006.  
  4. ^ Schmid, Randolph E. (May 1, 2006). "Drug Company Taking Tequin Off Market". Associated Press. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/news/archive/2006/05/01/national/w120748D88.DTL&type=health. Retrieved 2006-05-01.  
  5. ^ Adams M, Tavakoli H (2006). "Gatifloxacin-induced hallucinations in a 19-year-old man". Psychosomatics 47 (4): 360. doi:10.1176/appi.psy.47.4.360. PMID 16844899. http://psy.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/47/4/360.  
  6. ^ Coleman CI, Spencer JV, Chung JO, Reddy P (2002). "Possible gatifloxacin-induced fulminant hepatic failure". Ann Pharmacother 36 (7-8): 1162–7. doi:10.1345/aph.1A414. PMID 12086547.  
  7. ^ Peggy Peck (2 May 2006). "Bristol-Myers Squibb Hangs No Sale Sign on Tequin". Med Page Today. http://www.medpagetoday.com/PrimaryCare/PreventiveCare/3212. Retrieved 24 February 2009.  
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