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Elements of genetic engineering
.Genetic engineering, recombinant DNA technology, genetic modification/manipulation (GM) and gene splicing are terms that apply to the direct manipulation of an organism's genes.^ Combining genes from different organisms is known as recombinant DNA technology, and the resulting organism is said to be "genetically modified," "genetically engineered," or "transgenic."

^ Genetic engineering, genetic modification (GM), and gene splicing (once in widespread use but now deprecated) are terms for the process of manipulating genes in an organism, usually outside of the organism's normal reproductive process.

^ Genetic engineering refers to the artificial modification of the genetic code of a living organism.
  • Redesigning the World: Ethical Questions About Genetic Engineering--RonEpstein 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.primitivism.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .Genetic engineering is different from traditional breeding, where the organism's genes are manipulated indirectly.^ It also distinguishes genetic engineering from traditional cross-breeding methods.
  • Genetic Engineering Article 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ This is one of several reasons why the outcome of artifical gene insertion (genetic engineering) are unpredictable.

^ Genetic engineering refers to a set of technologies that are being used to change the genetic makeup of cells and move genes across species boundaries to produce novel organisms.

.Genetic engineering uses the techniques of molecular cloning and transformation to alter the structure and characteristics of genes directly.^ This is one of several reasons why the outcome of artifical gene insertion (genetic engineering) are unpredictable.

^ One of the problems of gene therapy using retroviruses is that the integrase enzyme can insert the genetic material of the virus in any arbitrary position in the genome of the host.

^ In general, DNA vectors that are used in many molecular biology gene cloning experiments need not result in the expression of a protein.

.Genetic engineering techniques have found some successes in numerous applications.^ Genetic Engineering: Some Upsides There have been some successes in the field of genetic engineering.

^ Here are some more examples, less strictly related to genetic engineering, but which nonetheless somewhat undermine the lofty ideals that the WTO claims for itself.

^ It would be possible to cross human beings and monkeys using current genetic engineering techniques.

.Some examples are in improving crop technology, the manufacture of synthetic human insulin through the use of modified bacteria, the manufacture of erythropoietin in hamster ovary cells, and the production of new types of experimental mice such as the oncomouse (cancer mouse) for research.^ Examples are the production of human insulin through the use of modified bacteria and the production of new types of mice like the OncoMouse, (cancer mouse) for research, through genetic redesign.

^ This was a line of mice that were genetically engineered to be particularly 'useful' in cancer research.

^ Examples are diverse, and include commercial strains of wheat that have been modified by irradiation since the 1950s, transgenic experimental animals such mice, or various microscopic organisms altered for the purposes of genetic research.

.The term "genetic engineering" was coined in Jack Williamson's science fiction novel Dragon's Island, published in 1951,[2] one year before DNA's role in heredity was confirmed in 1952 by Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase[3] and two years before James Watson and Francis Crick showed that DNA has a double-helix structure.^ Posted on September 30, 2003 at 08:57 AM in Biology , Genetic Engineering , Government , Medicine , Science , Terrorism .
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Genetic Engineering 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is one of several reasons why the outcome of artifical gene insertion (genetic engineering) are unpredictable.

^ Posted on October 31, 2004 at 05:52 PM in Biology , Genetic Engineering , Medicine , Science , Technology , Terrorism .
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Genetic Engineering 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The DNA-protein system is an ingeniously simple and extremely powerful solution for creating all kinds of biological properties and structures.^ Researchers in Japan have created artificial DNA building blocks that act like the adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine, we all know and love.
  • Genetic Engineering - Mary Meets Dolly 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.marymeetsdolly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here we present a multiscale model of the ternary complex derived from crystal structures of the proteins and a continuous structure of the DNA loop built using the theory of elasticity .

^ Millions of adaptations to specific conditions have created a seed stock with extremely variegated properties.
  • Genetic Engineering | Badlands Journal 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.badlandsjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Just by varying the sequence of code words in the DNA, innumerable variations of proteins with very disparate properties can be obtained, sufficient to generate the enormous variety of biological life.^ PCC 6803 is a regulatory protein that binds to the consensus DNA sequence (5'-AAATGTGATCTAGATCACATTT-3') for the cAMP receptor protein CRP in Escherichia coli .

^ In general, DNA vectors that are used in many molecular biology gene cloning experiments need not result in the expression of a protein.

^ From genetics it is well known that even changing just a little code word in the master program can mean the difference between health and a deadly hereditary disease.

[4]

Contents

Engineering

Kenyans examining insect-resistant transgenic Bt corn.
.There are a number of ways through which genetic engineering is accomplished.^ Will there be enough safeguards in place to prevent this kind of genetic engineering from getting out of control?
  • Genetic Engineering - Mary Meets Dolly 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.marymeetsdolly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Through genetic engineering, organisms are given new combinations of genesand therefore new combinations of traitsthat do not occur in nature and, indeed, cannot be developed by natural means.

^ For example it is public knowledge that there is a revolving door between Monsanto Corporation, one of the major transnational forces in genetic engineering, and the White House: .
  • Redesigning the World: Ethical Questions About Genetic Engineering--RonEpstein 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.primitivism.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Essentially, the process has five main steps.
  1. Isolation of the genes of interest
  2. Insertion of the genes into a transfer vector
  3. Transfer of the vector to the organism to be modified
  4. Transformation of the cells of the organism
  5. Selection of the genetically modified organism (GMO) from those that have not been successfully modified
.Isolation is achieved by identifying the gene of interest that the scientist wishes to insert into the organism, usually using existing knowledge of the various functions of genes.^ With this knowledge, scientists started to build vectors which incorporated genes of their choosing and used the new vectors to insert these genes into the DNA of living organisms.

^ Some scientists have claimed that a gene for schizophrenia has been identified.
  • Vernon Coleman - Genetic Engineering 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.vernoncoleman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once the desired genes are inserted into the selected organism, the new genetically engineered organism is reproduced to obtain a generation of individuals that possess the desired trait.
  • 00.07.02: Genetic Engineering of Crop Plants 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

.DNA information can be obtained from cDNA or gDNA libraries, and amplified using PCR techniques.^ Seeing as these viruses use RNA as their genetic information they need to use reverse transcriptase to convert their code into DNA first.

^ The subtractive cDNA library we have obtained is going to be used for future researches to reveal scarless healing related gene(s) and its (their) expression.

^ Genetic engineering is a laboratory technique used by scientists to change the DNA of living organisms.

If necessary, i.e. for insertion of eukaryotic genomic DNA into prokaryotes, further modification may be carried out such as removal of introns or ligating prokaryotic promoters.
.Insertion of a gene into a vector such as a plasmid can be done once the gene of interest is isolated.^ Insertion into vector and transferring to E .

^ Once the expression vector is inside the cell, the protein that is coded for by the gene is produced by the normal transcription and translation processes of the host cell.

^ All ten strains revealed the presence of a plasmid of approximately 24 kb, and transformation of the isolated plasmids into the mercury-sensitive competent cells of E .

.Other vectors can also be used, such as viral vectors, bacterial conjugation, liposomes, or even direct insertion using a gene gun.^ In general, DNA vectors that are used in many molecular biology gene cloning experiments need not result in the expression of a protein.

^ Some of these enzymes can cut and join strands of DNA. Using such enzymes, scientists learned to cut specific genes from DNA and to build customized DNA using these genes.

^ You are responsible for any such state and local sales and use taxes, and any other taxes and government levies, if any, associated with your order.
  • Amazon.com: Halo 3: Xbox 360: Video Games 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.Restriction enzymes and ligases are of great use in this crucial step if it is being inserted into prokaryotic or viral vectors.^ One of the problems of gene therapy using retroviruses is that the integrase enzyme can insert the genetic material of the virus in any arbitrary position in the genome of the host.

^ The sheep have 15 per cent human cells and 85 per cent animal cells - and their evolution brings the prospect of animal organs being transplanted into humans one step closer.
  • Genetic Engineering - Mary Meets Dolly 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.marymeetsdolly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Together with ligase, which can join together fragments of DNA, restriction enzymes formed the initial basis of recombinant DNA technology.

.Daniel Nathans, Werner Arber and Hamilton Smith received the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their isolation of restriction endonucleases.^ Daniel Nathans and Hamilton Smith received the 1978 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for their isolation of restriction endonucleases, which are able to cut DNA at specific sites.

.Once the vector is obtained, it can be used to transform the target organism.^ Once the desired genes are inserted into the selected organism, the new genetically engineered organism is reproduced to obtain a generation of individuals that possess the desired trait.
  • 00.07.02: Genetic Engineering of Crop Plants 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Cloning a gene means to extract a gene from one organism (for example by PCR) and insert it into a second organism (usually via a vector), where it can be used and studied.

^ With this knowledge, scientists started to build vectors which incorporated genes of their choosing and used the new vectors to insert these genes into the DNA of living organisms.

Depending on the vector used, it can be complex or simple. .For example, using raw DNA with gene guns is a fairly straightforward process but with low success rates, where the DNA is coated with molecules such as gold and fired directly into a cell.^ That is, it must be inserted into the large DNA molecules in the cell, or the chromosomes of the cell.

^ For example, genes for fluorescent proteins can be co-expressed with complex proteins in cultured cells to facilitate study by biologists, and modified organisms are of great use in researching the mechanisms of cancer and other diseases.

^ In general, DNA vectors that are used in many molecular biology gene cloning experiments need not result in the expression of a protein.

.Other more complex methods, such as bacterial transformation or using viruses as vectors have higher success rates.^ You are responsible for any such state and local sales and use taxes, and any other taxes and government levies, if any, associated with your order.
  • Amazon.com: Halo 3: Xbox 360: Video Games 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ In the present study, after bacterial expression and purification, the biochemical characterizations of these first PLA(2)s identified in viruses have been investigated, and a comparison has been made with other known PLA(2)s .

^ Expression vectors are used for molecular biology techniques such as site-directed mutagenesis.

.After transformation, the GMO can be selected from those that have failed to take up the vector in various ways.^ Transformation is a process by which some bacteria are naturally capable of taking up DNA to acquire new genetic traits.

.One method is screening with DNA probes that can stick to the gene of interest that was supposed to have been transplanted.^ One particularly exciting technology arising from genomics is the DNA microarray (also called DNA chip), an array of probes for simultaneously measuring the amount of each of the 20,000+ human genes present in a given sample.

^ Since a protein is specified by a DNA segment or gene, future copies of that protein can be modified by changing the gene's underlying DNA. One way to do this is to isolate the DNA, cut it, and splice in a different DNA segment.

^ The method of genetic engineering is so crude that it is impossible to decide beforehand where the inserted genes will stick in the master program.

.Another is to package genes conferring resistance to certain chemicals such as antibiotics or herbicides into the vector.^ Antibiotic Resistant BacteriaGenetic engineers use antibiotic-resistance genes to mark genetically engineered cells.

^ Locating genes for important traitssuch as those conferring insect resistance or desired nutrientsis one of the most limiting steps in the process.

^ This means that genetically engineered crops contain genes which confer resistance to antibiotics.

.This chemical is then applied ensuring that only those cells that have taken up the vector will survive.^ The construct is then taken up by embryonic stem cells, where the engineered copy of the gene replaces the organism's own gene.

^ However, the genetic modification occurs only in those cells that become infected, and in most cases these cells are eventually eliminated by the immune system.

Applications

.Molecular biologists have discovered many enzymes which change the structure of DNA in living organisms.^ Molecular biologists have discovered many enzymes which change the structure of DNA in living organisms.

^ This article discusses recent research into encoding short 100 word messages into the DNA of living organisms.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Genetic Engineering 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In general, DNA vectors that are used in many molecular biology gene cloning experiments need not result in the expression of a protein.

.Some of these enzymes can cut and join strands of DNA. Using such enzymes, scientists learned to cut specific genes from DNA and to build customized DNA using these genes.^ Some of these enzymes can cut and join strands of DNA. Using such enzymes, scientists learned to cut specific genes from DNA and to build customized DNA using these genes.

^ Daniel Nathans and Hamilton Smith received the 1978 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for their isolation of restriction endonucleases, which are able to cut DNA at specific sites.

^ One of the problems of gene therapy using retroviruses is that the integrase enzyme can insert the genetic material of the virus in any arbitrary position in the genome of the host.

They also learned about vectors, strands of DNA such as viruses, which can infect a cell and insert themselves into its DNA.[5]
.The first genetically engineered medicine was synthetic human insulin, approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 1982. Another early application of genetic engineering was to create human growth hormone as replacement for a compound that was previously extracted from human cadavers.^ Is the genetic engineering of humans ethical?
  • Genetic Engineering - Mary Meets Dolly 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.marymeetsdolly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The genetic engineering of humans is not yet a reality.
  • Genetic Engineering - Mary Meets Dolly 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.marymeetsdolly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where is the outrage about the genetic engineering of humans?
  • Genetic Engineering - Mary Meets Dolly 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.marymeetsdolly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1987 the FDA approved the first genetically engineered vaccine for humans, for hepatitis B.^ Is the genetic engineering of humans ethical?
  • Genetic Engineering - Mary Meets Dolly 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.marymeetsdolly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The genetic engineering of humans is not yet a reality.
  • Genetic Engineering - Mary Meets Dolly 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.marymeetsdolly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where is the outrage about the genetic engineering of humans?
  • Genetic Engineering - Mary Meets Dolly 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.marymeetsdolly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since these early uses of the technology in medicine, the use of GM has gradually expanded to supply a number of other drugs and vaccines.^ Can these technologies be misused like all the others?
  • The Technocracy and the Genetic Engineering of Humanity 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This represents, however, a spread of genetic modification to medical purposes and opens an ethical door to other uses of the technology to directly modify human genomes.

^ There is concern that the use of the antifolates trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole for treatment of other infectious diseases will result in the selection of malaria parasites with mutations in these genes .

.One of the best-known applications of genetic engineering is the creation of GMOs for food use (genetically modified foods); such foods resist insect pests, bacterial or fungal infection, resist herbicides to improve yield, have longer freshness than otherwise, or have superior nutritional value.^ A genetic engineer has no such restriction.

^ Genetic engineers believe they can improve the foods we eat by doing this.

^ One of the best known applications of genetic engineering is genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

.In materials science, a genetically modified virus has been used to construct a more environmentally friendly lithium-ion battery.^ One of the problems of gene therapy using retroviruses is that the integrase enzyme can insert the genetic material of the virus in any arbitrary position in the genome of the host.

^ Genetic enhancement would take a otherwise normal individual and genetically modify them to be more than human in intelligence, strength or beauty.
  • Genetic Engineering - Mary Meets Dolly 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.marymeetsdolly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A genetically modified organism is an organism whose genetic material has been deliberately altered.

[6][7]
.A new type of slowly growing artform is being established via gene engineering and manipulation.^ Genetic engineering refers to a set of technologies that are being used to change the genetic makeup of cells and move genes across species boundaries to produce novel organisms.

^ ITANI via games.techwhack.com » 819 rate New Halo 3 Custom Armour Types Revealed .
  • Halo 3 News and Media - GameGrep 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.gamegrep.com [Source type: General]

^ Human cloning is a type of genetic engineering, but is not the same as true genetic manipulation.

.Bioart, an artistic form, uses gene engineering to create new art forms that both educate the public about genetics and create living artforms.^ So what is so special about this genetic engineering announcement?
  • Genetic Engineering - Mary Meets Dolly 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.marymeetsdolly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Genetic engineering has created a goat with spider genes that creates "silk" in its milk.

^ This is the kind of genetic engineering I get excited about.
  • Genetic Engineering - Mary Meets Dolly 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.marymeetsdolly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Genetic engineering and research

.Although there has been a revolution in the biological sciences in the past twenty years, there is still a great deal that remains to be discovered.^ Although a there has been a tremendous revolution in the biological sciences in the past twenty years, there is still a great deal that remains to be discovered.

^ In the perversion of the creation in science and technology a great deal has been brought to light that is of lasting value.
  • PHILOSOPHICAL AND ETHICAL PROBLEMS OF TECHNICISM AND GENETIC ENGINEERING 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC scholar.lib.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the Chinese have been drinking white tea for centuries -- possibly millennia -- researchers have just begun discovering its incredible health benefits in the past ten years.

.The completion of the sequencing of the human genome, as well as the genomes of most agriculturally and scientifically important animals and plants, has increased the possibilities of genetic research immeasurably.^ The completion of the sequencing of the human genome, as well as the genomes of most agriculturally and scientifically important plants and animals, have increased the possibilities of genetic research immeasurably.

^ Is the genetic enginering of plants and animals ethical?
  • Genetic Engineering - Mary Meets Dolly 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.marymeetsdolly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the Tree Biosafety and Genomics Research Cooperative at Oregon State University was still known as The Tree Genetic Engineering Research Cooperative, they publicized their work with "Roundup® resistant" trees.
  • Genetic Engineering | Badlands Journal 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.badlandsjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Expedient and inexpensive access to comprehensive genetic data has become a reality with billions of sequenced nucleotides already online and annotated.^ Expedient and inexpensive access to comprehensive genetic data has become a reality, with billions of sequenced nucleotides already online and annotated.

^ As a result, our fertility industry is entirely unregulated and therefore we will be wholly unequipped to handle reproductive cloning and genetic modification when it becomes a reality.
  • Genetic Engineering - Mary Meets Dolly 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.marymeetsdolly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Knockout mice
  • Loss of function experiments, such as in a gene knockout experiment, in which an organism is engineered to lack the activity of one or more genes.^ This is one of several reasons why the outcome of artifical gene insertion (genetic engineering) are unpredictable.

    ^ Genetic engineering refers to a set of technologies that are being used to change the genetic makeup of cells and move genes across species boundaries to produce novel organisms.

    ^ Gene therapy typically aims to supplement a defective mutant allele with a functional one.

    .This allows the experimenter to analyze the defects caused by this mutation, and can be considerably useful in unearthing the function of a gene.^ This allows the experimenter to analyze the defects caused by this mutation, and can be considerably useful in unearthing the function of a gene.

    ^ In the United States, the Patent and Trademark Office allows genes to be patented on the basis of this uniform effect or function.
    • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Genetic Engineering 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Gene therapy typically aims to supplement a defective mutant allele with a functional one.

    .It is used especially frequently in developmental biology.^ It is used especially frequently in developmental biology.

    ^ Bacteria that are competent to undergo transformation are frequently used in molecular biology.

    .A knockout experiment involves the creation and manipulation of a DNA construct in vitro, which, in a simple knockout, consists of a copy of the desired gene, which has been slightly altered such as to cripple its function.^ A knockout experiment involves the creation and manipulation of a DNA construct in vitro, which, in a simple knockout, consists of a copy of the desired gene which has been slightly altered such as to cripple its function.

    ^ The process is much the same as that in knockout engineering, except that the construct is designed to increase the function of the gene, usually by providing extra copies of the gene or attracting more frequent transcription.

    ^ This enzyme, TbPDE1, is encoded by a single-copy gene located on chromosome 10, and it functionally complements PDE-deficient strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae .

    .The construct is then taken up by embryonic stem cells, wherein the engineered copy of the gene replaces the organism's own gene.^ The construct is then taken up by embryonic stem cells, where the engineered copy of the gene replaces the organism's own gene.

    ^ Genetic engineering refers to a set of technologies that are being used to change the genetic makeup of cells and move genes across species boundaries to produce novel organisms.

    ^ The process is much the same as that in knockout engineering, except that the construct is designed to increase the function of the gene, usually by providing extra copies of the gene or attracting more frequent transcription.

    .These stem cells are injected into blastocysts, which are implanted into surrogate mothers.^ These stem cells are injected into blastocysts, which are implanted into surrogate mothers.

    ^ Adenoviruses are viruses that carry their genetic material in the form of DNA. When these viruses infect a host cell, they introduce their DNA molecule into the host.

    ^ "We would isolate the stem cells from them, inject them into the peritoneum of these animals and then these cells would get distributed throughout the metabolic system into the circulatory system of all the organs in the body.
    • Genetic Engineering - Mary Meets Dolly 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.marymeetsdolly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Another method, useful in organisms such as Drosophila (fruitfly), is to induce mutations in a large population and then screen the progeny for the desired mutation.^ Another method, useful in organisms such as drosophila, is to induce mutations in a large population and then screen the progeny for the desired mutation.

    ^ Genetic manipulation is a technological method to transport one or more genes from one species to another species in order to get a new living organism with new properties.
    • PHILOSOPHICAL AND ETHICAL PROBLEMS OF TECHNICISM AND GENETIC ENGINEERING 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC scholar.lib.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For example, the widespread use of an endogenous toxin such as Bt in a transgenic population will eventually result in resistant plant pests.

    .A similar process can be used in both plants and prokaryotes.
  • Gain of function experiments, the logical counterpart of knockouts.^ A similar process can be used in both plants and prokaryotes.

    ^ This process is most commonly used to create transgenic crop plants for agricultural purposes.

    ^ These are sometimes performed in conjunction with knockout experiments to more finely establish the function of the desired gene.

    .These are sometimes performed in conjunction with knockout experiments to more finely establish the function of the desired gene.^ These are sometimes performed in conjunction with knockout experiments to more finely establish the function of the desired gene.

    ^ The process is much the same as that in knockout engineering, except that the construct is designed to increase the function of the gene, usually by providing extra copies of the gene or attracting more frequent transcription.

    ^ These individuals in turn are raised and utilized with the desired gene actively functioning.
    • 00.07.02: Genetic Engineering of Crop Plants 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .The process is much the same as that in knockout engineering, except that the construct is designed to increase the function of the gene, usually by providing extra copies of the gene or inducing synthesis of the protein more frequently.
  • Tracking experiments, which seek to gain information about the localization and interaction of the desired protein.^ The process is much the same as that in knockout engineering, except that the construct is designed to increase the function of the gene, usually by providing extra copies of the gene or attracting more frequent transcription.

    ^ These are sometimes performed in conjunction with knockout experiments to more finely establish the function of the desired gene.

    ^ A knockout experiment involves the creation and manipulation of a DNA construct in vitro, which, in a simple knockout, consists of a copy of the desired gene which has been slightly altered such as to cripple its function.

    .One way to do this is to replace the wild-type gene with a 'fusion' gene, which is a juxtaposition of the wild-type gene with a reporting element such as Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) that will allow easy visualization of the products of the genetic modification.^ One way to do this is to replace the wild-type gene with a 'fusion' gene, which is a juxtaposition of the wild-type gene with a reporting element such as green fluorescent protein that will allow easy visualization of the products of the genetic modification.

    ^ These groups tend to resist the label 'engineer' as applied to such genetic modification most strongly.

    ^ This is one of several reasons why the outcome of artifical gene insertion (genetic engineering) are unpredictable.

    .While this is a useful technique, the manipulation can destroy the function of the gene, creating secondary effects and possibly calling into question the results of the experiment.^ While this is a useful technique, the manipulation can destroy the function of the gene, creating secondary effects and possibly calling into question the results of the experiment.

    ^ In general, DNA vectors that are used in many molecular biology gene cloning experiments need not result in the expression of a protein.

    ^ Also, very little is known what artificially manipulated genes released into nature may do to the environment.

    .More sophisticated techniques are now in development that can track protein products without mitigating their function, such as the addition of small sequences that will serve as binding motifs to monoclonal antibodies.
  • Expression studies aim to discover where and when specific proteins are produced.^ More sophisticated techniques are now in development that can track protein products without mitigating their function, such as the addition of small sequences which will serve as binding motifs to monoclonal antibodies.

    ^ In GMO products, traceability is usually limited to products where transformed DNA and/or transformed protein are detectable, not to products that have been produced from GMOs but no longer appears to contain modified DNA and/or proteins.

    ^ Genomes are more than the sum of an organism's genes and have traits that may be measured and studied without reference to the details of any particular genes and their products.

    .In these experiments, the DNA sequence before the DNA that codes for a protein, known as a gene's promoter, is reintroduced into an organism with the protein coding region replaced by a reporter gene such as GFP or an enzyme that catalyzes the production of a dye.^ This article discusses recent research into encoding short 100 word messages into the DNA of living organisms.
    • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Genetic Engineering 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In GMO products, traceability is usually limited to products where transformed DNA and/or transformed protein are detectable, not to products that have been produced from GMOs but no longer appears to contain modified DNA and/or proteins.

    ^ In general, DNA vectors that are used in many molecular biology gene cloning experiments need not result in the expression of a protein.

    .Thus the time and place where a particular protein is produced can be observed.^ Will people over time develop allergic reactions to the transgenic proteins produced from genetic engineering?
    • 00.07.02: Genetic Engineering of Crop Plants 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Researchers from the US and Taiwan have modified the yellow fever mosquito to make it produce a powerful antibacterial protein, thus apparently 'limiting its ability to transmit disease'.

    Expression studies can be taken a step further by altering the promoter to find which pieces are crucial for the proper expression of the gene and are actually bound by transcription factor proteins; this process is known as promoter bashing.

Human genetic engineering

.Human genetic engineering can be used to treat genetic disease, but there is a difference between treating the disease in an individual and changing the genome that gets passed down to that person's descendants (germ-line genetic engineering).^ Genetic engineering has the power to change who we are.

^ One of the problems of gene therapy using retroviruses is that the integrase enzyme can insert the genetic material of the virus in any arbitrary position in the genome of the host.

^ Genetic engineering refers to a set of technologies that are being used to change the genetic makeup of cells and move genes across species boundaries to produce novel organisms.

[4]
.Human genetic engineering has the potential to change human beings' appearance, adaptability, intelligence, character, and behavior.^ Genetic engineering has the power to change who we are.

^ Is the genetic engineering of humans ethical?
  • Genetic Engineering - Mary Meets Dolly 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.marymeetsdolly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The genetic engineering of humans is not yet a reality.
  • Genetic Engineering - Mary Meets Dolly 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.marymeetsdolly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It may potentially be used in creating more dramatic changes in humans.^ This perspective leaves open the possibility that changing our genetic structures or those of the natural environment may adversely influence our potential for transcendence.
  • Redesigning the World: Ethical Questions About Genetic Engineering--RonEpstein 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.primitivism.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Due to the varied nature of player actions, Rippy used the Audiokinetic Wwise pipeline to create interactive music that changes in reaction to what is happening on screen.
  • Halo Wars - Xbox Wiki 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC xbox.wikia.com [Source type: General]

^ As more and more human genes are being inserted into non-human organisms to create new forms of life that are genetically partly human, new ethical questions arise.
  • Redesigning the World: Ethical Questions About Genetic Engineering--RonEpstein 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.primitivism.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed] .There are many unresolved ethical issues and concerns surrounding this technology, and it remains a controversial topic.^ There are a number of ethical issues involved in the genetic engineering controversy.
  • 00.07.02: Genetic Engineering of Crop Plants 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ As far as many people are concerned those corners of the world that remain relatively 'unspoiled', as in untouched by the predations of modern man, have an intrinsic worth in themselves .

^ It seems likely that there will be many more downstream technologies as a result of the human genome project.

Forms

.Genetic engineering can enable the transport of genes between unrelated (transgenesis) or related (cisgenesis) organisms that would otherwise be unable to occur naturally, due to differences in anatomy or the incorrespondence between the DNA structures.^ This is one of several reasons why the outcome of artifical gene insertion (genetic engineering) are unpredictable.

^ Genetic engineering refers to a set of technologies that are being used to change the genetic makeup of cells and move genes across species boundaries to produce novel organisms.

^ Others oppose genetic engineering on the grounds that genetic modifications may have unforeseen consequences, both in the initially modified organisms, and their environments.

[8] .This form of genetic engineering can produce unpredictable results to the genome of the organisms, and can be related to those mutation processes.^ This is one of several reasons why the outcome of artifical gene insertion (genetic engineering) are unpredictable.

^ Genetic engineering refers to a set of technologies that are being used to change the genetic makeup of cells and move genes across species boundaries to produce novel organisms.

^ Others oppose genetic engineering on the grounds that genetic modifications may have unforeseen consequences, both in the initially modified organisms, and their environments.

[8]

Advantages

.The modification of the DNA structures of agricultural crops can increase the growth rates and even resistance to different diseases caused by pathogens and parasites.^ From genetics it is well known that even changing just a little code word in the master program can mean the difference between health and a deadly hereditary disease.

^ Venter has announced that he has created all the genetic material for a bacteria from the simple building blocks of DNA. This is different from genetic modification where existing DNA is modified.
  • Genetic Engineering - Mary Meets Dolly 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.marymeetsdolly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Selectivity of the chromatographic medium depended on the structure of the ligands, with characteristics of the substituents on the aromatic ring determining the resolution between the different plasmid DNA isoforms .

[9] .This is extremely beneficial as it can greatly increase the production of food sources with the usage of fewer resources that would be required to host the world's growing populations.^ Proponents of genetic engineering argue that the technology is safe, and that it is necessary in order to maintain food production that will continue to match population growth.

^ Some see the science itself as intolerable meddling with "natural" order, and while some would like to see it banned, others push simply for required labeling of GM foods.

^ However, others argue that food distribution, not production, is the biggest problem, citing that the population growth is actually a result of uneven distribution of food (and wealth).

.These modified crops would also reduce the usage of chemicals, such as fertilizers and pesticides, and therefore decrease the severity and frequency of the damages produced by these chemical pollution.^ Poor nations suffer from bad genes, environmental pollution, and chemical damage, more than wealthier nations.
  • The Technocracy and the Genetic Engineering of Humanity 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] Domesticated animals can undergo the same mechanism. .Genetic engineering can also increase the genetic diversity of species populations, especially those that are classified as being endangered.^ So what is so special about this genetic engineering announcement?
  • Genetic Engineering - Mary Meets Dolly 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC www.marymeetsdolly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Genetic engineering refers to a set of technologies that are being used to change the genetic makeup of cells and move genes across species boundaries to produce novel organisms.

^ Proponents of genetic engineering argue that the technology is safe, and that it is necessary in order to maintain food production that will continue to match population growth.

.Increase in genetic diversity would enabled these organisms to evolve more efficiently that would allow better adaptation to the ecosystems they inhabit.^ This poses a potential ethical challenge: If the monkeys do become more human, would they be considered "human subjects" and be protected by ethical guidelines governing research onto humans?
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Genetic Engineering 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The aim is introduce new genetic characteristics to an organism to increase its usefulness such as, increasing the yield of a crop species, introducing a novel characteristic, or producing a new protein or enzyme.

^ And you might think that good players will have even more of an advantage now, because they're not only good, they also have better weapons and features.
  • Halo 2 multiplayer character models... [Archive] - Xbox 360 & Xbox Forums 10 February 2010 13:11 UTC forum.teamxbox.com [Source type: General]

It would also reduce the vulnerability of certain diseases produced by pathogens, as well as decrease the risk of inbreeding that would produce infertile youths. .Genetic engineering can be performed to increase to the efficiency of the ecosystem services provided by the other organisms.^ Genetic engineering refers to a set of technologies that are being used to change the genetic makeup of cells and move genes across species boundaries to produce novel organisms.

^ Others oppose genetic engineering on the grounds that genetic modifications may have unforeseen consequences, both in the initially modified organisms, and their environments.

^ The aim is introduce new genetic characteristics to an organism to increase its usefulness such as, increasing the yield of a crop species, introducing a novel characteristic, or producing a new protein or enzyme.

[10] .For example, the modification of a tree's genes could perhaps increase the root systems of these organisms reduce the damage produced by flood phenomena through flood mitigation.^ Genetic engineering refers to a set of technologies that are being used to change the genetic makeup of cells and move genes across species boundaries to produce novel organisms.

^ The aim is introduce new genetic characteristics to an organism to increase its usefulness such as, increasing the yield of a crop species, introducing a novel characteristic, or producing a new protein or enzyme.

^ Nature can produce organisms with new gene combinations through sexual reproduction.

Opposition and criticism

See also

References

Further reading

  • British Medical Association (1999). .The Impact of Genetic Modification on Agriculture, Food and Health.^ There is debate surrounding genetic modification of plants and genetically modified food.

    ^ Some countries in Europe have taken the opposite position, stating that genetic modification has not been proven safe, and therefore that they will not accept genetically modified food from the United States or any other country.

    ^ Consequently, genetic modification within agriculture is an issue of some strong debate in the United States, the European Union, and some other countries.

    BMJ Books. ISBN 0-7279-1431-6.
     
  • Donnellan, Craig (2004). .Genetic Modification (Issues).^ Consequently, genetic modification within agriculture is an issue of some strong debate in the United States, the European Union, and some other countries.

    Independence Educational Publishers. ISBN 1-86168-288-3.
     
  • Morgan, Sally (2003). .Superfoods: Genetic Modification of Foods (Science at the Edge).^ Posted on December 04, 2003 at 07:06 AM in Biology , Food and Drink , Genetic Engineering , Medicine , Science , Technology .
    • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Genetic Engineering 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There is debate surrounding genetic modification of plants and genetically modified food.

    ^ Posted on May 21, 2004 at 03:47 PM in Biology , Environment , Food and Drink , Genetic Engineering , Religion , Science , Things I Don't Like .
    • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Genetic Engineering 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Heinemann. ISBN 1-4034-4123-5.
     
  • Smiley, Sophie (2005). Genetic Modification: Study Guide (Exploring the Issues). Independence Educational Publishers. ISBN 1-86168-307-3. 
  • Zaid, A; H.G. Hughes, E. Porceddu, F. Nicholas (2001). .Glossary of Biotechnology for Food and Agriculture - A Revised and Augmented Edition of the Glossary of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering.^ Proponents of genetic engineering argue that the technology is safe, and that it is necessary in order to maintain food production that will continue to match population growth.

    ^ Posted on December 04, 2003 at 07:06 AM in Biology , Food and Drink , Genetic Engineering , Medicine , Science , Technology .
    • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Genetic Engineering 11 January 2010 7:23 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Genetic engineering facts, genetic engineering on plants, benifits of genetic engineering, Genetic engineering + cloning, examples of genetic engineering, genetic engineering agriculture, genetic engineering in industry, history of genetic engineering in agriculture, government control genetic engineering, pictures of genetic engineering experiment gone bad..

    Available in English, French, Spanish, Arabic
    . Rome, Italy: FAO. ISBN 92-5-104683-2. http://www.fao.org/biotech/index_glossary.asp. 

External links

General
News

Simple English

Genetic engineering, or GE, is a branch of biology. It focuses on making food, animals and plants better adapted to the need of humans. It does this by tweaking genes. Some people see a problem in this.

Genetic Engineering is when scientists can duplicate and can add on genes to the animal's chromosomes to make meat more satisfying, but some people see a problem in this. Some people find that Genetic engineering is disturbing because some of the animal’s bodies may have traces of infectious diseases.

There is a risk that some genetically modified (GM) organisms may be better adapted to some niche in nature, and will take away some space of another organism. It could also be that some of the genetic modifications leak into unengineered plants. Many people do not think so, however. They feel the risks do not outweigh the benefits of GE.

Common genetic modifications are that some plants produce pesticides and fungicides themselves, or that they spoil only later on. Genetic engineering is also used to clone animals. The process of genetic engineering is a common topic of debate among scientists and scholars alike.

GM crop debate

We can now produce and use GM and GE seeds. Some large countries like India and China have already decided that GM farming is what they need to feed their populations of the future. Other countries are still debating the issue.[1] genetic engineering yr

This debate involves scientists, farmers, politicians, companies and UN agencies. Even those involved in the production of GM seedlings are not in total agreement.[1]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Rogers, Peter (2006). Introduction to Sustainable Development, pp. 87-88.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 27, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Genetic engineering, which are similar to those in the above article.








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