Genna: Wikis

  
  

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History of Japan
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Glossary

Genna (元和 ?) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, ?, lit. "year" name") after Keichō and before Kan'ei. This period spanned the years from July 1615 to February 1624.[1] The reigning emperor was Go-Mizunoo-tennō (後水尾天皇 ?).[2]

Contents

Change of era

  • 1615 Genna gannen (元和元年 ?): The era name was changed to mark the enthronement of Go-Mizunuoo and because of disasters such as the Siege of Osaka (大坂の役, Ōsaka-no-eki ?), or more commonly -- Siege of Osaka (大坂の陣, Ōsaka-no-jin ?). The old era ended and a new one commenced in Keichō 20.

The Siege of Osaka was a series of battles undertaken by the Tokugawa shogunate against the Toyotomi clan, and ending in that clan's destruction. Divided into two stages (the "Winter Campaign" and the "Summer Campaign"), and lasting from 1614 through 1615, the siege put an end to the last major armed opposition to the establishment of an enduring Tokugawa shogunate. The end of this period of fighting is also sometimes called the Genna Armistice (元和偃武, Genna-enbu ?) because the era name was changed from Keichō to Genna immediately following its ultimate resolution.

By order of Tokugawa Ieyasu, the era name of Emperor Xianzong of Tang China was adopted.

Events of the Genna era

  • 1615 (Genna 1): Tokugawa Ieyasu and his son, Shogun Hidetada, marched again to Osaka Castle, which was captured and burned; but Hideyori managed to flee to Satsuma where he had prepared a refuge in advance.[3]
  • September 1, 1615 (Genna 1, 9th day of the 7th month): Ieyasu pulled down Hōkoku-jinja.[4]
  • September 20, 1615 (Genna 1, 28th day of the 7th month): Ieyasu promulgated the Genna-rei in 17 clauses.[4]
  • June 1, 1616 (Genna 2, 17th day of the 4th month): Ieyasu died at Suruga.[3]
  • September 25, 1617 (Genna 3, 26th day of the 8th month): Former-Emperor Go-Yōzei died. He is buried at Nikkō.[3]
  • 1618 (Genna 4, 8th month): A comet appeared in the sky.[3]
  • July 5, 1620 (Genna 6, 6th day of the 6th month): The emperor was married to Tokugawa Kazuko, the daughter of Shogun Hidetada; and also in that year.[5]
  • 1620 (Genna 6): There were severe fires in Mikayo on the 30th day of the 2nd month and on the 4th day of the 3rd month.[3]
  • September 6, 1623 (Genna 9, 12th day of the 8th month): the bakufu raised the Imperial maintenance allowance by 10,000 koku.[4]
  • 1623 (Genna 9): Tokugawa Iemitsu, son of Hidetada, came to the court of the emperor where he was created Shogun.[3]

Notes

  1. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Genna" in Japan encyclopedia, p. 239; n.b., Louis-Frédéric is pseudonym of Louis-Frédéric Nussbaum, see Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Authority File.
  2. ^ Tittsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp. 410-411.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Titsingh, p. 410.
  4. ^ a b c Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1956). Kyoto: the Old Capital of Japan, 794-1869, p. 317.
  5. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, p. 317; Titsingh, p. 410.

References

External links

Genna 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th
Gregorian 1615 1616 1617 1618 1619 1620 1621 1622 1623 1624

Preceded by:
Keichō

Era or nengō:
Genna

Succeeded by:
Kan'ei


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

GENNA, a word of obscure origin borrowed from the Assamese, and used technically by anthropologists to describe a class of social and religious ordinances based on sanctions which derive their validity from a vague sense of mysterious danger which results from disobedience to them. These prohibitions - or system of things forbidden - affect the relations, permanent and temporary, of individuals (either as members of a tribe, village, clan or household, or as occupying an official position in the village or clan) towards other persons or groups of persons and towards material objects which possess intrinsic sanctity. The term is extended to the communal rites performed by the village, clan or household, either as magical ceremonies or as prophylactics on special occasions when the social, commensal, conjugal and alimentary relations of the group affected are subjected to temporary modifications. These practices and beliefs are observed among the hill tribes of Assam from the Abors and Mishmis on the north to the Lusheis on the south, all linguistically members ' See Gerald Campbell, Edward and Pamela Fitzgerald (1905).

of the Tibeto-Burman group, and among the Khasis, members of the Mon-Khmer group. Genna and taboo are products of an identical level of culture and similar psychological processes, and provide the mechanism of the social and religious systems.

Permanent Gennas

The only universal genna is that which forbids the intermarriage of members of the same clan. In some cases in Manipur animals are genna to the tribe - i.e. they must not be killed or eaten - but tribal differentiation is, in practice, based on dialectical distinctions rather than on tribal gennas. The village as such possesses no permanent gennas, but the clans, as the units of marriage under the law of exogamy, have distinct elementary gennas, especially the clan to which the priest-chief belongs. The most important individual gennas are those which protect the priest-chief from impurity or contact with "sacred" substances such as the flesh of animals used in sacrifices. He may neither eat in a strange house, nor utter words of abuse, nor take an oath in a dispute, except in his representative capacity on behalf of his village. The first-fruits are genna to the village until he eats, thus establishing an opposition between him and his co-villagers. Married and unmarried women are subject to alimentary gennas; thus unmarried girls are forbidden the flesh of any male animal or of any female animal dying gravid.

Ritual Gennas

Ritual gennas are held annually to foster the rice crops, all other industries and activities being genna (forbidden) during the cultivating season, to secure good hunting, to avert sickness, especially epidemics, to take omens, and to lay finally to rest the ghosts of all that have died within the year. The village gates are closed, men and women eat apart, and conjugal relations are suspended. Special village gennas are held when rain is needed, when a villager dies in any manner out of the ordinary, as women in childbirth, when an animal gives birth to still-born offspring, and when any permanent genna has been violated. Clan gennas are held for all ordinary cases of death. Household gennas are held on the occasions of birth (when the aliment and conduct of the father are specially regulated), naming, ear-piercing, the first hair-cutting, sickness, and, in certain areas, tattooing. Individuals are subjected to temporary gennas as warriors both before and after a head-hunting raid, pregnant women, married persons at the beginning of their married life, the wives of the priest-chief, and those who from ambition or pride of wealth seek to perpetuate their names by erecting a stone monument, an act which confers the right to wear the distinctive clothes of the priest-chief which otherwise are genna to the whole village. Ritual gennas are of varying duration. Some last for a month while others are complete in two days. As religious or magical rites, they prevent danger or establish and restore normal relations with powers which are potentially harmful or require placation.

Authorities. - Official records of the government of India, Nos. 23 (1855), 27 (1859), 68 (1870); Colonel T. H. Lewin, Hill Tracts of Chittagong; Report on the Census of Assam (1891), vol. i. Report, note by A. W. Davis, p. 237 seq.; Major P. R. T. Gurdon, The Khasis (1907); T. C. Hodson, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, vol. xxxvi. (1906). (T. C. H.)


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