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A selection of gemstone pebbles made by tumbling rough rock with abrasive grit, in a rotating drum.
^ Go to 22 The rock is made of sand, but not pebbles or other larger pieces of rock.

The biggest pebble here is 40 mm long (1.6 inches).
.A gemstone or gem (also called a precious or semi-precious stone, or jewel) is a piece of attractive mineral, which—when cut and polished—is used to make jewelry or other adornments.^ In many traditions, clear quartz was used as an amplifier of the qualities of other stones or magical objects.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indian Spirit Guide Oil Used by those who call upon Blackhawk or other Native ancestor spirits.
  • Magic Oils, Hodoo Oils, Anointing Oils, Ritual Oils, ConjureOils, Essential Oils, Massage Oils, Ointments: Lucky Mojo Curio Co.Catalogue 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.luckymojo.com [Source type: General]

^ ALL of them make it abundantly clear that extended drains are quite possible and, if using the right lubes and filters, will NOT result in increased engine wear or any other detrimental result.
  • The Motor Oil Bible eBook 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC motoroilbible.com [Source type: General]

[1] .However certain rocks, (such as lapis-lazuli) and organic materials (such as amber or jet) are not minerals, but are still used for jewelry, and are therefore often considered to be gemstones as well.^ Descriptive of certain rocks and minerals.

^ Labradorite is a plagioclase feldspar that is often used for jewelry and gemstones.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material.
  • ODAC Newsletter - 19 December 2008 | ODAC - The Oil Depletion Analysis Centre 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.odac-info.org [Source type: News]

.Most gemstones are hard, but some soft minerals are used in jewelry because of their lustre or other physical properties that have aesthetic value.^ Sompolinsky D, Samra Z. Influence of magnesium and manganese on some biological and physical properties of tetracycline.
  • MAGNESIUM: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mineral salts are a compound containing a mineral element (which is the mineral normally listed on a supplement label) and some other substance it is chemically bound to.
  • Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC goldrust.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The former plan, being the older, has been most largely used, but is becoming replaced by some form of machine.

Rarity is another characteristic that lends value to a gemstone. .Apart from jewelry, from earliest antiquity until the 19th century engraved gems and hardstone carvings such as cups were major luxury art forms; the carvings of Carl Fabergé were the last significant works in this tradition.^ This work will bring the reader out of the 19th century of refined petroleum lubricants and into the 21st century of engineered lubricants.
  • The Motor Oil Bible eBook 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC motoroilbible.com [Source type: General]

^ (One of the earliest works from a Polish scholar in psychology and religion, this wasn't published in Poland until 1958.
  • Nielsen's Psyc of Religion: Resources 10 February 2010 11:30 UTC www.psywww.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It was really the last place and last chance the US had to secure a significant source of oil and it simply did not work out.
  • The Oil Drum | Iraqi Oil: Black Gold or Black Hole? 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Characteristics and classification

Spanish emerald and gold pendant at Victoria and Albert Museum.
.The traditional classification in the West, which goes back to the Ancient Greeks, begins with a distinction between precious and semi-precious stones; similar distinctions are made in other cultures.^ Similar in appearance are the marbles manufactured at The Akron Stone Marbles (also see) but these are made of shale, are gray to bluish gray and not made from limestone.
  • Akron Marbles: Glossary of Marble Terminology 2 February 2010 15:40 UTC www.akronmarbles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Precious and semi-precious stones have been valued by many cultures throughout human history.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In modern usage the precious stones are diamond, ruby, emerald and sapphire, with all other gemstones being semi-precious.^ STONE, SEMIPRECIOUS : Almost all semiprecious stones can be shaped into a sphere using modern lapidary equipment.
  • Akron Marbles: Glossary of Marble Terminology 2 February 2010 15:40 UTC www.akronmarbles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Impurities determine the colors of most gemstones, and are, for example, responsible for the difference between rubies and sapphires, both of which are made of aluminum oxide.
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Titanium in the Periodic Table 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Precious and semi-precious stones have been valued by many cultures throughout human history.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] .This distinction is unscientific and reflects the rarity of the respective stones in ancient times, as well as their quality: all are translucent with fine color in their purest forms, except for the colorless diamond, and very hard,[3] with hardnesses of 8-10 on the Mohs scale.^ She was very pale and had the chills all the time.

^ We want to insure you that we are all fine and that we sustained very little damage to our property; however, thousands of people in South Florida are dealing with considerable hardship and we are doing all we can to help them cope in their time of need.
  • Sugar Bush Squirrel - International Superstar - Supermodel & Military Hero 13 January 2010 17:21 UTC www.sugarbushsquirrel.com [Source type: General]

^ Thus we see that iron is very important to the well being of all parts of the body.

.Other stones are classified by their color, translucency and hardness.^ Other types of mica may give the stone a brassy yellow color.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The traditional distinction does not necessarily reflect modern values, for example, while garnets are relatively inexpensive, a green garnet called Tsavorite, can be far more valuable than a mid-quality emerald.^ She was far more skillful than Lafitte had been.
  • Fiction Liberation Front--Gold 27 January 2010 23:57 UTC www.lewisshiner.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some provide far more useful information than others, but most will at least give you something.
  • The Motor Oil Bible eBook 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC motoroilbible.com [Source type: General]

^ It takes much more effort to explain the system than it does to use it -- because using it is push-button easy.
  • Lead Supreme 3.0 14 January 2010 19:52 UTC leadsupreme.com [Source type: General]

[4] .Another unscientific term for semi-precious gemstones used in art history and archaeology is hardstone.^ BIBLIOGRAPHIC ECHO : A term describing when one author, who doesnt footnote, use citations, or reference primary materials; references another author as a secondary source who also doesnt footnote, use citations, or reference primary materials.
  • Akron Marbles: Glossary of Marble Terminology 2 February 2010 15:40 UTC www.akronmarbles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term "garnet" covers a range of red or green semi-precious gems composed of aluminum silicate in combination with a metal.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Precious and semi-precious stones have been valued by many cultures throughout human history.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Use of the terms 'precious' and 'semi-precious' in a commercial context is, arguably, misleading in that it deceptively implies certain stones are intrinsically more valuable than others, which is not the case.^ Calcium is used more than any other mineral in the body.
  • Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC goldrust.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Measured either in quantity or value, aluminum's use exceeds that of any other metal except iron, and it is important in virtually all segments of the world economy.
  • Aluminum Prices, London Metal Exchange (LME) Aluminum Alloy Prices, COMEX and Shanghai Aluminum Prices 10 February 2010 11:10 UTC metalprices.com [Source type: General]

^ When the amount of sulfur used in the compounding formula is more than 5 percent, the rubber goods are spoken of as hard-rubber goods.
  • Your Document-Electric Library 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.slac.com [Source type: Reference]

.In modern times gemstones are identified by gemologists, who describe gems and their characteristics using technical terminology specific to the field of gemology.^ BIBLIOGRAPHIC ECHO : A term describing when one author, who doesnt footnote, use citations, or reference primary materials; references another author as a secondary source who also doesnt footnote, use citations, or reference primary materials.
  • Akron Marbles: Glossary of Marble Terminology 2 February 2010 15:40 UTC www.akronmarbles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, in recent times these marbles have been reproduced using modern techniques where the images are not as permanent.
  • Akron Marbles: Glossary of Marble Terminology 2 February 2010 15:40 UTC www.akronmarbles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Time to read through hundreds to thousands of technical journals & articles, test procedures, test results, technical specifications, oil industry propaganda, auto industry propaganda.
  • The Motor Oil Bible eBook 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC motoroilbible.com [Source type: General]

The first characteristic a gemologist uses to identify a gemstone is its chemical composition. .For example, diamonds are made of carbon (C) and rubies of aluminium oxide (Al2O3).^ Impurities determine the colors of most gemstones, and are, for example, responsible for the difference between rubies and sapphires, both of which are made of aluminum oxide.
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Titanium in the Periodic Table 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diamond is made entirely of carbon, the same stuff as coal and charcoal.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Next, many gems are crystals which are classified by their crystal system such as cubic or trigonal or monoclinic.^ Many ungulates, such as deer and giraffes, have developed specialized digestive systems for their herbivorous diets.
  • Pigs: The Underestimated Animal | The Humane Society of the United States 18 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.hsus.org [Source type: Academic]

.Another term used is habit, the form the gem is usually found in.^ Uses of Titanium Titanium, used as a construction material, is usually in the form of alloys, most of which have higher strength than pure titanium and enhanced corrosion resistance.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Another option is to use different forms of calcium, or to avoid antacids containing aluminum.
  • Calcium | ThirdAge Articles 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.thirdage.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Disease, Condition, & Injury Fact Sheets | NYU Langone Medical Center 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ BIBLIOGRAPHIC ECHO : A term describing when one author, who doesnt footnote, use citations, or reference primary materials; references another author as a secondary source who also doesnt footnote, use citations, or reference primary materials.
  • Akron Marbles: Glossary of Marble Terminology 2 February 2010 15:40 UTC www.akronmarbles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example diamonds, which have a cubic crystal system, are often found as octahedrons.^ It grows as cubic crystals in iron-rich igneous and metamorphic rock world-wide, and is sometimes found in association with deposits of true gold.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A slow-growing type of tumor usually found in the gastrointestinal system (most often in the appendix), and sometimes in the lungs or other sites.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Rose quartz crystals are rare; most often, the stone is found as a mass.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Gemstones are classified into different groups, species, and varieties. .For example, ruby is the red variety of the species corundum, while any other color of corundum is considered sapphire.^ Red and many other colors are found in the U.S. .
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The red coloration of rubies comes from chromium and iron, and ranges from pale pink to deep maroon.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kin-gin-rin, a metallic scaled Koi variety, is considered one of the most beautiful species of Koi because of its sparkled scales.

.Emerald (green), aquamarine (blue), bixbite (red), goshenite (colorless), heliodor (yellow), and morganite (pink) are all varieties of the mineral species beryl.^ A cut gemstone composed of aluminum fluorohydroxysilicate, topaz comes in a wide range of colors, including yellow, pink, gray, green, buff, and blue.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Without the special protein "chaperone" found in food nutrients the crushed rock minerals found in virtually all supplements end up floating aimlessly in the blood.
  • Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC goldrust.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yellow, blue, and green varieties come from Brazil, while Spanish apatite is sometimes called "asparagus stone" for its yellow-green color.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gems are characterized in terms of refractive index, dispersion, specific gravity, hardness, cleavage, fracture, and luster.^ PROPERTIES OF RUBBER Commercial crude, or raw, rubber is a tough, noncrystalline elastic solid having a specific gravity of 0.911 and a refractive index of 1.5910.
  • Your Document-Electric Library 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.slac.com [Source type: Reference]

^ PEER REVIEWED** Density/Specific Gravity: 2.70 [The Merck Index.

They may exhibit pleochroism or double refraction. They may have luminescence and a distinctive absorption spectrum.
Material or flaws within a stone may be present as inclusions.

Value of gemstones

Jewelry made with amber
.There are no universally accepted grading systems for any gemstone other than white (colorless) diamond.^ Rob Robertson, MD - "There is no other product in a nutritional substance, nor a drug, that has this kind of power and ability to affect our immune system.
  • Magnesium Oil Therapy - It's Impact on Health and Vitality 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is it possible since the Florida Crystals is a finer sugar than white granulated that there were more air bubbles which weakened the structure and caused the dome to fall?

^ There is no logic to this, other than to get the petroleum into the reservoir by a secondary migration model, and then keep it there.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Diamonds are graded using a system developed by the Gemological Institute of America (GIA) in the early 1950s.^ When used in pregnancy during the second and third trimesters, drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and even death to the developing fetus.
  • Cozaar (Losartan Potassium) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 13 January 2010 21:34 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For over fifty years the procedures for finding and using phages have been developed at the Tblisi Institute in the former Soviet state of Georgia.
  • Alkalize For Health - The healing power of fresh fruit and vegetable juices. - Cancer Alternatives 13 January 2010 21:34 UTC www.alkalizeforhealth.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Historically all gemstones were graded using the naked eye.^ They used it in the eyes of their sacred statues to symbolize the divine ability to see all.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The GIA system included a major innovation, the introduction of 10x magnification as the standard for grading clarity. .Other gemstones are still graded using the naked eye (assuming 20/20 vision).^ Other sources are the Alps, Madagascar, Russia, and the U.S. Quartz may be cut for gemstones, shaped and tumbled for beads, used in precision lenses, and used for lamps.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]
.A mnemonic device, the "four C's" (color, cut, clarity and carat), has been introduced to help the consumer understand the factors used to grade a diamond.^ Women consuming higher rates of animal protein had higher rates of bone loss and hip fracture by a factor of four times."
  • Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC goldrust.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The gold color is a good indication that the surface has been coated with titanium nitride, a very hard material often used to coat cutting tools due to its abrasion resistance.
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Titanium in the Periodic Table 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .With modification these categories can be useful in understanding the grading of all gemstones.^ Many products these days use "titanium" in a promotional way on their packaging: Not all of them contain actual titanium.
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Titanium in the Periodic Table 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In all of these cases magnesium chloride had been used and gave much better results than other magnesium compounds.
  • Magnesium Oil Therapy - It's Impact on Health and Vitality 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These may, however, all be considered as modifications of two systems, viz.

.The four criteria carry different weight depending upon whether they are applied to colored gemstones or to colorless diamond.^ It is smaller (its average weight being about four pounds), and differently mottled.
  • XI. FISH. Farmer, Fannie Merritt. 1918. The Boston Cooking-School Cook Book. 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC bartleby.com [Source type: General]

^ The choice of the size of the crystals to be produced in a given pan depends upon the market for which they are intended.

^ When the grains are sorted by running water or wind, they show different shades of the same color.

In diamonds, cut is the primary determinant of value followed by clarity and color. .Diamonds are meant to sparkle, to break down light into its constituent rainbow colors (dispersion) chop it up into bright little pieces (scintillation) and deliver it to the eye (brilliance).^ When the dark green rock adjusts to the conditions at the Earth's surface, it breaks down, resulting in the tan/"buff" color on the outside.
  • NOVA Geoblog 1 February 2010 1:13 UTC nvcc.edu [Source type: General]

^ It was once believed that a piece of malachite worn on the body would break into pieces to warn the wearer of impending danger.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the mill it is chopped up and the chips are dried down to about 15 percent moisture content.
  • Your Document-Electric Library 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.slac.com [Source type: Reference]

.In its rough crystalline form, a diamond will do none of these things, it requires proper fashioning and this is called "cut". In gemstones that have color, including colored diamonds, it is the purity and beauty of that color that is the primary determinant of quality.^ A cut gemstone composed of aluminum fluorohydroxysilicate, topaz comes in a wide range of colors, including yellow, pink, gray, green, buff, and blue.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It contributes both flavor and color, however, these enzymes require at least 8 hours to work effectively in the fermenting dough.

^ A form of calcium phosphate, apatite derives its color from various minerals, and may have fibrous inclusions that give it a cat's eye quality.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Physical characteristics that make a colored stone valuable are color, clarity to a lesser extent (emeralds will always have a number of inclusions), cut, unusual optical phenomena within the stone such as color zoning, and asteria (star effects).^ When making spun sugar, for example, too light a color would produce a ghostly effect and too dark a color would produce a brassy color when spun.

^ (Addresses near-death experiences, out of body experiences, and the effects of other unusual phenomena.
  • Nielsen's Psyc of Religion: Resources 10 February 2010 11:30 UTC www.psywww.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Natural goldstone is aventurine quartz with copper inclusions, giving the stone its characteristic golden-brown color and sparkle.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Greeks for example greatly valued asteria in gemstones, which were regarded as a powerful love charm, and Helen of Troy was known to have worn star-corundum.^ For example, in ancient Europe, warriors used the stone as a charm to stop wounds from bleeding, and as a powerful charm for healing.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7]
.Historically gemstones were classified into precious stones and semi-precious stones.^ Precious and semi-precious stones have been valued by many cultures throughout human history.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because such a definition can change over time and vary with culture, it has always been a difficult matter to determine what constitutes precious stones.^ At one time, powdered sugar was stone-ground, but now it is ground in a steel magnesium rotary which turns against varying degrees of fine screens, each one determining a different fineness of the grind.

^ When asked about this possibility, Sugar Bush said, "Although flattered, I am definitely too busy to accept such a powerful position at this time."
  • Sugar Bush Squirrel - International Superstar - Supermodel & Military Hero 13 January 2010 17:21 UTC www.sugarbushsquirrel.com [Source type: General]

^ Precious and semi-precious stones have been valued by many cultures throughout human history.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]
.Aside from the diamond, the ruby, sapphire, emerald, pearl (strictly speaking not a gemstone) and opal [8] have also been considered to be precious.^ Necklaces of emeralds and opals and sapphires.
  • Fiction Liberation Front--Gold 27 January 2010 23:57 UTC www.lewisshiner.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Impurities determine the colors of most gemstones, and are, for example, responsible for the difference between rubies and sapphires, both of which are made of aluminum oxide.
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Titanium in the Periodic Table 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Up to the discoveries of bulk amethyst in Brazil in the 19th century, amethyst was considered a precious stone as well, going back to ancient Greece.^ The owner of the Tulving Company does not know whether the market for precious metals will go up or down.
  • GOLD, PLATINUM, PALLADIUM AND SILVER BULLION COINS FOR SALE 27 January 2010 23:57 UTC www.tulving.com [Source type: General]

^ You can back up to earlier questions you were asked, by clicking Go Back .

^ In the 19th century, the preferred color was sea green, which gave the stone its present name of aquamarine.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even in the last century certain stones such as aquamarine, peridot and cat's eye have been popular and hence been regarded as precious.^ Cat's eye and hawk's eye are similar stones.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 19th century, the preferred color was sea green, which gave the stone its present name of aquamarine.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is also a stone of fidelity, purity, and innocence; hence its popularity in wedding jewelry.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nowadays such a distinction is no longer made by the trade.^ Heat no longer made it sticky, nor did cold make it stiff.
  • Your Document-Electric Library 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.slac.com [Source type: Reference]

[9] .Many gemstones are used in even the most expensive jewelry, depending on the brand name of the designer, fashion trends, market supply, treatments etc.^ Precious Coral-the prefect gift and souvenir of Hawaii-from Hawaii-buff it, polish it, fashion it into jewelry of your own design, or just save it as a memento of your prefect Hawaii vacation.
  • Pictures, stories, and facts about the element Calcium in the Periodic Table 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC periodictable.com [Source type: General]

^ Even so, many healthcare provider trained in nutritional therapies s have suggested the need for calcium supplementation by some patients using these drugs.

^ All massage therapists should be using the gel, and even families, for it is always a good idea to combine a massage with a magnesium treatment.
  • MAGNESIUM FOR PSORIASIS - National Psoriasis Foundation message board 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC talkpsoriasis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nevertheless, diamonds, rubies, sapphires and emeralds still have a reputation that exceeds those of other gemstones.^ Impurities determine the colors of most gemstones, and are, for example, responsible for the difference between rubies and sapphires, both of which are made of aluminum oxide.
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Titanium in the Periodic Table 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rare or unusual gemstones, generally meant to include those gemstones which occur so infrequently in gem quality that they are scarcely known except to connoisseurs, include andalusite, axinite, cassiterite, clinohumite and bixbite.^ For those with a scientific curiosity, we've also included a bit about the geology, so far as our resources (that is, our favorite gem books and gemstone catalogs!
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Three principal patterns, those of King, Ormerod and Walker, are in use, and they are generally efficient supposing the speed of the cage at arrival is not excessive.

Gems prices can fluctuate heavily (such as those of tanzanite over the years) or can be quite stable (such as those of diamonds). .In general per carat prices of larger stones are higher than those of smaller stones, but popularity of certain sizes of stone can affect prices.^ The presence of CaCO3 did not significantly lower the partition coefficients of either fluoroquinolone although values for ofloxacin were significantly higher than those for ciprofloxacin (P = 0.0085).

^ Hyperkalemia is 3 to 5 fold higher in those more than 60 years of age and diabetics.
  • Potassium Disorders 13 January 2010 21:34 UTC www.sonny2.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In practice, it is generally advisable for individuals taking any potassium-depleting diuretic, other than those with kidney failure, to supplement with both potassium and magnesium.

Typically prices can range from 1USD/carat for a normal amethyst to 20,000-50,000USD for a collector's three carat pigeon-blood almost "perfect" ruby.

Grading

Enamelled gold, amethyst and pearl pendant, about 1880, Pasquale Novissimo (1844 — 1914), V&A Museum number M.36-1928
In the last two decades there has been a proliferation of certification for gemstones. .There are a number of [9] laboratories which grade and provide reports on diamonds.^ The following numbers do not provide medical advice, but in the US you may report side effects to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) at 1-800-FDA-1088.
  • Cozaar (Losartan Potassium) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 13 January 2010 21:34 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

.As there is no universally accepted grading system for colored gemstones, only one laboratory, AGL (see below) grades gemstones for quality using a proprietary system developed by the lab.^ The European region poorest in coal (proportionately to area) is Scandinavia, where there is only one field of economic value - a small one in the extreme south of Sweden .

^ Rob Robertson, MD - "There is no other product in a nutritional substance, nor a drug, that has this kind of power and ability to affect our immune system.
  • Magnesium Oil Therapy - It's Impact on Health and Vitality 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using art as a means of language development and of finding one's voice: One case study of an ESL learner.
  • ESOL ESOL TAPESTRY 11 September 2009 9:53 UTC tapestry.usf.edu [Source type: Academic]

  • International Gemological Institute (IGI), independent laboratory for grading and evaluation of diamonds, jewellery and colored stones.
  • Gemological Institute of America (GIA), the main provider of education services and diamond grading reports
  • American Gemological Society (AGS) is not as widely recognized nor as old as the GIA.
  • American Gem Trade Laboratory which is part of the American Gem Trade Association (AGTA) a trade organization of jewelers and dealers of colored stones.
  • American Gemological Laboratories (AGL) which has been taken over by "Collector's Universe" a NASDAQ listed company which specializes in certification of collectables such as coins and stamps
  • European Gemological Laboratory (EGL) founded in 1974 by Guy Margel in Belgium.
  • Gemmological Association of All Japan (GAAJ-ZENHOKYO), Zenhokyo, Japan, active in gemological research
  • Gemmological Institute of Thailand (GIT) is closely related to Chulalongkorn University
  • Asian Institute of Gemmological Sciences (AIGS), the oldest gemological institute in South East Asia, involved in gemological education and gem testing
  • Swiss Gemmological Institute (SSEF), founded by Prof. Henry Hänni, focusing on colored gemstones and the identification of natural pearls
  • Gübelin Gem Lab, the traditional Swiss lab founded by the famous Dr. Eduard Gübelin. Their reports are widely considered as the ultimate judgement on high-end pearls, colored gemstones and diamonds
Each laboratory has its own methodology to evaluate gemstones. .Consequently a stone can be called "pink" by one lab while another lab calls it "Padparadscha". One lab can conclude a stone is untreated, while another lab concludes that it is heat treated [9].^ Pink is the most rare color, Most pink topaz on the market is heat-treated yellow topaz.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, a tunnel driven from one seam to another through or across the intervening measures; sometimes called "crosscut tunnel", or "breakthrough".

To minimise such differences, seven of the most respected labs, i.e. AGTA-GTL (New York), CISGEM (Milano), GAAJ-ZENHOKYO (Tokyo), GIA (Carlsbad), GIT (Bangkok), Gübelin (Lucerne) and SSEF (Basel), have established the Laboratory Manual Harmonisation Committee (LMHC), aiming at the standardization of wording on reports and certain analytical methods and interpretation of results. Country of origin has sometimes been difficult to find agreement on due to the constant discovery of new locations. .Moreover determining a "country of origin" is much more difficult than determining other aspects of a gem (such as cut, clarity etc.^ We use more and have less than any other country in the world.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Why Dick changed his mind 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moreover, in these studies concomitant exposure to other elements such as silica seems to offer a more likely explanation of the fibrosis than the titanium dioxide itself.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ PEER REVIEWED** Aluminum salts are much more toxic intravenously than by mouth to animals.

) [10].
.Gem dealers are aware of the differences between gem laboratories and will make use of the discrepancies to obtain the best possible certificate [9].^ Cold process soap is not the best use here, because the cost is higher and no discernible difference will be noted.
  • MMS - Fixed Oil 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.thesage.com [Source type: General]

^ It must be borne in mind that the signification now attached to the word coal is different from that which formerly obtained when wood was the only fuel in general use.

^ The statistical analysis using the student test and Mann-Whitney test showed that there was no significant difference between the calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate excretion.
  • Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC goldrust.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Cutting and polishing

Raw gemstones
Rural Thai Gem Cutter
.A few gemstones are used as gems in the crystal or other form in which they are found.^ Sometimes: graphite, pyrite, mica, tremolite, and a few others How Was It Formed?

^ This is a "flame fusion" sapphire crystal boule, such as might be used to create synthetic cut gemstones.
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Titanium in the Periodic Table 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The arms are set in a spiral form, so that in revolving they not only stir the roots, causing them to rub against each other, but also force them forward from the receiving end,of the cage to the other end.

.Most however, are cut and polished for usage as jewelry.^ Most cut gemstones are made for collectors; however, beads are sometimes made from lower grades.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The picture to the left is of a rural, commercial cutting operation in Thailand. This small factory cuts thousands of carats of sapphire annually. .The two main classifications are stones cut as smooth, dome shaped stones called cabochons, and stones which are cut with a faceting machine by polishing small flat windows called facets at regular intervals at exact angles.^ By this method, called the flat-band method, the tire is constructed by first building up the body with flat strips or plies of rubberized cord fabric cut on the bias.
  • Your Document-Electric Library 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.slac.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Universal coal cutter - A type of coal cutting machine which is designed to make horizontal cuts in a coal face at any point between the bottom and top or to make shearing cuts at any point between the two ribs of the place.

^ This method is slow (maybe an hour to finish this small gear) and it can only cut shapes with straight edges.
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Titanium in the Periodic Table 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Stones which are opaque such as opal, turquoise, variscite, etc. are commonly cut as cabochons. .These gems are designed to show the stone's color or surface properties as in opal and star sapphires.^ These are worked backwards, the coal being taken to a height of 20 ft., the opening being packed up with stone sent down from the surface.

^ While these maybe perfectly spherical and free of other imperfections the colors and design features outside the manufactures specification limit can cause some confusing to hobbyists.
  • Akron Marbles: Glossary of Marble Terminology 2 February 2010 15:40 UTC www.akronmarbles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These marbles made be stained with color stripes or lightly painted with designs, but not glazed.
  • Akron Marbles: Glossary of Marble Terminology 2 February 2010 15:40 UTC www.akronmarbles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Grinding wheels and polishing agents are used to grind, shape and polish the smooth dome shape of the stones.^ STONE, SEMIPRECIOUS : Almost all semiprecious stones can be shaped into a sphere using modern lapidary equipment.
  • Akron Marbles: Glossary of Marble Terminology 2 February 2010 15:40 UTC www.akronmarbles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LITHOGRAPHY BALLS : Also lithography grinding balls, litho balls; an industrial glass marble used to polish limestone slabs in preparation for etching in the print industry.
  • Akron Marbles: Glossary of Marble Terminology 2 February 2010 15:40 UTC www.akronmarbles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]
.Gems which are transparent are normally faceted, a method which shows the optical properties of the stone’s interior to its best advantage by maximizing reflected light which is perceived by the viewer as sparkle.^ GLIMMER : Also called mica and snowflake; the German word for mica; a hand-made glass marble of one color transparent glass, containing mica that glimmers and sparkles in the proper light.
  • Akron Marbles: Glossary of Marble Terminology 2 February 2010 15:40 UTC www.akronmarbles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crystals in rocks have straight edges and they very often show flat shiny faces that reflect light like tiny mirrors.

.There are many commonly used shapes for faceted stones.^ In many traditions, clear quartz was used as an amplifier of the qualities of other stones or magical objects.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ STONE, SEMIPRECIOUS : Almost all semiprecious stones can be shaped into a sphere using modern lapidary equipment.
  • Akron Marbles: Glossary of Marble Terminology 2 February 2010 15:40 UTC www.akronmarbles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the commonly supplemented minerals are actually have their industrial uses.
  • Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC goldrust.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The facets must be cut at the proper angles, which varies depending on the optical properties of the gem. .If the angles are too steep or too shallow, the light will pass through and not be reflected back toward the viewer.^ This allows the petroleum to move north back towards the fault, rise through the fault, and enter the northern portions of the Bridport and Sherwood Sands.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The faceting machine is used to hold the stone onto a flat lap for cutting and polishing the flat facets.^ Put a thin flat knife under the back end of the right valve, and push forward until it cuts the strong muscle which holds the shells together.
  • XI. FISH. Farmer, Fannie Merritt. 1918. The Boston Cooking-School Cook Book. 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC bartleby.com [Source type: General]

^ A tramming motor may refer to an electric locomotive used for hauling loaded trips or it may refer to the motor in a cutting machine that supplies the power for moving or tramming the machine.

^ Panic bar - A switch, in the shape of a bar, used to cut off power at the machine in case of an emergency.

[12] .Rarely, some cutters use special curved laps to cut and polish curved facets.^ Though howlite is soft, it can be cut or carved and polished for beads and other decorative uses.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cutter; Cutting machine - A machine, usually used in coal, that will cut a 10- to 15-cm slot.

Gemstone color

.Color is the most obvious and attractive feature of gemstones.^ Impurities determine the colors of most gemstones, and are, for example, responsible for the difference between rubies and sapphires, both of which are made of aluminum oxide.
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Titanium in the Periodic Table 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The color of any material is due to the nature of light itself.^ Natural Hemp has a darker color so it makes butters, balms and lotions look warmer, the Refined Hemp Oil has a light yellow color and will not alter the color of your butters and lotions with the same intensity.
  • MMS - Fixed Oil 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.thesage.com [Source type: General]

^ The gold color is a good indication that the surface has been coated with titanium nitride, a very hard material often used to coat cutting tools due to its abrasion resistance.
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Titanium in the Periodic Table 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural Hemp has a darker earthy color so it makes butters look warmer, the Refined Hemp Oil has a light yellow color and will not alter the color of your butters and lotions with the same intensity.
  • MMS - Fixed Oil 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.thesage.com [Source type: General]

.Daylight, often called white light, is actually a mixture of different colors of light.^ Some are dichroic, displaying different colors in different lights.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When light passes through a material, some of the light may be absorbed, while the rest passes through.^ Apparently this form of calcium has a special affinity for bone formation but some have asserted that it may not be absorbed well.

^ What's needed is a material that can seal off the vacuum tube while at the same time allowing the electrons to pass through with minimum loss of energy.
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Titanium in the Periodic Table 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some instances the coal seams may be changed as a whole, as for instance in South Wales, where the coking coals of the eastern side of the basin pass through the state of dry steam coal in the centre, and become anthracite in the western side.

.The part that is not absorbed reaches the eye as white light minus the absorbed colors.^ A condition in which the conjunctiva (membranes lining the eyelids and covering the white part of the eye) become inflamed or infected.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The white or gray eye-shaped patterns surrounded by brown or red colors give "orbicular" or leopard jasper a spotty color like a leopard's skin.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The halibut has a compressed body, the skin on one side being white, on the other light, or dark gray, and both eyes are found on the dark side of head.
  • XI. FISH. Farmer, Fannie Merritt. 1918. The Boston Cooking-School Cook Book. 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC bartleby.com [Source type: General]

.A ruby appears red because it absorbs all the other colors of white light - blue, yellow, green, etc.^ Fluorite can be found in green, yellow, purple, white, and blue.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Red and many other colors are found in the U.S. .
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All the design features and colors are rolled in layers into a glass rod, appearing something like a candy cane.
  • Akron Marbles: Glossary of Marble Terminology 2 February 2010 15:40 UTC www.akronmarbles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

- except red.
The same material can exhibit different colors. .For example ruby and sapphire have the same chemical composition (both are corundum) but exhibit different colors.^ Impurities determine the colors of most gemstones, and are, for example, responsible for the difference between rubies and sapphires, both of which are made of aluminum oxide.
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Titanium in the Periodic Table 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, explore what different winemakers have made of the same grape, like a Chardonnay.

^ The composite lymphoma may contain different types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma cells or both Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Even the same gemstone can occur in many different colors: sapphires show different shades of blue and pink and "fancy sapphires" exhibit a whole range of other colors from yellow to orange-pink, the latter called "Padparadscha sapphire".
This difference in color is based on the atomic structure of the stone. .Although the different stones formally have the same chemical composition, they are not exactly the same.^ And, are they really the same thing, but marketed under different names?

^ The variation in the composition of coal seams in different parts of the same basin is a difficult matter to explain.

^ The roots were grown under exactly the same cultivation and conditions as a crop of mangel-wurzel - that is to say, they had the ordinary cultivation and manuring of the usual root crops.

Every now and then an atom is replaced by a completely different atom (and this could be as few as one in a million atoms). .These so called impurities are sufficient to absorb certain colors and leave the other colors unaffected.^ Certain cells in the kidneys that have a darker color than the others increase in numbers.
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis (maybe gout also) as a Potassium Deficiency 13 January 2010 21:34 UTC members.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If the bodys color appears black or even a dark transparent color so as to appear opaque, these are called Indians (see.
  • Akron Marbles: Glossary of Marble Terminology 2 February 2010 15:40 UTC www.akronmarbles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While these maybe perfectly spherical and free of other imperfections the colors and design features outside the manufactures specification limit can cause some confusing to hobbyists.
  • Akron Marbles: Glossary of Marble Terminology 2 February 2010 15:40 UTC www.akronmarbles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As an example: beryl, which is colorless in its pure mineral form, becomes emerald with chromium impurities.^ Another form of beryl is emerald .
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second and optional process in sugar production is refining to remove “impurities.” This refers to anything that is not purely sucrose such as molasses and minerals.

^ Emerald is a form of beryl (see aquamarine ), a stone made up of beryllium aluminum silicate.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

If you add manganese instead of chromium, beryl becomes pink morganite. With iron, it becomes aquamarine.
.Some gemstone treatments make use of the fact that these impurities can be "manipulated", thus changing the color of the gem.^ Even so, many healthcare provider trained in nutritional therapies s have suggested the need for calcium supplementation by some patients using these drugs.

^ On some plantations making sugar for particular markets and use in refineries it is the custom to make only one class of sugar, by boiling the molasses produced by the purging of one strike with the sugar in the next strike.

^ I hope that you also will be inspired to try some of these different sugars and that the information offered will make better bakers and cooks of us all.

Treatments applied to gemstones

.Gemstones are often treated to enhance the color or clarity of the stone.^ Most aquamarine on the market today has been heat-treated to enhance the color.
  • Stone Tiger Jewelry -Meanings of stones 16 September 2009 11:46 UTC www.stonetigerjewelry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Depending on the type and extent of treatment, they can affect the value of the stone.^ According to this type of medicine, the constitution is the specific way a person’s organs affect health and how he or she looks, thinks, behaves, and responds to treatment.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Some treatments are used widely because the resulting gem is stable, while others are not accepted most commonly because the gem color is unstable and may revert to the original tone.^ The former plan, being the older, has been most largely used, but is becoming replaced by some form of machine.

^ But this concern is not really relevant in cryonics because PARP inhibition is used in conjunction with other agents that intervene at other, more upstream, parts of the ischemic cascade.
  • Future Directions in Human Cryopreservation Combinational Pharmacotherapy 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.alcor.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition to throwing off the body's homeostasis, excess sugar may result in a number of other significant consequences.
  • Sugar’s Health Effects & Risks: Is Sugar Sweet Poison? Sugar-a Silent Killer: an Extensive Discussion of the Sugars: Sucrose, Fructose, Honey, Xylitol, Sorbitol, Mannitol, Malt Syrup 13 January 2010 17:21 UTC www.healingcancernaturally.com [Source type: Academic]

[13]

Heat

Treble clef with gemstones
Heat can improve gemstone color or clarity. .The heating process has been well known to gem miners and cutters for centuries, and in many stone types heating is a common practice.^ A protein that is made by many different types of cells and is involved in processes that take place both inside and outside of the cell.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Dextrose, D-glucose monohydrate, is a monosaccharide known as glucose, and comes from the hydrolysis of cornstarch, and is found as a prime ingredient in many processed foods.
  • Sugar’s Health Effects & Risks: Is Sugar Sweet Poison? Sugar-a Silent Killer: an Extensive Discussion of the Sugars: Sucrose, Fructose, Honey, Xylitol, Sorbitol, Mannitol, Malt Syrup 13 January 2010 17:21 UTC www.healingcancernaturally.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is well known among nutrition researchers that most essential minerals are not well absorbed (some are less than 1%) [24].
  • Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC goldrust.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most citrine is made by heating amethyst, and partial heating with a strong gradient results in ametrine - a stone partly amethyst and partly citrine.^ TAW : A name most often used in the United Kingdom to describe a shooter marble, usually made of stone, either limestone or agate.
  • Akron Marbles: Glossary of Marble Terminology 2 February 2010 15:40 UTC www.akronmarbles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Much aquamarine is heat treated to remove yellow tones and change the green color into the more desirable blue or enhance its existing blue color to a purer blue.^ In fact, I like the buttermilk taste so much, I'm wondering if I can change it into a moist chocolate buttermilk cake.

^ Most common colors of aventurine glass are green (the more common) and red (far more rare.
  • Akron Marbles: Glossary of Marble Terminology 2 February 2010 15:40 UTC www.akronmarbles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The figurines are dressed as Dracula in a red spider bag, Skeleton in a green spider bag, Devil in a purple spider bag, Mummy in an orange spider bag, Casper in a blue spider bag, and Wendy the Witch in a yellow spider bag.
  • Lead Paint Toy Recalls - Latest Lead Toy Recalls - Toxic Childrens Products - thedailygreen.com 14 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.thedailygreen.com [Source type: General]

[14]
.Nearly all tanzanite is heated at low temperatures to remove brown undertones and give a more desirable blue/purple color.^ It might be for all I know, and at least they have the honesty to say it's not solid titanium, which gives the claim of a titanium coating more credibility.
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Titanium in the Periodic Table 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ F. Clear liquid: The sugar liquefies (all moisture is removed) and can start browning.

.A considerable portion of all sapphire and ruby is treated with a variety of heat treatments to improve both color and clarity.^ Impurities determine the colors of most gemstones, and are, for example, responsible for the difference between rubies and sapphires, both of which are made of aluminum oxide.
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Titanium in the Periodic Table 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When jewelry containing diamonds is heated (for repairs) the diamond should be protected with boracic acid; otherwise the diamond (which is pure carbon) could be burned on the surface or even burned completely up.^ In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.

^ All furnacemen and carbon electrode workers should be supplied with visors, respirators, gauntlets, aprons, armlets and spats to protect them against burns, dust and fumes.

^ Examples of analyses treated in this manner are furnished in the last column of Table I., from which it will be seen that the nearest approach to pure carbon is furnished by anthracite, which contains above 90%.

.When jewelry containing sapphires or rubies is heated (for repairs) it should not be coated with boracic acid or any other substance, as this can etch the surface; it does not have to be "protected" like a diamond.^ Mineral salts are a compound containing a mineral element (which is the mineral normally listed on a supplement label) and some other substance it is chemically bound to.
  • Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC goldrust.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ OTHER SYRUPS Corn Syrup: Containing 24 percent water, corn syrup is obtained by partial hydrolysis of cornstarch by acid, alkaline or enzymatic catalysts.

^ Perhaps I am young, but I have seen men like you, men who numb themselves with alcohol or other substances to convince themselves they have no feelings.
  • Fiction Liberation Front--Gold 27 January 2010 23:57 UTC www.lewisshiner.com [Source type: Original source]

Radiation

.Virtually all blue topaz, both the lighter and the darker blue shades such as "London" blue, has been irradiated to change the color from white to blue.^ Later metamorphism due to Appalachian mountain-building resulted in changes in both of these rocks (development of "blue quartz" in the Pedlar, and the Catoctin metamorphosed to greenstone).
  • NOVA Geoblog 1 February 2010 1:13 UTC nvcc.edu [Source type: General]

.Some improperly handled gems which do not pass through normal legal channels may have a slight residual radiation[citation needed], though strong requirements on imported stones are in place to ensure public safety.^ Two guides are required for each cage; they may be placed opposite to each other, either on the long or short sides - the latter being preferable.

^ The extract may boost the immune system, slow the growth of some tumor cells, and lessen the side effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The tube may then be flushed with 50 to 100 mL of normal saline or half-normal saline, clamped and left in place.
  • Potassium Disorders 13 January 2010 21:34 UTC www.sonny2.com [Source type: Academic]

.Most greened quartz (Oro Verde) is also irradiated to achieve the yellow-green color.^ Most common colors of aventurine glass are green (the more common) and red (far more rare.
  • Akron Marbles: Glossary of Marble Terminology 2 February 2010 15:40 UTC www.akronmarbles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The recall includes two types -- the green, yellow and orange-colored Carnotaurus (Model No.
  • Lead Paint Toy Recalls - Latest Lead Toy Recalls - Toxic Childrens Products - thedailygreen.com 14 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.thedailygreen.com [Source type: General]

Waxing/oiling

.Emeralds containing natural fissures are sometimes filled with wax or oil to disguise them.^ The natural oil contains essential fatty acids, but also contains unsaponifiables.
  • MMS - Fixed Oil 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.thesage.com [Source type: General]

^ The butter contains natural waxes that are removed during cold pressing and is combined with hydrogenated macadamia nut oil.
  • MMS - Fixed Oil 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.thesage.com [Source type: General]

^ During the winter season rice bran that contains all the natural waxes will solidify in transit.
  • MMS - Fixed Oil 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.thesage.com [Source type: General]

.This wax or oil is also colored to make the emerald appear of better color as well as clarity.^ Natural Hemp has a darker color so it makes butters, balms and lotions look warmer, the Refined Hemp Oil has a light yellow color and will not alter the color of your butters and lotions with the same intensity.
  • MMS - Fixed Oil 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.thesage.com [Source type: General]

^ You can make soap with this dry, silky feeling oil, as well as making lotions, dry oil sprays, lip balm, scrubs or any other place you use fixed oils.
  • MMS - Fixed Oil 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.thesage.com [Source type: General]

^ Natural Hemp has a darker earthy color so it makes butters look warmer, the Refined Hemp Oil has a light yellow color and will not alter the color of your butters and lotions with the same intensity.
  • MMS - Fixed Oil 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.thesage.com [Source type: General]

Turquoise is also commonly treated in a similar manner.

Fracture filling

.Fracture filling has been in use with different gemstones such as diamonds, emeralds and sapphires.^ This is a "flame fusion" sapphire crystal boule, such as might be used to create synthetic cut gemstones.
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Titanium in the Periodic Table 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Impurities determine the colors of most gemstones, and are, for example, responsible for the difference between rubies and sapphires, both of which are made of aluminum oxide.
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Titanium in the Periodic Table 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 2006 "glass filled rubies" received publicity. Rubies over 10 carat (2 g) with large fractures were filled with lead glass, thus dramatically improving the appearance (of larger rubies in particular). Such treatments are fairly easy to detect.

Synthetic and artificial gemstones

.Some gemstones are manufactured to imitate other gemstones.^ While these maybe perfectly spherical and free of other imperfections the colors and design features outside the manufactures specification limit can cause some confusing to hobbyists.
  • Akron Marbles: Glossary of Marble Terminology 2 February 2010 15:40 UTC www.akronmarbles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, cubic zirconia is a synthetic diamond simulant composed of zirconium oxide.^ It is, however, much softer than diamond, and much more expensive that cubic zirconia.
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Titanium in the Periodic Table 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before the widespread use of cubic zirconia as fake diamond, strontium titanate was more popular.
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Titanium in the Periodic Table 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Moissanite is another example. .The imitations copy the look and color of the real stone but possess neither their chemical nor physical characteristics.^ We really like this in lotions because the color is warm and creamy looking.
  • MMS - Fixed Oil 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.thesage.com [Source type: General]

However, lab created gemstones are not imitations. .For example, diamonds, ruby, sapphires and emeralds have been manufactured in labs to possess identical chemical and physical characteristics to the naturally occurring variety.^ ASTM's rubber standards are instrumental in specifying, testing, and assessing the physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of a wide variety of materials and products that are made of rubber and its elastomeric derivatives.
  • Rubber Standards 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.astm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Impurities determine the colors of most gemstones, and are, for example, responsible for the difference between rubies and sapphires, both of which are made of aluminum oxide.
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Titanium in the Periodic Table 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Synthetic (lab created) corundums, including ruby and sapphire, are very common and they cost only a fraction of the natural stones.^ The contents of one reservoir may be dominated by natural gas, with only a fraction of one percent being liquid oil.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this northern climate, it’s only natural that they would try their hands at creating delicious icewine—the rare vintage so-named because the fruit hangs on the vines until winter and freezes.

^ This is a "flame fusion" sapphire crystal boule, such as might be used to create synthetic cut gemstones.
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Titanium in the Periodic Table 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Smaller synthetic diamonds have been manufactured in large quantities as industrial abrasives.^ Back to Index DAY TANK : A large furnace designed to hold one color of molten glass, most often used for the manufacture of industrial marbles.
  • Akron Marbles: Glossary of Marble Terminology 2 February 2010 15:40 UTC www.akronmarbles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Larger synthetic diamonds of gemstone quality, especially of the colored variety, are also manufactured.[citation needed]
Whether a gemstone is a natural stone or a lab-created (synthetic) stone, the characteristics of each are the same. .Lab-created stones tend to have a more vivid color to them, as impurities are not present in a lab, so therefore do not affect the clarity or color of the stone.^ It would therefore seem more likely that God created oil during the Creation Week.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are therefore left with the distinct possibility that oil and gas were made by God in the Creation Week, and that they moved into their present positions during the biblical Flood.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Oxford Dictionary Online and Webster Online Dictionary
  2. ^ Precious Stones, Max Bauer, p 2
  3. ^ Precious Gemstone glossary of Jewelry
  4. ^ Wise, R. W., 2006, Secrets Of The Gem Trade, The Connoisseur's Guide To Precious Gemstones, Brunswick House Pr, pp.3-8 ISBN 0972822380
  5. ^ Wise, R. W., 2006, Secrets of The Gem Trade, The Connoisseur's Guide To Precious Gemstones, Brunswick House Pr, p.36 ISBN 0972822380
  6. ^ Wise, R. W., 2006, Secrets Of The Gem Trade, The Connoisseur's Guide To Precious Gemstones, Brunswick House Pr, p. 15
  7. ^ Burnham, S.M. (1868). Precious Stones in Nature, Art and Literature. Bradlee Whidden.  Page 251
  8. ^ a b Church, A.H. (Professor at Royal Academy of Arts in London) (1905). Precious Stones considered in their scientific and artistic relations. His Majesty's Stationary Office, Wyman & Sons.  Chapter 1, Page 9: Definition of Precious Stones URL: Definition of Precious Stones
  9. ^ a b c d Secrets of the Gem Trade; The Connoisseur's Guide to Precious Gemstones Richard W Wise, Brunswick House Press, Lenox, Massachutes., 2003
  10. ^ Rapaport report of ICA Gemstone Conferene in Dubai
  11. ^ Introduction to Lapidary by Pansy D. Kraus
  12. ^ Faceting For Amateurs by Glen and Martha Vargas
  13. ^ Gemstone Enhancement: History, Science and State of the Art by Kurt Nassau
  14. ^ Nassau, Kurt (1994). Gem Enhancements. Butterworth Heineman. 

External links


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 16, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Gemstone, which are similar to those in the above article.








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