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Generation Y, also known as the Millennial Generation or Generation Next or Net Generation,[1][2][3] describes the demographic cohort following Generation X. Its members are often referred to as Millennials[4][5] or Echo Boomers[6]. As there are no precise dates for when the Millennial generation starts and ends, commentators have used birth dates ranging somewhere from the mid 1970s[7][8][9][9][10][11][12] to the early 2000s.[13][14][15][6][16][17][18][19][20] This generation generally represents an increase in births from the 1960s and 70s, not because of a significant increase in birthrates, but because the large cohort of baby boomers began to have children. The 20th century trend toward smaller families in developed countries continued,[21][22] however, so the relative impact of the "baby boom echo" was generally less pronounced than the original boom.

Characteristics of the generation vary by region, depending on social and economic conditions. However, it is generally marked by an increased use and familiarity with communications, media, and digital technologies. In most parts of the world its upbringing was marked by a decrease in the Socialist approach to the politics and economics.[23] The effects of this environment are disputed.[24][25]

Contents

Terminology

The term Generation Y first appeared in an August 1993 Ad Age editorial to describe teenagers of the day, which they defined as separate from Generation X, and then aged 13–19 (born 1974-1980), as well as the teenagers of the upcoming ten years.[26] "Generation Y" alludes to a succession from "Generation X" and also reflects a change in the sexual openness of the younger generation.

The name "Echo Boomers"[6] relates to the size of the generation and its relation to the Baby boomer generation.[27]

Common conception in Canada situates the Y generation as being born as of 1976 up to 1999, inclusively.[28] A single source has referred to the generation as the MTV Generation[29], although MTV Generation is also a term used to refer to people heavily influenced by the advent of MTV, and even a catch all term for youth of the late 20th century, depending on the context.[30][31][32]

Authors William Strauss and Neil Howe have been influential in defining American generations in their book Generations: The History of America's Future, 1584 to 2069 (1991). Howe and Strauss maintain that they use the term Millennials in place of Generation Y because the members of the generation themselves coined the term, not wanting to be associated with Generation X. Almost a decade later, they followed up their large study of the history of American demographics with a new book specifically on that generation, titled Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation (2000).[33][34] In their books Generations (1991) and Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation (2000), William Strauss and Neil Howe use the start year as 1982 and end year of the generation as 2001. They believe that the coming of age of year 2000 high school graduates sharply contrasts with those born before them and after them due to the attention they received from the media and what influenced them politically.[35]

One author, Elwood Carlson, locates the American generation, which he calls the New Boomers, between 1983 and 2001 because of the upswing in births after 1983, finishing with the "political and social challenges" after the attacks of September 11, 2001 and the "persistent economic difficulties" of the time.[36]

Demographics

In the United States the actual "Echo Boom" was a thirteen year span between 1982 and 1995[37] when for the first time since 1964, the number of live births reached over four million.[citation needed] It wouldn’t be until 1985 that the live birth number would even match that of 1965 at 3.760 million.[citation needed] Also it should be noted that the birthrate of 1971’s 1.72% has yet to be reached according to the 2000 census.[38]

One analysis of American demographics locates the increase in births between 1978 and 1994. By this calculation there are 60 million members of the generation,[39] just shy of the 78.2 million baby boomers (as of 2005).[40]

Global Millennials are the offspring of a world in which fertility rates have generally been on the decline. Nonetheless, the number of young people around the world who are currently under the age of 30 is still huge, more than half of the world’s population. In 2005, the median age of the world’s population was 28 and falling. Estimates suggest that the number of people in the world in their twenties is over 1.1 billion, or nearly 17 percent of the total population.[41]

Generation Y'ers are largely the children of the Baby Boomers. Younger members of this generation have parents that belong to Generation X.

Communication and interaction

The Millennial Generation, like other generations, has been shaped by the events, leaders, developments and trends of its time.[42] The rise of instant communication technologies made possible through use of the internet, such as email, texting, and IM and new media used through websites like YouTube and social networking sites like Facebook, Myspace, and Twitter, may explain the Millennials' reputation for being somewhat peer-oriented due to easier facilitation of communication through technology.[citation needed] This trend of communication is continuing into Generation Z.

Expression and acceptance has been highly important to this generation. In China, with a total population of a billion people, the urge to stand out and be individualistic has become a staple of the Chinese youth culture[43]. Elsewhere, mainly in more well-developed nations, several cohorts of Generation Y members have found comfort in online gaming such as through MMORPGs and virtual worlds like World of Warcraft and Second Life[44]. Flash mobbing, internet meme, and online communities have given some of the more expressive Generation Y members acceptance, while online pen pals have given the more socially timid individuals acceptance as well[45]. Generation Y is more radically and culturally tolerant than previous generations[46]. The majority of Generation Y is culturally liberal[47] with many favoring same-sex marriage rights to the LGBT community[48] among other politically liberal stances, but, in spite of the new dominant liberal growth, new youth clubs and groups have been created in developed countries (such as the US, UK, Japan, Australia and Italy) to take the task of promoting and preserving conservative views and beliefs.[citation needed]

This generation is also sometimes referred to as the Boomerang Generation or Peter Pan Generation because of their possible penchant for delaying some of the rites of passage into adulthood longer than most generations before them, and because of a trend toward living with their parents for longer than recent generations.[49]

Pop culture

The Millennials grew up amidst a time during which the internet caused great change to all traditional media. Shawn Fanning, a Generation Y member, founded the peer to peer file sharing service Napster while in college. Though the RIAA won a lawsuit and shut down the service in 2001, as a result of these innovations in technology the Millennials had access to music for essentially free, eroding the traditional album format, and leading to the rise of niche culture.[50]

Literature and pop culture of the 1990s and 2000s popular with Gen Y include Goosebumps (childhood)[51], Harry Potter, The Lord of the Rings film trilogy and numerous fan fiction pieces to popular franchises to name a few[52].

In some ways, the Millennials have become seen as the ultimate rejection of the counterculture that began in the 1960s and persisted in the subsequent decades through the 1990s.[53][54] This is further documented in Strauss & Howe's book titled Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation, which describes the Millennial generation as Civic Minded, rejecting the attitudes of the Baby Boomers and Generation X.[55] Kurt Andersen, the prize winning contributor to Vanity Fair writes in his book Reset: How This Crisis Can Restore Our Values and Renew America writes that many among the Millennial Generation view the 2008 election of Barack Obama as uniquely theirs, and he writes about this generational consensus building as being more healthy and useful than the counterculture protests of the late 1960s and early 1970s, going as far to say that if Millennials can "keep their sense of entitlement in check, they might just turn out to be the next Greatest Generation".[56] However due to the Global financial crisis of 2008-2009 this generation is also beginning to be compared to the Lost Generation of the early 20th century.[57]

Digital technology

In their 2007 book, Junco and Mastrodicasa expanded on the work of Howe and Strauss to include research-based information about the personality profiles of Millennials, especially as it relates to higher education. They conducted a large-sample (7,705) research study of college students. They found that Next Generation college students were frequently in touch with their parents and they used technology at higher rates than people from other generations. In their survey, they found that 97% of students owned a computer, 94% owned a cell phone, and 56% owned an MP3 player. They also found that students spoke with their parents an average of 1.5 times a day about a wide range of topics.[58] Other findings in the Junco and Mastrodicasa survey included that 76% of students used instant messaging, 92% of those reported multitasking while IMing, and 40% of students used television to get most of their news and 34% the Internet. This generation spends at least 3.5 hours a day online.[59]

In June 2009, Nielsen released the report, "How Teens Use Media" which discussed the latest data on media usage by generation Y. In this report, Nielsen set out to redefine the dialogue around media usage by the youngest of Gen Y, extending through working age Gen Y and compared to Gen X and Boomers.[60]

Workforce

Economic prospects for the Millennials have worsened due to the Late-2000s recession. Several governments have instituted major youth employment schemes out of fear of social unrest such as the 2008 Greek riots due to the dramatically increased rates of youth unemployment.[61] In Europe youth unemployment levels are very high (40% in Spain, 35% in the Baltic states, 30% in Britain and more than 20% in many more). In 2009 leading commentators began to worry about the long term social and economic effects of the unemployment.[62] Unemployment levels in other areas of the world are also high, with the youth unemployment rate in the U.S. reaching a record level (18.5%, July 2009) since the statistic started being gathered in 1948.[63]

The Millennials are sometimes called the "Trophy Generation", or "Trophy Kids,"[64] a term that reflects the trend in competitive sports, as well as many other aspects of life, where "no one loses" and everyone gets a "Thanks for Participating" trophy and symbolizing a perceived sense of entitlement. It has been reported that this is an issue in corporate environments.[64] Some employers are concerned that Millennials have too great expectations from the workplace and desire to shape their jobs to fit their lives rather than adapt their lives to the workplace.[65] To better understand this mindset, many large firms are currently studying this conflict and are trying to devise new programs to help older employees understand Millennials, while at the same time making Millennials more comfortable. For example, Goldman Sachs conducts training programs that use actors to portray Millennials who assertively seek more feedback, responsibility, and involvement in decision making. After the performance, employees discuss and debate the generational differences they have seen played out"[64]

See also

References

  1. ^ Netting the Net Generation
  2. ^ The Online NewsHour: Generation Next | PBS
  3. ^ People's Press entitled A Portrait of "Generation Next": How Young People View Their Lives, Futures and Politics (Jan 9, 2007)
  4. ^ Strauss, William & Howe, Neil. Generations: The History of America's Future, 1584 to 2069. Perennial, 1992 (Reprint). ISBN 0-688-11912-3 p. 324
  5. ^ Shapira, Ian (2008-07-06). "What Comes Next After Generation X?". Education (The Washington Post): pp. C01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/07/05/AR2008070501599.html. Retrieved 2008-07-19. 
  6. ^ a b c Armour, Stephanie (2008-11-06). "Generation Y: They've arrived at work with a new attitude". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/money/workplace/2005-11-06-gen-y_x.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-27. 
  7. ^ Preparing for the Nexters
  8. ^ "Millennials' Medspa Influence". Reuters. 2008-06-24. http://www.reuters.com/article/pressRelease/idUS145598+24-Jun-2008+PRN20080624. Retrieved 2009-11-27. 
  9. ^ a b Gen Y Propels Need for Online Service Technologies & Talent | Business Wire | Find Articles at BNET
  10. ^ French, Dana (2005-11-21). "Generation Y versus Baby Boomers". Furniture Today. http://www.allbusiness.com/marketingadvertising/market-research-analysis-market/6310530-1.html. Retrieved 2009-11-27. 
  11. ^ Price, Sarah; Kass, Susanna (2006-06-18). "Generation Y turning away from religion". The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/generation-y-turning-away-from-religion/2006/08/05/1154198378623.html. Retrieved 2009-11-27. 
  12. ^ Troubled Finances of the Young and Restless - New Money (usnews.com)
  13. ^ Is Your Firm Ready for the Millennials? - Knowledge@Emory
  14. ^ Tovar, Molly (August/September 2007). "Getting it Right: Graduate Schools Respond to the Millenial Challenge". Communicator 40 (7): 1. http://www.cgsnet.org/portals/0/pdf/comm_2007_08.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-29. 
  15. ^ Neuborne, Ellen (1999-02-15). "Generation Y". Business Week. http://www.businessweek.com/1999/99_07/b3616001.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-17. 
  16. ^ "Sports Celebrity Influence on the Behavioral Intentions of Generation Y" Alan Bush, Craig Martin, Victoria Bush. JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING RESEARCH March 2004. http://journals.cambridge.org/download.php?file=%2FJAR%2FJAR44_01%2FS0021849904040206a.pdf&code=e8f4ae95a930af319ea5e022a6df2e32
  17. ^ Attracting the twentysomething worker. CNNMoney.com. May 15, 2007. http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2007/05/28/100033934/
  18. ^ Demographics / Population Trends
  19. ^ Rise of the millennials - Education News - theage.com.au
  20. ^ "How Generational Theory Can Improve Teaching: Strategies for Working with the "Millennials"" (PDF). Currents in Teaching and Learning 1 (1): 29–44. Fall 2008. http://www.worcester.edu/Currents/Archives/Volume_1_Number_1/CurrentsV1N1WilsonP29.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-16. 
  21. ^ Baby Boom - A History of the Baby Boom
  22. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2006/09/04/world/europe/04prague.html
  23. ^ Neoliberalism, the state, and the left: A Canadian perspective | Monthly Review | Find Articles at BNET
  24. ^ Children of the market | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk
  25. ^ Please Just F* Off, It's Our Turn Now - Book Reviews - Books - Entertainment
  26. ^ "Generation Y" Ad Age August 30, 1993. p. 16.
  27. ^ Huntley, Rebecca. The World According to Y: Inside the New Adult Generation. Allen Unwin. ISBN 1-74114-845-6. http://books.google.ca/books?id=b7RV5njJ3zcC&lpg=PP1&dq=generation%20y&lr=&pg=PA10#v=onepage&q=&f=false. 
  28. ^ Perry-Soulanges Normand (17th of february 2010 La génération « Y » et la sphère politique au Québec, Journal de Saint François
  29. ^ Encouraging alternative forms of self expression in the generation Y student: a strategy for effective learning in the classroom | ABNF Journal, The | Find Articles at BNET
  30. ^ Colin Powell Joins MTV Generation - Colin Powell : People.com
  31. ^ Obama Unplugged – Obama Talks With the MTV Generation - Political Radar
  32. ^ Frank Talk by Clinton To MTV Generation - NYTimes.com
  33. ^ Lifecourse Associates: Generations (Book)
  34. ^ Lifecourse Associates: Millennials Rising (Book)
  35. ^ http://www.lifecourse.com/assets/files/yes_we_can.pdf
  36. ^ Carlson, Elwood. The Lucky Few: Between the Greatest Generation and the Baby Boom. Springer. pp. 29. ISBN 978-1-4020-8540-6. http://books.google.be/books?id=zUJgaHde6YUC&lpg=PP1&ots=jnpl2Oq06Y&lr=&hl=en&pg=PT45#v=onepage&q=1983&f=false. 
  37. ^ The Echo Boomers - 60 Minutes - CBS News
  38. ^ [William Strauss and Neil Howe Generations: The History of America's Future, 1584 to 2069:Perennial; Reprint edition (September 1, 1993) ]
  39. ^ Live Births and Birth Rates, by Year — Infoplease.com
  40. ^ http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/006105.html>
  41. ^ Generation WE: A Generation 95 Million People Strong
  42. ^ McCrindle, Mark. "The ABC of XYZ: Generational Diversity at Work". McCrindle Research. http://www.quayappointments.com.au/email/040213/images/generational_diversity_at_work.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-19. 
  43. ^ China's "Gen Y" Bucks Tradition
  44. ^ Businesses untangle the Gen Y knot - Silicon Valley / San Jose Business Journal:
  45. ^ Your "Real" Friends are Your Online Friends (or so Says Gen Y)
  46. ^ Understanding Generation Y
  47. ^ E225 Reboot Poll Book.indd
  48. ^ What's the Civil-Rights Struggle of Generation Y? - DiversityInc.com
  49. ^ Shaputis, Kathleen. The Crowded Nest Syndrome: Surviving the Return of Adult Children. Clutter Fairy Publishing, 2004. Print. ISBN 978-0972672702
  50. ^ http://www.time.com/time/arts/article/0,8599,1900054,00.html
  51. ^ Youth: Presenting: Generation Y TV - Life & Style - The Independent
  52. ^ Gen Y Reads - But Only for Nine Minutes A Day | NYU Livewire
  53. ^ The Claremont Institute - Music, Philosophy, and Generation Y
  54. ^ Coming of Age in Cyberspace - Essay Blog - NYTimes.com
  55. ^ Howe, Neil, Strauss, William Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation, pp. 352.
  56. ^ Anderson, Kurt Reset: How This Crisis Can Restore Our Values and Renew America, pp. 54.
  57. ^ Recession creating a lost generation - BusinessWeek.com- msnbc.com
  58. ^ Junco, Reynol and Mastrodicasa, Jeanna M. "Connecting to the Net.Generation: What higher education professionals need to know about today's students" (2007)
  59. ^ Duncan Nuggets™ - Al Duncan - The Millennial Mentor™: The Millennials: A Vision of Students Today
  60. ^ Nielsen. "How Teens Use Media - A Nielsen report on the myths and realities of teen media trends (2009)" (2009)
  61. ^ Jobless Youth: Will Europe's Gen Y Be Lost? - SPIEGEL ONLINE - News - International
  62. ^ Europe's New Lost Generation, by Annie Lowrey | Foreign Policy
  63. ^ Employment and Unemployment Among Youth Summary
  64. ^ a b c Alsop, Ron (October 13, 2008). The Trophy Kids Grow Up: How the Millennial Generation is Shaking Up the Workplace. Jossey-Bass. ISBN 978-0470229545. 
  65. ^ Alsop, Ron (2008-10-21). "The Trophy Kids Go to Work". The Wall Street Journal. http://sec.online.wsj.com/article/SB122455219391652725.html. Retrieved 2008-10-24. 

Generation Y, also known as the Millennial Generation, Generation Next or Net Generation ,[1][2][3] describes the demographic cohort following Generation X. Its members are often referred to as Millennials[4][5] or Echo Boomers.[6] As there are no precise dates for when the Millennial generation starts and ends, commentators have used birth dates ranging somewhere from the mid-1970s[7][8][9][9][10][11][12] to the early 2000s.[13][14][15][6][16][17][18][19][20] Members of this generation are called Echo Boomers, due to the significant increase in birth rates between 1982–1995, and because most of them are children of baby boomers.[21][22][23] The 20th century trend toward smaller families in developed countries continued,[24][25] however, so the relative impact of the "baby boom echo" was generally less pronounced than the original boom.

Characteristics of the generation vary by region, depending on social and economic conditions. However, it is generally marked by an increased use and familiarity with communications, media, and digital technologies. In most parts of the world its upbringing was marked by an increase in a neoliberal approach to politics and economics.[26] The effects of this environment are disputed.[27][28]

Contents

Terminology

The term Generation Y first appeared in an August 1993 Ad Age editorial to describe teenagers of the day, which they defined, at that time, as separate from Generation X, and then aged 12 or younger (born after 1980), as well as the teenagers of the upcoming ten years.[29] "Generation Y" alludes to a succession from "Generation X." Since then, however, the company has used various start dates for the generation.[citation needed]

The name "Echo Boomers"[6] refers to the size of the generation and its relation to the Baby boomer generation.[30]

Authors William Strauss and Neil Howe have been very influential in defining American generations in their book Generations: The History of America's Future, 1584 to 2069 (1991). Their generational theory is frequently cited in books and articles on the subject. Howe and Strauss maintain that they use the term Millennials in place of Generation Y because the members of the generation themselves coined the term, not wanting to be associated with Generation X. Almost a decade later, they followed up their large study of the history of American demographics with a new book specifically on that generation, titled Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation (2000).[31][32] In their books Generations (1991) and Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation (2000), William Strauss and Neil Howe use the start year as 1982 and end year of the generation as 2001. They believe that the coming of age of year 2000 high school graduates sharply contrasts with those born before them and after them due to the attention they received from the media and what influenced them politically.[33][34]

In Australia, there is much debate over the dates of Generation Y - that is, when "Gen Y" began, and the "cut-off" period. It is generally accepted, however, that "Gen Y" applies to those born in, between the dates of 1982 and June 1995, inclusively (in order to accompany the cut-off period for early enrollments in schools). Although debatable, as some consider the "end" of Gen Y births to be in 1994, and others believe Y refers to all people born in 1995.[35]

In Canada, the Y generation is typically thought of as being born between 1976 and 1999 inclusively.[36] Like members of Generation X, who are heavily influenced by the advent of MTV, early members of Generation Y are also sometimes called the MTV Generation. This term can also be a catch phrase for youth of the late 20th century, depending on the context.[37][38][39][40]

One author, Elwood Carlson, locates the American generation, which he calls the New Boomers, between 1983 and 2001 because of the upswing in births after 1983, finishing with the "political and social challenges" after the attacks of September 11, 2001 and the "persistent economic difficulties" of the time.[41]

Demographics

In the United States, the actual "Echo Boom" refers to the surge in live births in 1982. This new “baby boom” period spanned thirteen years, continuing through 1995.[21][22][23][42] Today, there are approximately 80 million Echo Boomers.[22]

The majority of Generation Y is culturally liberal[43] with many respecting same-sex marriage rights to the LGBT community[44] among other politically liberal stances, but, in spite of the new dominant liberal growth, new youth clubs and groups have been created in developed countries (such as the US, UK, Japan, Australia and Italy) to take the task of promoting and preserving conservative views and beliefs.[citation needed][45]

Generation Y'ers are largely the children of the Baby Boomers. Younger members of this generation have parents that belong to Generation X.

Religion

"The Spirit of Generation Y", a 2006 Australian study conducted by Monash University, the Australian Catholic University, and the Christian Research Association was taken of 1619 people. The results show 48% of Generation Y believe in a god, while 20% do not, and 32% are unsure if God exists. Only 1272 of those surveyed were 13–24 years old, the rest were between the ages of 25 and 59.[46]

A 2005 American study looked at 1,385 people aged 18 to 25 and found that over half of those in the study said that they pray regularly before a meal. A third said that they talked about religion with friends, attend places of worship, and read religious materials weekly. 23% of those studied did not identify themselves as belonging to a religious affiliation.[47] Regardless, some generation Y members have been critical of the religious right and have considered evangelicals to be sexist, homophobic, xenophobic, and hypocritical in regard to issues such as capitalism and the death penalty.[citation needed] A recent poll by the Pew Research Center on religion and Generation Y showed that 64% of Americans in this generation believe in God. [48]

Peter Pan Generation

This generation is also sometimes referred to as the Boomerang Generation or Peter Pan Generation, because of the members' perceived penchant for delaying some rites of passage into adulthood, longer periods than most generations before them. These labels were also a reference to a trend toward members living with their parents for longer than previous generations.[49]

The primary cause of this increased trend can be defined in economic terms.[50] Economic crises, including the dot-com bubble in 2000, and the United States housing bubble that led to the current financial crisis have made paying market-level rent, or any rent, difficult for a generation riddled with high unemployment levels.[51]

However, economics is not the only explanation. Questions regarding a clear definition of what it means to be an adult also impacts a debate about delayed transitions into adulthood. For instance, one study by professors at Brigham Young University found that college students are more likely now to define "adult" based on certain personal abilities and characteristics rather than more traditional "rite of passage" events.[52] Dr. Larry Nelson, one of the three Marriage, Family, and Human Development professors to perform the study, also noted that some Millennials are delaying the transition from childhood to adulthood as a response to mistakes made by their parents. "In prior generations, you get married and you start a career and you do that immediately. What young people today are seeing is that approach has led to divorces, to people unhappy with their careers ... The majority want to get married [...] they just want to do it right the first time, the same thing with their careers."[52]

Communication and interaction

The Millennial Generation, like other generations, has been shaped by the events, leaders, developments and trends of its time.[53] The rise of instant communication technologies made possible through use of the internet, such as email, texting, and IM and new media used through websites like YouTube and social networking sites like Facebook, MySpace, and Twitter, may explain the Millennials' reputation for being somewhat peer-oriented due to easier facilitation of communication through technology.[54]

Expression and acceptance has been highly important to this generation. In China, with a total population of a billion people, the urge to stand out and be individualistic has become a staple of the Chinese youth culture.[55] Elsewhere, mainly in more well-developed nations, several cohorts of Generation Y members have found comfort in online games such as MMORPGs and virtual worlds like World of Warcraft and Second Life.[56] Flash mobbing, internet meme, and online communities have given some of the more expressive Generation Y members acceptance, while online pen pals have given the more socially timid individuals acceptance as well.[57]

Digital technology

In their 2007 book, authors Junco and Mastrodicasa expanded on the work of Howe and Strauss to include research-based information about the personality profiles of Millennials, especially as it relates to higher education. They conducted a large-sample (7,705) research study of college students. They found that Next Generation college students, born between 1982-2003, were frequently in touch with their parents and they used technology at higher rates than people from other generations. In their survey, they found that 97% of these students owned a computer, 94% owned a cell phone, and 56% owned a MP3 player. They also found that students spoke with their parents an average of 1.5 times a day about a wide range of topics. Other findings in the Junco and Mastrodicasa survey revealed 76% of students used instant messaging, 92% of those reported multitasking while IMing, 40% of them used television to get most of their news, with 15% watched The Daily Show and 5% The Colbert Report, and 34% of students surveyed used the Internet.[58][59]

In June 2009, Nielsen released the report, "How Teens Use Media" which discussed the latest data on media usage by generation. In this report, Nielsen set out to redefine the dialogue around media usage by the youngest of Generation Y, extending through working age Generation Y and compared to Generation X and Baby Boomers.[60]

Pop culture

The Millennials grew up amidst a time during which the Internet caused great change to all traditional media. Shawn Fanning, considered by some sources a Generation Y member, founded the peer-to-peer file sharing service Napster while in college. Though the RIAA won a lawsuit and shut down the service in 2001, innovations in technology mean the Millennials have access to more music on demand than any previous generation and have forced the recording industry to adapt to new business models.

Literature and pop culture of the 1990s and 2000s popular with Gen Y include Goosebumps (childhood),[61] Harry Potter, The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, The Star Wars Trilogy Special Edition in 1997 which allowed Generation Y's to experience Star Wars on the big screen as their Generation X counterparts had done in 1977[citation needed] and numerous fan fiction pieces to popular franchises, to name a few.[62]

In some ways, the Millennials have become seen as the ultimate rejection of the counterculture that began in the 1960s and persisted in the subsequent decades through the 1990s.[63][64] This is further documented in Strauss & Howe's book titled Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation, which describes the Millennial generation as "civic minded," rejecting the attitudes of the Baby Boomers and Generation X.[65] Kurt Andersen, the prize-winning contributor to Vanity Fair writes in his book Reset: How This Crisis Can Restore Our Values and Renew America that many among the Millennial Generation view the 2008 election of Barack Obama as uniquely theirs and describes this generational consensus building as being more healthy and useful than the counterculture protests of the late 1960s and early 1970s, going as far to say that if Millennials can "keep their sense of entitlement in check, they might just turn out to be the next Greatest Generation."[66] However, due to the global financial crisis of 2008-2009, at least one journalist has expressed fears of permanently losing a substantial amount of Generation Y's earning potential.[67]

Workforce

Economic prospects for the Millennials have worsened due to the late-2000s recession. Several governments have instituted major youth employment schemes out of fear of social unrest such as the 2008 Greek riots due to the dramatically increased rates of youth unemployment.[68] In Europe, youth unemployment levels are very high (40% in Spain, 35% in the Baltic states, 19.1% in Britain[69] and more than 20% in many more) In 2009 leading commentators began to worry about the long term social and economic effects of the unemployment.[70] Unemployment levels in other areas of the world are also high, with the youth unemployment rate in the U.S. reaching a record level (18.5%, July 2009) since the statistic started being gathered in 1948.[51] In Canada, unemployment amongst youths aged 15 to 24 years of age in July 2009 was 15.9%, the highest it had been in 11 years.[71]

Generation Y who grew up in Asian countries show different preferences and expectations of work to those who grew up in the US or Europe. This is usually attributed to the differing cultural and economic conditions experienced while growing up.[72]

The Millennials are sometimes called the "Trophy Generation", or "Trophy Kids,"[73] a term that reflects the trend in competitive sports, as well as many other aspects of life, where "no one loses" and everyone gets a "Thanks for Participating" trophy and symbolizing a perceived sense of entitlement. It has been reported that this is an issue in corporate environments.[73] Some employers are concerned that Millennials have too great expectations from the workplace and desire to shape their jobs to fit their lives rather than adapt their lives to the workplace.[74] Studies predict that Generation Y will switch jobs frequently, holding far more than Generation X due to their great expectations.[75] To better understand this mindset, many large firms are currently studying this conflict and are trying to devise new programs to help older employees understand Millennials, while at the same time making Millennials more comfortable. For example, Goldman Sachs conducts training programs that use actors to portray Millennials who assertively seek more feedback, responsibility, and involvement in decision making. After the performance, employees discuss and debate the generational differences they have seen played out.[73] On the other hand, the willingness to give feedback and take on responsibility is also indicative of a rejection of in-house competitiveness and office politics, as the idea of everybody being winners has led to a loss of the win/lose dichotomy.[original research?][citation needed]

See also

References

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  3. ^ People's Press entitled A Portrait of "Generation Next": How Young People View Their Lives, Futures and Politics (Jan 9, 2007)
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  22. ^ a b c Font size Print E-mail Share Page 1 of 2 By Rebecca Leung (2005-09-04). "The Echo Boomers - 60 Minutes". CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/10/01/60minutes/main646890.shtml. Retrieved 2010-08-24. 
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  29. ^ "Generation Y" Ad Age August 30, 1993. p. 16.
  30. ^ Huntley, Rebecca (2006-09-01). The World According to Y: Inside the New Adult Generation. Allen Unwin. ISBN 1-74114-845-6. http://books.google.com/?id=b7RV5njJ3zcC&lpg=PP1&dq=generation%20y&pg=PA10#v=onepage&q=. 
  31. ^ Lifecourse Associates: Generations (Book)
  32. ^ Lifecourse Associates: Millennials Rising (Book)
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  34. ^ http://www.lifecourse.com/assets/files/yes_we_can.pdf
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  46. ^ "Generation Y Turning Away From Religion". The Age (Fairfax Media): pp. 1. 2006-08-06. http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/generation-y-turning-away-from-religion/2006/08/05/1154198378623.html. Retrieved 2010-09-26. "48 per cent of Generation Y believe in a god." 
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  48. ^ by Robert J. SamuelsonMarch 05, 2010 (2010-03-05). "The Millennial Generation Is Getting Clobbered". Newsweek. http://www.newsweek.com/id/234584. Retrieved 2010-08-24. 
  49. ^ Shaputis Kathleen. The Crowded Nest Syndrome: Surviving the Return of Adult Children. Clutter Fairy Publishing, 2004. Print. ISBN 978-0972672702
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Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

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Generation Y also known as The Millennial Generation, is a term used to describe the demographic cohort following Generation X. Its members are often referred to as "Millennials". There are no precise dates for when Generation Y starts and ends, but many commentators use dates from the early 1990s to mid 1990s.

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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English

Noun

Singular
Generation Y

Plural
uncountable

Generation Y (uncountable)

  1. The generation of people born in the 1980s and 1990s.

See also


Simple English

Generation Y consist of people born in and after 1976-or the early 1980s and afterward-until the early or mid 1990s, according to various sources. People in this generation period are known as Millennials or Echo Boomers. The famous people born during this period include Katie Holmes, Sarah Michelle Geller, Colbie Caillat and Britney Spears. The Generation Y period is known as the Echo Boom generation because of the high birth rate during this period. The high birth rate almost matches that of the Baby Boom period after World War II.








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