Gelatin dessert: Wikis

  
  
  

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A variety of pre-packaged gelatin dessert products
A packet of gelatin dessert cubes, known as jelly in the UK

Gelatin desserts are desserts made with sweetened gelatin.

They can be made by combining plain gelatin with other ingredients, or by using a premixed blend of gelatin with other additives. Popular brands of commercial mixes include Jell-O and Knox gelatin from Kraft Foods in North America, Royal in Argentina and Uruguay, Hartley's (formerly Rowntree's) in the United Kingdom and Aeroplane Jelly in Australia.

Fully-prepared gelatin desserts are marketed in a variety of forms, ranging from large decorative shapes to individual serving cups and small gummy candies.

Contents

Regional naming

History

Before gelatin became widely available as a commercial product, the most typical gelatin dessert was "calf's foot jelly". As the name indicates, this was made by extracting and purifying gelatin from the foot of a calf; this gelatin was then sweetened and flavored with fruit juice and additional sugar, if necessary.

Preparation

These popular individual gelatin snacks, 20-25 grams each, are sold by the pound and are available in supermarkets throughout China.

To make a gelatin dessert, gelatin is dissolved in hot liquid with the desired flavors and other additives. These latter ingredients usually include sugar, fruit juice, or sugar substitutes; they may be added and varied during preparation, or pre-mixed with the gelatin in a commercial product which merely requires the addition of hot water.

In addition to sweeteners, the prepared commercial blends generally contain, flavoring agents, and other additives such as adipic acid, fumaric acid, sodium citrate, and artificial flavorings and food colors. Because the collagen is processed extensively, the final product is not categorized as a meat or animal product by the US federal government.

The solubility of powdered gelatin can be enhanced by sprinkling it into the liquid several minutes before heating, "blooming" the individual granules.[1] The fully dissolved mixture is then refrigerated, slowly forming a colloidal gel as it cools.

Gelatin desserts may be enhanced in many ways, such as using decorative molds, creating multicolored layers by adding a new layer of slightly cooled liquid over the previously-solidified one, or suspending non-soluble edible elements such as marshmallows or fruit. Some types of fresh fruit and their unprocessed juices are incompatible with gelatin desserts; see the Chemistry section below.

When fully chilled, the most common ratios of gelatin to liquid (as instructed on commercial packaging) usually results in a custard-like texture which can retain detailed shapes when cold but melts back to a viscous liquid when warm. Higher gelatin ratios can be used to increase the stability of the gel, culminating in gummy candies which remain rubbery solids at room temperature.

Gelatin shots

A tray of gelatin shots prior to refrigeration

Gelatin shots, often known as jello shots in North America and vodka jelly or jelly shots in the UK and Australia, are a party food where some sort of alcohol, usually rum, vodka, tequila or sometimes even grain alcohol replaces some of the water or fruit juice used to congeal the gel.

The American satirist and mathematician Tom Lehrer has been rumored to have been the first to invent the gelatin shot in the 1950s while working for the National Security Agency, where he developed vodka gelatin as a way to circumvent a restriction of alcoholic beverages on base,[2] but the claim that he was first is untrue. The earliest published recipe dates from 1862, found in How to Mix Drinks, or The Bon Vivant's Companion by Jerry Thomas: the recipe calls for gelatin, cognac, rum, and lemon juice.[3]

The maximum alcohol content is somewhere between 19 and 20 oz. of vodka per 3 oz. package of gelatin powder, or about 30% alcohol by volume.[4]

Other gelling agents

Some gelatinous desserts can be made with agar instead of gelatin, allowing them to congeal more quickly and at higher temperatures (40°C,[5] as opposed to 15°C[6] for gelatin). Agar is a gelatinous product made from seaweed, which is itself composed mainly of algae. Agar is especially common in quick jelly powder mix and Asian jelly desserts; additionally, vegans and vegetarians sometimes use agar to replace animal-derived gelatin. Agar is more closely related to pectin and other gelling plant carbohydrates than to gelatin.

Another vegetarian alternative to gelatin is carrageenan. This alternative sets more firmly than agar, and is often used in kosher and halaal cooking. Though it, too, is a type of seaweed, it tends not to have an unpleasant smell during cooking as agar sometimes does.

Konjac is a gelling agent used in many Asian foods, including the popular konnyaku fruit jelly candies.

Chemistry

Gelatin consists of partially hydrolyzed collagen, a protein which is highly abundant in some animal tissues such as bone and skin. Although many gelatin desserts incorporate fruit, some fresh fruits contain proteolytic enzymes; these enzymes cut the gelatin molecule into peptides (protein fragments) too small to form a firm gel. The use of such fresh fruits in a gelatin recipe results in a dessert that never 'sets'.

Specifically, pineapple contains the protease (protein cutting enzyme) bromelain, kiwi fruit contains actinidin, figs contain ficain, and both papaya and pawpaw contain papain. Cooking or canning denatures and inactivates the proteases, so canned pineapple, for example, works fine in a gelatin dessert.

Safety

While eating tainted beef can lead to variant Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad-cow or BSE) in humans, there are no known cases of BSE transmitted through collagen products such as gelatin.[7]

See also

References

External links


Gelatin desserts are desserts made with sweetened gelatin.

They can be made by combining plain gelatin with other ingredients, or by using a premixed blend of gelatin with other additives. Popular brands of commercial mixes include Jell-O and Knox gelatin from Kraft Foods in North America, Royal in Argentina and Uruguay, Hartley's (formerly Rowntree's) in the United Kingdom and Aeroplane Jelly in Australia.

Fully-prepared gelatin desserts are marketed in a variety of forms, ranging from large decorative shapes to individual serving cups.

Contents

Regional naming

History

Before gelatin became widely available as a commercial product, the most typical gelatin dessert was "calf's foot jelly". As the name indicates, this was made by extracting and purifying gelatin from the foot of a calf; this gelatin was then sweetened and flavored with fruit juice and additional sugar, if necessary.

Preparation

, and are available in supermarkets throughout China. Customers pick and choose. They are then weighed by a worker who seals the bag, and affixes a price sticker.]]

To make a gelatin dessert, gelatin is dissolved in hot liquid with the desired flavors and other additives. These latter ingredients usually include sugar, fruit juice, or sugar substitutes; they may be added and varied during preparation, or pre-mixed with the gelatin in a commercial product which merely requires the addition of hot water.

In addition to sweeteners, the prepared commercial blends generally contain flavoring agents and other additives, such as adipic acid, fumaric acid, sodium citrate, and artificial flavorings and food colors. Because the collagen is processed extensively, the final product is not categorized as a meat or animal product by the US federal government.

Prepared commercial blends may be sold as a powder or as a concentrated gelatinous block, divided into small squares. Either type is mixed with sufficient hot water to completely dissolve it, and then mixed with enough cold water to make the volume of liquid specified on the packet.

The solubility of powdered gelatin can be enhanced by sprinkling it into the liquid several minutes before heating, "blooming" the individual granules.[1] The fully dissolved mixture is then refrigerated, slowly forming a colloidal gel as it cools.

Gelatin desserts may be enhanced in many ways, such as using decorative molds, creating multicolored layers by adding a new layer of slightly cooled liquid over the previously-solidified one, or suspending non-soluble edible elements such as marshmallows or fruit. Some types of fresh fruit and their unprocessed juices are incompatible with gelatin desserts; see the Chemistry section below.

When fully chilled, the most common ratios of gelatin to liquid (as instructed on commercial packaging) usually result in a custard-like texture which can retain detailed shapes when cold but melts back to a viscous liquid when warm. Higher gelatin ratios can be used to increase the stability of the gel, culminating in gummy candies which remain rubbery solids at room temperature.

Gelatin shots

prior to refrigeration]]

Gelatin shots, often known as jello shots in North America and vodka jelly or jelly shots in the UK and Australia, are a party food where some sort of alcohol, usually rum, vodka, tequila or sometimes even grain alcohol replaces some of the water or fruit juice used to congeal the gel.

The American satirist and mathematician Tom Lehrer has been rumored to have been the first to invent the gelatin shot in the 1950s while working for the National Security Agency, where he developed vodka gelatin as a way to circumvent a restriction of alcoholic beverages on base,[2] but the claim that he was first is untrue. The earliest published recipe dates from 1862, found in How to Mix Drinks, or The Bon Vivant's Companion by Jerry Thomas: the recipe calls for gelatin, cognac, rum, and lemon juice.[3]

The maximum alcohol content is somewhere between 19 fl oz (562 mL) and 20 fl oz (591 mL) of vodka mixed with a 3 oz (85 g) package of gelatin powder dissolved in 4 fl oz (118 mL) of boiling water; the resulting solution has about 30% alcohol by volume.[4]

Gelatin substitutes

Other culinary gelling agents can be used instead for animal-derived gelatin. These plant-derived substances are more similar to pectin and other gelling plant carbohydrates than to gelatin proteins; their physical properties are slightly different, creating different constraints for the preparation and storage conditions. These other gelling agents may also be preferred for certain traditional cuisines or dietary restrictions.

Agar, a product made from seaweed, is the traditional gelling agent in many Asian desserts. Agar is a popular gelatin substitute in quick jelly powder mix and prepared dessert gels that can be stored at room temperature. Compared to gelatin, agar preparations require a higher dissolving temperature, but the resulting gels congeal more quickly and remain solid at higher temperatures,

  1. REDIRECT Template:Convert/°F,[5] as opposed to
  2. REDIRECT Template:Convert/°F[6] for gelatin. Vegans and vegetarians can use agar to replace animal-derived gelatin.

Carrageenan is also derived from seaweed, but lacks agar's occasionally unpleasant smell during cooking. It sets more firmly than agar and is often used in kosher and halaal cooking.

Konjac is a gelling agent used in many Asian foods, including the popular konnyaku fruit jelly candies.

Chemistry

Gelatin consists of partially hydrolyzed collagen, a protein which is highly abundant in some animal tissues such as bone and skin. Although many gelatin desserts incorporate fruit, some fresh fruits contain proteolytic enzymes; these enzymes cut the gelatin molecule into peptides (protein fragments) too small to form a firm gel. The use of such fresh fruits in a gelatin recipe results in a dessert that never 'sets'.

Specifically, pineapple contains the protease (protein cutting enzyme) bromelain, kiwi fruit contains actinidin, figs contain ficain, and papaya contains papain. Cooking or canning denatures and inactivates the proteases, so canned pineapple, for example, works fine in a gelatin dessert.

Safety

While eating tainted beef can lead to variant Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad-cow or BSE) in humans, there are no known cases of BSE transmitted through collagen products such as gelatin.[7]

See also

References

External links








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