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London Gatwick Airport
Gatwick Airport
London Gatwick.png
Gatwick South Terminal.jpg
IATA: LGWICAO: EGKK
Summary
Airport type Public
Owner Global Infrastructure Partners
Operator Gatwick Airport Limited
Serves London
Location Crawley, West Sussex
Hub for
Elevation AMSL 202 ft / 62 m
Coordinates 51°08′53″N 000°11′25″W / 51.14806°N 0.19028°W / 51.14806; -0.19028 (London Gatwick Airport)Coordinates: 51°08′53″N 000°11′25″W / 51.14806°N 0.19028°W / 51.14806; -0.19028 (London Gatwick Airport)
Website http://www.gatwickairport.com
Runways
Direction Length Surface
m ft
08R/26L 3,316 10,879 Asphalt/Concrete
08L/26R 2,565 8,415 Asphalt/Concrete
Statistics (2009)
Aircraft Movements 251,879
Passengers 32,392,520
Sources: UK AIP at NATS[1]
Statistics from the UK Civil Aviation Authority[2]

London Gatwick Airport (IATA: LGWICAO: EGKK) is located 5 km (3.1 mi) north of the centre of Crawley, West Sussex, and 45.7 km (28.4 mi) south of Central London.[3] It is London's second largest international airport and second busiest by total passenger traffic in the United Kingdom after Heathrow.[4]

Gatwick has the world's busiest single-use runway and is Europe's leading airport for point-to-point flights.[5]

In 2008, Gatwick ranked as the world's 28th-busiest airport in terms of passenger numbers[6], 9th busiest in terms of international passengers[7] and 8th largest in Europe by passenger traffic[5].

Charter airlines generally do not operate from Heathrow and use Gatwick as a base for London and the South East. From 1978 to 2008, many flights to and from the US used Gatwick because of Heathrow restrictions implemented in the Bermuda II agreement between the UK and the US.[8][9][10][11][12] (As of 2010, Delta Air Lines and US Airways are the only US carriers to continue serving Gatwick from the US.) The airport is a base for scheduled operators Aer Lingus, British Airways (BA), EasyJet, Flybe and Virgin Atlantic. The airport is also a base for charter airlines including Monarch Airlines, Thomas Cook Airlines and Thomson Airways. Gatwick is unique amongst London's airports in having a significant airline presence representing each of the three main air transport provider business models, i.e. full service, low/no frills and charter.[13]

BAA Limited and its predecessors, the British Airports Authority and BAA plc, owned and operated Gatwick continuously from 1 April 1966 until 2 December 2009.[14][15][16] On 17 September 2008, BAA announced it would sell Gatwick following a report by the Competition Commission into BAA's market dominance in London and South East England. On 21 October 2009, it was announced that agreement had been reached to sell Gatwick to Global Infrastructure Partners (GIP), the owners of London City Airport, for £1.51 billion. Of this amount, £55 million will depend on the airport's future traffic development and its owners' future capital structure (£10 million and £45 million respectively).[17] The sale was formally completed on 3 December 2009. On this day, Gatwick's ownership passed from BAA to GIP.[18]

Contents

History

The name "Gatwick" dates back to 1241, the name of a manor on the site of today's airport until the 19th century that was originally owned by the De Gatwick family.[19] It is derived from the Anglo-Saxon words gāt, 'goat', and wīc, 'dairy farm', i.e. 'goat farm'.[20]

The airport at sunset with the control tower visible

In 1890, the descendants of the original owners sold the area to the newly established Gatwick Race Course Company. The following year, the new owners opened a racecourse beside the London–Brighton railway, together with a dedicated station including sidings for horse boxes.[19] The course held steeplechase and flat races. During the First World War the course hosted the Grand National.[19]

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Airport infrastructure and airline operations

1920–45

In the late 1920s, land adjacent to the racecourse at Hunts Green Farm along Tinsley Green Lane was used as an aerodrome. Following a change in land ownership, the aerodrome was licensed in August 1930.[21] Surrey Aero Club formed in 1930 and used the old Hunts Green farmhouse as club house. Redwing Aircraft Company bought the aerodrome in 1932 and operated a flying school. The aerodrome was also used for pilots flying in to races.

In 1933, the Air Ministry approved commercial flights from Gatwick. The same year, the aerodrome was sold for £13,500 to Morris Jackaman, an investor who formed a new airport company named Airports Limited in 1934. Hillman's Airways became Gatwick's first commercial airline operator as a result of starting scheduled services from the airport to Belfast and Paris. A new railway station served by two trains an hour on the Victoria–Brighton line opened in September 1935. That year also saw the formation of a new airline named Allied British Airways, the result of a merger between Hillman's Airways, United Airways and Spartan Airways. The newly formed carrier, which subsequently shortened its name to British Airways, became Gatwick's principal operator.[19]

In 1936, the world's first circular airport terminal, called The Beehive, opened at Gatwick. It was designed by Frank Hoar and included a subway to Gatwick racecourse railway station that enabled passengers to travel from London Victoria Station to the aircraft without stepping outside. On 17 May 1936, the first scheduled flight to depart The Beehive was bound for Paris. The applicable air fare was £4 5s, including a first class rail ticket from London Victoria.[19]

Two fatal accidents in 1936 questioned the airport's safety. Moreover, the area was prone to fog and waterlogging as a result of poor drainage due to heavy clay soils. This in turn caused the new subway to flood after rain. As a consequence and the need for longer landing strips, the pre-war British Airways moved to Croydon Airport in 1937. Gatwick went back to private flying and was contracted as a Royal Air Force (RAF) flying school.[19] The airport also attracted repair companies.

The Air Ministry requisitioned Gatwick in September 1939.[19] Although the airfield became a base for RAF night-fighters and an army co-operation squadron, it was mainly a repair and maintenance facility.[22]

1945–70

Although Gatwick Airport was officially decommissioned after the Second World War in 1946, the Ministry of Transport and Civil Aviation continued to operate it as a civil airfield, initially for a six-month trial period.[19] During that period, the airport provided maintenance facilities and charter companies flying war-surplus aircraft started to use it. Most commercial air services were cargo flights. However, the airport was little used due to persistent drainage problems. In November 1948, the owners warned the airport could be de-requisitioned by November 1949 and revert to private use.

Stansted was favoured as London's second airport and Gatwick's future was in doubt. Despite opposition from local authorities, in 1950 the Cabinet decided Gatwick was to be an alternative to Heathrow. The Government said in July 1952 that the airport was to be developed, primarily to cater to aircraft diverted from Heathrow in bad weather. This resulted in temporary closure between 1956 and 1958 for a £7.8 million renovation.[19][22][23] During that period, British European Airways (BEA) continued using Gatwick for its helicopter operations.[23] The redevelopment was carried out by Alfred McAlpine.[24] It entailed diverting the A23 London—Brighton trunk road and the River Mole, as well as building the runway across the erstwhile racecourse site and rebuilding the former racecourse railway station alongside the new terminal.[23]

On 9 June 1958, Queen Elizabeth II flew into the new airport in a de Havilland Heron of the Queen's Flight to perform the opening. However, this event was preceded by Transair operating the first commercial air service from the new Gatwick on 30 May 1958[19][25][26] while a Jersey Airlines de Havilland Heron was the first scheduled aircraft to arrive at the newly reconstructed airport.[21][27] The first "official" flight to depart Gatwick following the reopening ceremony was a BEA DC-3 operating a charter for Surrey County Council to Jersey and Guernsey.[23]

A PEOPLExpress Boeing 747 at the satellite pier of the South Terminal in June 1983. The North Terminal is under construction in the background

Gatwick was the world's first airport with a direct railway link and the first to combine mainline rail travel, trunk road facilities and an air terminal building in one unit.[22] It was also one of the first to have an enclosed pier-based terminal, which allowed passengers to walk under cover to waiting areas close to aircraft with only a short walk outdoors.[19] Another novel feature of Gatwick's new air terminal was its modular design. This permitted subsequent, phased expansion.[23]

The main pier of what is now the South Terminal was built during the 1956–58 construction of Gatwick. In 1962, two additional piers were added. By 1965, each of the three piers was nearly 1,000 feet long and the entire terminal complex had a floor area of 100,000 ft2.[19][22] Fully extendible jet bridges were added when the piers were rebuilt and extended in the late 1970s and early 1980s.[19]

In 1964, Gatwick's original, relatively short 7,000 feet (2,134 metres) runway was extended by 1,200 ft (365 m) to 8,200 ft (2,499 m) due to new noise rules governing the operation of jet aircraft at airports close to or surrounded by densely populated urban areas.[19][28] It was subsequently extended thrice — in 1970 (by 875 ft/267 m to 9,075 ft/2,766 m to permit non-stop jet operations to the US east coast with a full payload and full-range/payload operations by British United and Caledonian BAC One-Eleven 500s[19][29]), 1973 (to 10,165 ft/3,098 m to allow non-stop narrowbody operations to the US west coast with a full payload and commercially viable, long-range widebody operations[19]) and 1998 (to 10,879 ft/3,316m to enable longer-range operations with fully-laden widebody aircraft[19]).

BEA was an early Gatwick user. It was followed by BEA Helicopters and BEA Airtours, which made the airport their base.[30][31] Sudan Airways and BWIA West Indies Airways were among Gatwick's first scheduled overseas airlines. The former's Blue Nile services were the first scheduled flights from Gatwick by a foreign airline. These services operated between Khartoum and London Gatwick via Cairo, Athens and Rome. They began on 8 June 1959, initially using Airwork Vickers Viscount aircraft. British United Airways (BUA) assumed this operation the following year, as a result of the Airwork — Hunting-Clan merger. (BUA were also acting as Sudan Airways's technical advisers.)[32][33] US supplemental carriers Seven Seas Airlines, Capitol International, President Airlines and Transocean Airlines, as well as various South European and Scandinavian charter operators, figured prominently among Gatwick's early overseas users.[33]

From the late 1950s, a number of Britain's private airlines established themselves at Gatwick. The first was Transair.[34] It was followed by Airwork, Hunting-Clan and Morton Air Services. In July 1960, these merged to form British United Airways. Throughout the 1960s, BUA was Britain's largest independent airline. During that decade, it became Gatwick's largest resident airline. By the end of the decade, it also became the airport's leading scheduled operator, with a 71,000 kilometers (43,217 mi) network of short, medium and long-haul routes across Europe, Africa and South America. These were served with contemporary BAC One-Eleven and Vickers VC-10 jet aircraft.[35]

Despite rapid expansion of BUA's and other airlines' scheduled activities at Gatwick since the early 1960s, the airport was dominated by non-scheduled services well into the 1980s. The bulk of these were inclusive tour (IT) passenger services provided by a growing number of British independent operators and their overseas counterparts. During the 1960s, IT services accounted for between two-thirds and three-quarters of Gatwick's annual passengers, earning the airport its bucket and spade tag.[33]

1970 to 2009

South Terminal international arrivals concourse

In late November 1970, BUA was acquired by the Scottish charter airline Caledonian Airways. The new airline was known as Caledonian/BUA before adopting the British Caledonian name in September 1971. BUA's takeover by Caledonian enabled the latter to transform itself into a scheduled airline. In addition to scheduled routes inherited from BUA, it launched scheduled services to Europe, North and West Africa, North America as well as the Middle and Far East during the 1970s and '80s. This included the first scheduled service by a wholly private UK airline since the 1930s between London and Paris, in November 1971, as well as the first transatlantic scheduled services by a private UK airline to New York and Los Angeles, in April 1973. It also included the launch of the UK's first private scheduled air service to Hong Kong (via Dubai) in August 1980.[36][37]

In November 1972, Laker Airways became the first operator of widebody aircraft at Gatwick, following the introduction of two McDonnell-Douglas DC-10 10 series widebodied trijets.[38]

Gatwick's North Terminal building and transit station

Laker's DC-10 fleet expanded throughout the 1970s and early '80s with longer-range series 30 aircraft. This enabled the launch of Gatwick's first daily long-haul, no frills flights to New York JFK on 26 September 1977.[39]

British Caledonian was also a Gatwick operator of the DC-10-30 widebody, having introduced its first pair in March and May 1977, respectively.[40] The airline eventually operated a small fleet of Boeing 747-200s as well, having acquired its first jumbo jet in 1982.[41]

Other independent airlines including Dan-Air and Air Europe played a role in the development of the airport and its scheduled route network during the 1970s, '80s and early '90s.

In the year ending April 1987, Gatwick overtook New York JFK as the world's second-busiest international airport, handling 15.86 million international passengers – 100,000 more than JFK.[42]

At the end of the 1989/90 financial year, scheduled passengers outnumbered holidaymakers travelling on non-scheduled services for the first time in Gatwick's post-war history. The latter had accounted for more than half the airport's passengers during the 1970s and most of the 1980s.[43]

Passenger numbers had grown steadily since the late 1970s, as a result of several Government initiatives in support of Gatwick's development. These included new policies to transfer all scheduled services between London and the Iberian peninsula from Heathrow to Gatwick[44], and compelling all airlines that were planning to operate a scheduled service to or from London for the first time to use Gatwick instead of Heathrow. The latter policy was officially known as the "London Air Traffic Distribution Rules". It came into effect on 1 April 1978 and was applied retroactively from the beginning of April 1977. These rules were designed to achieve a fairer distribution of traffic between London Heathrow and London Gatwick, the UK's two main international gateway airports. The policy was aimed at increasing Gatwick's utilisation to help the airport make a profit.[45][46] Another pro-active measure the Government took to aid Gatwick's development at the time was to grant permission for a high-frequency helicopter shuttle service linking both of London's main airports.[47] The new helicopter shuttle service linking London Heathrow and London Gatwick was inaugurated on 9 June 1978.[48][49]

As passenger numbers grew, a circular satellite pier was added to the terminal building in 1983, connected to the main terminal by the UK's first automated people mover system[19] (now replaced with a walkway and travelators). The new air traffic control tower opened in 1984. The same year, the non-stop Gatwick Express rail service to London Victoria station was launched. There was a need for more capacity and a second terminal was planned.[50][51]

Inter-terminal transit track and Sofitel hotel. The North Terminal building is in the background

Construction began on the North Terminal in 1983, which was the largest construction project south of London in the 1980s. It cost £200 million.[52] The terminal was opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 18 March 1988[53] and expanded in 1991 with a second aircraft pier. In 1994, the North Terminal international departures lounge and phase 1 of the South Terminal international departures lounge opened. Both developments cost £30 million.[19] The North Terminal has an area of 75,000m2. Gatwick's two terminals are connected by an automated rapid track transit system (currently closed for a major refurbishment).

Inside the world's largest air passenger bridge at the North Terminal's Pier 6
View of Gatwick's apron from the North Terminal passenger bridge, looking towards the South Terminal

During 2000 and 2001, Gatwick's two terminals were further expanded to add more seating, retail space and catering outlets, at a total cost of £60 million. This included an extension to the North Terminal departure lounge completed in 2001.[19]

In 2005, a £110 million additional aircraft pier (Pier 6) opened, adding an extra 11 pier-served aircraft stands. Linked by the world's largest air passenger bridge to the North Terminal's main building, it spans a taxiway, giving arriving and departing passengers views of the airport and taxiing aircraft. The same year, an extension and refurbishment to the South Terminal's baggage reclaim hall was completed, doubling it in size.

In May 2008, another extension was completed to the South Terminal departure lounge. In addition, a second-floor security search area opened. The South Terminal now covers an area of 120,000m2. The terminal is mainly used by low-cost airlines. Many former users have moved to the newer North Terminal.

On 12 October 2009, Qatar Airways's daily QR076 Gatwick–Doha scheduled service became the first commercial flight powered by fuel made from natural gas. The Airbus A340-600HGW operating the six-hour flight ran on a 50-50 blend of synthetic gas-to-liquids (GTL) and conventional oil-based kerosene developed by Shell instead of traditional, purely oil-based aviation turbine fuel.[54][55]

On 3 December 2009, the transfer of Gatwick's ownership from BAA Limited to Global Infrastructure Partners became effective.[15][16]

2009 Onwards

Following the sale of the airport to GIP, Gatwick's new owners announced their intention to proceed with a previously agreed £1 billion investment programme to upgrade and expand the airport's existing infrastructure to transform the passenger experience.[56][57][58] It is hoped that this will firmly establish Gatwick as the airport of choice for air travellers whose journey begins and/or ends in London and other parts of South East England. According to Virgin Atlantic communications director Paul Charles, the prospect of offering much better facilities to Gatwick's airlines and passengers as a result of the change in ownership presents a long-term opportunity to leapfrog Heathrow in terms of airport infrastructure and passenger amenities.[59] It is expected that GIP will use its relationships to persuade new and existing airlines to consider launching additional routes from Gatwick, reinstating services suspended as a result of the global recession in the wake of the financial crisis that began in 2007 and Open Skies and/or expanding their existing flying programme from the airport in the near future.[58][60][61]

Traffic

1958-2000

Gatwick handled 186,172 passengers during its first seven months of operation following the 1956-58 reconstruction. By 1959, the number of passengers passing through the airport each year had grown to 368,000.[19]

In 1968, annual passenger numbers at Gatwick hit the two million mark for the first time.[62]

By the early 1970s, five million passengers used Gatwick each year. Within a decade, this figure doubled to ten million. It doubled again to over 20 million by the late 1980s.[19][63][64]

By the turn of the millennium, Gatwick handled more than 30 million passengers annually.[19]

2000 onwards

Passenger numbers peaked in 2007 when the airport handled over 35 million for the first time. However, this total had reduced to 32.4 million by 2009, an 8% reduction. Of Gatwick's passengers in 2009, 26 million used scheduled flights (80%) and 6.3 million (20%) non-scheduled services.[2] The airport recorded 251,879 aircraft movements during that period.[2] The steepest decline in passenger traffic during 2009 related to North Atlantic traffic, down 35.4% on 2008 as a result of that year's EU-US Open Skies Agreement and the recession following in the wake of the financial crisis that began in 2007. The latter also resulted in 18.9% fewer European charter passengers passing through the airport in 2009. On the other hand, European scheduled traffic accounted for the most resilient performance during that period, recording a 5.6% increase over 2008. Irish traffic was virtually unchanged, registering a 0.1% increase within the same period. The period also saw Gatwick's traffic mix change further, resulting in a significant decline in widebodied aircraft movements by long-haul full-service scheduled airlines that have traditionally accounted for a disproportionately large share of the airport's cargo volume. The cyclical and structural changes in the airport's traffic mix caused a further steep decline in its annual air freight volume, which fell by 30.7% to 74,680 metric tonnes in 2009.[2]

February 2010 saw a rise in Gatwick's passenger numbers, cargo tonnage and air transport movements, indicating a continuing recovery from the severe economic downturn that had adversely impacted its traffic performance during the same period the year before. Compared with February 2009, the total number of passengers passing through the airport increased by 3.2% to 2.05 million. This growth was driven by the number of passengers travelling on European scheduled services (up by 10.5% to 973,000). During that period, passengers travelling on long-haul (excluding North Atlantic) and domestic services increased by 7% and 4.7% to 405,000 and 258,000 respectively while air transport movements grew by 3.5% to 16,775. Cargo volume rose by a staggering 38.9% to 8,334.7 metric tonnes, marking the fourth consecutive month of growth. On the other hand, North Atlantic, European charter and Irish traffic continued to register steep declines in passenger numbers (down by 21.1%, 11.6% and 10.3% to 99,000, 226,000 and 93,000 respectively).[65]

Gatwick today

Facilities

Gatwick Airport has two terminals, North and South. Both have shops and restaurants, landside and airside. Disabled passengers can travel through all areas. There are facilities for baby changing and feeding, and play areas and video games for children. Business travellers have lounges offering business facilities. On 31 May 2008, Virgin Holidays opened V Room, Gatwick's first dedicated lounge for leisure travellers. Use of this lounge is exclusive to Virgin Holidays customers flying from the airport to Orlando, Las Vegas and the Caribbean with sister airline Virgin Atlantic.[66][67] On 9 April 2009, a new independent pay-for-access lounge called No.1 Gatwick opened in the South Terminal. It also serves US Airways Envoy passengers. There is also a conference and business centre. Furthermore, the airport has several on- and off-site hotels. These range from executive to a capsule hotel.

South Terminal zone A check-in concourse

The airport has Anglican, Catholic and Free Church Chaplains. In addition, there is a multi-faith prayer room and counselling room in each terminal. A daily service is led by one of the chaplains. The prayer room is open to all faiths.

Major airlines

BA and EasyJet are Gatwick's two dominant resident airlines. In late 2007, BA and Easyjet accounted for 25% and 17% of Gatwick's slots. The latter's share of slots subsequently rose to 24% as a result of its takeover of BA franchise carrier GB Airways, which accounted for 7% of slots (late 2007). The acquisition of GB Airways in March 2008 resulted in EasyJet becoming Gatwick's biggest short-haul operator accounting for 29% of short-haul passengers (ahead of BA's 23%)[68] and Gatwick's largest airline overall, with flights to 62 domestic and European destinations (at April 2008)[69]. By spring 2010, EasyJet will have further reinforced its position as Gatwick's leading airline by increasing the number of destinations served from the airport to 82.[70] Gatwick is the airline's largest base, where its 10 million passengers per annum account for almost 30% of the airport's yearly total.[71]

British Airways aircraft on stand at the North Terminal's Pier 5

On 30 March 2008, airlines began down-sizing transatlantic operations due to the new EU-US Open Skies Agreement. Continental Airlines is the second transatlantic carrier – after American Airlines[72] – to pull out of Gatwick altogether, following its decision to transfer the seasonal Cleveland service to Heathrow from 3 May 2009.[73][74] The slots vacated by these moves as well as by the collapse of Zoom, XL Airways UK and Sterling were taken by EasyJet, Flybe, Norwegian Air Shuttle and Ryanair.

By late 2008, EasyJet's share of Gatwick slots had grown to about 26% [75][76], while Flybe had become Gatwick's third-largest slot-holder accounting for 9% of the airport's slots, as well as its fastest-growing airline.[76][77][78] As per the CAA's April/May 2009 passenger statistics, more UK domestic passengers flying to and from London Gatwick during April 2009 chose Flybe than any other airline.[79]

From a peak of 40% in 2001, BA's share of Gatwick slots declined by 50% to 20% by summer 2009.[76]

Changing character of airport

South Terminal zone K check-in concourse

According to the evidence Flybe submitted at a Competition Commission hearing into BAA's market dominance at the beginning of 2008, Gatwick's dynamics were changing rapidly as a result of recent changes in its traffic pattern. These were likely to transform the airport from a secondary intercontinental airline hub into a predominantly European and domestic operation feeding London and specifically the south London market.[80]

Operations

Gatwick operates as a single runway airport. Strictly speaking it has two runways; however, the northern runway (08L/26R) can only be used when the main runway (08R/26L) is out of use, for example because of maintenance or an accident. The runways cannot be used at the same time because there is insufficient separation between them, and during normal operation the northern runway is used as a taxiway.[19][50][51] It can take 15 minutes to change from one runway to the other.

Various aircraft at the North Terminal's Pier 4

The main runway operates with a Category III Instrument Landing System. The northern runway does not have an Instrument Landing System and, when it is in use, arriving aircraft use a combination of Distance Measuring Equipment and assistance from the approach controller using surveillance radar, or where equipped and subject to operator approval, an RNAV (GNSS) Approach, which is also available for the main runway.[81] On all runways, considerable use is made of continuous descent approach to minimise environmental effects of incoming aircraft, particularly at night.[82]

Night flights are subject to restrictions.[83] Between 11pm and 7am the noisiest aircraft (rated QC/8 and QC/16) may not operate. In addition, between 11.30pm and 6am (the night quota period) there are three limits:

  • An overall limit on the number of flights;
  • A Quota Count system which limits the total of noise permitted, but allows operators to choose to operate fewer noisy aircraft or a greater number of quieter planes;[84]
  • QC/4 aircraft may not operate at night.

Security

The airport is policed by the Gatwick District of Sussex Police. The district is responsible for policing the whole airport, including aircraft, and in certain circumstances, aircraft in flight. The 150 officers attached to this district include armed and unarmed officers, and community support officers for minor offences. The airport district counter man-portable surface-to-air missiles (MANPADS) by patrolling in and around the airport. A separate sub-unit has vehicle checks around the airport.[85]

Brook House, an immigration removal centre of the UK Border Agency was opened on 18 March 2009 by the then Home Secretary, Jacqui Smith.[86]

Terminals, airlines and destinations

Gatwick has two terminals: North and South. The South Terminal is Gatwick's older and busier terminal, and is also where the airport railway station is located. In March 2008, EasyJet split its Gatwick services between both terminals, with many routes taken over from GB Airways now departing from the North Terminal. The following list includes all scheduled services to and from Gatwick Airport, as well as seasonal charter flights.[87]

Airlines Destinations Terminal
Adria Airways Ljubljana North
Aer Lingus Cork [begins 28 March], Dublin, Knock, Málaga, Vilnius [ends 27 March], Warsaw [ends 27 March] South
Afriqiyah Airways Tripoli South
Air Baltic Riga, Vilnius South
Air Europa Madrid South
Air Malta Malta South
Air Moldova Chişinău South
Air Seychelles Mahé [begins 20 April] South
Air Southwest Newquay, Plymouth North
Air Transat Fredericton [seasonal], Halifax [seasonal], Toronto-Pearson South
Air Zimbabwe Harare South
Astraeus Airlines Winnipeg [begins 12 June] South
Atlas Blue Marrakech North
Aurigny Air Services Guernsey South
Belavia Minsk South
BH Air Burgas [seasonal] South
British Airways Amsterdam, Antalya, Antigua, Barbados, Bari [seasonal], Bermuda, Bologna, Bordeaux, Cagliari [seasonal], Catania, Dubrovnik, Edinburgh, Faro, Geneva [seasonal], Genoa, Glasgow-International, Grenada, Ibiza [seasonal], Innsbruck [seasonal], İzmir, Jersey, Kingston, Luxembourg, Malé, Manchester, Marseille, Montego Bay, Naples, Orlando, Paphos, Pisa [seasonal], Port of Spain, Pristina, Punta Cana, Rome-Fiumicino, St Kitts, St Lucia, Salzburg, Sharm el-Sheikh, Tampa, Thessaloniki, Tirana, Tobago, Tunis, Turin, Varna [seasonal], Venice-Marco Polo, Verona North
Bulgaria Air Varna [seasonal] South
Cimber Sterling Billund, Copenhagen [ends 27 March] South
Croatia Airlines Split [seasonal], Zagreb South
Cubana de Aviación Havana, Holguín South
Cyprus Turkish Airlines Dalaman North
Delta Air Lines Atlanta North
EasyJet Agadir, Ajaccio [seasonal], Alicante, Amsterdam, Antalya [begins 21 May], Arrecife, Basel/Mulhouse, Bastia [seasonal], Bodrum [seasonal], Chania [begins 21 May], Corfu [seasonal],Dalaman [seasonal], Düsseldorf, Faro, Funchal, Geneva, Gibraltar, Grenoble, Helsinki, Heraklion [seasonal], Hurghada, Innsbruck, Kos [begins 22 May], Larnaca , Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Lisbon, Malta, Marrakech, Mykonos [seasonal], Palma de Mallorca, Paphos, Rhodes [seasonal], Santorini [seasonal], Sharm el-Sheikh, Sofia, Tenerife-South, Valencia, Zakynthos [begins 22 May], Zürich North
EasyJet Almería, Athens, Barcelona, Belfast-International, Berlin-Schönefeld, Biarritz [seasonal], Bordeaux [begins 28 March], Budapest, Cologne/Bonn, Copenhagen, Dubrovnik [seasonal], Edinburgh, Glasgow-International, Hamburg, Ibiza [seasonal], Inverness, Istanbul-Sabiha Gökçen, Kraków, La Rochelle [seasonal], Lyon, Madrid, Málaga, Marseille, Milan-Linate, Milan-Malpensa, Minorca [seasonal], Montpellier, Munich, Murcia, Naples, Nice, Olbia [seasonal], Palermo [seasonal], Pisa, Porto, Prague, Rome-Fiumicino, Salzburg, Split [seasonal], Thessaloniki, Toulouse, Venice-Marco Polo, Vienna South
EasyJet Switzerland Basel/Mulhouse, Geneva North
Emirates Dubai North
Estonian Air Tallinn South
Flybe Aberdeen, Belfast-City, Bergerac [seasonal], Chambéry [charter only], Düsseldorf, Guernsey, Inverness, Isle of Man, Jersey, Leeds/Bradford, Limoges [begins 13 July, seasonal], Newcastle upon Tyne, Newquay South
Freebird Airlines Dalaman [seasonal] South
Ghana International Airlines Accra, Düsseldorf South
Hamburg International Bern, Chambéry, Fagernes South
Iceland Express Akureyri [seasonal], Reykjavik-Keflavík South
Malév Hungarian Airlines Budapest North
Meridiana Florence South
Mexicana Mexico City South
Monarch Airlines (Charter) Alicante, Antalya, Aqaba, Bodrum, Cancun, Chania, Corfu, Dalaman, Dubrovnik, Geneva, Grenada, Hassi Messaoud, Heraklion, Hurghada, Innsbruck, Kefalonia, Kittila, Kos, Larnaca, Luxor, Málaga, Malé, Mombasa, Murcia, Mytilene, Naples, Orlando-Sanford, Paphos, Preveza, Rhodes, St. John's [begins 5 June], Sharm el-Sheikh, Skiathos, Sofia, Taba, Tenerife-South, Tobago, Venice-Marco Polo, Volos, Zakynthos, South
Monarch Airlines (Scheduled) Alicante, Faro, Fuerteventura, Ibiza, Lanzarote, Larnaca, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Málaga, Minorca, Tenerife-South South
Montenegro Airlines Podgorica, Tivat South
Norwegian Air Shuttle Aalborg, Bergen, Copenhagen, Oslo-Gardermoen, Stavanger, Stockholm-Arlanda [begins 29 April], Tromsø, Trondheim [begins 28 March] South
Olympic Air Athens [ends 26 March] South
Onur Air Antalya, Bodrum, Dalaman South
Pegasus Airlines Dalaman [seasonal] South
Qatar Airways Doha North
Rossiya St Petersburg South
Royal Air Maroc Casablanca North
Ryanair Alicante, Cork, Dublin, Girona, Kaunas [begins 4 May], Madrid, Shannon, Stockholm-Skavsta South
Saga Airlines Bodrum [seasonal] South
SATA International Ponta Delgada South
Scandinavian Airlines Bergen South
Spanair Palma de Mallorca [seasonal] South
TAP Portugal Funchal, Lisbon, Porto South
Thomas Cook Airlines Summer Seasonal – Agadir, Almería, Antalya, Arrecife, Bodrum, Burgas, Calgary, Cancún, Cayo Coco, Corfu, Dalaman, Edmonton, Faro, Fuerteventura, Halifax, Heraklion, Holguín, Hurghada, Ibiza, İzmir, Kalamata, Kefalonia, Kos, Larnaca, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Lemnos, Malta, Minorca, Monastir, Montego Bay, Montreal, Naples, Olbia, Orlando-Sanford, Ottawa, Palma de Mallorca, Paphos, Preveza, Puerto Plata, Punta Cana, Reus, Rhodes, Santorini, Sharm el-Sheikh, Skiathos, Tenerife-South, Thessaloniki, Toronto-Pearson, Vancouver, Varadero, Zakynthos
Winter Seasonal – Antalya, Arrecife, Banjul, Barbados, Brescia, Cancún, Calgary, Cayo Coco, Dalaman, Fuerteventura, Geneva, Grenoble, Holguín, Hurghada, Innsbruck, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Luxor, Monastir, Montego Bay, Paphos, Puerto Plata, Punta Cana, Rovaniemi, Salzburg, Sharm el-Sheikh, Sofia, Tenerife-South, Toronto-Pearson, Toulouse, Turin, Vancouver
South
Thomson Airways Agadir, Alghero [seasonal], Alicante, Antalya [seasonal], Aruba [seasonal], Barbados [ends 24 March], Boa Vista, Bodrum [seasonal], Burgas [seasonal], Cancún, Catania [seasonal], Chania [seasonal], Colombo [ends 23 April], Corfu [seasonal], Dalaman [seasonal], Dubrovnik [seasonal], Faro [seasonal], Figari [seasonal], Fuerteventura, Funchal, Girona, Goa [ends 24 April], Heraklion, Holguín, Hurghada, Ibiza [seasonal], İzmir [seasonal], Kalamata [begins 2 May, seasonal], Kavala [seasonal], Kefalonia [seasonal], Kos [seasonal], Lanzarote, Larnaca [seasonal], La Romana, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Luxor, Málaga, Malé, Malta, Marrakech, Marsa Alam, Mersa Matruh [begins 30 March, seasonal], Minorca [seasonal], Mombasa, Monastir, Montego Bay, Mykonos [begins 7 May, seasonal], Mytilene [seasonal], Naples [seasonal], Orlando-Sanford, Palma de Mallorca, Paphos, Pisa [seasonal], Preveza [seasonal], Puerto Plata, Pula [seasonal], Punta Cana, Reus [seasonal], Rhodes [seasonal], Sal, Samos [seasonal], Samaná [seasonal], Santa Cruz de la Palma, Santorini [seasonal], Sharm el-Sheikh, Skiathos [seasonal], Taba, Tenerife-South, Thessaloniki [seasonal], Tivat [begins 5 May, seasonal], Varadero, Venice-Marco Polo [seasonal], Verona [seasonal], Zakynthos [seasonal] North
Transavia.com Rotterdam South
Turkuaz Airlines Antalya [seasonal], Dalaman [seasonal] South
Ukraine International Airlines Kiev-Boryspil South
United Airways Dhaka South
US Airways Charlotte South
Viking Airlines Summer Seasonal – Antalya [begins 15 May] Arrecife, Banjul, Bastia, Burgas [begins 25 May], Chania, Corfu, Dalaman [begins 4 April], Faro, Fuerteventura, Heraklion, Hurghada, Kalamata, Kefalonia, Kos, Monastir [begins 23 May], Palma de Mallorca, Paphos, Preveza, Rhodes, Samos, Sharm el-Sheikh, Skiathos, Stockholm Arlanda, Tenerife-South, Zakynthos
Winter Seasonal – Arrecife, Chambéry, Fuerteventura, Friedrichshafen, Geneva, Hurghada, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Sharm el-Sheikh, Stockholm Arlanda, Tenerife-South, Turin
South
Virgin Atlantic Airways Antigua, Barbados, Grenada, Havana, Kingston, Las Vegas, Montego Bay, Orlando, St Lucia, San Juan [seasonal], Tobago South

Ground transport

North Terminal A23 roundabout

Gatwick has set the objective that 40% of passengers should be using public transport by the time the annual throughput reaches 40 million (estimated in 2015), from the 2006 figure of 35.3%.[88]

Road

The airport is accessed by a motorway spur road at junction 9A of the M23, which links to the main M23 motorway a mile (1.5 km) east at junction 9. The M23 connects with London's orbital motorway. The M25, 9 miles (14 km) north, gives access to Greater London and the South East. The M23 is the main route by traffic to reach the airport. Gatwick is accessed locally by the A23, which serves Horley and Redhill to the north and Crawley and Brighton to the south. The A217 provides access northwards to the local town of Reigate.

The airport has long and short-stay car parks – at the airport and off-site – although these are often full in summer. Local planning restrictions limit car parking at and around Gatwick.

Rail

Gatwick Express route map
Interchange head
London Victoria Underground no-text.svg
Unknown route-map component "eHST"
Redhill
Airport Unknown route-map component "KBHFxe"
Gatwick Airport
Unknown route-map component "exBHF"
Haywards Heath
Unknown route-map component "exHST"
Burgess Hill
Unknown route-map component "exHST"
Hassocks
Unknown route-map component "exHST"
Preston Park
Unknown route-map component "exKBHFe"
Brighton

The Gatwick Airport railway station is next to South Terminal and provides connections along the Brighton Main Line to London Victoria and London Bridge stations, as well as Brighton and Worthing to the south. Gatwick Express to Victoria is the best-known service from the station, but other companies, including Southern, First Capital Connect and First Great Western, use the station as well. First Capital Connect provide direct trains to Luton Airport and First Great Western trains provide a direct rail link with Reading and connections with Oxford and the West.

Foot passengers can reach Heathrow by a X26 Express Bus from outside East Croydon station.

Bus and coach

National Express Coaches operates coaches to Heathrow Airport and Stansted Airport, as well as cities and towns throughout the region and country. Oxford Bus Company operate direct services to Oxford. EasyBus operates minicoaches from Gatwick to London Victoria. (National Express Dot2Dot used to operate a service to central London, but this ceased in 2008.)

Local buses connect North and South terminals with Crawley, Horley, Redhill, Horsham and other destinations. Services are offered by Metrobus and Fastway, a guided bus rapid transit system which was the first of its kind to be constructed outside a major city.

There are at least two sets of stairs for foot-passengers to leave South Terminal to ground-level (near the cycle route) from Zone L and the train-station area (steps are labelled Exit Q and Exit P on the ground). These allow access to bus stops for local services.

Cycle

Route 21 of the National Cycle Network passes under South Terminal, allowing virtually traffic-free cycling northwards to Horley and southwards to Three Bridges and Crawley. A goods-style lift runs between the terminal and ground level (signed "Lift to Cycle Route"), near Zone L.

Terminal transfer

Gatwick Airport Transit
North Terminal  
Airport Unknown route-map component "uKHSTa"
 
 
Unknown route-map component "uELEVa"
 
 
Unknown route-map component "uhSTR"
 
 
Unknown route-map component "uELEVe" Continuation backward
 to London
South Terminal  
Airport
Unknown route-map component "uKHSTe" + Hub
Station on track + Hub
 National Rail Gatwick Airport
 
Continuation forward
 to Brighton
Gatwick Airport inter-terminal transit
The satellite pier transit system in 1988

Gatwick Airport's North and South terminals are connected by a 0.75 miles (1.21 km) elevated two-way automated people mover track. The transit system is normally operated by two automatic, three-car driverless train vehicles. Although colloquially referred to widely as a "monorail",[89] the transit system runs on a dual concrete track with rubber tyres and is not technically a monorail.

The original Gatwick transit system opened in 1983 when the circular satellite pier was built, connecting the pier to the main terminal building, and was the UK's first automated people mover system. A second transit track was constructed in 1987 to link to the new North terminal.[89] The original satellite transit line was later replaced with a walkway and travelator link, but the inter-terminal transit remains in operation today.

The original Adtranz C-100 people mover cars remained in continuous operation until 2009, in which time they travelled a total of 2.5 million miles. In September 2009 the vehicles were withdrawn from service to allow the transit system to be upgraded. Meanwhile, the two terminals are connected by a temporary free bus service. A new operating system and transit cars consisting of six Bombardier CX-100 vehicles[90] are being installed and the guideway and transit stations are being refurbished at a cost of £45 million and due for completion in August 2010.[91]

Development

In 1979, an agreement was reached with West Sussex County Council not to build a second runway before 2019.[50][51]

In its original consultation document published on 23 July 2002[92] the Government decided to expand Stansted and Heathrow, but not Gatwick. However, Medway Council, Kent County Council and Essex County Council sought a judicial review of this decision. The judge reviewing the lawfulness of the Government's decision ruled that excluding Gatwick from the original consultation was irrational and/or unfair.[92] Following the judge's ruling and the Secretary of State for Transport's decision not to appeal, BAA published new consultation documents.[92] These included an option of a possible second runway at Gatwick to the south of the existing airport boundary, leaving the villages Charlwood and Hookwood to the north of the airport intact. This led to protests about increased noise and pollution, demolition of houses and destruction of villages.[93]

Gate area inside the North Terminal, showing flight information screens

Prior to the change of ownership, BAA planned an £874 million investment at Gatwick over five years, including increased capacity for both terminals, improvements to the transport interchange and a new baggage system for the South Terminal.[94]

On 2 December 2009, the House of Commons Transport Select Committee published a report entitled The future of aviation. With regard to Gatwick, it calls on the Government to reconsider its decision to build a second runway at Stansted, in the light of growing evidence that the business case is unconvincing and that Gatwick is a better location.[95]

Future plans

Several options to expand Gatwick have been considered, including building a third terminal and second runway to the south of the existing runway. This would allow Gatwick to handle more passengers than Heathrow does today. In the case of a second, wide-spaced (as opposed to close parallel) runway being given the go-ahead, a new terminal could be sited between the two runways. This could either complement or replace the current South Terminal, depending on expected future traffic developments.[96]

A less ambitious alternative centres on extending the North Terminal further south with another passenger bridge to an area currently occupied by aircraft stands without jet bridges (Pier 7).[96] There are also plans to expand the capacity of the North Terminal and to extend Pier 6. As of late 2008, both terminals are being adapted to handle the Airbus A380 on a regular, commercial basis. The South Terminal airside lounge is currently undergoing refurbishment, with hope of increasing the amount of retail space and viewing areas.

In October 2009, BAA submitted planning applications for Gatwick to handle an extra six million passengers annually by 2018 and for an extension to the North Terminal to provide new check-in facilities and additional baggage reclaim hall capacity, along with a 900 space short-stay car park.[97] Crawley Borough Council's decision to approve these plans was upheld in November 2009 by the Government's refusal to hold a public inquiry despite objections from local environmental protesters.[98]

Speaking at the first Gatwick Airport Consultative Committee (Gatcom) meeting since GIP's takeover of the airport (held on 28 January 2010 at Crawley's Arora Hotel), Gatwick's recently appointed chairman Sir David Rowlands ruled out building a second runway for the foreseeable future, citing the high cost of the associated planning application — estimated to be between £100 million and £200 million — as the main reason for the new owners' lack of interest. At that meeting, Gatwick chief executive Stewart Wingate stressed GIP's preference for increasing the existing runway's capacity and confirmed GIP's plans to request an increase in the current limit on the permitted number of take-offs and landings.[99]

Incidents and accidents

  • 28 January 1972 – a British Caledonian Vickers VC-10-1109 (registration: G-ARTA) sustained severe structural damage as a result of an exceptionally hard landing at Gatwick at the end of a short ferry flight from Heathrow, where the aircraft had been diverted due to Gatwick being fog-bound and where all passengers had disembarked. A survey of the aircraft's damage revealed that its airframe had been bent out of shape and that it required extensive repairs to be restored to an airworthy condition. The airline's senior management decided that these repairs were not cost-effective. The aircraft was written off and a decision taken to have it scrapped. It was eventually broken up at Gatwick in 1975.[108][109]
  • 20 July 1975 – a British Island Airways (BIA) Handley Page Dart Herald (registration: G-APWF) was involved in a runway accident while departing on a scheduled flight to Guernsey. The aircraft lifted off from runway 26 after a ground run of 760m and appeared airborne for 125m with its landing gear retracting before the rear underside of the fuselage settled back on to the runway. None of the 45 occupants were hurt.[110][111]

Notes

  1. ^ London Gatwick - EGKK
  2. ^ a b c d Annual UK Airport Statistics: 2009 - annual
  3. ^ Just where are our airports?, Channel 4 News, 18 August 2009
  4. ^ www.baa.com (BAA > Home > Media centre > News releases > 2009 > All > September traffic figures – BAA's airports, 9 October 2009)
  5. ^ a b www.gatwickairport.com (LondonGatwickAirport > Home > About Gatwick Airport > About Gatwick)
  6. ^ ACI Passenger Movements for 2008
  7. ^ ACI International Passenger Movements for 2008
  8. ^ Bermuda 2 initialled, Air Transport, Flight International, 2 July 1977, p. 5
  9. ^ Bermuda 2 initialled, Air Transport, Flight International, 2 July 1977, p. 6
  10. ^ Bermuda 2: signed and sealed ..., Air Transport, 23 July 1977, p. 254
  11. ^ Bermuda 2 capacity mechanism, Air Transport, Flight International, 13 August 1977, p. 465
  12. ^ Bermuda 2 revisions create 12 new US gateways and agreement on Gatwick, Air Transport, Flight International, 15 March 1980, p. 825
  13. ^ Our vision for Gatwick, 1.12, 1 Introduction, Gatwick Interim Master Plan, October 2006, p. 7
  14. ^ British Airports Authority in Business, Air Transport ..., Flight International, 14 April 1966, p. 584
  15. ^ a b www.baa.com (BAA > Home > About BAA > Who we are > Our history, 1960s)
  16. ^ a b www.gatwickairport.com (LondonGatwickAirport > Home > About Gatwick Airport > History > Our development and growth in the 1950's and 60's)
  17. ^ The Times (Business – Gatwick sale: New owner touches down with promise of £900m facelift for London's 'tired' No 2), UK Edition, London, 26 October 2007
  18. ^ www.baa.com (BAA > Home > Media centre > News releases > BAA completes the sale of Gatwick Airport, 03 December 2009)
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x "Gatwick Airport History", Business & Community Reference Guide for in and around Crawley 2008/09, Wealden Marketing, 2008, p. 85
  20. ^ The origins of some English place names – by Tim Lambert (-wick: ... Or it could mean a specialised farm e.g. Gatwick was a goat farm ....)
  21. ^ a b History – 1958, Gatwick Aviation Society website
  22. ^ a b c d Aeroplane — Britain's Airports: A New Era, Vol. 111, No. 2841, p. 5, Temple Press, London, 31 March 1966
  23. ^ a b c d e Golden Gatwick — 50 Years of Aviation, Chapter 8
  24. ^ The Road to Success: Alfred McAlpine 1935–1985 page 54, Tony Gray, Rainbird Publishing, 1987
  25. ^ Flight International, 22 August 1974, p. 218
  26. ^ Cooper, B., Got your number, Golden Gatwick, Skyport, Gatwick edition, Hounslow, 6 June 2008, p. 12
  27. ^ The early Days
  28. ^ International Airports ..., Flight International, 10 December 1964, p. 1006
  29. ^ Gatwick to be Extended, Air Transport ..., Flight International, 13 March 1969, p. 392
  30. ^ World Airline Survey, Flight International, 2 April 1964, p. 501
  31. ^ World Airlines, Flight International, 6 May 1971, p. 619
  32. ^ Flight International, 12 April 1962, World Airline Survey – The UK Carriers ..., p. 546
  33. ^ a b c Golden Gatwick — 50 Years of Aviation, Chapter 9
  34. ^ Flight International, 18 April 1958, World Airline Directory ..., p. 528
  35. ^ Fly me, I'm Freddie!, pp. 58, 61, 63, 68/9, 82/3, 88, 90, 93-98, 99
  36. ^ High Risk: The Politics of the Air, pp. 262/3, 271/2, 378-388, 508
  37. ^ "British Airways Plc and British Caledonian Group plc; A report on the proposed merger", Chapter 4, Competition Commission website
  38. ^ Fly me, I'm Freddie!, pp. 170/1, 181, 183/4
  39. ^ Fly me, I'm Freddie!, pp. 221, 225
  40. ^ High Risk: The Politics of the Air, pp. 319, 321
  41. ^ High Risk: The Politics of the Air, p. 399
  42. ^ News Scan – London Gatwick, Air Transport, Flight International, 29 August 1987, p. 7
  43. ^ Iyengar, K., Heading North, Golden Gatwick, Skyport, Gatwick edition, Hounslow, 9 May 2008, p. 16
  44. ^ BA moves Spanish services to Gatwick, Air Transport, Flight International, 11 October 1980, p. 1410
  45. ^ Please come to Gatwick, Britain tells carriers, Air Transport, Flight International, 16 April 1977, p. 1028
  46. ^ Waiving the rules, News Analysis, Flight International, 17-23 April 1991, p. 26
  47. ^ British Airports Authority Annual Report and Accounts 1978/9, British Airports Authority, London, 1979, p. 21
  48. ^ British Airports Authority Annual Report and Accounts 1978/9, British Airports Authority, London, 1979, pp. 21, 76
  49. ^ a b c Gatwick runway deal agreed, Air Transport, Flight International, 25 August 1979, p. 569
  50. ^ a b c BAA reveals Gatwick expansion plans, Air Transport, Flight International, 8 September 1979, p. 757
  51. ^ Above Us The Skies: The Story Of BAA – 1991 (Michael Donne – BAA plc), p. 15
  52. ^ Above Us The Skies: The Story Of BAA – 1991 (Michael Donne – BAA plc), p. 55
  53. ^ FT.com (FT Home > World > Middle East & North Africa > Airline claims first with gas, 13 October 2009)
  54. ^ www.qatarairways.com (Home > Media Room > Press Release Archive > 2009 > Oct 12: World's First Commercial Passenger Flight Powered By Fuel Made From Natural Gas Lands In Qatar)
  55. ^ www.gatwickairport.com (LondonGatwickAirport > Home > About Gatwick Airport > Our strategy)
  56. ^ www.gatwickairport.com (LondonGatwickAirport > Home > About Gatwick Airport > Airport investment)
  57. ^ a b ifw – International Freighting Weekly: 26-10-2009 (News > Index > "Onward and upward": GIP's plan for Gatwick)
  58. ^ theappointment.co.uk, Daily News Round-up, Gatwick to receive makeover from new owners, 5 December 2009
  59. ^ FT Home > Companies > Industrial > Industrial Goods > Gatwick chief to woo airlines, 1 February 2010
  60. ^ Financial Times (Companies – UK: Firm hand for era of airport competition), UK Edition, London, 1 February 2010
  61. ^ GATCOM – Gatwick Airport Consultative Committee > Home > Profile > Airport Profile: Brief History
  62. ^ Iyengar, K., Bermuda Bloomers, Golden Gatwick, Skyport, Gatwick edition, Hounslow, 8 February 2008, p. 18
  63. ^ Iyengar, K., The only way is up, Golden Gatwick, Skyport, Gatwick edition, Hounslow, 11 April 2008, p. 14
  64. ^ London Gatwick Airport February 2010 traffic performance summary, 9 March 2010
  65. ^ www.virgin-atlantic.com (Home > What's Onboard > Clubhouses > V Room – The new lounge at Gatwick)
  66. ^ v-flyer.com (News – VROOM opens at London's Gatwick Airport)
  67. ^ Financial Times (EasyJet in £103m GB Airways move), UK Edition, London, 26 October 2007
  68. ^ "Busy month of March for Gatwick and easyJet", BAA Gatwick – Official airport website, 9 April 2008
  69. ^ easyJet.com (Corporate homepage > Media > Latest news > 2009 > easyJet news 2009: 10 December 2009, easyJet to introduce Gatwick – Bordeaux route)
  70. ^ FT.com (FT Home > Companies > Transport > Airlines > GIP faces pressure to prove itself at Gatwick, 21 October 2009)
  71. ^ ICM — Institute of Commercial Management Website, Commercial & Business News AA ends Gatwick operations, 17 March 2008
  72. ^ Aviation Week & Space Technology, Vol. 169 No. 10, 15 September 2008, "Goodbye Gatwick", p. 16
  73. ^ www.ttg.com>News>Air travel Continental severs last Gatwick link, 31 December 2008
  74. ^ www.ft.com EasyJet may back Gatwick bid, UK online edition, London, 14 November 2008
  75. ^ a b c www.ft.com Aer Lingus to set up base at Gatwick, UK online edition, London, 19 December 2008
  76. ^ easier.com TRAVEL Flybe welcomes sale of London Gatwick, 2 October 2008
  77. ^ flybe.com Exciting new routes for Summer 2009 – On sale now!
  78. ^ Flybe.com – News (Flybe now UK's number one domestic airline, 3 July 2009)
  79. ^ BAA Airports: Summary of hearing with flybe, 24 January 2008, p. 6
  80. ^ NATS – London Gatwick Aerodrome Approach Charts
  81. ^ BAA Gatwick (PDF). Flight Evaluation Report 2006/07. http://www.gatwickairport.com/assets//B2CPortal/Static%20Files/FEU%20Report%202006-07.pdf. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  82. ^ BAA Gatwick (PDF). Night Flights. http://www.gatwickairport.com/assets/B2CPortal/Static%20Files/NightFlights.pdf. Retrieved 2007-01-26. 
  83. ^ "Night noise". http://www.heathrowairport.com/portal/page/HeathrowNoise%5EConsultation+and+schemes%5ENight+noise/225f1b1e25b09010VgnVCM10000036821c0a____/448c6a4c7f1b0010VgnVCM200000357e120a____/. Retrieved 2007-10-30. 
  84. ^ "Guarding Gatwick", Airports – September/October 2007 (Key Publishing), p. 17
  85. ^ UK Borders Agency
  86. ^ Gatwick Airport charter timetable
  87. ^ Gatwick Airport Surface Access Strategy
  88. ^ a b Hudson, Kenneth (1984). "Airports and Airfields". Industrial history from the air. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521253338. 
  89. ^ http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-13542338.html
  90. ^ "Gatwick transit closed". UK Airport News. 29 September 2009. http://www.uk-airport-news.info/gatwick-airport-news-290909a.html. Retrieved 2009-09-30. 
  91. ^ a b c BAA Airports Final Report: Appendix 4.3, Airport planning law and policy, Post-BAA privatization ... The 2000s – SERAS, 121. and 122., pp. 26/7, Competition Commission, 2008
  92. ^ "Plan for Gatwick runway published". BBC. 29 March 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/southern_counties/4390457.stm. Retrieved 2007-11-22. 
  93. ^ Gatwick Airport Consultative Committee – Agenda item no. 3(a): Minutes of the meeting of the Consultative Committee held on 24 April 2008, Capital Investment Programme 2008, p. 6
  94. ^ Stansted and Gatwick (104.-110., pp. 26/7), The future of aviation, First Report of Session 2009-10, House of Commons Transport Committee, 2 December 2009
  95. ^ a b www.baa.com > London Gatwick > About Gatwick Airport > Airport expansion > interim master plan (Gatwick Interim Master Plan – October 2006)
  96. ^ "Gatwick extension faces objection". BBC News. 18 October 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/8295505.stm. Retrieved 2009-12-03. 
  97. ^ Gatwick eco-campaigners' hope for expansion inquiry dashed, Crawley Observer, 25 November 2009
  98. ^ Dixon, A., Second runway plans to remain grounded, Skyport, Gatwick edition, Hounslow, 26 February 2010, pp. 1, 3
  99. ^ 1959: Turkish leader involved in fatal crash
  100. ^ a b Surrey Constabulary – Major Incidents
  101. ^ The Gatwick accident, Air Commerce, Flight International, 27 February 1959, p. 301
  102. ^ Gatwick Aviation Society > Home > Archives > Gatwick Accidents > TC-SEV > Ministry of Aviation – Civil Aircraft Accident: Report on the Accident to Vickers Viscount 794 TC-SEV at London (Gatwick) Airport on 17th February, 1959
  103. ^ Gatwick Aviation Society > Home > Archives > Gatwick Accidents > EC-AMQ > Ministry of Aviation – Civil Aircraft Accident: Report on the Accident to Lockheed 1049G (Super Constellation) EC-AMQ at London (Gatwick) Airport on 2nd September, 1963
  104. ^ AirDisaster.Com Accident Database
  105. ^ Ariana 727 Accident Cause, World News, Flight International, 3 September 1970, p. 329
  106. ^ Gatwick Aviation Society > Home > Archives > Gatwick Accidents > YA-FAR > Board of Trade – Civil Aircraft Accident: Report on the Accident to Boeing 727-113C YA-FAR 1.5 miles east of London (Gatwick) Airport on 5th January 1969
  107. ^ A little VC10derness — Individual Histories: G-ARTA
  108. ^ ASN Aircraft incident description Vickers VC-10-1109 G-ARTA — London Gatwick Airport (LGW)
  109. ^ Public transport accidents, World News, Flight International, 7 August 1975, p. 171
  110. ^ Handley Page Herald Series 201 (G-APWF) – Report on the accident at London (Gatwick) Airport, Runway 26 on 20 July 1975, Department of Trade Accidents Investigation Branch (AIB), Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1977, pp. 1, 3, 14

See also

File:Clock Tower – Palace of Westminster, London – May 2007.jpg London portal
Aviation portal

References

  • Gwynne, Peter. (1990) A History of Crawley (2nd Edition) Philmore. ISBN 0-85033-718-6
  • King, John, with Tait, Geoff, (1980) Golden Gatwick – 50 Years of Aviation, British Airports Authority.
  • King, John, (1986) Gatwick – The Evolution of an Airport, Gatwick Airport Ltd. and Sussex Industrial Archaeology Society. ISBN 0-9512036-0-6
  • Bain, Gordon, (1994), Gatwick Airport, Airlife Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1-85310-468-x
  • Eglin, Roger, and Ritchie, Berry (1980). Fly me, I'm Freddie. London, UK: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-2977-7746-7. 
  • Thomson, Adam (1999). High Risk: The Politics of the Air. London, UK: Sidgwick and Jackson. ISBN 0-2839-9599-8. 
  • Simons, Graham M. (1993). The Spirit of Dan-Air. Peterborough, UK: GMS Enterprises. ISBN 1-8703-8420-2. 
  • Simons, Graham M. (1999). It was nice to fly with friends! The story of Air Europe. Peterborough, UK: GMS Enterprises. ISBN 1-8703-8469-5. 
  • Branson, Richard (2006 [2nd reprint]). Losing my Virginity – The Autobiography. London, UK: Virgin Books Ltd. ISBN 0-7535-1020-0. 
  • Financial Times, 26 October 2007. London, UK: UK Edition. 
  • Skyport – Gatwick edition (Iyengar, K., "Bermuda Bloomers", "Golden Gatwick", p. 18), 8 February 2008. Hounslow, UK. 
  • Skyport – Gatwick edition (Iyengar, K., "The only way is up", "Golden Gatwick", p. 14), 11 April 2008. Hounslow, UK. 
  • Skyport – Gatwick edition (Iyengar, K., "Heading North", "Golden Gatwick", p. 16), 9 May 2008. Hounslow, UK. 
  • Skyport – Gatwick edition (Cooper, B., "Got your number", "Golden Gatwick", p. 12), 6 June 2008. Hounslow, UK. 
  • Skyport – Gatwick edition (Dixon, A., "Second runway plans to remain grounded", pp. 1, 3), 26 February 2010. Hounslow, UK. 
  • Financial Times, 10 February 2010. London, UK: UK Edition. 

External links


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Travel guide

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From Wikitravel

This article is the Collaboration of the month for December 2009. Find out how it can be improved, and plunge forward to make this an article we can be proud of!

For other places with the same name, see London (disambiguation).
London is a huge city with several district articles containing sightseeing, restaurant, nightlife and accommodation listings — consider printing them all.
Tower Bridge at dusk, bridging the River Thames.
Tower Bridge at dusk, bridging the River Thames.

Noisy, vibrant and truly multicultural, London is a megalopolis of people, ideas and energy. The capital and largest city of both the United Kingdom and of England, it is also the largest city in Western Europe and the European Union. Situated on the River Thames in South-East England, Greater London has an official population of nearly 8 million people — although the figure of over 14 million for the city's total metropolitan area more accurately reflects London's size and importance. London is one of the great "world cities," and remains a global capital of culture, fashion, finance, politics and trade.

London will host the 2012 Summer Olympics.

Districts

The name London originally referred only to the once-walled "Square Mile" of the original Roman (and later medieval) city (confusingly called the "City of London" or just "The City"). Today, London has taken on a much larger meaning to include all of the vast central parts of the modern metropolis, with the city having absorbed numerous surrounding towns and villages over the centuries. The term Greater London embraces Central London together with all the outlying suburbs that lie in one continuous urban sprawl within the lower Thames valley. Though densely populated by New World standards, London retains large swathes of green parkland and open space, even within the city centre.

Greater-London consists of 32 London boroughs and the City of London that, together with the office of the Mayor of London, form the basis for London's local government. The Mayor of London is elected by London residents and should not be confused with the Lord Mayor of the City of London. The names of several boroughs, such as Westminster or Camden, are well-known, others less so, such as Wandsworth or Lewisham. This traveller's guide to London recognises cultural, functional and social districts of varying type and size:

Central London and inner boroughs.
Central London and inner boroughs.
Bloomsbury
Vibrant historic district made famous by a group of turn-of-the-century writers and for being the location of the British Museum and numerous historic homes, parks, and buildings. Part of the Borough of Camden.
City of London
The City is the area of London that originally lay within the ancient city walls and is now a major world financial centre.
Covent Garden
One of the main shopping and entertainment districts. Incorporates some of London's theatreland. Part of the City of Westminster and Borough of Camden.
Holborn-Clerkenwell
Buffer zone between London's West End and the City of London financial district, home to the Inns of Court
Leicester Square
West End district comprising Leicester Square, Chinatown, Trafalgar Square and Piccadilly Circus and the centre of London's cinema and theatre land
Mayfair-Marylebone
Some extremely well-heeled districts of west central London and most of the city's premier shopping street
Notting Hill-North Kensington
Lively market, interesting history, the world famous carnival and diverse population
Paddington-Maida Vale
Largely residential district of northwest central London with lots of mid-range accommodation
Soho
Dense concentration of highly fashionable restaurants, cafés, clubs and bars, as well as London's gay village
South Bank
South side of the river Thames with good views of the city, several theatres and the London Eye
South Kensington-Chelsea
An extremely well-heeled inner London district with famous department stores, Hyde Park, many museums and the King's Road
Westminster
A city in its own right, the seat of government and an almost endless list of historical and cultural sights, such as Buckingham Palace, The Palace of Westminster and Westminster Abbey.
Camden
a diverse area of inner north London which includes eclectic Camden Town
East End
a traditional working class heartland of inner London to the east of The City and made famous by countless movies and TV shows, home of countless trendy bars, art galleries and parks, especially in the Shoreditch, Hoxton, Old Street area.
Greenwich
on the southern banks of the Thames, home of the Greenwich Meridien and the National Maritime Museum
Hackney
formerly an inner city area with a reputation for high crime rates and little else, Hackney has become fashionable in recent decades and is home to a thriving arts scene as well as many trendy, cafés bars and pubs
Hammersmith and Fulham
Borough in west London with a diverse population and the home of the BBC
Hampstead
Bohemian and literary north London and the wonderful open spaces of Hampstead Heath
Islington
Area to the north of Clerkenwell which has undergone huge gentrification since 1990
Lambeth
a diverse multi-cultural district to the south of the Thames which includes Brixton
Southwark-Lewisham
inner southern districts of London, traditionally residential
Wandsworth
grand Thames-side areas and open green parks in the north and dense housing in south
Outer boroughs.
Outer boroughs.
West
North
East
South
Richmond-Kew
leafy Thames-side scenery, Hampton Court Palace, the botanical gardens and some major parklands
Wimbledon
the annual tennis championships
The Tower of London
The Tower of London

History

Settlement has existed on the site of London since well before Roman times, with evidence of Bronze Age and Celtic settlement. The Roman city of Londinium, established just after the Roman conquest of Britannia in the year 43, formed the basis for the modern city (some isolated Roman period remains are still to be seen within the City). After the end of Roman rule in 410 and a short-lived decline, London experienced a gradual revival under the Anglo-Saxons, as well as the Norsemen, and emerged as a great medieval trading city, and eventually replaced Winchester as the royal capital of England. This paramount status for London was confirmed when William the Conqueror, a Norman, built the Tower of London after the conquest in 1066 and was crowned King of England in Westminster.

London went from strength to strength and with the rise of England to first European then global prominence and the city became a great centre of culture, government and industry. London's long association with the theatre, for example, can be traced back to the English renaissance (witness the Rose Theatre [1] and great playwrights like Shakespeare who made London their home). With the rise of Britain to supreme maritime power in the 18th and 19th centuries and the possessor of the largest global empire, London became an imperial capital and drew people and influences from around the world to become, for many years, the largest city in the world.

England's royal family has, over the centuries, added much to the London scene for today's traveller: the Albert Memorial, Buckingham Palace, Kensington Palace, Royal Albert Hall, Tower of London, Kew Palace and Westminster Abbey being prominent examples.

Despite the inevitable decline of the British Empire, and considerable suffering during World War II (when London was heavily bombed by the German Luftwaffe in the Blitz), the city is still a top-ranked world city: a global centre of culture, finance, and learning. Today London is easily the largest city in the United Kingdom, eight times larger than the second largest, Birmingham, and ten times larger than the third, Glasgow, and dominates the economic, political and social life of the nation (much to the annoyance of some people in the provinces i.e. everywhere except London!). It is full of excellent bars, galleries, museums, parks and theatres. It is also the most culturally and ethnically diverse part of the country, making it a great multicultural city to visit. Samuel Johnson famously said, "when one is tired of London, one is tired of life." Whether you are interested in ancient history, modern art, opera or underground raves, London has it all.

The City and Westminster

The world famous Great Westminster clocktower (the main bell is Big Ben)
The world famous Great Westminster clocktower (the main bell is Big Ben)

If you ask a Londoner where the centre of London is, you are likely to get a wry smile. This is because historically London was two cities: a commercial city and a separate government capital.

The commercial capital was the City of London. This had a dense population and all the other pre-requisites of a medieval city: walls, a castle (The Tower of London), a cathedral (St Pauls), a semi-independent City government, a port and a bridge across which all trade was routed so Londoners could make money (London Bridge).

About an hour upstream (on foot or by boat) around a bend in the river was the government capital (Westminster). This had a church for crowning the monarch (Westminster Abbey) and palaces. As each palace was replaced by a larger one, the previous one was used for government, first the Palace of Westminster (better known as the Houses of Parliament), then Whitehall, then Buckingham Palace. The two were linked by a road called The "Strand", old English for riverbank.

London grew, west and east. The land to the west of the City (part of the parish of Westminster) was prime farming land (Covent Garden and Soho for example) and made good building land. The land to the east was flat, marshy and cheap, good for cheap housing and industry, and later for docks. Also the wind blows 3 days out of 4 from west to east, and the Thames (into which the sewage went) flows from west to east. So the West End was up-wind and up-market, the East End was where people worked for a living.

Modern-day London in these terms is a two-centre city, with the area in between known confusingly as the West End.

London Eye
London Eye

Despite a perhaps unfair reputation for being unsettled, London enjoys a dry and mild climate on average. Only one in three days on average will bring rain and often only for a short period. From June through September average daily high temperatures peak at over 20°C (68°F) with July and August the warmest months at 23°C (73°F) while London's highest temperature since 2000 was recorded once in August at 38°C (100°F). This means London can feel hot and humid in the summer months. Winter days are rarely cold and frost is rather rare, and while sunshine is at a premium and wet days are more common, the average daily maximum is 8°C (46°F) in December and January, making London milder than most nearby continental European capital cities.

London 2012 Olympic Games

The International Olympic Committee decided in 2005 that London will serve as the host city for the Games of the XXX Olympiad [2], the Summer Olympic Games of 2012. This will make London the first city to hold the Olympic Games three times, having hosted the games previously in 1908 and 1948. The vast majority of events will be held in a regenerated area in East London.

Tourist Information Centres

Details of London's primary Tourist Information Centre are given below. There are other more minor centres and those are listed in the relevant district articles.

  • Britain and London Visitor Centre (BLVC), 1 Regent St, SW1Y 4XT (nearest tube station Piccadilly Circus), +44 8701 566 366, [3]. M 9:30AM-6PM (Oct-Mar), M 9:30AM-6:30PM (Apr-Sep), Tu-F 9AM-6PM (Oct-Mar), Tu-F 9AM-6:30PM (Apr-Sep), Sa 10AM-4PM (Oct-May), Sa 9AM-5PM (Jun-Sep), Su 10AM-4PM, Public holidays: 10AM-4PM. Closed on 25 and 26 Dec and 1 Jan. Visit London is the official visitor organisation for the capital and has a lot of free information for visitors in several different languages. It also acts commercially and can have some astoundingly good last minute deals on accommodation.  edit
Summary map of rail connections to London airports
Summary map of rail connections to London airports

Due to London's huge global city status it is the most served destination in the world when it comes to flights.

London (all airports code: LON) is served by a total of five airports. Travelling between the city and the airports is made relatively easy by the large number of public transport links that have been put in place over recent years. However, if transiting through London, be sure to check the arrival and departure airports carefully as transfers across the city may be quite time consuming. In addition to London's five official airports (of which only two are located within Greater London), there are a number of other regional UK airports conveniently accessible from London. Since they offer a growing number of budget flights, choosing those airports can be cheaper (or even faster, depending on where in London your destination is).

For transfers directly between London's airports, the fastest way (short of a taxi) is the direct inter-airport bus service by National Express [4]. Buses between Heathrow, Gatwick, Stansted and Luton run at least hourly, with Heathrow-Gatwick services taking 65 min (£18) and Heathrow-Stansted services 90 min (£20.50) (note that services between Stansted and Luton run only every two hours). However, it's essential to allow leeway, as London's expressways, especially the orbital M25 and the M1 motorway, are often congested to the point of gridlock. Buses have toilets on board.

Easybus [5] offers transfers to Gatwick, Luton and Stansted from £2.

London Heathrow

Rail and tube lines go to different terminals at Heathrow
Rail and tube lines go to different terminals at Heathrow
Main article: Heathrow Airport

Heathrow (ICAO: EGLL, IATA: LHR) [6] is London and Europe's largest airport and the world's busiest airport in terms of international passenger movement, with services available from most major airports world-wide. There are five terminals. Flights landing at Heathrow are often delayed by up to an hour as a simple result of air traffic congestion and waiting for parking slots. To complicate the matter, airlines that fly into Heathrow are currently playing a system-wide game of musical chairs as gate assignments are cycled through the new terminal, making it even more necessary for travelers to check their terminal and gate assignment in advance. A quick summary of transport options (also see Heathrow Airport):

  • Fastest: by Heathrow Express rail, (Paddington Station - Heathrow 1, 2, 3 & 5), +44 0845 600 1515, [7]. Every 15 min, journey time 15 min. Travelcard & Oyster card not valid. Does not serve Terminal 4. These train lines terminate at London Paddington which for most people will require a tube, bus, or cab ride to their final destination. Despite the Heathrow Express & Connect's speed, they are often not the fastest way to a final destination in London. One way £16.50, return trip £32 (+ £3 surcharge if bought onboard).  edit
  • Second fastest: by Heathrow Connect rail, (Paddington Station - Heathrow 1, 2, 3 & 4), +44 0845 678 6975, [8]. Travelcard & Oyster card not valid to Heathrow. Does not serve Terminal 5. Follows same route as Heathrow Express but stops at several intermediate stations to London Paddington so journey is 25 minutes and trains less frequent. One way £7.40, round trip £14.80.  edit
  • Cheapest: by London Underground (Piccadilly line), +44 0845 330 9880, [9]. Every few minutes, journey time approximately 1 hour, however this depends on your destination. For the cheapest single fare ask for an Oyster card (£3 refundable deposit). Zone 1-6 Travelcard valid. With Oyster one way £2.00-3.50.   edit
  • Taxi. A taxi from Heathrow to central London will cost £45-60. You may wish to consider taking a taxi if you have a lot of baggage or small children. Alternatively catch public transport into the city centre and then catch a taxi. There are two types of taxis: Black cabs (usually slightly more expensive - can be hailed on a street) or licensed mini cabs (cheaper - must be booked over the phone or on the web). There are over 1000 minicab companies in London.  edit
  • Dot2Dot Shuttle (Dot2Dot), +44 (0) 845 368 2 368, [10]. A door 2 door shuttle service, running 24/7. Costs about half of the Taxi, climate controlled with wide leather seats and plenty of room for luggage. It is recommended you pre book to guarantee a seat on the shuttle. One way £20, round trip £38.  edit
  • Also: to South London, +44 0845 748 4950, [11]. Bus 285 (or taxi) to Feltham railway station (20 minutes) then a train to London Waterloo on the South Bank or Clapham Junction in South West London. Furthermore, bus X26 (limited stop) is an express route stopping in three of South London's district centres: Kingston, Sutton and Croydon. Zone 1-6 Travelcard valid on all London buses and trains. £2 single.  edit

London Gatwick

(IATA: LGW, ICAO: EGKK) [12] London's second airport, also serving a large spectrum of places world-wide. To get to the centre of the city, the following options exist:

  • By rail: Gatwick Express, +44 0845 850 1530, [13]. Every 15 min, journey time 30-35 min. To London Victoria. Travelcard not valid. One way £16.90, round trip £28.80, for the cheapest fare visit their website.  edit
  • By rail: Southern Railway, +44 0845 127 2920, [14]. Every 15 min, journey time 35-40 min. To London Victoria via Clapham Junction. Much cheaper than Gatwick Express - £11.90 (£3 if booked in advance).  edit
  • By rail: First Capital Connect, +44 0871 200 2233, [15]. To London Bridge, Blackfriars, City Thameslink, Farringdon, St Pancras International, Luton Airport and further north. Much cheaper than Gatwick Express - about £10.  edit
  • By bus: Easybus, [16]. Every 15-20 min, journey time 60-90 min. To Fulham Broadway. One way prices start from £2. Book online..  edit
  • By bus: National Express, [17]. Every 30 min, journey time 75-110 min. To London Victoria. One way prices start from £7. Book online.  edit
  • Dot2Dot Shuttle (National Express Dot2Dot), +44 (0) 845 368 2 368, [18]. A door 2 door shuttle service, running 24/7. Costs about half of the Taxi, with wide leather seats and plenty of room for luggage. Pree bookings are required for Gatwick services. Maximum of one way £25, round trip £40.  edit
  • By car. 47 km (29 mi).  edit
  • By cycle, [19]. There is a long-distance cycle path into Central London, but as it involves going through the North Downs and South London and over, it will likely be quite a ride. For adventurous people.  edit

When departing, note that after passing through security you will find no drinking fountains in the South Terminal departure lounge.

London Stansted

Getting to Stansted for an early morning flight is fairly straight forward, coaches run through the night, provided by Terravision [20] and National Express from London Victoria and London Liverpool Street. Terravision costs £8 one way and run roughly every hour throughout the night, check their site [21] for up to date timetable information.

If you like sleeping on the street like a homeless dude, disregard the above information and read the following and tget your Big Issue out for the ladies.

Sleeping at Stansted Airport

A large number of budget flights depart from Stansted as early as 6AM (when the lowest fares are available). However, this presents travellers with a problem, as the airport's location is a long way outside London, and transport to the airport is sporadic before 5:30AM. Due to the high price of accommodation in the city and near the airport, and the fact that many budget airlines don't pay for accommodation in the event of cancellation, an increasing number of travellers choose to spend the night in the airport prior to their flight. A crowd of around 100 travellers (up to 400 in summer) camp in the main departure/arrivals hall every night, effectively turning it into a giant dormitory. Tips for sleeping at Stansted Airport:

  • Arrive early, preferably around 10PM, and stake your territory immediately. Benches without armrests are in limited supply and fill up quickly.
  • If you arrive later, take a floor mat and sleeping bag. Sleeping on the floor is tolerated by the staff, but avoid pitching your bed in front of shops and counters.
  • A sleeping bag is generally recommended as the automatic doors constantly open and close as passengers arrive, and it can get chilly in winter.
  • Safety is not a problem. The airport is miles away from any settlement and security guards overlook the open-plan building 24/7.
  • Ear plugs and eye covers are a must, as the cleaning staff are noisy and shop assistants start arriving at 4AM to open shutters.
  • At least one cafe is open all night, offering snacks and hot drinks. Boots the chemist is also open 24/7
  • Toilets remain open and are normally in good condition. There is a drinking fountain to the left of the Accessorize storefront and the security entrance "Door 1", where you can fill water bottles for the night.

(ICAO: EGSS, IATA: STN) [22] Currently London's third airport, the base for a large number of budget carriers (for example EasyJet [23] and RyanAir [24]) and flights within Europe and a few inter-continental flights. There are several commercial wi-fi hotspots covering most of the airport, but they charge extortionate rates. A free wi-fi hotspot is in the arrivals gate area, next to the phone booths offering fixed internet. Transport options into central London:

  • By rail: Stansted Express to London Liverpool Street, +44 0845 600 7245, [25]. Every 15 min, journey time 45-60 min. One way £17, round trip £26. Travelcard not valid. Most budget carriers' websites offer reduced price deals for the Stansted Express, allowing you to save a few pounds.   edit
  • By rail then London Underground: Stansted Express to Tottenham Hale then London Underground (Victoria line), +44 0845 600 7245, [26]. Every 15 min. If you are going to South London, the West End or West London then take Stansted Express to Tottenham Hale then the London Underground (Victoria line). At Tottenham Hale ask for an Oyster card   edit
  • By coach: National Express, +44 0870 580 8080, [27]. Every 15-30 min. Journey time to Stratford: 1 hour. To Victoria: 90 min. To Stratford (tube: Stratford) or Victoria (tube: Victoria). Folding bicycles only. To Stratford: £8 one way, £14 round trip. To Victoria: £10, £16. Travelcard not valid.  edit
  • By coach: Terravision, +44 (0)1279 68 0028, [28]. Every 30 min. To Liverpool St Station (tube: Liverpool St) or Victoria (tube: Victoria). To Liverpool St Station: £9 one way, £14 round trip. To Victoria: £9, £14. Travelcard not valid.  edit
  • By minibus: EasyBus, [29]. To Baker St (tube: Baker St) and Victoria Coach Station (tube/rail: Victoria). From £2 (advance web purchase) to £8 one way. Travelcard not valid.  edit
  • By taxi, [30]. Journey time 90-120 min. The airport is actually quite a long way from London. It's normally a better idea to take a train to London Liverpool St and continue by taxi from there. approx £70.  edit

London Luton

(ICAO: EGGW, IATA: LTN)[31] Has traditionally been a holiday charter airport, but is now also served by some budget scheduled carriers. As per Stansted, and for the same reasons, many choose to spend the night here before flying, although "First Capital Connect" trains run 24 hours. To get to central London the following options exist:

  • By rail, [32]. Journey time: 30-60 min. The rail station is not actually in the airport, but there is a shuttle bus from the airport to Luton Airport Pkwy station which runs every few minutes and takes five minutes. It costs £1 single, or £2 return, if you are buying a rail ticket, Otherwise it costs £1.5 single or £3 return. From there, Thameslink trains run by First Capital Connect run four or more times an hour to London St. Pancras International. £12.5 one way. Travelcard not valid.  edit
  • By coach: Green Line number 757, +44 0844 801 7261, [33]. Every 20 min, journey time 90 min. To Victoria (tube: Victoria) via Brent Cross, Finchley Rd tube station, Baker St, Marble Arch and Hyde Park Corner. £14 one way if bought from the driver. Travelcard not valid.  edit
  • By coach: National Express, +44 0870 580 8080, [34]. Every 20 min, journey time 90 min. To Victoria (tube: Victoria) via Golders Green and Marble Arch. From £1 (advance web purchase) one way. Travelcard not valid.  edit
  • By minibus: EasyBus number EB2, [35]. To Baker St (tube: Baker St) via Hastingwood Motorway Services and South Woodford. They now run from the city centre (Victoria), but terminate in Baker St on the way back from the airport. From £1 (advance web purchase) to £12 one way.  edit
  • By car. 60 km (35 mi).  edit

London City Airport

(ICAO: EGLC, IATA: LCY)[36] A commuter airport close to the city's financial district, and specializing in short-haul business flights to other major European cities. Not as expensive to fly into than it used to be, and you may indeed find that from some origins, this may be your cheapest London airport to fly to, without even considering the cost savings of NOT coming from the distant larger London airports with £10+ transfer costs. Then there is the added bonus is that it is close to central London.

To get to the city centre the following options exist:

  • By Docklands Light Railway (DLR). See also: Get around. Travelcard valid.  edit
  • By taxi. Journey time approximately 30 min. £20-35.  edit
  • By car. 10 km (6 mi).  edit
  • By bus, [37]. Take the 474 bus to Canning Town station and then the 115 or N15 into central London. See also: Get around. Travelcard valid.  edit

Other airports near London

  • London Southend Airport, +44 (0) 1702 608100, [38]. (IATA: SEN, ICAO: EGMC) Currently undergoing redevelopment and is set to become London's sixth international airport once the new rail link is completed. At present it serves destinations in the British Isles only.  edit
  • Southampton Airport, +44 (0)870 040 0009, [39]. Every 30 min, journey time 1 hour. (IATA: SOU, ICAO: EGHI) is not officially a London airport, though accessible enough to conveniently serve the capital, especially South West London. A couple of budget carriers serving an increasing number of European destinations are based here. Direct trains connect Southampton airport to London Waterloo station. £30-35 round trip.  edit
  • Birmingham International Airport, +44 (0)8707 335511, [40]. Every 30 min, journey time 75 min. (IATA: BHX, ICAO: EGBB) is another non-London airport worth considering as a less congested and hectic alternative to Heathrow, being just over an hour away from London. As a major airport serving the UK's second largest city, there is a good choice of long distance and European destinations. Direct trains connect Birmingham International to London Euston and Watford. From £10 (advance web purchase) one way, £35-100 round trip.  edit

By train

London has one international high speed rail route (operated by Eurostar [41] 08705 186 186 ) from Paris (2h 15min) and Brussels (1h 50 min) diving under the sea for 35 km (22 mi) via the Channel Tunnel to come out in England. It terminates at St. Pancras International Station. There are no fewer than 12 main line National Rail [42] terminals (although in conversation you may hear the brand National Rail infrequently if ever it differentiates main line and London Underground services; journey planner online or phone 08457 48 49 50). With the exception of Fenchurch St (tube: Tower Hill) these are on the London Underground. Most are on the circle line. Clockwise starting at Paddington, major National Rail stations are:

  • London Marylebone, serves some north western suburban stations such as Amersham, Harrow on the Hill and Wembley Stadium. Also serves Aylesbury, High Wycombe, Banbury, Stratford-upon-Avon and the city of Birmingham. It is much cheaper but slightly slower to take a train from Marylebone to Birmingham instead of a train from London Euston. Recently a new service to Shrewsbury, Telford , and Wrexham has been launched by the Wrexham & Shropshire railway company [43].
  • London Moorgate, serves some northern suburbs.
  • London Liverpool Street, serves East Anglia: Ipswich and Norwich. Also the downtown terminus of the Stansted Airport Express.
  • London Fenchurch Street, serves commuter towns north of the Thames estuary to Southend.
  • London Blackfriars, serves Gatwick Airport and Brighton.

In South London many areas have only National Rail services (no London Underground services but there are buses). London Bridge, Victoria, Cannon St and Charing Cross serve the South East. London Waterloo serves the South West. First Capital Connect (frequently referred to as Thameslink) is a cross London route between Bedford and Brighton via Luton Airport (Parkway), St. Pancras International, Farringdon, City Thameslink, Blackfriars, London Bridge and Gatwick Airport.

By bus

Most international and domestic long distance bus (UK English: coach) services arrive at and depart from a complex of coach stations off Buckingham Palace Road in Westminster close to London Victoria rail station. All services operated by National Express or Eurolines (see below) serve Victoria Coach Station, which actually has separate arrival and departure buildings. Services by other operators may use this station, or the Green Line Coach Station across Buckingham Palace Road. The following are amongst the main coach operators:

  • National Express, +44 0870 580 8080, [44]. is by far the largest domestic coach operator and operates services to / from London from throughout England, Wales and Scotland. Advance ticketing is usually required and recommended practice in any case  edit
  • Eurolines, +44 08705 143219, [45]. is an associate company of National Express, and runs coach services to / from London with various cities in Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and continental Europe. Advance ticketing is required.  edit
  • Megabus, +44 0900 160 0900, [46]. operates budget coach services from/to London (Victoria Coach Station) to/from several major regional cities, it is even possible to get to Inverness in the Scottish Highlands. Fares are demand responsive but can be very cheap (£1.50 if you book far enough in advance).  edit

By car

London is the hub of the UK's road network and is easy to reach by road, even if driving into the centre of the city is definitely not recommended. Greater London is encircled by the M25 orbital motorway, on which nearly all the major trunk routes to the rest of England and Wales radiate from. The most important are listed below.

  • M1: The main route to/from the North, leading from the East Midlands, Yorkshire and terminating at Leeds. Most importantly, Britain's longest motorway - the M6, branches from the M1 at Rugby, leading to Birmingham, Liverpool, Manchester, the Lake District and onwards to the Scottish border, and ultimately Glasgow.
  • A1/A1(M) The A1 is the original, historic "Great North Road" between England and Scotland's capital cities and has largely been converted to motorway standard; it runs up the eastern side of Great Britain through Peterborough, York, Newcastle and continues north through Northumberland and the Scottish Borders to Edinburgh.
  • M40/A40: Arrives in London from a north westerly direction, linking the city with Oxford and providing an additional link from Birmingham.
  • M4: The principal route to/from the West - leading to Bath, Bristol and cities South Wales (Cardiff and Swansea). It is also the main route towards Heathrow Airport.
  • M3: The main route to London from the shipping port of Southampton.
  • M2/M20: Together, these motorways are the main link to the coastal ferry (and Channel Tunnel) ports of Dover and Folkestone from Continental Europe.
  • M11: The M11 connects Stansted Airport and Cambridge to London, and it terminates on the north eastern periphery of the city.

In addition to the M25, here are two inner ring roads in London which skirt the central area:

  • A406/A205 North Circular/South Circular The North Circular is a half circle on the North of the Thames, and is mostly a dual carriageway. It has direct connections with the M4, M40, M1 and M11 motorways and can be useful if you want to quickly get around the northern suburbs of the city. The corresponding South Circular is really a local road which is made up of segments of main suburban thoroughfares.

Comparatively few people will actually drive into (or anywhere near) the centre of London. The infamous M25 ring road did not earn its irreverent nicknames "The Road To Hell" and "Britain's biggest car park" for nothing. The road is heavily congested at most times of the day, and is littered with automatically variable speed limits which are enforced with speed cameras. Despite the controversial "congestion charge", driving a car anywhere near the centre of London remains a nightmare with crowded roads, impatient drivers and extortionate parking charges (that's if you can find a space in the first place, that is!). Parking in the City of London is free after 6:30PM M-F, after 1:30PM on Saturday and all day Sunday.

There are also a number of Pay as you go car rental companies operating around London including WhizzGo [47] and Car Clubs [48]

Transport maps

London is the home of the famous tube map, and TfL produce some excellent maps to help you get around:

The city has one of the most comprehensive public transport systems in the world. Despite residents' constant, and sometimes justified, grumbling about unreliability, public transport is often the best option for getting anywhere for visitors and residents alike and is far more reliable than locals would have you believe. Indeed, nearly a third of households do not feel the need to own a car.

Transport for London (TfL) [49] is a government organisation responsible for all public transport. Their website contains maps plus an excellent journey planner [50]. They also offer a 24-hour travel information line, charged at local rate: tel +44-20-72221234 (or text 60835) for suggestions on getting from A to B, and for up to the minute information on how services are running. Fortunately for visitors (and indeed residents) there is a single ticketing system, Oyster, which enables travellers to switch between modes of transport on one ticket.

The main travel options in summary are:

Central London

By tube / underground 11 colour-coded lines cover the central area and suburbs mostly north of the River Thames, run by TfL.

By Docklands Light Railway (DLR) Runs only in the east of the city, privately run but part of TfL's network.

By boat Commuter boats and pleasure cruises along the River Thames, privately run but part of TfL's network.

Airport Express Express rail services run to Heathrow, Gatwick, Stansted and Luton airports (tickets are generally sold at a premium), privately run and not part of the TfL network.

Suburban London

By tram (Tramlink) A tram service that operates only in southern suburbs around Wimbledon and Croydon.

By Overground 3 orange-coloured lines circling the northern suburbs, part of TfL's network. The Underground's East London Line is now closed until 2010 when it will become part of London Overground.

By National Rail A complex network of suburban rail services, mostly running in the southern suburbs, privately run and not part of the TfL network.

Oyster Card in use
Oyster Card in use

Oyster [51] is a contactless electronic smartcard run by Transport for London. You can get an Oyster Card from any Tube station for a deposit of £3. You can also get a Visitor Oyster card [52] for a deposit of £2, although these cards can be used only to pay as you go and cannot be loaded with 7 Day Travelcards. You can "charge up" an Oyster card with electronic funds. This cash is then deducted according to where you travel. The cost of a single trip using the Oyster card is less than buying a single paper ticket with cash. Prices vary depending on distance travelled, whether by bus or tube, and on the time of day. You can also add various electronic 1 week, 1 month and longer-period tickets onto the card, and the card is simply validated each time you use it. The deposit is fully refundable if you hand it in at the end of the trip. However, there is no expiry date on the Oyster Card or any pay-as-you-go credit on the card. If you have any pay-as-you-go credit left this will also be refunded. You will get refunds in cash only if you paid in cash. Be prepared to give your signature on receipts or even show ID for refunds over a few pounds.

Pay-as-you-go (PrePay)

You can charge up your Oyster card with electronic cash at any tube station ticket machine or ticket desk (you can even use a credit card to do this if your credit card has a PIN number) with Oyster pay-as-you-go, also known as PrePay. This money is then deducted from your card each time you get on a service. The fare is calculated based on your start and end points. Pay-as-you-go is much cheaper than paying in cash for each journey. For instance, a cash tube one way in Zone 1 is £4, while with an Oyster Card it costs £1.80. Furthermore, a cash bus fare is £2 while with Oyster it is £1.20.

The amount of PrePay deducted from your Oyster card in one day is capped at the cost of the appropriate paper day ticket (day Travelcard) for the zones you have travelled through, less 50 pence. For zone 1-2 (central London including everywhere inside the Circle line and some places outside) this is £5.10 (£6.70 M-F before 9:30AM).

On the tube, be sure to touch in and touch out again at the end of your journey. If you forget to touch your Oyster card at the start and finish you will be charged extra!

Oyster also saves time getting onto buses. If you don't have an Oyster, tickets have to be bought at a machine by the bus stop in the central area, and from the driver outside the zone.

Travelcards

A Travelcard may be loaded onto an Oyster card or may be purchased as a paper ticket.

  • Day Travelcard - Zones 1-2 - Anytime: £7.20, Off-Peak £5.60
  • 7 Day Travelcard Zones 1-2 - £25.80
  • Monthly Travelcard Zones 1-2 - £99.10
  • Annual Travelcard Zones 1-2 - £1,032.00

The above prices are Adult prices and only for Zones 1 & 2. For a more comprehensive list of the prices visit the TFL website:

1 Day Travelcards [53]

7 Day, Monthly & Annual Travelcards [54]

Travelcard season tickets

Weekly, monthly and longer-period Travelcard season tickets can be purchased at all tube station ticket offices. These can be used on any tube, DLR, bus, London Overground, National Rail or tram service. You have to select a range of zones when you buy it, numbered 1-9. If you happen to travel outside the zone, you can use PrePay (see above) to make up the difference. Note that they can not be used on any Airport Express trains (Heathrow Express, Gatwick Express and Stansted Express). However, a Zone 1-6 Travelcard can be used on the London Underground (Piccadilly line) to/from Heathrow Airport.

Tips

  • Touch the card against a yellow disc, prominently displayed on the entry and exit gates for the Tube (do not try to insert it into the slot!) and on buses and trams.
  • For the tube, be sure to touch the card on the yellow disc both when you enter the tube AND when you exit at your final destination; otherwise you will be charged £4.
  • Theoretically you don't need to remove your Oystercard from your wallet or bag to do touch in/out - the card reader can work through a bag, but in reality you may need to take the card out to get it to work.
  • Be careful standing near the readers on some bendy buses, they are often quite sensitive and may read your card from several centimetres away, even if you did not intend this.
  • If you keep your Oystercard in your wallet try not to sit on it as sometimes they will crack and stop working.

Validity

The following table summarises the validity of the different tickets you can use on Oyster. For most tourists, tubes and buses are the only transport you will use, but be aware that these tickets are not valid on Airport Express trains.

Bus London Underground London Overground National Rail DLR Tram Airport Express trains
Pay-as-you-go yes yes yes yes yes yes no
Travelcard yes yes yes yes yes yes no
Bus pass yes no no no no yes no
  • Bus (and Tram) Passes are only available for periods of 7 days and longer.
  • Travelcards are valid only within the zones you buy.
  • Piccadilly line to Heathrow is a London Underground train, so PrePay and Travelcards are valid.
  • Airport Express trains are Heathrow, Gatwick and Stansted Express.
  • Travelcards are valid on Thameslink but if you are heading all the way to Luton airport, you will need a ticket between the edge of your travelcard zone and the airport.
A reminder on the streets of London to "Look Right" when you cross the road
A reminder on the streets of London to "Look Right" when you cross the road

By foot

London is a surprisingly compact city, making it a walker's delight and often being the quickest method of transport.

Because Britain drives on the left hand side of the road, for most foreign visitors it can be all too easy to forget that traffic will come at you from the opposite direction than you are used to when crossing a street - for this reason remember to look right when you cross the road.

To-scale Central London Underground map
To-scale Central London Underground map
Full to-scale London Underground map
Full to-scale London Underground map

Tube etiquette

  • Beware of pickpockets.
  • Drinking alcohol or smoking anywhere on the underground is illegal.
  • When using the escalators, always stand on the right to allow people in a hurry to pass. If you are standing on the left people will occasionally ask grumpily for you to get out the way, especially during rush hour when commuters are far less forgiving.
  • Allow passengers to get off the train before boarding yourself by standing to the right or to the left of the train doors.
  • Have your Oyster card or ticket ready for the top of the escalators so not to obstruct barriers.
  • Be careful at the ticket barrier of people coming up close behind you in an attempt to get through the barrier on your ticket. This isn't a huge problem, but it does happen.
  • Some platforms in Zone 1 have the words "Mind the Gap" written on the platform edge. When the train stops, the carriage doors will usually line up with this warning.
  • Give up your seat to the elderly and those less able to stand, especially if the seat is reserved for such a purpose.
  • Never try to board or leave a train when the door warning is sounding.

The London Underground [55] - also known popularly as The Tube - has trains that criss-cross London in the largest underground rail network anywhere in the world (it was also the first, the first section of the Metropolitan Line dates back to 1863). The Tube is an easy method of transport even for new visitors to London.

Tube maps [56] are freely available from any station, most tourist offices and are prominently displayed throughout stations and in the back of most diaries. The Tube is made up of 11 lines each bearing a traditional name and a standard colour on the Tube map. To plan your trip on The Tube work out first which station is closest to your starting point and which closest to your destination. You are able to change freely between lines at interchange stations (providing you stay within the zones shown on your ticket). Use the Tube Map to determine which line(s) you will take. Since the Tube Map is well designed it is very easy to work out how to get between any two stations, and since each station is clearly signed and announced it is easy to work out when to get off your train. Visitors should be aware, however, that the Tube map is actually a diagram and not a scaled map, making it misleading for determining the relative distance between stations as it makes central stations appear further apart and somewhat out of place. In central London, taking The Tube for just one stop can be a waste of time; Londoners joke about the tourists who use the Tube to travel between Leicester Square and Covent Garden stations. This is especially true since the walk from a tube station entrance to the platform at some central stations can be extensive. The Tube map also gives no information on London's extensive overground bus network and its orbital rail network.

Trains run from around 5:30AM to about 1AM. This mode of transport is usually the fastest way to get from one part of London to the another, the only problem being the relative expense, and the fact that it can get extremely crowded during rush hours (7:30AM-10:00AM and 4:30PM-7PM). On warm days take a bottle of water with you. Also note that engineering works usually take place during weekends or in the evening. Contact TfL or visit their web site [57] especially if you plan to travel on a Saturday or a Sunday when entire lines may be shut down.

You can use the Oyster to pay, or you can also buy magnetically encoded paper tickets from the information counters or the self-service machines. The smaller machines take only coins, while the larger touch-screen machines also take bills and credit/debit cards (note that they accept only cards with an embedded micro-chip: old-style cards with only a magnetic stripe cannot be used). Paper tickets are relatively expensive with a flat fare of £3 for up to 4 zones and £4 for up to 6-zones. However, most machines also issue day-tickets that are also valid on other methods of transport. Keep hold of your ticket for the whole journey, you'll need it to exit the station as well.

Double-decker bus in London
Double-decker bus in London
Bus stop
Bus stop

London's iconic red buses are recognized the world over, even if the traditional Routemaster buses, with an open rear platform and on-board conductor to collect fares, have been phased out. These still run on Heritage Route 9 and 15 daily between about 9:30AM and 6:30PM, every 15 minutes. Buses are generally quicker than taking the Tube for short (less than a couple of stops on the Tube) trips, and out of central London you're likely to be closer to a bus stop than a tube station. On some busy routes, extra-long buses known as "bendy buses" are used. Routes served by these buses always carry a yellow route sign as detailed below. Care should be taken as it is possible for those unfamiliar with them to get on then have no way of paying. This could be related to the relative ease of hopping on and off without paying (doors open along the length of the bus and there is no on-board conductor). This is, however, illegal and can be very risky - large teams of inspectors frequently descend on these buses accompanied by police, and it's possible to be arrested and prosecuted.

Over 5 million bus trips are made each weekday; with over 700 different bus routes you are never far from a bus. Each bus stop has a sign listing routes that stop there. Bus routes are identified by numbers and sometimes letters, for example the 73 runs between Victoria and Seven Sisters. Yellow signs indicate you must purchase your ticket before you board. You must either have a Pay-as-you-go Oyster card, travelcard season ticket, bus saver ticket, bus pass, or have bought a one way ticket from a machine at the bus stop. These machines don't provide change (all the more reason to use one of the other options). From age 11 and up you must show an Oyster card on buses, yet journeys are free. Student Oysters (only available to students studying in London) go up to age 18 and journeys are still free, failure to show an Oyster means a £2 fare.

Buses display their route number in large digits at the front, side and rear. All bus stops have their location and the direction of travel on them.

The iBus system has now been rolled out the iBus on every bus and garage in London. This new system provides bus times and destination information on a audio-visual display.

Unlike The Tube one way tickets do not allow you to transfer to different buses.

Bus route map

Night bus

Standard bus services run from around 6AM-12:30AM. Around half past midnight the network changes to the vast night bus network of well over 100 routes stretching all over the city. There are two types of night buses: 24 hour routes and N-prefixed routes.

24 hour services keep the same number as during the day and will run the exact same route, such as the nr. 88 bus for example. N-prefixed routes are generally very similar to their day-route, but may take a slightly different route or are extended to serve areas that are further out. For example, the 29 bus goes from Trafalgar Square to Wood Green during the day; however, the N29 bus goes from Trafalgar Square to Wood Green and on to Enfield.

Nightbuses run at a 30 minute frequency at minimum, with many routes at much higher frequencies up to every 5 minutes.

Prices stay the same, and daily travelcards are valid until 4 am the day after they were issued, so can be used on night buses. Most bus stops will have night bus maps with all the buses to and from that local area on it, although it is good to check on the TfL website beforehand, which also has all those maps easily available.

By DLR

Docklands Light Railway (DLR) is a dedicated light rail network operating in East London, connecting with the tube network at Bank, Tower Gateway (close to Tower Hill tube station), Canning Town, Heron Quays (close to Canary Wharf tube station) and Stratford. As the trains often operate without a driver, it can be quite exciting - especially for children - to sit in front and look at through the window, whilst feeling as though one is driving the train oneself. The DLR also runs above ground on much of its route, and travels through many picturesque parts of London, including the docklands area where most of London's skyscrapers are located. Apart from the trains looking slightly different and running slightly less frequently than the Tube, visitors may as well treat the two systems as the same.

Unlike the tube, the DLR uses the honor-system at all stations apart from Bank and Stratford. Tickets are available from the machines at stations (most stations are unstaffed so make sure you are armed with a handful of coins or low-denomination notes) and are distance-based. Travelcards are also accepted, as are Oyster cards, which must be validated when entering the platform, and then validated again when exiting the station.

The DLR can be a little confusing as the routes are not easily distinguished - generally trains run between Bank - Lewisham, Stratford - Lewisham, Bank - Woolwich Arsenal, Stratford - Woolwich Arsenal and Tower Gateway - Beckton. Displays on the platform will tell you the destination and approximate wait for the next 3 trains, and the destination is also displayed on the front and side of the train.

By train

The British railway system is known as National Rail (although some older signs still refer to it as "British Rail"). London's suburban rail services are operated by a large number of independent private companies and mostly run in the south of the city, away from the main tourist sights. Only one line (Thameslink) runs through central London - on a north-south axis between London Bridge or Blackfriars stations, and the underground level of St Pancras main line station. There is no one central station - instead, there are twelve mainline stations dotted around the edge of the central area, and most are connected by the Circle line (except Euston, Fenchurch St and those South of the river like London Waterloo and London Bridge). Most visitors will not need to use National Rail services except for a few specific destinations such as Hampton Court, Kew Gardens (Kew Bridge station), Windsor Castle, Greenwich or the airports, or indeed if they are intending to visit other cities in the UK. Since 2 January 2010, pay-as-you-go Oystercards are accepted on all routes within London travel zones 1-6.

Airport Express Rail services run to Heathrow, Gatwick, Stansted and Luton airports - tickets are generally sold at a premium and Oystercards not valid.

By Overground

In common parlance, Londoners may refer to travelling by "overground" (or "overland"), meaning going by National Rail (as opposed to going by Underground). However, only one service is officially called Overground - London Overground is a Transport for London rail service. It is operated and promoted just like the Underground, with the logo like the Tube (except orange) on stations and full acceptance of Oystercards. London Overground appears on the Tube map as an orange line, and services run across North London suburbs from east to west. Overground services can be a useful shortcut for crossing the city, bypassing the centre, for example from Kew Gardens to Camden. London Overground services also connect busy Clapham Junction railway station in the Southwest to West London (Shepherds Bush and Kensington) and Willesden Junction in the Northwest.

By tram (Tramlink)

Tramlink, opened in 2000, is the first modern tram system to operate in London. South London is poorly served by the Tube and lacks east-west National Rail services so the network connects Wimbledon in South West London to Beckenham in South East London and New Addington, a large housing estate in South Croydon. The network is centred on Croydon, where it runs on street-level tracks around the Croydon Loop.

Route 3 (Wimbledon to New Addington - green on the Tramlink map) is the most frequent service, running every 7 1/2 minutes Monday to Saturday daytime and every 15 minutes at all other times. Beckenham is served by Routes 1 and 2 (yellow and red on the Tramlink map), which terminate at Elmers End and Beckenham Junction respectively. Both services travel around the Loop via West Croydon and run every 10 minutes Monday to Saturday daytime and every 30 minutes at all other times. Between Arena and Sandilands, these two services serve the same stops.

By cycle

Due to the expense of other forms of transport and the compactness of central London, cycling is a tempting option. Excellent free cycle maps [58] can be obtained from your local tube stations, bike shop, or ordered online.

Despite recent improvements, London remains a relatively hostile environment for cyclists. London motorists seem reluctant to acknowledge the existence of cyclists, especially at busy junctions. The kind of contiguous cycle lane network found in many other European cities does not exist. The safest option is to stick to minor residential roads where traffic can be surprisingly calm outside rush hours. The towpaths in North London along the Grand Union Canal and Regent's Canal are the closest thing to a truly traffic-free cycle path in the capital. The Grand Union canal connects Paddington to Camden and the Regent's Canal connects Camden to Islington, Mile End and Limehouse in East London. It takes about 30-40min to cycle from Paddington station to Islington along the towpaths. In summer they are crowded with pedestrians and not suitable for cycling, but in winter or late in the evening they offer a very fast and safe way to travel from east to west in North London. Care should be taken as to where you choose to park your bike. Many areas, some surprisingly busy, attract cycle thieves, while chaining a bicycle to a railing which appears to be private property can occasionally lead to said bike being removed. Cycling on the pavement (sidewalk) is illegal. Fortunately, most major roads will have a red-route (indicated by red-painted tarmac) which is restricted to buses, taxis and bicycles. However, bus stops are usually restricted to red-routes so it's not completely safe. Cycle-lanes exist but they are sporadic at best - usually a 3-foot wide section of tarmac barely wide enough for one cyclist typically indicated by green-painted tarmac.

Non-folding bikes can be taken only on limited sections of The Tube network, mostly only on the above-ground sections outside peak hours. For this reason, folding bicycles are becoming increasingly popular. There is a map showing this on the Transport for London website. Most National Rail operators allow bicycles outside peak hours also.

Critical Mass London meets for regular rides through central London at 6PM on the last Friday of each month. Rides start from the southern end of Waterloo Bridge. The London Cycle Campaign [59] is an advocacy group for London cyclists and organizes regular group rides and events. Many improvements have been made for cyclists in the city over the last few years, even if they remain no more than gestures in most places. Noticeably, there are many new signposted cycle routes and some new cycle lanes, not to mention more cyclists since the 2005 public transport attacks.

In the United Kingdom helmets are not compulsory for cyclists. In London, many cyclists, especially those seen in rush hour, also wear filter masks, but their efficacy is even more disputed.

You must have working front and rear lights during hours of darkness. Flashing LED lights are legal. Reflective clothing is always a good idea even during the day.

London Cab
London Cab

London has two types of taxis: the famous black cab, and so-called minicabs. Black cabs are the only ones licensed to 'tout for business' (ie pick people up off the street), while minicabs are more accurately described as 'private hire vehicles' and need to be pre-booked.

The famous black cab of London (not always black!) can be hailed from the curb or found at one of the many designated taxi ranks. It is possible to book black cabs by phone, for a fee, but if you are in central London it will usually be quicker to hail one from the street. Their amber TAXI light will be on if they are available. Drivers must take an extensive exam in central London's streets to be licensed for a black cab, meaning they can supposedly navigate you to almost any London street without reference to a map. They are a cheap transport option if there are five passengers as they do not charge extras, and many view them as an essential experience for any visitor to London. Black cabs charge by distance and by the minute, are non-smoking, and have a minimum charge of £2.20. Tipping is not mandatory in either taxis or minicabs, despite some drivers' expectations..... Use your discretion, if you like the service you may tip otherwise don't. Londoners will often just round up to the nearest pound.

Taxis are required by law to take you wherever you choose (within Greater London) if their TAXI light is on when you hail them. However many, especially older drivers, dislike leaving the centre of town, or going south of the River Thames. A good way to combat being left at the side of the curb is to open the back door, or even get into the cab, before stating your destination.

Minicabs are normal cars which are licenced hire vehicles that you need to book by phone or at a minicab office. They generally charge a fixed fare for a journey, best agreed before you get in the car. Minicabs are usually cheaper than black cabs, although this is not necessarily the case for short journeys. Licensed minicabs display a Transport For London (TFL) License Plate - usually in the front window. One of the features of the license plate is a blue version of the famous London Underground "roundel". A list of licenced minicab operators can be found at TfL Findaride: [60]. Note that some areas in London are poorly serviced by black cabs, particularly late at night. This has led to a large number of illegal minicabs operating - just opportunistic people, with a car, looking to make some fast money. Some of these operators can be fairly aggressive in their attempts to find customers, and it's now barely possible to walk late at night through any part of London with a modicum of nightlife without being approached. You should avoid mini-cabs touting for business off the street and either take a black cab, book a licensed minicab by telephone, or take a night bus. These illegal drivers are unlicensed and sadly they are often unsafe: a number of women are assaulted every week by illegal minicab operators.

  • Cabwise, Liverpool Station, 60835, [61]. 1.30. A free service provided by TFL which texts you local licensed minicab numbers. Text HOME to 60835. Costs the price of a text message.  edit

By road

Londoners who drive will normally take public transport in the centre; follow their example. There is no good reason whatsoever to drive a car in central London.

Car drivers should be aware that driving into central London on weekdays during daylight hours incurs a hefty charge, with very few exemptions (note that rental cars also attract the charge). Cameras and mobile units record and identify the number plates and registration details of all vehicles entering the charging zone with high accuracy. The Central London Congestion Charge [62] M-F 7AM-6PM (excluding public holidays) attracts a fee of £8 if paid the same day, or £10 if paid on the next charging day. Numerous payment options exist: by phone, online, at convenience stores displaying the red 'C' logo in the window and by voucher. Failure to pay the charge by midnight the next charging day (take note!) incurs a hefty automatic fine of £80 (£40 if paid within 2 weeks).

Despite the Congestion Charge, London - like most major cities - continues to experience traffic snarls. These are, of course, worse on weekdays during peak commuting hours, i.e. between 7:30AM-9:30AM and 4PM-7PM At these times public transport (and especially the Tube) usually offers the best alternative for speed and reduced hassle. Driving in Central London is a slow, frustrating, expensive and often unnecessary activity. Traffic is slow and heavy, there are many sorts of automatic enforcement cameras, and it is difficult and expensive to park. A good tip is, that outside advertised restriction hours, parking on a single yellow line is permissible. Parking on a red line or a double yellow line is never permissible and heavily enforced. Find and read the parking restrictions carefully! Parking during weekdays and on Saturday can also mean considerable expense in parking fees - fees and restrictions are ignored at your extreme financial peril - issuing fines, clamping and towing vehicles (without warning!) has become a veritable new industry for borough councils staffed by armies of traffic wardens.

For the disabled driving can be much more convenient than using public transport. If disabled and a resident of a member state of the EU then two cars can be permanently registered, for free, for the congestion charge.

Motorcycles and scooters are fairly common in London as they can pass stationary cars, can usually be parked for free and are exempt from congestion-charging. Scooters and bikes with automatic transmission are much more preferable - a manually-geared racing bike is completely impractical unless you have excellent clutch-control! Likewise to bicycles, car-drivers have a disregard to anyone on two wheels and larger vehicles have an unwritten priority so take care when crossing junctions. A fully-enclosed crash-helmet is mandatory. Parking for bikes is usually free - there are designated motorcycle-parking areas on some side-streets and some multi-level parking lots will have bike parking on the ground level.

A river bus at Tower Millennium Pier
A river bus at Tower Millennium Pier

London is now starting to follow the example of cities such as Sydney and Bangkok by promoting a network of river bus and pleasure cruise services along the River Thames. London River Services [63] (part of Transport for London) manages regular commuter boats and a network of piers all along the river and publishes timetables and river maps similar to the famous tube map. While boat travel may be slower and a little more expensive than tube travel, it offers an extremely pleasant way to cross the city with unrivalled views of the London skyline - Big Ben, St Paul's Cathedral, the Tower of London, etc. Sailing under Tower Bridge is an unforgettable experience.

Boats are operated by private companies and they have a separate ticketing system from the rest of London transport; however if you have a Travelcard you get a 33% discount on most boat tickets. Many boat operators offer their own one-day ticket - ask at the pier kiosks. Generally, tickets from one boat comapny are not valid on other operators' services.

View from Greenwich Observatory which is easily reached by boat services plying the Thames
View from Greenwich Observatory which is easily reached by boat services plying the Thames

Boats run on the following routes:

  • Bankside - Millbank
  • Barrier Gardens - Greenwich - St. Katharine's - Westminster
  • Blackfriars - Embankment - Cadogan - Chelsea Harbour - Wandsworth (RQ) - Putney
  • Canary Wharf - Hilton Docklands
  • Canary Wharf - London Bridge City
  • Embankment - Blackfriars - Chelsea Harbour - Cadogan
  • Embankment - London Eye - Bankside - London Bridge City - Tower - Canary Wharf - Greenland - Masthouse Terrace - Greenwich - QEII for the O2 - Woolwich Arsenal
  • Embankment - London Eye - Blackfriars - London Bridge City - Tower - Canary Wharf - Greenland - Masthouse Terrace - Greenwich - QEII for the O2 - Woolwich Arsenal
  • Embankment - London Eye - Blackfriars - London Bridge City - Tower - Canary Wharf - Greenwich - QEII for the O2 - Woolwich Arsenal
  • Embankment - London Eye - London Bridge City - Tower - Canary Wharf - Greenland - Masthouse Terrace - Greenwich - QEII for the O2 - Woolwich Arsenal
  • Greenwich - Tilbury - Gravesend
  • Greenwich - Tower - Westminster - London Eye
  • Hampton Court - Kingston (Town End Pier) - Kingston (Turk's Pier) - Richmond (St Helena)
  • Hampton Court - Richmond - Kew - Westminster
  • Hilton Docklands - Canary Wharf
  • London Bridge City - Canary Wharf
  • Millbank - Bankside
  • Putney - Wandsworth (RQ) - Chelsea Harbour - Cadogan - Embankment - Blackfriars
  • Richmond (St Helena) - Kingston (Turk's Pier) - Kingston (Town End Pier) - Hampton Court
  • Tilbury - Gravesend - Greenwich
  • Westminster - Embankment - Festival - Bankside - London Bridge City - St. Katharine's - Westminster
  • Westminster - Embankment - St. Katharine's - Westminster
  • Westminster - Kew - Richmond - Hampton Court
  • Westminster - London Eye - Tower - Greenwich
  • Westminster - St. Katharine's - Greenwich - Barrier Gardens
  • Woolwich Arsenal - QEII for the O2 - Greenwich - Masthouse Terrace - Greenland - Canary Wharf - Tower - London Bridge City - Bankside - Embankment - London Eye
  • Woolwich Arsenal - QEII for the O2 - Greenwich - Masthouse Terrace - Greenland - Canary Wharf - Tower - London Bridge City - Blackfriars - Embankment - London Eye
  • Woolwich Arsenal - QEII for the O2 - Greenwich - Masthouse Terrace - Greenland - Canary Wharf - Tower - London Bridge City - Embankment - London Eye

Some key tourist attractions that are easily accessible by boat include:

  • Hampton Court Palace
  • Greenwich
  • Shakespeare’s Globe
  • Tate Galleries
  • London Dungeon
  • Tower of London
  • Tower Bridge
  • St. Katharine Docks
  • Millennium Dome/The O2
  • Ham House
  • Kew Gardens
  • HMS Belfast

plus all the central London sights in Westminster and the South Bank

As well as the Thames, consider a trip along an old Victorian canal through the leafy suburbs of North London. The London Waterbus Company runs scheduled services (more in summer, less in winter) from Little Venice to Camden Lock with a stop at the London Zoo (pick up only). The 45-minute trip along Regent's Canal is a delightful way to travel.

By skate

Inline skating on roads and sidewalks (pavements) is completely legal, except in the City of London (a district). Roads are not the greatest but easily skatable. In the centre drivers are more used to skaters than in the outskirts.

London with children

London can be stressful with kids - check London with children for slightly less stressful sightseeing

London is a huge city, so all individual listings are in the appropriate district articles and only an overview is presented here.

Buckingham Palace.
Buckingham Palace.
  • Buckingham Palace - The official London residence of the Queen, also in Westminster. Open for tours during the summer months only, but a must-see sight even if you don't go in.
  • The London Eye. The world's third largest observation wheel, situated on the South Bank of the Thames with magnificent views over London.
  • Marble Arch is a white Carrara marble monument designed by John Nash. It is located in the middle of a huge traffic island at one of the busiest intersections in central London where Oxford St meets Park Lane in Mayfair.
  • Piccadilly Circus is one of the most photographed sights in London. The status of Eros stands proudly in the middle while the north eastern side is dominated by a huge, iconic neon hoarding.
  • St Paul's Cathedral, also in the City, is Sir Christopher Wren's great accomplishment, built after the 1666 Great Fire of London - the great dome is still seated in majesty over The City. A section of the dome has such good acoustics that it forms a "Whispering Gallery".
  • Tower Bridge - Is the iconic 19th century bridge located by the Tower of London near the City. It is decorated with high towers and featuring a drawbridge and you can visit the engine rooms and a Tower Bridge exhibition.
St Paul's Cathedral
St Paul's Cathedral
  • The Tower of London - Situated just south east of the City, is London's original royal fortress by the Thames. It is over 900 years old, contains the Crown Jewels, guarded by Beefeaters, and is a World Heritage site. It is also considered by many to be the most haunted building in the world. If you are interested in that sort of thing its definitely somewhere worth visiting. Sometimes there are guided ghost walks of the building.
  • Trafalgar Square - Home of Nelson's Column and the lions, and once a safe haven for London's pigeons until the recent introduction of hired birds of prey. It recently attracted controversy over the 'Fourth plinth', previously empty, being temporarily home to a Marc Quin sculpture, 'Alison Lapper Pregnant'. Overlooked by the National Gallery, it's the nearest London has to a 'centre', and has recently been pedestrianised.
  • Westminster Abbey and the Palace of Westminster (including Big Ben and the Houses of Parliament) in Westminster. The seat of the United Kingdom parliament and World Heritage site, as well as setting for royal coronations since 1066, most recently that of Queen Elizabeth II in 1953.

Museums and Galleries

London hosts an outstanding collection of world-class museums. Even better, it is the only one of the traditional "alpha world cities" (London, New York City and Paris) in which the majority of the museums have no entrance charges, thus allowing visitors to make multiple visits with ease. Although London can be expensive, many of the best museums and galleries are free including:

and most museums in Greenwich. Note that admission to many temporary exhibitions is not free.

Aside from these world famous establishments, there is an almost unbelievable number of minor museums in London covering a very diverse range of subjects. The British government lists over 240 different genuine museums in the city.

St James' Park
St James' Park

The 'green lungs' of London are the many parks, great and small, scattered throughout the city including Hyde Park, St James Park and Regent's Park. Most of the larger parks have their origins in royal estates and hunting grounds and are still owned by the Crown, despite their public access.

  • Regent's Park is wonderful open park in the northern part of central London.
  • St James's Park has charming and romantic gardens ideal for picnics and for strolling around. St. James's Park is situated between Buckingham Palace on the west and Horse Guards Parade on the east.
  • Hampstead Heath is a huge open green space in north central London. Not a tended park a such and is remarkably wild for a metropolitan city location. The views from the Parliament Hill area of the heath south over the city are quite stunning.
One of more than 800 Blue Plaques throughout London
One of more than 800 Blue Plaques throughout London

Blue Plaques

English Heritage runs the Blue Plaques [64] programme in London. Blue Plaques celebrate great figures of the past and the buildings that they inhabited. These are among the most familiar features of the capital’s streetscape and adorn the façades of buildings across the city. Since the first plaque was erected in 1867, the number has grown steadily and there are now more than 800. Recipients are as diverse as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Sigmund Freud, Charles de Gaulle, Jimi Hendrix and Karl Marx. Look out for these around the city.

Do

London is a huge city, so all individual listings are in the appropriate district articles.

  • Take a walk through London's Royal Parks. A good walk would start at Paddington station, and head through Kensington Gardens, Hyde Park, Green Park (passing Buckingham Palace) and St James Park before crossing Trafalgar Square and the River Thames to the South Bank and Waterloo Station. At a strolling pace this walk would take half a day, with plenty of places to stop, sit, drink, eat en-route. A good pictorial description of this walk can be found online at Trips By Trains Royal Parks Walk [65].
  • Live Music. London is one of the best cities in the world for concerts, spanning from new musical trends to well known bands. Between huge concert facilities and small pubs, there are hundreds of venues that organise and promote live music every week. Many concerts, especially in smaller or less known places are free, so there is plenty of choice even for tourists on a budget.  edit
  • Theatre. The West End, especially the areas concentrated around Leicester Square, Covent Garden, Shaftesbury Avenue and Haymarket, is one of the world's premier destinations for theatre, including musical theatre. In the centre of Leicester Square there is an official half-price TKTS booth. For up-to-date listings see the weekly magazine Time Out [66] or check the official London theatreland site [67]. The South Bank is another area well-known for serious theatre, and is home to both the National Theatre and the Globe Theatre. London's theatre scene outside of these two main districts is known as "the Fringe".  edit
  • Watch a movie. As well as the world-famous blockbuster cinemas in the West End, London has a large number of superb art house cinemas. In the summer months, there are often outdoor screenings at various venues, such as Somerset House and in some of the large parks.  edit
  • Watch football, [68]. Take in a home match of one of the city's 20+ professional football clubs for a true experience of a lifetime as you see the passion of the "World's Game" in its mother country. The biggest EPL clubs are Arsenal, Chelsea, Fulham, Tottenham Hotspur and West Ham United. A level down finds Charlton Athletic, Crystal Palace, Queen's Park Rangers and Millwall. Many of the bigger clubs will require booking in advance, sometimes many months ahead, but smaller clubs allow you to simply turn up on match day and pay at the gate. You will be able to find a ticket to a quality football match on any Saturday during the season.  edit
  • Wimbledon, [69]. Wimbledon is the oldest tennis tournament in the world and is widely considered the most prestigious. Naturally it is a regular feature on the Tennis calendar. London goes "tennis crazy" for two weeks when the competition commences in late June and early July.  edit
  • Open House London Weekend, [70]. Explore many of the city's most interesting buildings during the London Open House Weekend - usually held on the third weekend of September. During this single weekend, several hundred buildings which are not normally open to the public are opened up. See website for details of buildings opening in any given year - some buildings have to be pre-booked in advance - book early for the popular ones!  edit
  • Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road (tube: South Kensington), [71]. One of the first of its kind in the world. The museum houses many permanent and temporary exhibitions covering plants, animals and geology from the worlds natural history. Of interest to most would be the permanent dinosaur exhibition. Although many displays feel dated this is an excellent museum and is always, deservedly, crowded. Free.  edit
  • Winter Skating. London has a number of outdoor ice rinks that open in the winter months. Considered by some to be somewhat overpriced and overcrowded, they nonetheless have multiplied in recent years, easing congestion and increasing competition. Most charge from £10-12 (adults) for an hour on the ice, including skate hire. See the district articles for the City of London, East End and Leicester Square.
  • Summer Skating. In summer (and also in winter, for the more dedicated) there is also a thriving roller skating (on inline and traditional "quad" skates) scene in London, catering to many disciplines including street hockey, freestyle slalom, dance, general recreational skating (including three weekly marshalled group street skates) and speed skating. This mostly centres around Hyde Park (on the Serpentine Road) and Kensington Gardens (by the Albert Memorial). See the district articles for Mayfair-Marylebone and South West London.
  • Shopping.. If it's available, it can be bought in London. Oxford Street, Regent Street and Bond Street, all in the West End, are some of the most famous shopping destinations in the world, but they are also just the tip of the iceberg, and many London districts and town centres have unique shopping attractions of their own.  edit

Tours

If you don't feel like splashing out on one of the commercial bus tours, you can make your own bus tour by buying an Oyster card and spending some time riding around London on the top deck of standard London buses. Of course you don't get the open air or the commentary, but the views are very similar. You will likely get lost but that is half the fun; if it worries you go for a commercial tour.

  • Open top bus tour. Every day. These offer a good, albeit somewhat expensive, introduction to the sights of London. Two principal operators tend to dominate the market for this kind of tour: (The Original Tour [72] +44 (0)20 8877 1722 and The Big Bus Company [73] +44 (0)20 7233 9533). Both provide hop-on/hop-off services where you can get off at any attraction and catch the next bus; both provide live commentaries in English and recorded commentaries in other languages (not necessarily on the same buses).  edit
  • London Ducktours, +44 (0)20 7928 3132, [74]. Daily. If you are in the mood for a view of London by boat. The tour bus is actually a D-Day landing water/land vehicle that has been refurbished complete with tour guide.  edit
  • London Movie Tours, +44 (0)844 2471 007, [75]. Daily. London is the third busiest filming location in the world and has plenty of famous film locations to visit from movies such as Bridget Jones's Diary, The Da Vinci Code and Sherlock Holmes.  edit
  • New London Tours (by foot), +49 30 510 50030, [76]. Old City of London Tour starts everyday at 10 am by the sundial directly opposite the Tower Gateway exit at Tower Hill Station. Royal London Free tour starts daily at 11AM by Wellington Arch. Use EXIT 2 when leaving Hyde Park Corner station. (Phone number links to Germany.) Free.  edit
  • Architectural Tours, +44 20 3006 7008, [77]. Open House Architecture Tours take place every Saturday morning and offer an opportunity to experience London’s built environment at first hand. The tour guides, all of whom are architects, architectural writers or architectural historians, have an in-depth knowledge of London, enabling them to provide an intelligent but accessible commentary to the tours. Four geographical areas are rotated on a weekly basis: The Square Mile, Edges of the City, Westminster and Docklands. Please note that a coach is used to get you to the key destinations, with some walking in-between.  edit

Learn

London attracts more students from overseas than any other city in the world, and is home to a huge variety of academic institutions. Its universities include some of the oldest and most prestigious in the world.

Many of the city's most prestigious colleges fall under the auspices of the University of London [78] including:

  • University College London (UCL), [79]. The first university established in London, offering a wide range of courses. UCL academic research is cited more than any other university in the UK, and its courses are regarded as amongst the best  edit
  • London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), [80]. The only college in the UK focused exclusively on social sciences, whose courses are regarded as amongst the very best in the world   edit
  • School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), [81]. Offers highly regarded courses in law, languages, social sciences and humanities, with a unique focus on Asia and Africa. Its glittering list of alumni include many foreign leaders.  edit
  • London Business School, [82]. Postgraduate business school offering one of the world's leading MBA programmes  edit

Other institutions include Imperial College London [83], the UK's leading university specialising in sciences

Learn English

London is a natural place to learn and improve spoken and written English. There are a huge range of options, from informal language exchange services to evening classes and formal language schools. There are a number of unaccredited schools charging hefty fees and offering qualifications that are viewed as worthless. If choosing a course from a privately-run school or college, it is important to ensure the institution is accredited by the British Council.

Work

London is one of the world's leading financial centres and so professional services is the main area of employment, although this sector has been hit hard by the global financial crisis.

London is hugely popular as a working holiday destination - work in bars and the hospitality industry is relatively easy to find and well paid.

Wages are generally higher in London than the rest of the UK, although the cost of living is higher still.

Harrods
Harrods

One of the world's great metropolises, anything and everything you could possibly want to buy is available in London, if you know where to look, and if you can afford it (London is not particularly noted for bargain shopping, owing to high prices and high exchange rates (depending on where the traveller is from) - though it can be done with some determination). In Central London, the main shopping district is the West End (Bond St, Covent Garden, Oxford St and Regent St). On Thursdays many West End stores close later than normal (7PM-8PM).

  • Oxford Street. Main shopping street home to flagship branches of all the major British high street retailers in one go including Selfridges [84], John Lewis [85] (includes a food hall), Marks & Spencer [86] and other department stores.
  • Regent Street (between Oxford Circus and Piccadilly Circus). Includes such gems as Hamleys, considered to be London's flagship toy store, on seven levels, and the London Apple Store.
  • Bond Street. Some of the world's most luxurious designer stores such as Cartier, D&G, Jimmy Choo, Louis Vuitton and Versace.
  • Tottenham Court Road. Contains some of the world's most luxurious designer interior stores such as Heals and many stores selling electronic items.
  • Covent Garden [87]. Fashionable area home to quaint outlets and relatively expensive designer stores. Around Seven Dials chains include Adidas Originals, All Saints, Carhartt, Fred Perry, G Star Raw and Stussy. For shoes head for Neal St. Also the London Transport Museum whose gift shop has some of the best souvenirs in the city (old maps, vintage Tube posters, etc).
  • Charing Cross Road (near Covent Garden). A book lovers haven! New, second-hand, antiquarian and specialist.
  • Soho . Offers alternative music and clothes. Now home to Chappell of Bond St's historic music shop.
  • Camden Town. Alternative clothing and other alternative shopping, popular with teenagers and young adults. Also nearby Camden Lock market.
  • Chelsea. The King's Road is noted for fashion, homeware and kids. On Wednesday many stores close late.
  • Knightsbridge. Department stores include the world famous Harrods [88] (includes a food hall) and Harvey Nichols. On Wednesday many stores close late.
  • Westminster. Some of the world's most famous shirts are made on Jermyn St.

Markets

Borough (tube: London Bridge) [89] is a great (if expensive) food market, offering fruit, veg, cheese, bread, meat, fish, and so on, much of it organic. It's open Th-Sa, and it's best to go in the morning, since it gets unpleasantly crowded by around 11AM.

Spitalfields [90] is an excellent market for clothes from up-and-coming designers, records, housewares, food, and all things trendy. Also Brick Lane, Greenwich and Portobello, [91].

Airports

Tax-free shops in airports are not strong in variety, prices are equal to London, and they close rather early as well. Shop listings at airport web sites can help to plan your tax-free (vs traditional) shopping. In the evening allow extra half an hour as closing hours are not always strictly respected.

This guide uses the following price ranges for a typical meal for one, including soft drink:
Budget Below £15
Mid-range £15-50
Splurge £50+

Smoking Ban

Smoking is banned in all UK pubs and restaurants.

It is a huge task for a visitor to find the 'right place' to eat in London - with the 'right atmosphere', at the 'right price' - largely because, as in any big city, there are literally thousands of venues from which to choose, ranging from fast food joints, pubs, and mainstream chains all the way up to some of the most exclusive restaurants in the world which attract the kind of clientele that don't need to ask the price. Sorting the good from the bad isn't easy, but London has something to accommodate all budgets and tastes. Following is a rough guide to what you might get, should you fancy eating out:

  • £5 - you can get a good English pub or cafeteria breakfast with a rack of bacon, beans in tomato sauce, egg, sausage, orange juice and coffee or tea. Most pubs stop this offer at 11AM.
  • £7 - will buy you a couple of sandwiches and a soft drink, some takeaway fish and chips, or a fast food meal. There are also a number of mostly Chinese restaurants which serve an all you can eat buffet for around this price. These are dotted about the West End and it is well worth asking a member of public or a shopkeeper where the nearest one is. These restaurants make much of their revenue on drinks although these are usually still moderately priced. The food whilst not being of the finest standard is usually very tasty and the range of dishes available is excellent. There are literally thousands of so called takeaways in London and a cheap alternative to a restaurant meal. Check with your hotel management if they allow food deliveries before ordering in. Most takeaways will offer some form of seating, but not all do.
  • £6-10 - will get you a good pub meal and drink or a good Chinese/Indian/Italian/Thai/Vietnamese buffet. Be aware that many pubs have a buy-one-get-one-free offer, and you can either order two main dishes for yourself or bring a friend.
  • £15 - some more expensive French, Mediterranean and international restaurants do cheaper two or three course lunch menus.
  • £25 - offers you a lot more choice. You can have a good meal, half a bottle of wine and change for the tube home. There are plenty of modest restaurants that cater for this bracket.
  • £50 (to almost any amount!) - with more money to spend you can pick some of the city's finer restaurants. It may be a famous chef (like Jamie Oliver or Gordon Ramsay) or simply a place that prides itself on using the finest ingredients. Worth the splurge to impress a special someone. Note that these establishments often need to be booked well in advance, and most will enforce a dress code of some sort.

Prices inevitably become inflated at venues closest to major tourist attractions - beware the so-called tourist traps. The worst tourist trap food is, in the opinion of many Londoners, is served at the various steak houses (Angus Steak House, Aberdeen Steak House etc - there are all dotted around the West End). Londoners wouldn't dream of eating here - you shouldn't either! Notorious areas for inflated menu prices trading on travellers' gullibility and lack of knowledge are the streets around the British Museum, Leicester Square and Piccadilly Circus. Even the major fast food chains charge a premium in their West End outlets - so watch out.

In the suburbs, the cost of eating out is reduced drastically. Particularly in large ethnic communities, there is a competitive market which stands to benefit the consumer. In East London for example, the vast number of chicken shops means that a deal for 2 pieces of chicken, chips (fries) and a drink shouldn't cost you more than £3, and will satisfy even the largest of appetites. Another good (and cheap) lunch option is a chicken or lamb doner (gyro) at many outlets throughout the city.

Tipping may also be different than what you're used to. All meals include the 17.5% VAT tax and some places include a service fee (10-12%). The general rule is to leave a tip for table service, unless there's already a service charge added or unless the service has been notably poor. The amount tipped is generally in the region of 10%, but if there's a figure between 10 and 15% which would leave the bill at a conveniently round total, many would consider it polite to tip this amount. Tipping for counter service, or any other form of service, is unusual - but some choose to do so if a tips container is provided.

Restaurants

As one of the world's most cosmopolitan cities, you can find restaurants serving food cuisine from nearly every country, some of it as good as, if not better than in the countries of origin.

Indian food in London is especially famous and there is hardly a district without at least one notable Indian restaurant.

If you are looking for other particular regional foods these tend to be clustered in certain areas and some examples are:

  • Drummond St (just behind Euston railway station in the London/Camden district) has lots of vegetarian restaurants.

Other nationalities are equally represented and randomly dotted all over London. It is usually wisest to eat in restaurants on main thoroughfares rather than on quiet backstreets.

Chains

Like other capitals in the world, London has the usual array of fast food outlets. Sandwich shops are the most popular places to buy lunch, and there are a lot of places to choose from including Eat and Pret a Manger. Some Italian-style sandwich shops have a very good reputation and you can identify them easily by looking at the long queues at lunchtime. If all else fails, Central London has lots of mini-supermarkets operated by the big British supermarket chains (e.g. , Sainsbury's, Tesco) where you can pick up a pre-packed sandwich.

Fast food with an Asian flare is easy to find throughout the city, with lots of Busaba Eathai, Wagamama, and Yo! Sushi locations throughout the city. Nando's has spicy peri peri style grilled chicken.

Vegetarian

London has plenty of vegetarian-only restaurants many of them championing organic foodstuffs, and a quick search in Google will produce plenty of ideas, so you never have to see a piece of cooked meat all week.

If you are dining with carnivorous friends most restaurants will cater for vegetarians and will have at least a couple of dishes on the menu. Indian/Bangladeshi restaurants are generally fruitful, as they have plenty of traditional dishes. There are also many vegetarian Thai buffet places where you can eat somewhat unconvincing (but tasty) meat substitute grub for £5. These can be found on Greek and Old Compton Sts in Soho and Islington High Street.

Religious

Due to the mix of cultures and religions, many London restaurants cater well for religious dietary requirements. The most common signs are for Halal and Kosher meat, from burger joints to nice restaurants. There are lots of Halal restaurants [92] and shops all over London including Whitechapel Rd and Brick Lane in the East End, Bayswater, Edgware Rd and Paddington and in many parts of north London. There are plenty of Kosher restaurants in Golders Green, Edgware and Stamford Hill.

Convenience stores and supermarkets

Convenience stores such as Tesco Metro, Sainsbury Central/Local, Budgens, Costcutter, SPAR, Somerfield as well as privately-run 'corner shops' sell pre-made sandwiches, snacks, alcohol, cigarettes, drinks etc. Most are open from 5AM-11PM although some such as Tesco Metro or convenience stores located at petrol stations may open 24 hours although they will stop selling alcohol after 11PM. Be aware that Whistlestop convenience stores (located in or around train stations) are notoriously overpriced and should be avoided. If using a petrol-station convenience store late at night (i.e. after 11PM) the store will be locked and you should order and pay through the external service window.

Full-size superstores such as Tesco, Asda and Morrisons are rare in the city centre and usually require a 15-20 min tube ride to reach them. One of the closest is the ASDA store close to South Quay DLR Station on the Lewisham line - about 15-min ride from Bank Station. If you plan on buying lots of groceries it's worth the trip as prices are much lower than in any downtown supermarkets.

Young and Beautiful

For more details on London's nightlife with attention on the alternative, try Indie London.

London is home to a great many pubs, bars and nightclubs. The online city guide View London [93] and the weekly magazine Time Out [94] can inform you of what's going in London's night life, as well as with cultural events in general.

Pubs & bars

London is an expensive place and your drink is likely to cost more than its equivalent elsewhere in the United Kingdom. Expect to pay £3 for a pint of beer in an average pub. However many local pubs, especially those run by chains like Wetherspoons and Scream tend to be more reasonably priced, the latter catering for a student audience where you can find a sub-£3 pint.

In the Bloomsbury area, check out The Court (near the north end of Tottenham Court Road) and The Rocket (Euston Road). Both are fairly cheap to drink at, given that they cater for students of the adjacent University College London. Directly opposite the British Library is The Euston Flyer, popular with locals and commuters alike given its close proximity to St Pancras International railway station.

Classier bars and pubs can be much more expensive. However, the cost of alcohol drops significantly the further away you go from the centre (though be aware that West London tends to be an exception, with prices pretty much the same as the centre).

Two important London breweries are Young's and and Fullers. Young's was founded in Wandsworth in 1831 and nowadays it boasts 123 pubs in central London alone. The Founder's Arms on the South Bank is one of the brewery's most well known establishments. Fullers was founded a bit later in 1845 and the jewel in its crown is probably the Grade I listed Old Bank Of England on Fleet Street, thanks to its breath-taking interiors.

It's hard to say which pub in London is truly the oldest but it's easy to find contenders for the title. Many pubs were destroyed in the Great Fire of London – indeed, Samuel Pepys supposedly watched the disaster from the comfort of the Anchor in Borough. Pubs were rebuilt on sites that claimed to have been working pubs since the 13th century. Ye Olde Chesire Cheese in Fleet Street is on the site of an old monastery and its cellar dates back to the 13th century. Those interested in London's historic and literary connections can't miss The Spaniard's Inn in Hampstead. Dick Turpin is said to have been born here; John Keats and Charles Dickens both drank here; it's mentioned in Dickens' The Pickwick Papers and Bram Stoker's Dracula.

For the best view in the city, try pubs on the banks of the Thames. The South Bank has lots of good bars with plenty of iconic bridges and buildings in sight. Heading towards Bermondsey, pub crowds become a little less touristy.

If you're after gastropubs, you may like to visit London's first, The Eagle, in Clerkenwell, established in 1991. You can also try Time Out's favourite newcomer, The Princess Victoria on Uxbridge Road, Shepherd's Bush.

Wine buffs can enjoy the famous Davys wine bars that dot the city. The company, established in 1870, import wines and own over thirty bars in the centre. Other big names in wine include the Michelin-starred Cellar Gascon and Vinoteca, both in Smithfield.

Big hotels, such as The Dorchester and The Ritz, and upmarket clubs around Leicester Square and Soho are reliable bets for a date at the bar. The Connaught Hotel in Mayfair-Marylebone boasts its house bar, plus the Time Out favourite, The Coburg. Still in Mayfair, The Polo Bar at The Westbury is very intimate.

You can rely on most up-and-running bars to offer a short cocktail menu and there are also bars that position themselves as cocktail specialists.

Nightclubs

Nightlife is an integral part of London life and there are countless nightclubs in and around Central London with music to suit even the most eclectic of tastes. Districts in London tend to specialize to different types of music.

The Farringdon/Hoxton/Shoreditch area has many clubs playing drum and bass, house and trance music and is home to the superclub Fabric (arguably the best nightclub in London). The clubs in this area are often home to the world's top DJ's and attracts a lively, hip and friendly crowd.

The area around Leicester Square and Mayfair is home to the more upmarket clubs in London. This area attracts a rather more showy crowd who love to flaunt what they have and is a must go to celebrity spot. Beware that drinks are ridiculously expensive and many clubs operate a guestlist-only policy. Music played here is often of the commercial chart funky house, hip hop and R&B genre. Notable clubs include Cafe De Paris, China White, Funky Buddha, Mahiki, Number One Leicester Square and Paper.

The Camden area is home to lots of clubs which play Indie, metal and rock music and notably the Electric Ballroom, the world famous Koko and Underworld.

Gay and lesbian

London has a vibrant gay scene with countless bars, clubs and events in just about every district of the city.

The nucleus of London's gay scene is undoubtedly Old Compton St and the surrounding area in Soho but over the last couple of years Vauxhall has seen a boom in Gay venues. You will find that many areas, particularly in Camden Town and Shoreditch, that straight bars will have a mixed clientele. To find out what is going on during your visit, you can check:

  • qmagazine.com [95] a weekly magazine that comprehensively covers the London gay scene with handy night by night listings available on-line and in print
  • scene-OUT [96]
  • Boyz Magazine [97] which is published fortnightly and is freely available at most London gay venues, and contains listings of everything that is happening in all the major clubs in London and the South East.

Gay Pride [98] is held every year in June with parade and street parties. The choice of places to go sometimes seem to be unmanageable.

  • London Gay and Lesbian Switchboard (LLGS), +44 20 7837 7324 (), [99]. This voluntary service has been operating since 1974 and as well as providing counselling they offer an incredibly thorough information service about Gay events, accommodation and businesses in London.  edit
This guide uses the following price ranges for a standard double room:
Budget Under £70
Mid-range £70 to £140
Splurge Over £140

London has hundreds of options for accommodation to suit all budgets from hostels through historic bed and breakfasts (B&Bs), mainstream chain hotels and apartments all the way to some of the most exclusive establishments in the world such as The Savoy, The Ritz and Claridges where a stay in a top suite will cost upwards of £1,000 per night.

Hotels

Your budget will have a lot to do with what part of London you will want to stay in. Tourist-standard prices range from £20-200 per person per night. Expect smaller than average rooms especially at the low end of this range. As a general rule, expect to pay between £75-150 per night for a 2 or 3 star hotel in the central area of the city. The heart of the West End is the most expensive place to stay and most hotels are either 4 or 5 star and the few budget establishments that exist command a hefty price premium.

The City can also be very expensive during the week, as it relies heavily on the business market but prices often drop over the weekend and it can be a good way of getting into a higher standard of accommodation than you could otherwise afford. Bear in mind though that this part of central London becomes a ghost town over the weekend, and you will find that few (if any) bars and restaurants will be open.

A top tip however is to always check the likes of LondonTown.com, Expedia and LateRooms as well as the hotel's own website - since there are often deals to be had which can reduce the costs significantly.

The extra cost of getting around is probably not significant compared to savings made by staying in a hotel further out. With the excellent Tube system where you stay won't limit what you see. Always be sure though to check where the closest tube station is to your hotel. Staying further out will be cheaper but when travelling in allow 1-2 min per tube stop (near the centre), around 2-3 min per stop (further out) and 5-10 min per line change. This can easily total up to a 1 hour journey if there is a walk at each end.

A more imaginative alternative could be to stay in a nearby town with quick and easy train travel to London. For example, lively Brighton (otherwise known as 'London by Sea') is only an hour away, but your budget will go much further and there are excellent accommodation options.

Some of the better value options are to be found in the following central districts:

  • Bloomsbury. Relatively quiet district with a wide range of accommodation, and has enjoyed a surge in popularity following Eurostar's move to St Pancras International station. Cartwright Gardens features a dozen small B&Bs in historic houses. Many budget options are located on Argyle Square (just off the Euston Road). Gets a little seedy towards and beyond King's Cross railway station.
  • Earl's Court and West Kensington in west central London. Budget and modest accommodation as well as good 4-star hotels. Be careful with the cheapest accommodation in this area though as it will likely be very seedy indeed.
  • Paddington and Bayswater in north west central London. Has undergone a lot of change recently largely resulting from the Heathrow Express train coming into Paddington station. Good hotels can be found in the immediate area of the station and in quieter spots a short walk away as well as in the traditional mid-range accommodation area further south in Bayswater.
  • Westminster. Lots of small B&Bs around the back of Victoria railway station in the Pimlico area.

A slightly left-field option is to check the Landmark Trust, a building preservation charity who purchase notable old buildings in the UK, renovate and run them as holiday lettings. An interesting approach to saving old buildings for sure. Their five London properties are listed here.

Hostels

Not necessarily as unpleasant as you may think, and as long as you don't mind sharing with others, they are the most cost-effective option and also offer breakfast as well as kitchens for self catering. The "official" Youth Hostel Association of England and Wales [100] (YHA) operates five hostels in Central London. Like everything else, you should book online well in advance - the hostels usually fill up on Friday and Saturday nights about 14 days before. A top tip is don't be put off if there is no availability left online, phone the hostel in question to see if there are still beds available or if there has been a cancellation. Some of the YHA's properties also offer a limited number of private family rooms - expect to pay around £60 per night.

Keep in mind that for foreign visitors, the YHA hostels will require to see a form of ID (a passport or national identity card) and a valid membership card from a local YHI (Youth Hostelling International)-recognised Youth Hostel association. For British visitors, a valid YHA (SYHA for Scotland) membership card is all that's required. For all non-YHI members, the YHA will levy a £3 welcome stamp per day.

There are a number of other, independent hostels throughout the city and these are listed in the relevant district articles.

In the summer season, many of the colleges and universities in Central London open up their student halls of residence as hotels during vacations, at usually much lower rates than proper hotels, but expect very basic facilities (e.g. communal bathrooms, no catering facilities), but you will get the personal privacy that you don't get in hostels for not very much more cost.

Apartments

Some apartment-hotels offer good value accommodation for those travelling in a group - often better quality than many hotels but at a cheaper individual rate per person.

Capsule-style crash spaces are just arriving, but currently these are only in central locations.

Short-term apartment or flat rentals are an attractive option for many travelers to London, and there are innumerable agencies offering them, almost all of them nowadays through the internet. Your best protection is to deal only with London apartment rental agencies which have been recommended by independent sources you feel you can trust, and to deal only with those that accept confirmations via credit card.

Contact

Wi-Fi access

London is unfortunately not noted for free public wifi access - although the number of hotspots is continuing to grow. See [101] for a map containing free wifi locations.

  • Online-4-Free.com, [102]. One of the most promising (it seems) for traveller-frequented areas, a service that provides blanket coverage along the banks of the River Thames (and some surrounding streets) from Millbank down to Greenwich Pier, and a small 'cloud' in Holborn - the free service asks only that you view a short advertisement every half hour in order to get 256 kbps (higher rates and ad-free come at a small charge). Free.  edit
  • Tate Modern, [103]. Offering for a trial period free wi-fi internet access.  edit
  • British Library, [104]. Offers free internet access throughout the library with registration.  edit

Another good place for free wi-fi would be McDonald's, where free 24-hour period wi-fi are offered to customers. Furthermore, Pret-A-Manger franchises offer free internet without a login.

Stay safe

In an emergency, telephone "999" (or "112"). This number connects to Police, Ambulance and Fire/Rescue services. You will be asked which of these three services you require before being connected to the relevant operator.

Crime

Like many big cities, London has a variety of social problems, especially begging, drug abuse and theft (mobile phones are a favourite, often snatched by fast-moving cyclists).

London has the oldest police force in the world, The Metropolitan Police Service [105], and on the whole, London is a safe place to visit and explore. Alongside the regular Police, there are over 4,000 Police Community Support Officers (PCSO's) that provide a highly visible presence on the streets and are able to deal with low-level crime. Normal precautions for the safe keeping of your personal possessions, as you would in any other city, are suggested.

Crime mapping has been launched in London allowing residents and visitors to see the level of recorded crime for different areas [106].

If you're planning to go out late at night and are worried about safety, frequent crowded areas such as the West End. There are always plenty of people on the street, even at 4AM. Generally, outside central London, the South, and East suburban areas are considered more dangerous, notably Brixton and Hackney, although some parts of North-West London such as Harlesden and northern Camden are also known trouble spots.

The main problem right throughout London to various degrees is drunken behaviour, particularly on Friday and Saturday nights and after football matches. Loud and rowdy behaviour is to be expected and fights and acts of aggression also occur. If you are harassed, it is best to simply ignore and walk away from those concerned. Trouble spots can be expected around popular drinking locations such as Soho and in various suburban centres.

Every night, Soho presents a particular danger - the "clip joint". The usual targets of these establishments are lone male tourists. Usually, an attractive woman will casually befriend the victim and recommend a local bar or even a club that has a "show". The establishment will be near-desolate, and even if the victim has only a drink or two, the bill will run to hundreds of pounds. If payment is not immediately provided, the bouncers will lock the "patrons" inside and take it by force or take them to an ATM and stand over them while they extract the cash. If it appears you are being lured into a "clip joint", the easiest way out is to recommend a different bar to the new "friend" trying to get you into her "favourite local place" and if she staunchly refuses, be very suspicious. Sometimes this con trick takes place when someone is lured into a private club with the promise of something perhaps more than a drink (e.g., a 'private show' for a small amount of money). A 'hostess fee' will appear on the bill for several hundred pounds, even though there has been nothing more than polite conversation.

The Metropolitan Police have placed significant resources in combating street level crime. Working in conjunction with borough councils they have been able to bring the level of theft and pickpocketing in major retail areas in London to a level that is manageable.

Street gang culture is a growing problem in London as with many other cities in England. While most groups of youngsters are not likely to present any danger to tourists, some people feel the need to be slightly more vigilant in certain outer suburbs.

Transport

Don't take illegal minicabs (see Get around for details).

Travelling on lower deck of a night bus is generally safer, as there are more passengers around, and you are visible by the bus driver.

If you have been the victim of crime on the railways or the London Underground, you should report the crime as soon as possible to the British Transport Police, who have an office in most major train and tube stations. Elsewhere, you should report your crime as normal to the Metropolitan Police.

Stay healthy

The UK's National Health Service (NHS) will provide emergency treatment for anyone in he UK, irrespective of nationality without charge. In a medical emergency, dial 999 or 112. These numbers are free of charge from any telephone. For advice on non-emergency medical problems, you can ring the 24 hour NHS Direct service on 0845 4647.

Emergencies can be dealt with under the NHS system at any hospital with an A & E (Accident & Emergency) department. At A & E departments, be prepared to wait for up to 2-3 hours during busy periods before being given treatment if your medical complaint is not too serious.

Major A & E hospitals in London are:

  • Central Middlesex Hospital, Acton Ln, Park Royal, NW10 7NS
  • Charing Cross Hospital, Fulham Palace Rd, Hammersmith, W6 8RF
  • Chelsea & Westminster Hospital, 369 Fulham Rd, Chelsea, SW10 9TR
  • Greenwich District Hospital, Vanbrugh Hill, SE10 9HE
  • Guy's Hospital, St. Thomas St, Bankside, SE1 9RT
  • Homerton University Hospital, Homerton Row, Homerton, E9 6SR
  • King's College Hospital, Denmark Hill, SE5 9RS
  • Lewisham Hospital, High St, SE13 6LH
  • Queen Mary's Hospital, Roehampton Ln, SW15 5PN
  • Royal Free Hospital, 23 East Heath Rd, Hampstead, NW3 1DU
  • The Royal London Hospital, Whitechapel, Tower Hamlets, E1 1BB
  • St. Marys NHS Trust, Praed St, Paddington, W2 1NY
  • St. Thomas' Hospital, Lambeth Palace Rd, South Bank, SE1 7EH
  • University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, 25 Grafton Way, Bloomsbury, WC1E 6DB
  • Whittington Hospital, Highgate Hill, Archway, N19 5NF

For advice on minor ailments and non-prescription drugs, consult a high street pharmacist.

London is also home to some of the most renowned (and most expensive) private medical treatment facilities. Most notable of all are probably the host of private consultants and surgeons on Harley St in Marylebone.

  • Afghanistan, 31 Princes Gate SW7 1QQ, +44 20 7589-8891, [107].  edit
  • Albania, 33 St. George's Drive SW1V 4DG, +44 20 7828 8897, [108].  edit
  • Algeria, 54 Holland Park W11 3RS, +44 20 7221 7800, [109].  edit
  • Andorra, 63 Westover Road SW18 2RF, +44 020 8874 4806.  edit
  • Angola, 22 Dorset Street W1U 6QY, +44 20 7299 9850, [110].  edit
  • Antigua & Barbuda, 45 Crawford Place W1H 4LP, +44 20 7258 0070, [111].  edit
  • Argentina, 65 Brook Street W1K 4AH, +44 20 7318 1300, [112].  edit
  • Armenia, 25A Cheniston Gardens W8 6TG, +44 20 7938 5435, [113].  edit
  • Australia, Australia House Strand WC2B 4LA, +44 20 7379 4334, [114].  edit
  • Austria, 18 Belgrave Mews West, SW1X 8HU, +44 20 7344 3250, [115].  edit
  • Azerbaijan, 4 Kensington Court W8 5DL, +44 20 7938 3412, [116].  edit
  • Bahamas, 10 Chesterfield Street W1J 5JL, +44 20 7408 4488.  edit
  • Bahrain, 30 Belgrave Square SW1X 8QB, +44 20 7201 9170, [117].  edit
  • Bangladesh, 28 Queens Gate SW7 5JA, +44 20 7584 0081-4, [118].  edit
  • Barbados, 1 Great Russell Street, WC1B 3ND, +44 20 7631 4975, [119].  edit
  • Belarus, 6 Kensington Court W8 5DL, +44 20 7937 3288, [120].  edit
  • Belgium, 17 Grosvenor Crescent SW1X 7EE, +44 020 7470 3700, [121].  edit
  • Belize, Third Floor 45 Crawford Place W1H 4LP, +44 20 7723 3603, [122].  edit
  • Benin, 87 Avenue Victor Hugo, 75116 Paris, +331 45 009882, [123].  edit
  • Bhutan, Windacres, Warren Road,Guildford GU1 3HG, +44 1483 538189.  edit
  • Bolivia, 106 Eaton Square SW1W 9AD, +44 20 7235 4255, [124].  edit
  • Bosnia & Herzegovina, 5-7 Lexham Gardens, W8 5JJ, +44 20 7373 0867, [125].  edit
  • Botswana, 6 Stratford Place W1C 1AY, +44 20 7499 0031, [126].  edit
  • Brazil, 32 Green Street WlK 7AT, +44 20 7499 0877, [127].  edit
  • Brunei, 19/20 Belgrave Square SW1X 8PG, +44 20 7581 0521, [128].  edit
  • Bulgaria, 186-188 Queen's Gate London SW7 5HL, +44 20 7584 9433, [129].  edit
  • Cambodia, 64 Brondesbury Park NW6 7AT, +44 20 8451 7850, [130].  edit
  • Cameroon, 84 Holland Park W11 3SB, +44 20 7727 0771, [131].  edit
  • Canada, 1 Grosvenor Square W1K 4AB, +44 20 7258 6600, [132].  edit
  • Chile, 37-41 Old Queen Street SW1H 9JA, +44 20 7222 2361, [133].  edit
  • China, 49-51 Portland Place, W1B 1JL, +44 220 7299 4049, [134].  edit
  • Colombia, 3 Hans Crescent SW1X 0LN, +44 20 7589 9177, [135].  edit
  • Congo (Democratic Rep), 281 Gray's Inn Road WC1X 8QF, +44 20 7278 9825.  edit
  • Costa Rica, 14 Lancaster Gate W2 3LH, +44 20 7706 8844, [136].  edit
  • Cote D'Ivoire, 2 Upper Belgrave Street SW1X 8BJ, +44 20 7235 6991, [137].  edit
  • Croatia, 21 Conway Street, W1T 6BN, +44 20 7387 202, [138].  edit
  • Cuba, 167 High Holborn WC1V 6PA, +44 20 7240 2488, [139].  edit
  • Cyprus, 13 St James's Square SW1Y 4LB, +44 20 7321 4100, [140].  edit
  • Czech Republic, 26 Kensington Palace Gardens W8 4QY, +44 20 7243 1115, [141].  edit
  • Denmark, 55 Sloane Street SW1X 9SR, +44 20 7333 0200, [142].  edit
  • Dominica, 1 Collingham Gardens SW5 0HW, +44 20 7370 5194, [143].  edit
  • Dominican Republic, 139 Inverness Terrace W2 6JF, +44 20 7727 7091, [144].  edit
  • Ecuador, 3 Hans Crescent SW1X 0LS, +44 20 7584 8084, [145].  edit
  • Egypt, 26 South Street, W1K 1DW, +55 20 7499 3304, [146].  edit
  • El Salvador, 8 Dorset Square NW1 6PU, +44 20 7224 9800, [147].  edit
  • Equatorial Guinea, 13 Park Place SW1A 1LP, +44 20 7499 6867, [148].  edit
  • Eritrea, 96 White Lion Street N1 9PF, +44 20 7713 0096, [149].  edit
  • Estonia, 16 Hyde Park Gate SW7 5DG, +44 20 7589 3428, [150].  edit
  • Ethiopia, 17 Princes Gate SW7 1PZ, +44 20 7589 7212, [151].  edit
  • Fiji, 34 Hyde Park Gate, SW7 5DN, +44 20 7584 3661, [152].  edit
  • Finland, 38 Chesham Pl SW1X 8HW, +44 20 7838 6200, [153].  edit
  • France, 58 Knightsbridge SW1X 7JT, +44 20 7073 1000, [154].  edit
  • Gabon, 27 Elvaston Pl SW7 5NL, +44 20 7823 9986, [155].  edit
  • Gambia (The), 57 Kensington Ct W8 5DG, +44 20 7937 6316, [156].  edit
  • Georgia, 4 Russell Gardens W14 8EZ, +44 20 7348 1941, [157].  edit
  • Germany, 23 Belgrave Sq SW1X 8PZ, +44 20 7824 1300, [158].  edit
  • Ghana, 13 Belgrave Sq SW1X 8PS, +44 20 7201 5900, [159].  edit
  • Greece, 1A Holland Park W11 3TP, +44 20 7229 3850, [160].  edit
  • Grenada, The Chapel, Archel Rd W14 9QH, +44 20 7385 4415.  edit
  • Guatemala, 13A Fawcett St SW10 9HN, +44 20 7351 3042, [161].  edit
  • Guinea, 258 Belsize Rd NW6 4BT, +44 20 7316 1861.  edit
  • Guyana, 3 Palace Court Bayswater Rd W2 4LP, +44 20 7229 7684, [162].  edit
  • Holy See (The), 54 Parkside SW19 5NE, +44 20 8944 7189, [163].  edit
  • Honduras, 115 Gloucester Pl W1U 6JT, +44 20 7486 4880, [164].  edit
  • Hungary, 35 Eaton Pl SW1X 8BY, +44 20 7201 3440, [165].  edit
  • Iceland, 2A Hans St SW1X 0JE, +44 20 7259 3999, [166].  edit
  • India, India House Aldwych WC2B 4NA, +44 20 7836 8484, [167].  edit
  • Indonesia, 38 Grosvenor Sq W1K 2HW, +44 20 7499 7661, [168].  edit
  • Iran, 16 Prince's Gate SW7 1PT, +44 20 7225 3000, [169].  edit
  • Iraq, 4 Elvaston Pl SW7 5QH, +44 20 7594 0180, [170].  edit
  • Ireland, 17 Grosvenor Pl SW1X 7HR, +44 20 7235 2171, [171].  edit
  • Israel, 2 Palace Green Kensington W8 4QB, +44 20 7957 9500, [172].  edit
  • Italy, 14 Three Kings Yard Davies St W1K 4EH, +44 20 7312 2200, [173].  edit
  • Jamaica, 1-2 Prince Consort Rd SW7 2BZ, +44 20 7823 9911, [174].  edit
  • Japan, 101-104 Piccadilly W1J 7JT, +44 20 7465 6500, [175].  edit
  • Jordan, 6 Upper Phillimore Gardens W8 7HA, +44 20 7937 3685, [176].  edit
  • Kazakhstan, 33 Thurloe Sq SW7 2SD, +44 20 7581 4646, [177].  edit
  • Kenya, 45 Portland Pl W1B 1AS, +44 20 7636 2371, [178].  edit
  • Kosovo, 100 Pall Mall SW1 5NQ, +44 20 7659 6140.  edit
  • Kuwait, 2 Albert Gate SW1X 7JU, +44 20 7590 3400, [179].  edit
  • Kyrgyzstan, +44 20 7935 1462, [180].  edit
  • Latvia, 45 Nottingham Place W1U 5LY, +44 20 7312 0040, [181].  edit
  • Lebanon, 21 Palace Gardens Mews W8 4RB, +44 20 7727 6696, [182].  edit
  • Lesotho, 7 Chesham Pl SW1X 8HN, +44 20 7235 5686, [183].  edit
  • Liberia, 23 Fitzroy Sq W1T 6EW, +44 20 7388 5489, [184].  edit
  • Libya, 15 Knightsbridge SW1X 7LY, +44 20 7201 8280, [185].  edit
  • Lithuania, 84 Gloucester Pl W1U 6AU, +44 20 7486 6401, [186].  edit
  • Luxembourg, 27 Wilton Crescent SW1X 8SD, +44 20 7235 6961, [187].  edit
  • Macedonia, 75-83 Buckingham Gate SW1E 6PE, +44 20 7976 0535, [188].  edit
  • Madagascar, 10 Hallam St W1W 6JE, +44 20 3008 4550, [189].  edit
  • Malawi, 70 Winnington Rd N2 0TX, +44 20 8455 5624.  edit
  • Malaysia, 45 Belgrave Sq SW1X 8QT, +44 20 7235 8033, [190].  edit
  • Maldives, 22 Nottingham Pl W1U 5NJ, +44 20 7224 2135, [191].  edit
  • Malta, 36-38 Piccadilly W1J OLE, +44 20 7292 4800, [192].  edit
  • Mauritius, 32/33 Elvaston Pl SW7 5NW, +44 20 7581 0294, [193].  edit
  • Mexico, 16 St. George St W1S 1FD, +44 20 7499 8586, [194].  edit
  • Moldova, 5 Dolphin Sq, Edensor Rd W4 2ST, +44 20 8995 6818, [195].  edit
  • Mongolia, 7 Kensington Ct W8 5DL, +44 20 7937 0150, [196].  edit
  • Montenegro, 11-12 Waterloo Pl SW1Y 4AU, +44 20 7863 8806, [197].  edit
  • Morocco, 97 Praed St W2 1NT, +44 20 7581 5001, [198].  edit
  • Mozambique, 21 Fitzroy Sq W1T 6EL, +44 20 7383 3800, [199].  edit
  • Myanmar, 19a Charles St W1J 5DX, +20 7499 4340, [200].  edit
  • Namibia, 6 Chandos St W1G 9LU, +44 20 7636 6244, [201].  edit
  • Nepal, 12a Kensington Palace Gardens W8 4QU, +44 20 7229 1594, [202].  edit
  • Netherlands, 38 Hyde Park Gate SW7 5DP, +44 20 7590 3200, [203].  edit
  • New Zealand, 80 Haymarket SW1Y 4TQ, +44 20 7930 8422, [204].  edit
  • Nicaragua, 58-60 Kensington Church St W8 4DP, +44 20 7938 2373, [205].  edit
  • Nigeria, 9 Northumberland Ave WC2N 5BX, +44 20 7839 1244, [206].  edit
  • Norway, 25 Belgrave Sq SW1X 8QD, +44 20 7591 5500, [207].  edit
  • Oman, 167 Queens Gate SW7 5HE, +44 20 7225 0001, [208].  edit
  • Pakistan, 35-36 Lowndes Square SW1X 9JN, +44 20 7664 9200, [209].  edit
  • Panama, 40 Hertford St W1J 7SH, +44 20 7493 4646, [210].  edit
  • Papua New Guinea, 14 Waterloo Pl SW1Y 4AR, +44 20 7930 0922, [211].  edit
  • Paraguay, 344 Kensington High St W14 8NS, +44 20 7610 4180, [212].  edit
  • Peru, 52 Sloane St SW1X 9SP, +44 20 7235 1917, [213].  edit
  • Philippines, 6-8 Suffolk St SW1Y 4HG, +44 20 7451 1800, [214].  edit
  • Poland, 47 Portland Pl W1B 1JH, +44 20 0870 7742 700.  edit
  • Portugal, 11 Belgrave Sq SW1X 8PP, +44 20 7235 5331, [215].  edit
  • Qatar, 1 South Audley St W1K 1NB, +44 20 7493 2200, [216].  edit
  • Romania, 4 Palace Green W8 4QD, +44 20 7937 9666, [217].  edit
  • Russia, 13 Kensington Palace Gardens W8 4QX, +44 20 7229 2666, [218].  edit
  • Rwanda, 20-122 Seymour Place W1H 1NR, +44 20 7224 9832, [219].  edit
  • Saint Kitts and Nevis, 10 Kensington Ct W8 5DL, +44 20 7937 9718.  edit
  • Saint Lucia, 1 Collingham Gardens SW5 0HW, +44 20 7370-7123.  edit
  • Saint Vincent/Grenadines, 10 Kensington Ct W8 5DL, +44 20 7460-1256.  edit
  • Saudi Arabia, 30 Charles St W1J 5DZ, +44 20 7917-3000, [220].  edit
  • Senegal, 39 Marloes Rd W8 6LA, +44 20 7938-4048, [221].  edit
  • Serbia, 28 Belgrave Sq SW1X 8QB, +44 20 7235 9049, [222].  edit
  • Seychelles, 111 Baker St W1U 6RR, +44 20 7935-7770, [223].  edit
  • Sierra Leone, 41 Eagle St WC1R 4TL, +44 20 7404-0140.  edit
  • Singapore, 9 Wilton Crescent SW1X 8SP, +44 20 7235-8315, [224].  edit
  • Slovakia, 25 Kensington Palace Gardens, +44 20 7313-6470, [225].  edit
  • Slovenia, 10 Little College St SW1P 3SH, +44 20 7222 5700, [226].  edit
  • South Africa, Trafalgar Sq WC2N 5DP, +44 20 7451-7299, [227].  edit
  • Spain, 39 Chesham Pl SW1X 8SB, +44 20 7235-5555, [228].  edit
  • Sri Lanka, 13 Hyde Park Gardens W2 2LU, +44 20 7262-1841, [229].  edit
  • Sudan, 3 Cleveland Row SW1A 1DD, +44 20 783-8080, [230].  edit
  • Swaziland, 20 Buckingham Gate SW1E 6LB, +44 20 7630-6611.  edit
  • Sweden, 11 Montagu Pl W1H 2AL, +44 20 7917-6400.  edit
  • Switzerland, 16/18 Montagu Pl W1H 2BQ, +44 20 7616-6000, [231].  edit
  • Syria, 8 Belgrave Sq SW1X 8PH, +44 20 7245-9012, [232].  edit
  • Tajikistan, 27 Hammersmith Grove W6 ONE, +44 20 8600 2520, [233].  edit
  • Tanzania, 3 Stratford Pl W1C 1AS, +44 20 7569-1470, [234].  edit
  • Thailand, 29-30 Queen's Gate SW7 5JB, +44 20 7589 2944, [235].  edit
  • Tonga, 36 Molyneux Street W1H 5BQ, +44 20 7724 5828.  edit
  • Trinidad and Tobago, 42 Belgrave Sq SW1X 8NT, +44 20 7245-9351.  edit
  • Tunisia, 29 Prince's Gate SW7 1QG, +44 20 7584-8117.  edit
  • Turkey, 43 Belgrave Sq SW1X 8PA, +44 20 7393-0202, [236].  edit
  • Turkmenistan, 14-17 Wells St W1T 3PD, +44 20 7255-1071, [237].  edit
  • Uganda, 58-59 Trafalgar Sq WC2N 5DX, +44 20 7839-5783, [238].  edit
  • Ukraine, 60 Holland Park W11 3SJ, +44 20 7727-6312, [239].  edit
  • United Arab Emirates, 30 Princes Gate SW7 1PT, +44 20 7581-1281.  edit
  • United States, 24 Grosvenor Sq W1A 1AE, +44 20 7499-9000, [240].  edit
  • Uruguay, 125 Kensington High St W8 5SF, +44 20 7937-4170.  edit
  • Uzbekistan, 41 Holland Park W11 3RP, +44 20 7229-7679, [241].  edit
  • Venezuela, 1 Cromwell Rd SW7 2HW, +44 20 7584-4206, [242].  edit
  • Vietnam, 12-14 Victoria Rd W8 5RD, +44 20 7937-1912, [243].  edit
  • Yemen, 57 Cromwell Rd SW7 2ED, +44 20 7584-6607, [244].  edit
  • Zambia, 2 Palace Gate W8 5NG, +44 20 7589-6655, [245].  edit
  • Zimbabwe, 429 Strand WC2R 0JR, +44 20 7836-7755, [246].  edit
  • Bath. Roman relics, rich in Georgian architecture and makes an easy day trip from Paddington Station.
  • Birmingham. The second city of the UK. Trains can take as little as 85 min from Euston or Marylebone or a coach from Victoria takes 3 hours. Boasts many events, pubs and clubs and shopping opportunities.
  • Bournemouth. Large beach resort on the edge of the New Forest, with seven miles of golden sand, a short ride on the train from London Waterloo. Some of the best night life outside of London in the UK.
  • Brighton. Fashionable beach town about 90 km (55 mi) south, less than an hour by train from Victoria Station.
  • Canterbury. Site of the foremost cathedral in England, constructed during the 12th-15th centuries.
  • Henley on Thames. About 55 km (35 mi) west of London, a quaint and typical English town, great for walks by the Thames.
  • Manchester. If you have time it is worth visiting Britain's other great cities and Manchester has very much to offer. Manchester can be reached in around 2 hours by train and is about 320 km (200 mi) to the north. It is the 2nd most visited city in England (after London).
  • Oxford and Cambridge. The university cities make for ideal days out of London.
  • Portsmouth. Home of the British Navy and of real interest to nautical enthusiasts.
  • Shrewsbury. A very traditional town full of medieval black and white timber-framed buildings along winding, steep, narrow streets set on the River Severn easily reached by using the train from London Marylebone station.
  • Winchester. Former capital of England and attractive cathedral city with lots to see, about an hour away by train from Waterloo.
  • Windsor. Nearby Thames-side town with magnificent castle and Royal residence.
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

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