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.Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, religious, or national group.^ The Cambodian genocide was unique in the twentieth century, in that its target was not a single ethnic, religious, or political group, but rather the entire educated populace.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I care because it happened to us Armenians, it is part of my past and future to come, it will be part of my children's lives, and the fact that I want the whole world to recognize the Armenian Genocide.
  • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But this genocide was, pure and simple, part of a political struggle to maintain power, as was the "ethnic cleansing" that happened later in Bosnia and Kosovo.
  • FREEDOM VIRTUALLY ENDS GENOCIDE AND MASS MURDER 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

.While a precise definition varies among genocide scholars, a legal definition is found in the 1948 United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG).^ So, it will depend on how one defines or interprets the definition of the genocide convention as encompassing the entire group or just groups in a particular regional context.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To do so would have required foreign signatories of the Genocide Convention, including the United States, to immediately get involved.
  • FREEDOM VIRTUALLY ENDS GENOCIDE AND MASS MURDER 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ With the exceptions of the rulers of the nations that lost World War II, none of the perpetrators of genocide in the 20th century have been prosecuted for crimes against humanity.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

Article 2 of this convention defines genocide as "any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life, calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; [and] forcibly transferring children of the group to another group."[1]
.The preamble to the CPPCG states that instances of genocide have taken place throughout history,[1] but it was not until Raphael Lemkin coined the term and the prosecution of perpetrators of the Holocaust at the Nuremberg trials that the United Nations agreed to the CPPCG which defined the crime of genocide under international law.^ The deterrent effect of the possibility of prosecution for crimes against humanity appears to be rather small, or at least not large enough to have prevented Stalin and Mao from perpetrating genocide not long after the war crimes trials were completed, or to have prevented later genocide in Cambodia, Uganda, Guatemala, East Timor, Kurdistan, Rwanda, and Bosnia.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As with the countries described in Lethal Laws, the gun controls were generally not instituted by the genocidal regimes; rather, the laws were in place before the murderous government took office.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If international action to interrupt genocide is not a realistic solution, is post-hoc punishment of genocide perpetrators any better?
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

.There was a gap of more than forty years between the CPPCG coming into force and the first prosecution under the provisions of the treaty.^ I'd have to say that it might be acceptable to destroy a people under those circumstances, but I have more than a little trouble believing that such a scenario could exist.
  • Daylight Atheism > Defending Genocide 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1923, General Jose Orellana, who had taken power in a coup a few years before, put into force a comprehensive gun control decree.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Sarajevo Hospital, we checked on that, and in 1993 there was something like over 3,000 abortions more than in 1992.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

.To date all international prosecutions of genocide, including those for the Rwandan Genocide and the Srebrenica Genocide, have been by ad hoc international tribunals.^ If international action to interrupt genocide is not a realistic solution, is post-hoc punishment of genocide perpetrators any better?
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The calls for some sort of international genocide tribunal for Pol Pot and his aides have not been heard for years."
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is more than four times those killed in combat in all international and national wars, including world wars I and II, Vietnam, Korea, the Mexican Revolution, the Russian Revolution, and the Chinese Civil War.
  • FREEDOM VIRTUALLY ENDS GENOCIDE AND MASS MURDER 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

[2] .The International Criminal Court came into existence in 2002 and it has the authority to try people from the states that have signed the treaty, but to date it has not tried anyone.^ On Wednesday, March 4, 2009, the International Criminal Court in The Hague issued a landmark arrest warrant for President Omar al Bashir of Sudan.

^ The mass murders of the Khmer Rouge became well-known in the international community, but no nation made an effort to try to rescue the Cambodian people.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The country’s president remains wanted by the International Criminal Court for war crimes and crimes against humanity, including murder, torture and attacks against civilian populations.

.Since the CPPCG came into effect in January 1951 about 80 member states of the United Nations have passed legislation that incorporates the provisions of the CPPCG into their municipal law, and some perpetrators of genocide have been found guilty under such municipal laws, such as Nikola Jorgic ,who was found guilty of genocide in Bosnia by a German court (Jorgic v.^ Who cares about the Armenian Genocide?
  • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The United Nations has failed to stop the current genocides in Rwanda and Bosnia.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide” — a clear, concise document adopted by the United Nations in December 1948 — states that genocide is any of five acts committed “with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group.” .
  • When Does It Become Genocide? « INTIFADA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC intifada-palestine.com [Source type: Original source]

Germany).
.Critics of the CPPCG point to the narrow definition of the groups that are protected under the treaty, particularly the lack of protection for political groups for what has been termed politicide (politicide is included as genocide under some municipal jurisdictions).^ And I think that protecting ourselves from disease is more fitting of the term "self-defense" than "genocide."
  • Daylight Atheism > Defending Genocide 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Cambodian genocide was unique in the twentieth century, in that its target was not a single ethnic, religious, or political group, but rather the entire educated populace.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These included at the stage between 1975 and 1980, the Palestinian Liberation Organization, communist parties, activist groups and secret organizations of some states.

[3] .One of the problems was that until there was a body of case law from prosecutions, the precise definition of what the treaty meant had not been tested in court, for example, what precisely does the term "in part" mean?^ Yes, precisely; but the hypothetical referred to, in context, was a stipulative example where it is the case that genocide is the only means available to prevent an even worse end.
  • Daylight Atheism > Defending Genocide 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I mean, if you wanna say that there is a god and he's good, that's one thing; but you simply can't have "good god" and "Bible true," because the Bible is full of evil, wicked shit .
  • Daylight Atheism > Defending Genocide 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was also making the ancestral home of one significant part of the population unlivable for them while they remained there, and unreturnable for them once they'd been thrown out.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

.As more perpetrators are tried under international tribunals and municipal court cases, a body of legal arguments and legal interpretations are helping to address these issues.^ On Wednesday, March 4, 2009, the International Criminal Court in The Hague issued a landmark arrest warrant for President Omar al Bashir of Sudan.

^ Upon being asked again, the World Bank tried to help, and provided more funds toward overcoming Rwanda's huge national debt.
  • FREEDOM VIRTUALLY ENDS GENOCIDE AND MASS MURDER 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Let us file a case in international court against Turkey!
  • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

.Another criticism of the CPPCG is that when its provisions have been invoked by the United Nations Security Council, they have only been invoked to punish those who have already committed genocide and been foolish enough to leave a paper trail.^ The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide” — a clear, concise document adopted by the United Nations in December 1948 — states that genocide is any of five acts committed “with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group.” .
  • When Does It Become Genocide? « INTIFADA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC intifada-palestine.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I care for those who survived only to realize they were without a parent, a sibling, or a relative.
  • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A "society" as a whole cannot be guilty of anything: only individuals can be guilty for the acts they commit.
  • Daylight Atheism > Defending Genocide 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

.It was this criticism that led to the adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 1674 by the United Nations Security Council on 28 April 2006 commits the Council to action to protect civilians in armed conflict and to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity.^ Fine introduction to war crimes and genocide.
  • Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction - Bibliography 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.genocidetext.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Crimes against Humanity (62) .
  • Dissident Voice : The Rwanda Genocide Fabrications 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Worthwhile study of genocide and crimes against humanity.
  • Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction - Bibliography 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.genocidetext.net [Source type: Academic]

.Genocide scholars such as Gregory Stanton have postulated that conditions and acts that often occur before, during, and after genocide— such as dehumanization of victim groups, strong organization of genocidal groups, and denial of genocide by its perpetrators— can be identified and actions taken to stop genocides before they happen.^ Such declarations echo at least three of the “8 stages of genocide” identified by Genocide Watch president Gregory Stanton in the 1990s after the Rwanda genocide: Classification, dehumanization, and polarization.
  • When Does It Become Genocide? « INTIFADA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC intifada-palestine.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The eighth stage of genocide Stanton identifies is denial by perpetrators “that they committed any crimes.” Ironically, Stanton headed the International Association of Genocide Scholars during the conflict, which shut down discussion of Israel’s actions despite protests by, among others, genocide scholar and author Adam Jones.
  • When Does It Become Genocide? « INTIFADA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC intifada-palestine.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What's especially bad about such apologists is that they sometimes seem like they are celebrating that genocide.
  • Daylight Atheism > Defending Genocide 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

Critics of this approach such as Dirk Moses assert that this is unrealistic and that, for example, "Darfur will end when it suits the great powers that have a stake in the region".

Contents

Coining of the term genocide

.The term "genocide" was coined by Raphael Lemkin (1900–1959), a Polish-Jewish legal scholar, in 1944, firstly from the Latin "gens, gentis," meaning "birth, race, stock, kind" or the Greek root génos (γένος) (same meaning); secondly from Latin -cidium (cutting, killing) via French -cide.^ Before describing the Great Genocide, it should be noted that with regard to various totals I will present, such as of 100,000 or 200,000 murdered, the meaning in terms of human beings killed is hard to grasp.
  • FREEDOM VIRTUALLY ENDS GENOCIDE AND MASS MURDER 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Educational programs may play an important long-term role in reducing the kinds of hatred that pave the way for genocide.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Armenian genocide is the proper term for the mass killings of Muslims by Armenian Vampires (such as Tashnak and Hinchak Bandits) throughout Ottoman land.

[4][5]
.In 1933, Lemkin prepared an essay entitled the Crime of Barbarity in which genocide was portrayed as a crime against international law.^ Worthwhile study of genocide and crimes against humanity.
  • Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction - Bibliography 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.genocidetext.net [Source type: Academic]

^ With the exceptions of the rulers of the nations that lost World War II, none of the perpetrators of genocide in the 20th century have been prosecuted for crimes against humanity.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Moderately helpful study, focusing on four recent trials related to genocide and crimes against humanity.
  • Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction - Bibliography 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.genocidetext.net [Source type: Academic]

.The concept of the crime, which later evolved into the idea of genocide, originated with the experience of the Assyrians[6] massacred in Iraq on 11 August 1933. To Lemkin, the event in Iraq evoked "memories of the slaughter of Armenians" during World War I.^ Victims of the 1915 Armenian Genocide, as well as victims of countless other genocides across the world, you are in our thoughts and prayers...don't worry, you have not been forgotten.
  • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1914, when World War I began in earnest, Armenians living in what is now Turkey attempted to set up a national state.

^ There is always a punishment for any kind of crime, not really matters in what kind of form, and today WORLD still pays the price of ignorance of Armenian Genocide by facing terrorism, wars, and possible future genocides or holocausts – because “Who remembers the Armenian Genocide???”.
  • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

[6] .He presented his first proposal to outlaw such "acts of barbarism" to the Legal Council of the League of Nations in Madrid the same year.^ In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: .
  • Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www2.ohchr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ [A]ny of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: .
  • Gaza Siege: Genocide in the Making 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.arabnews.com [Source type: News]

^ Such acts are committed against members of a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, and; .
  • CNN.com - Powell�calls Sudan killings genocide - Sep 9, 2004 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: News]

.The proposal failed, and his work incurred the disapproval of the Polish government, which was at the time pursuing a policy of conciliation with Nazi Germany.^ The governments of countries opposed to Germany sent a text of condemnation to the Sublime Door, referring for the first time in history to crimes against humanity.
  • Armenia commemorates the 90th anniversary of the genocide - CAUCAZ.COM 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.caucaz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nor did the legislators in Germany's Weimar Republic intend for their "moderate" gun control laws to be used later by the Nazi government to disarm all opponents of the dictatorship.

^ As for the larger society, even if some elements in the white population, mainly in the West, at times advocated extermination, no official of the U.S. government ever seriously proposed it.
  • Were American Indians the Victims of Genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hnn.us [Source type: Original source]

[6]
.In 1944, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace published Lemkin's most important work, entitled Axis Rule in Occupied Europe, in the United States.^ Perhaps the most enduring of the works published for the Columbus quincentenary.
  • Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction - Bibliography 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.genocidetext.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Seeking Empathy — A One Month Refugee Diet Posted by Gabriel on November 2nd, 2008 For most in the United States, November is a month to give thanks.

^ Sarah B. Sewall and Carl Kaysen, eds., The United States and the International Criminal Court: National Security and International Law .
  • Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction - Bibliography 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.genocidetext.net [Source type: Academic]

.This book included an extensive legal analysis of German rule in countries occupied by Nazi Germany during the course of World War II, along with the definition of the term genocide.^ In the definition of genocide, the term "as such" is important.
  • Genocide:Meaning and Definition 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ World Response to the war and Genocide in the Sudan .
  • War and Genocide in Sudan 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.iabolish.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We remember what happened during World War II, a genocide of an ethnic people.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

[7] Lemkin's idea of genocide as an offense against international law was widely accepted by the international community and was one of the legal bases of the Nuremberg Trials (the indictment of the 24 Nazi leaders specifies in Count 3 that the defendants "conducted deliberate and systematic genocide—namely, the extermination of racial and national groups..."[8]) .Lemkin presented a draft resolution for a Genocide Convention treaty to a number of countries in an effort to persuade them to sponsor the resolution.^ Here is how Raphael Lemkin, the Polish-Jewish legal scholar who pushed for the genocide convention, defined it in 1943: .
  • Nadia Hijab: When Does It Become Genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On December 9, 1948 the United Nations General Assembly, in light of the events of World War II and Lemkin’s research, adopted the United Nations Genocide Convention (UNGC).
  • genocide Articles, Posts, Blogs, Videos - Technorati 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC technorati.com [Source type: General]

^ Also, as the resolution levels the crime of genocide, by international treaty the United States acknowledges the sole jurisdiction to hear such allegations of the International Court of Justice at the Hague.
  • Schiff Slams Turkish Lobby Genocide Denial | Asbarez Armenian News 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.asbarez.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With the support of the United States, the resolution was placed before the General Assembly for consideration.^ On December 9, 1948 the United Nations General Assembly, in light of the events of World War II and Lemkin’s research, adopted the United Nations Genocide Convention (UNGC).
  • genocide Articles, Posts, Blogs, Videos - Technorati 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC technorati.com [Source type: General]

^ He made his comments as the U.N. Security Council prepared to meet on the matter and study a new draft resolution being circulated by the United States.
  • CNN.com - Powell�calls Sudan killings genocide - Sep 9, 2004 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ However, thanks to the powerful Armenian lobbies in the United States, congressmen face very little consequences because of the large Armenian-American population in the United States supporting them.

Defining genocide in 1943, Lemkin wrote:
.Generally speaking, genocide does not necessarily mean the immediate destruction of a nation, except when accomplished by mass killings of all members of a nation.^ We can all trace back relatives and family members back to the genocide and even if we didn't have an actual family member killed, our next door neighbor which is Armenian is as good as a relative, a brother or a sister.
  • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The victims of the Japanese mass murders were not Japanese, but citizens of other Asian nations, and the details of gun laws in those nations in the 1930s and 1940s are generally sketchy (except in China).
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You are told that within fifty years, a nation in the world will kill over six million members of a religious minority.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is intended rather to signify a coordinated plan of different actions aiming at the destruction of essential foundations of the life of national groups, with the aim of annihilating the groups themselves.^ It is intended rather to signify a coordinated plan of different actions aiming at the destruction of essential foundations of the life of national groups, with the aim of annihilating the groups themselves.
  • When Does It Become Genocide? « INTIFADA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC intifada-palestine.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Under Lemkin's definition, genocide was the coordinated and planned annihilation of a national, religious, or racial group by a variety of actions aimed at undermining the foundations essential to the survival of the group as a group.
  • Dead Indians, Live Indians, etc... 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The United Nations Convention on Genocide, adopted by the U.N. in 1948 lists this as one of the acts which qualify: "deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its destruction in whole or part."

.The objectives of such a plan would be the disintegration of the political and social institutions, of culture, language, national feelings, religion, and the economic existence of national groups, and the destruction of the personal security, liberty, health, dignity, and even the lives of the individuals belonging to such groups.^ That kind of plan would target “political and social institutions, culture, language, economic existence, as well as the personal security, freedom health, dignity, even lives of individuals that belong to those groups”.
  • Bosnia's “Accidental” Genocide 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.iwpr.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Genocide - the deliberate and systematic destruction of a racial, political, or cultural group.

^ The objectives of such a plan would be the disintegration of the political and social institutions, of culture, language, national feelings, religion, and the economic existence of national groups, and the destruction of the personal security, liberty, health, dignity, and even the lives of the individuals belonging to such groups.” .
  • When Does It Become Genocide? « INTIFADA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC intifada-palestine.com [Source type: Original source]

[9]

Genocide as a crime

Under international law

.In the wake of the Holocaust, Lemkin successfully campaigned for the universal acceptance of international laws defining and forbidding genocide.^ These are obvious examples that Sudan is a state sponsor of international terrorism, as defined by U.S. law.

^ William A. Schabas, Genocide in International Law: The Crime of Crimes .
  • Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction - Bibliography 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.genocidetext.net [Source type: Academic]

^ William L. Hewitt, ed., Defining the Horrific: Readings on Genocide and Holocaust in the Twentieth Century .
  • Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction - Bibliography 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.genocidetext.net [Source type: Academic]

.In 1946, the first session of the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution that "affirmed" that genocide was a crime under international law, but did not provide a legal definition of the crime.^ The "crime bill" enacted by the United States Congress in August 1994 provides for the death penalty for offenders as young as thirteen-years-old.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With the exceptions of the rulers of the nations that lost World War II, none of the perpetrators of genocide in the 20th century have been prosecuted for crimes against humanity.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All this raises very serious questions as to how sincere the international effort is, including the United Nations, to get to the truth in this matter.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1948, the UN General Assembly adopted the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide which legally defined the crime of genocide for the first time.^ In 1948, when the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted, I think many of us thought that we would not have to be here today to examine and report on our generation's failure to stop ethnic cleansing.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So, it will depend on how one defines or interprets the definition of the genocide convention as encompassing the entire group or just groups in a particular regional context.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If the Armenian genocide had been remembered before, perhaps the Jewish holocaust would have never taken place and the culprits could have been punished in due time.
  • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

The CPPCG was adopted by the UN General Assembly on 9 December 1948 and came into effect on 12 January 1951 (Resolution 260 (III)). .It contains an internationally-recognized definition of genocide which was incorporated into the national criminal legislation of many countries, and was also adopted by the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, the treaty that established the International Criminal Court (ICC).^ The first Genocide of the 20th century is still not recognized by many countries.
  • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

^ She nonetheless leaves behind her many victims of injustice, who she painstakingly accused, using false testimony, before the International Criminal Tribunal Court for Rwanda (ICTR).” .
  • Dissident Voice : The Rwanda Genocide Fabrications 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Many hate the fact that people do not recognize a great tragedy, and I believe that people hate the fact that the world that does not recognize that the Armenian Genocide happened.
  • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

The Convention (in article 2) defines genocide:
...any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:
(a) Killing members of the group;
(b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
(c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
(d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
(e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.

Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, Article II

.The first draft of the Convention included political killings, but the USSR[10] along with some other nations would not accept that actions against groups identified as holding similar political opinions or social status would constitute genocide,[11] so these stipulations were subsequently removed in a political and diplomatic compromise.^ Not once in this century has one nation or a coalition of nations launched a military action to stop a genocide in progress.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Commission's intent is to focus on the extent to which ethnic cleansing, the destruction of cultural sites, and associated war crimes and crimes against humanity constitute genocide in Bosnia and other parts of the former Yugoslavia.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The question of genocide is a little more complicated because of the way the convention is drafted in terms of requiring a specific intent in the way it was carried out, and as to whether or not the convention is to be interpreted as encompassing an entire group.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

The Convention was manifestly adopted for humanitarian and civilizing purposes. .Its objectives are to safeguard the very existence of certain human groups and to affirm and emphasize the most elementary principles of humanity and morality.^ The existence of modern day human bondage in the Sudan has been investigated and confirmed beyond any reasonable doubt by very credible human rights groups and individuals, academics, journalists, political and religious leaders.
  • War and Genocide in Sudan 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.iabolish.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Opponents of regimes had to die because their very existence was "objectively" reinforcing the strength of the opposing modes of organization, and preventing the achievement of universal prosperity and utopia.

^ Apart from isolated efforts by human rights groups, individuals, churches and some religious and political leaders, the silence on the of the international community has been very stunning.
  • War and Genocide in Sudan 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.iabolish.org [Source type: Original source]

.In view of the rights involved, the legal obligations to refrain from genocide are recognized as erga omnes.^ That means the fullest possible financial as well as moral support of the international legal process, and in that context I'd like to point out that it's not only the genocide convention that's involved.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]


.When the Convention was drafted, it was already envisaged that it would apply not only to then existing forms of genocide, but also "to any method that might be evolved in the future with a view to destroying the physical existence of a group".[12] As emphasized in the preamble to the Convention, genocide has marred all periods of history, and it is this very tragic recognition that gives the concept its historical evolutionary nature.^ The question of genocide is a little more complicated because of the way the convention is drafted in terms of requiring a specific intent in the way it was carried out, and as to whether or not the convention is to be interpreted as encompassing an entire group.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So, it will depend on how one defines or interprets the definition of the genocide convention as encompassing the entire group or just groups in a particular regional context.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And, if God has that perfect foreknowledge, he shouldn't have waited to use it after the people had already existed, he should have knocked them off when there were only one or two of them.
  • Daylight Atheism > Defending Genocide 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]


.The Convention must be interpreted in good faith, in accordance with the ordinary meaning of its terms, in their context, and in the light of its object and purpose.^ So, it will depend on how one defines or interprets the definition of the genocide convention as encompassing the entire group or just groups in a particular regional context.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The crucial role played by intentionality in the Genocide Convention means that under its terms the huge number of Indian deaths from epidemics cannot be considered genocide.
  • Were American Indians the Victims of Genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hnn.us [Source type: Original source]

^ We at the Commission took a more progressive look at it and said that genocide should be interpreted not in light of an entire group, as was the interpretation that followed the Holocaust because that was the pattern that was taken by the Nazis, but rather to look at it in terms of more specific contexts.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

.Moreover, the text of the Convention should be interpreted in such a way that a reason and a meaning can be attributed to every word.^ In the end, instead of a list of such motives, the issue was resolved by adding the words "as such"i.e., the motive or reason for the destruction must be the ending of the group as a national, ethnic, racial, or religious entity.
  • Were American Indians the Victims of Genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hnn.us [Source type: Original source]

^ In a word, the famine has reached such dimensions and such insignificant relief is given, that the starving population loses every hope and dies."
  • InfoUkes: Ukrainian History -- The Last Stand of the Ukrainian Famine-Genocide Deniers 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.infoukes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group as such: .
  • Palestine Should Sue Israel for Genocide (by Francis Boyle) - Media Monitors Network 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.mediamonitors.net [Source type: Original source]

.No word or provision may be disregarded or treated as superfluous, unless this is absolutely necessary to give effect to the terms read as a whole.^ The "in whole or in part" means that there is no lower limit to the number of people on which these acts may be committed.
  • Genocide:Meaning and Definition 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, we have no way of knowing how many may have read all or part of these texts.
  • Jacobs: The Outrageous Claim of Christopher Jon Bjerkness: The Jewish Genocide of Armenian Christians | Armenian Weekly 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.armenianweekly.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No images on the site or in articles may be re-used without permission unless specifically licensed under Creative Commons.
  • A century of genocide, 1915-2009 | openDemocracy 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

[13]
.Genocide is a crime under international law regardless of "whether committed in time of peace or in time of war" (art.^ Fine introduction to war crimes and genocide.
  • Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction - Bibliography 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.genocidetext.net [Source type: Academic]

^ This is a war crime and genocide against chinese.

^ Continues Below ↓ In documents, he calls on the court to charge and find Achmat "guilty of genocide - the most serious crimes of concern to the international community as a whole".
  • News - South Africa: Genocide charge laid against TAC head 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.iol.co.za [Source type: News]

I). .Thus, irrespective of the context in which it occurs (for example, peace time, internal strife, international armed conflict or whatever the general overall situation) genocide is a punishable international crime.^ Convention on the prevention and punishment of the crime of genocide .
  • Part 1: Hate media in Rwanda• Call to genocide: radio in Rwanda, 1994: International Development Research Centre 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That's why the International community needs to find a way to expand the brief of the International Criminal Court (ICC) in the Hague to cover crimes dating back to the 1990s when Central Africa was tossed into a series of genocidal conflicts.
  • Rwanda Genocide: Long Arms Of Law 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC blackstarnews.com [Source type: General]

^ The Court thus finds that it has jurisdiction in this case to give effect to the Genocide Convention with regard to the relevant facts which have occurred since the beginning of the conflict which took place in Bosnia-Herzegovina.
  • Palestine Should Sue Israel for Genocide (by Francis Boyle) - Media Monitors Network 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.mediamonitors.net [Source type: Original source]

.

UN Commission of Experts that examined violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia.^ The Security Council established in 1992 a commission of experts to investigate the violations of international humanitarian law in the former Yugoslavia.

  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1993, he was appointed Chairman of the United Nations Commission of Experts to Investigate Violations in the Former Yugoslavia, and between 1992 and 1993 he was the Commission's Special Rapporteur on Gathering and Analysis of the Facts.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Commission has worked with two successive Administrations to ensure the creation of the International War Crimes Tribunal, which recently issued indictments against some of those responsible, primarily at the lower levels, for the genocide in the former Yugoslavia.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

[14]

Intent to destroy

.In 2007 the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), noted in its judgement on Jorgic v.^ Amnesty International, Guatemala: The Human Rights Record 150-51 (1987), reprinted in Simkin et al., supra note 2, at 234.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

.Germany
case that in 1992 the majority of legal scholars took the narrow view that "intent to destroy" in the CPPCG meant the intended physical-biological destruction of the protected group and that this was still the majority opinion.^ Also, the definition focuses on the physical destruction of the group.
  • There is NO Statutes of Limitations on the Crimes of Genocide! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Steven T. Katz: "the concept of genocide applies only when there is an actualized intent, however successfully carried out, to physically destroy an entire group (as such a group is defined by the perpetrators)" (The Holocaust in Historical Perspective, Vol.
  • There is NO Statutes of Limitations on the Crimes of Genocide! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Helen Fein: "Genocide is sustained purposeful action by a perpetrator to physically destroy a collectivity directly or indirectly, through interdiction of the biological and social reproduction of group members, sustained regardless of the surrender or lack of threat offered by the victim".
  • There is NO Statutes of Limitations on the Crimes of Genocide! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But the ECHR also noted that a minority took a broader view and did not consider biological-physical destruction was necessary as the intent to destroy a national, racial, religious or ethnical group was enough to qualify as genocide.^ United Nations Definition of Genocide T he 1949 United Nations Convention on Genocide defines genocide as "acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group."

^ According to the Genocide Convention, genocide can be against a national, ethnical, racial or religious group.
  • Genocide 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hrea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Genocide - the deliberate and systematic destruction of a racial, political, or cultural group.

[15]
.In the same judgement the ECHR reviewed the judgements of several international and municipal courts judgements.^ To the same effect is Article 41 of the Rules of Procedure of the International Court of Justice: .
  • Palestine Should Sue Israel for Genocide (by Francis Boyle) - Media Monitors Network 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.mediamonitors.net [Source type: Original source]

.It noted that International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and the International Court of Justice had agreed with the narrow interpretation, that biological-physical destruction was necessary for an act to qualify as genocide.^ The media reports of the December 18 judgment [Military I] at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda focused primarily on the convictions of three of four former top military leaders, who were the supposed ‘masterminds’ of the Rwandan genocide,” wrote ICTR defense lawyer Peter Erlinder.
  • Dissident Voice : The Rwanda Genocide Fabrications 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Commission's intent is to focus on the extent to which ethnic cleansing, the destruction of cultural sites, and associated war crimes and crimes against humanity constitute genocide in Bosnia and other parts of the former Yugoslavia.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On Wednesday, March 4, 2009, the International Criminal Court in The Hague issued a landmark arrest warrant for President Omar al Bashir of Sudan.

The ECHR also noted that at the time of its the judgement, apart from courts in Germany which had taken a broad view, that there had been few cases of genocide under other Convention States municipal laws and that "There are no reported cases in which the courts of these States have defined the type of group destruction the perpetrator must have intended in order to be found guilty of genocide".[16]

In part

.The phrase "in whole or in part" has been subject to much discussion by scholars of international humanitarian law.^ Study guide "International Humanitarian Law" .
  • Genocide 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hrea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The other tribunal is The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), which was established in 1993 with regard to serious violations of humanitarian law.
  • Genocide:Meaning and Definition 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Security Council established in 1992 a commission of experts to investigate the violations of international humanitarian law in the former Yugoslavia.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

[17] .The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia found in Prosecutor v.^ The Security Council established in 1992 a commission of experts to investigate the violations of international humanitarian law in the former Yugoslavia.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On December 18, 2008, after the protracted ‘Military I’ trial, the judges at the International Criminal Tribunal on Rwanda ruled that there was no conspiracy to commit genocide by former Rwandan military leaders affiliated with the former Habyarimana government.
  • Dissident Voice : The Rwanda Genocide Fabrications 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Commission has worked with two successive Administrations to ensure the creation of the International War Crimes Tribunal, which recently issued indictments against some of those responsible, primarily at the lower levels, for the genocide in the former Yugoslavia.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

.Radislav Krstic - Trial Chamber I - Judgment - IT-98-33 (2001) ICTY8 (2 August 2001)
[18] that Genocide had been committed.^ On December 18, 2008, after the protracted ‘Military I’ trial, the judges at the International Criminal Tribunal on Rwanda ruled that there was no conspiracy to commit genocide by former Rwandan military leaders affiliated with the former Habyarimana government.
  • Dissident Voice : The Rwanda Genocide Fabrications 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

In Prosecutor v. .Radislav Krstic - Appeals Chamber - Judgment - IT-98-33 (2004) ICTY 7 (19 April 2004)[19] paragraphs 8, 9, 10, and 11 addressed the issue of in part and found that "the part must be a substantial part of that group.^ If you are part of a group or community, please consider forwarding this note or the short paragraph at the bottom of this email.

^ ACTzine i-ACT 1: Nov 21 - Dec 10, 2005 i-ACT 2: Dec 21, 2006 - Jan 4, 2007 i-ACT 3: July 10 - 20, 2007 i-ACT 4: Jan 19 - 28, 2008 i-ACT 5: June 10 - 22, 2008 i-ACT 6: August 1 - 11, 2008 i-ACT 7: March 31 - April 1, 2009 i-ACT 8: June 15 - 24, 2009 .

.The aim of the Genocide Convention is to prevent the intentional destruction of entire human groups, and the part targeted must be significant enough to have an impact on the group as a whole."^ Convention on the prevention and punishment of the crime of genocide .
  • Part 1: Hate media in Rwanda• Call to genocide: radio in Rwanda, 1994: International Development Research Centre 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The intention or motivation would be the destruction of members of the targeted group.
  • NOW Magazine // News // Israel’s party mixer 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.nowtoronto.com [Source type: General]

^ We had come to this corner of Poland as part of a weeklong seminar on preventing genocide, which included such outings so that the participants could learn more about the details of the Holocaust.
  • Genocide Watch Home Page 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC genocidewatch.org [Source type: News]

.The Appeals Chamber goes into details of other cases and the opinions of respected commentators on the Genocide Convention to explain how they came to this conclusion.^ Here is how Raphael Lemkin, the Polish-Jewish legal scholar who pushed for the genocide convention, defined it in 1943: .
  • Nadia Hijab: When Does It Become Genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand, the 1948 Convention is precise in what constitutes intent, and legal work needs to be done if that is to be broadened to include genocidal outcomes as a secondary impact of other aims.
  • Review of Gerard Prunier, Darfur: The Ambiguous Genocide, Hurst and Co. 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC conconflicts.ssrc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We were all thrown into the pit and for several days soldiers came and threw boiling water at us whenever they felt like having a little fun because whenever that happened all of us tried to get under each other for cover.

.The judges continue in paragraph 12, "The determination of when the targeted part is substantial enough to meet this requirement may involve a number of considerations.^ These were in large part and certainly appeared on the surface to be attempts to guide and shift the economy in order to meet the requirements that some ideology claimed were necessary.

^ The "in whole or in part" means that there is no lower limit to the number of people on which these acts may be committed.
  • Genocide:Meaning and Definition 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The numeric size of the targeted part of the group is the necessary and important starting point, though not in all cases the ending point of the inquiry.^ In France, all genocide cases have been brought by non-governmental groups or individual claimants - never by state prosecutors themselves, said Bourdon.
  • As Rwanda genocide docket grows in France, ministers aim to create war crimes Paris court unit - Winnipeg Free Press 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.winnipegfreepress.com [Source type: News]

^ I've lost all my patience with him, documented numerous cases of him lying, quote mining, etc.
  • Daylight Atheism > Defending Genocide 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Fresh deportation outrages were starting in all parts of Asia Minor, and Dr. Ward considered that if action was not taken soon the problem would be solved by the disappearance of minorities.
  • Christian Genocide 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.agiasofia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The number of individuals targeted should be evaluated not only in absolute terms, but also in relation to the overall size of the entire group.^ Religious and civil society groups in Kenya should vigorously oppose the violence and protect people who are targeted because of their ethnic identity.

^ The Cambodian genocide was unique in the twentieth century, in that its target was not a single ethnic, religious, or political group, but rather the entire educated populace.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We at the Commission took a more progressive look at it and said that genocide should be interpreted not in light of an entire group, as was the interpretation that followed the Holocaust because that was the pattern that was taken by the Nazis, but rather to look at it in terms of more specific contexts.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

In addition to the numeric size of the targeted portion, its prominence within the group can be a useful consideration. .If a specific part of the group is emblematic of the overall group, or is essential to its survival, that may support a finding that the part qualifies as substantial within the meaning of Article 4 [of the Tribunal's Statute]."^ Even as it outlaws the destruction of a group "in whole or in part," the convention does not address the question of what percentage of a group must be affected in order to qualify as genocide.
  • Were American Indians the Victims of Genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hnn.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Generally speaking the policy of attacking, killing and forcibly displacing members of some tribes does not evince a specific intent to annihilate, in whole or in part, a group .
  • Review of Gerard Prunier, Darfur: The Ambiguous Genocide, Hurst and Co. 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC conconflicts.ssrc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The "in whole or in part" means that there is no lower limit to the number of people on which these acts may be committed.
  • Genocide:Meaning and Definition 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

[20][21]
.In paragraph 13 the judges raise the issue of the perpetrators' access to the victims: "The historical examples of genocide also suggest that the area of the perpetrators’ activity and control, as well as the possible extent of their reach, should be considered.^ According to the summary of the judgement, read by Presiding Judge Alphons Orie on September 27, genocide did take place in Bosnia - however, it was not possible to prove the intent of the perpetrators.
  • Bosnia's “Accidental” Genocide 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.iwpr.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Students will read "Genocide", answer questions following the readings and discuss the issues raised.

^ Victims of the 1915 Armenian Genocide, as well as victims of countless other genocides across the world, you are in our thoughts and prayers...don't worry, you have not been forgotten.
  • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

... .The intent to destroy formed by a perpetrator of genocide will always be limited by the opportunity presented to him.^ Steven T. Katz: "the concept of genocide applies only when there is an actualized intent, however successfully carried out, to physically destroy an entire group (as such a group is defined by the perpetrators)" (The Holocaust in Historical Perspective, Vol.
  • There is NO Statutes of Limitations on the Crimes of Genocide! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Chamber finds that in spite of evidence of acts perpetrated in the municipalities which constituted the actus reus of genocide, the chamber has not received sufficient evidence to establish whether the perpetrators had genocidal intent, that is the intent to destroy, the Bosnian-Muslim or Bosnian-Croat ethnic group, as such,” says the summary.
  • Bosnia's “Accidental” Genocide 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.iwpr.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United Nations Definition of Genocide T he 1949 United Nations Convention on Genocide defines genocide as "acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group."

While this factor alone will not indicate whether the targeted group is substantial, it can - in combination with other factors - inform the analysis."[19]

CPPCG coming into force

.After the minimum 20 countries became parties to the Convention, it came into force as international law on 12 January 1951. At that time however, only two of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council (UNSC) were parties to the treaty: France and the Republic of China.^ As of January 20, 2009 the U.S. Department of Homeland Security began reopening all cases of Rwandan asylum seekers, and is criminalizing and threatening to deport legitimate refugees to Rwanda, actions that violate the 1951 United Nations High Commission for Refugees Convention and Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees.
  • Dissident Voice : The Rwanda Genocide Fabrications 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ How can an international commission be taken seriously when its members spent only two weeks extracting verbal and written evidence on human rights violations for a period of two years?” the authors wrote.
  • Dissident Voice : The Rwanda Genocide Fabrications 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On this trip I will be with Gabriel and two team members, Eric and Ian, who will be experiencing i-ACT and the strong embrace of this population for the first time.

.Eventually the Soviet Union ratified in 1954, the United Kingdom in 1970, the People's Republic of China in 1983 (having replaced the Taiwan-based Republic of China on the UNSC in 1971), and the United States in 1988. This long delay in support for the Genocide Convention by the world's most powerful nations caused the Convention to languish for over four decades.^ We believe the root cause is the oppression and marginalization of the majority of the people by the minority NCP party, which is intent on remaining in power by any means.

^ Jews which were in every city to gather themselves together, and to stand for their life, to destroy and slay, and to cause to perish, all the power of the people and provinces that would assault them .
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of the Third World continues to be ruled by the same kinds of tyrants who have perpetrated the Third World genocides of the last several decades.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

.Only in the 1990s did the international law on the crime of genocide begin to be enforced.^ Only then did other oppressions begin.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Once the acts of genocide come under control, and accountability for the crimes is being enforced, the processes of peacebuilding , reconciliation , and healing must begin.

^ During the genocide, the work of the killers was not regarded as a crime in Rwanda; it was effectively the law of the land .
  • The Harvard Law Record - Release of Rwanda's mastermind of death promotes genocide denial 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hlrecord.org [Source type: Original source]

Security Council responsibility to protect

.UN Security Council Resolution 1674, adopted by the United Nations Security Council on 28 April 2006, "reaffirms the provisions of paragraphs 138 and 139 of the 2005 World Summit Outcome Document regarding the responsibility to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity".[22] The resolution commits the Council to action to protect civilians in armed conflict.^ Fine introduction to war crimes and genocide.
  • Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction - Bibliography 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.genocidetext.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Crimes against Humanity (62) .
  • Dissident Voice : The Rwanda Genocide Fabrications 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Worthwhile study of genocide and crimes against humanity.
  • Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction - Bibliography 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.genocidetext.net [Source type: Academic]

Under municipal law

.Since the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) came into effect in January 1951 about 80 member states of the United Nations have passed legislation that incorporates the provisions of the CPPCG into their municipal law.^ As of January 20, 2009 the U.S. Department of Homeland Security began reopening all cases of Rwandan asylum seekers, and is criminalizing and threatening to deport legitimate refugees to Rwanda, actions that violate the 1951 United Nations High Commission for Refugees Convention and Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees.
  • Dissident Voice : The Rwanda Genocide Fabrications 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the twentieth century, the United States government forced 100,000 United States citizens into concentration camps.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One reason that the genocide has attracted little attention may be that the Guatemalan government has been friendly to the United States.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

Criticisms of the CPPCG and other definitions of genocide

.William Schabas has suggested that a permanent body as recommended by the Whitaker Report to monitor the implementation of the Genocide Convention, and require States to issue reports on their compliance with the convention (such as were incorporated into the United Nations Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture), would make the convention more effective.^ In the twentieth century, the United States government forced 100,000 United States citizens into concentration camps.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Working closely with regular army units, the Einsatzgruppen would move swiftly into newly-conquered areas, to prevent Jews from fleeing.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The question of genocide is a little more complicated because of the way the convention is drafted in terms of requiring a specific intent in the way it was carried out, and as to whether or not the convention is to be interpreted as encompassing an entire group.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

[23]
.Writing in 1998 Kurt Jonassohn and Karin Björnson stated that the CPPCG was a legal instrument resulting from a diplomatic compromise.^ Kurt Jonassohn with Karin Solveig Bjrnson, Genocide and Gross Human Rights Violations in Comparative Perspective .
  • Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction - Bibliography 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.genocidetext.net [Source type: Academic]

.As such the wording of the treaty is not intended to be a definition suitable as a research tool, and although it is used for this purpose, as it has an international legal credibility that others lack, other definitions have also been postulated.^ I don’t usually use such language, but sometimes the word is also descriptive.
  • Dissident Voice : The Rwanda Genocide Fabrications 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

Jonassohn and Björnson go on to say that none of these alternative definitions have gained widespread support for various reasons.[24]
.Jonassohn and Björnson postulate that the major reason why no single generally accepted genocide definition has emerged is because academics have adjusted their focus to emphasise different periods and have found it expedient to use slightly different definitions to help them interpret events.^ I always hurt inside when I think of the genocide, why no one recognizes it by us Armenians, it's really puzzling isn't it?
  • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So, it will depend on how one defines or interprets the definition of the genocide convention as encompassing the entire group or just groups in a particular regional context.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I care about the Armenian Genocide because it is a very important and tragic event that has occured in the history of my culture.
  • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

.For example Frank Chalk and Kurt Jonassohn studied the whole of human history, while Leo Kuper and R. J. Rummel in their more recent works concentrated on the 20th century, and Helen Fein, Barbara Harff and Ted Gurr have looked at post World War II events.^ History, memory, and memorialization in post-World War One Europe.
  • Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction - Bibliography 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.genocidetext.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The hatreds then are rather new, not the result of ancient history, but the creation of 20th century ideologies.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Moderately helpful study, focusing on four recent trials related to genocide and crimes against humanity.
  • Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction - Bibliography 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.genocidetext.net [Source type: Academic]

.Jonassohn and Björnson are critical of some of these studies arguing that they are too expansive and concludes that the academic discipline of genocide studies is too young to have a canon of work on which to build an academic paradigm.^ Now, these do not qualify, I think, as examples of genocide per se, but they seem to be right on the edge of major war crimes.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

[24]
The exclusion of social and political groups as targets of genocide in the CPPCG legal definition has been criticized by some historians and sociologists, for example M. Hassan Kakar in his book The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982[25] argues that the international definition of genocide is too restricted,[26] and that it should include political groups or any group so defined by the perpetrator and quotes Chalk and Jonassohn: "Genocide is a form of one-sided mass killing in which a state or other authority intends to destroy a group, as that group and membership in it are defined by the perpetrator."[27] While there are various definitions of the term, Adam Jones states that the majority of genocide scholars consider that "intent to destroy" is a requirement for any act to be labelled genocide, and that there is growing agreement on the inclusion of the physical destruction criterion.[28]
.Barbara Harff and Ted Gurr defined genocide as "the promotion and execution of policies by a state or its agents which result in the deaths of a substantial portion of a group ...[when] the victimized groups are defined primarily in terms of their communal characteristics, i.e., ethnicity, religion or nationality."^ In genocides the victimized groups are defined primarily in terms of their communal characteristics, i.e., ethnicity, religion or nationality.
  • There is NO Statutes of Limitations on the Crimes of Genocide! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Barbara Harff and Ted R. Gurr: "By our definition, genocides and politicides are the promotion and execution of policies by a state or its agents which result in the deaths of a substantial portion of a group.
  • There is NO Statutes of Limitations on the Crimes of Genocide! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Genocide was never American policy, nor was it the result of policy.
  • Were American Indians the Victims of Genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hnn.us [Source type: Original source]

[29] Harff and Gurr also differentiate between genocides and politicides by the characteristics by which members of a group are identified by the state. .In genocides, the victimized groups are defined primarily in terms of their communal characteristics, i.e., ethnicity, religion or nationality.^ United Nations Definition of Genocide T he 1949 United Nations Convention on Genocide defines genocide as "acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group."

^ The term "Rwandan genocide," Kimenyi said, is used by some writers not to signify the murder of the Tutsis "but to suggest apparently that the two groups were killing each other."
  • The People Who Cover Up Genocide, UCLA International Institute 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.international.ucla.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ So, it will depend on how one defines or interprets the definition of the genocide convention as encompassing the entire group or just groups in a particular regional context.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

.In politicides the victim groups are defined primarily in terms of their hierarchical position or political opposition to the regime and dominant groups.^ Hint: refer to the definitions of genocide in Spanish and Ethiopian law which are broader and define genocide as the intent to exterminate political and not just ethnic groups.
  • Genocide 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hrea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The military support offered to the Habyarimana regime by France and other countries helped the regime to rebuild its strength at a moment when domestic opposition had seriously weakened its position.
  • Church&Genocide.html 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC faculty.vassar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The groups were distinguished primarily by their position within the political and economic system, which assigned members of each group specific economic activities and social roles.
  • Church&Genocide.html 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC faculty.vassar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30][31] Daniel D. Polsby and Don B. Kates, Jr. state that "... we follow Harff's distinction between genocides and 'pogroms,' which she describes as 'short-lived outbursts by mobs, which, although often condoned by authorities, rarely persist.' .If the violence persists for long enough, however, Harff argues, the distinction between condonation and complicity collapses."^ The distinction between supposedly benign "sporting" weapons (supposedly used for killing animals) and other weapons (which might be used for killing government troops) is not, however, original to Nazi law.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

[32]
.According to R. J. Rummel, genocide has 3 different meanings.^ None of such murders are genocide according the legal and common meanings.
  • Genocide:Meaning and Definition 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Just because the Armenian Genocide was different than the Holocaust doesnt mean it didnt exist.

.The ordinary meaning is murder by government of people due to their national, ethnic, racial, or religious group membership.^ The systematic and widespread extermination or attempted extermination of an entire national, racial, religious, or ethnic group.

^ United Nations Definition of Genocide T he 1949 United Nations Convention on Genocide defines genocide as "acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group."

^ "The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide" -- a clear, concise document adopted by the United Nations in December 1948 -- states that genocide is any of five acts committed "with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group."
  • Nadia Hijab: When Does It Become Genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The legal meaning of genocide refers to the international treaty, the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.^ Convention on the prevention and punishment of the crime of genocide .
  • Part 1: Hate media in Rwanda• Call to genocide: radio in Rwanda, 1994: International Development Research Centre 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide as it is now outdated.

^ Here is how Raphael Lemkin, the Polish-Jewish legal scholar who pushed for the genocide convention, defined it in 1943: .
  • Nadia Hijab: When Does It Become Genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This also includes non-killings that in the end eliminate the group, such as preventing births or forcibly transferring children out of the group to another group.^ Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
  • Blue Corn Comics -- Genocide by Any Other Name... 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.bluecorncomics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Killing members of a group; Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of a group; Deliberately inflicting on a group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; Imposing measures intended to prevent births within a group; Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.

^ Genocide Convention of the United Nations (1948): ...Article II- In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial, or religious group, as such: (a) Killing members of the group, (b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group, (c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part, (d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group, (e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
  • Dead Indians, Live Indians, etc... 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

.A generalized meaning of genocide is similar to the ordinary meaning but also includes government killings of political opponents or otherwise intentional murder.^ General Definition Any intentional killing (murder) of unarmed and helpless people by government .
  • Genocide:Meaning and Definition 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Nazi genocide, which followed two decades later, left six million Jews and five million Poles, Roma, homosexuals, and political opponents dead.

^ As with the countries described in Lethal Laws, the gun controls were generally not instituted by the genocidal regimes; rather, the laws were in place before the murderous government took office.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

It is to avoid confusion regarding what meaning is intended that Rummel created the term democide for the third meaning.[33]
.A major criticism of the international community's response to the Rwandan Genocide was that it was reactive, not proactive.^ The international response to conflict and genocide: lessons from the Rwandan experience.
  • Part 1: Hate media in Rwanda• Call to genocide: radio in Rwanda, 1994: International Development Research Centre 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The speaker pointed out that the international community and the United Nations also found excuses not to act in 1994 "by using names that do not denote genocide."
  • The People Who Cover Up Genocide, UCLA International Institute 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.international.ucla.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Students will analyze the capacity of the international community to enforce the Genocide Convention Students will discuss how the international community did not meet the commitments outlined in the Genocide Convention in Rwanda and Cambodia.
  • Genocide 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hrea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The international community has developed a mechanism for prosecuting the perpetrators of genocide but has not developed the will or the mechanisms for intervening in a genocide as it happens.^ Part 1: Hate media in Rwanda• Call to genocide: radio in Rwanda, 1994: International Development Research Centre .
  • Part 1: Hate media in Rwanda• Call to genocide: radio in Rwanda, 1994: International Development Research Centre 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kuwait agreed to exempt Americans from prosecution for war crimes, genocide , and crimes against humanity by the International Criminal Court.
  • Genocide (Harper's Magazine) 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ The speaker pointed out that the international community and the United Nations also found excuses not to act in 1994 "by using names that do not denote genocide."
  • The People Who Cover Up Genocide, UCLA International Institute 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.international.ucla.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Critics point to the Darfur conflict and suggest that if anyone is found guilty of genocide after the conflict either by prosecutions brought in the International Criminal Court or in an ad hoc International Criminal Tribunal, this will confirm this perception.^ If international action to interrupt genocide is not a realistic solution, is post-hoc punishment of genocide perpetrators any better?
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The failure of the Guatemalan government to prosecute its agents for perpetrating government-sponsored genocide suggests that hopes for domestic legal reform may be of little use in actually stopping genocide.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The calls for some sort of international genocide tribunal for Pol Pot and his aides have not been heard for years."
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]

International prosecution of genocide

By ad hoc tribunals

.All signatories to the CPPCG are required to prevent and punish acts of genocide, both in peace and wartime, though some barriers make this enforcement difficult.^ I do not believe we have done all we can to prevent genocide in Bosnia.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Convention on the prevention and punishment of the crime of genocide .
  • Part 1: Hate media in Rwanda• Call to genocide: radio in Rwanda, 1994: International Development Research Centre 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Preventing acts of genocide has become an important topic in peace research.

.In particular, some of the signatories — namely, Bahrain, Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, the United States, Vietnam, Yemen, and Yugoslavia — signed with the proviso that no claim of genocide could be brought against them at the International Court of Justice without their consent.^ There is also the 1954 Hague Convention for the protection of cultural property in war time, to which former Yugoslavia was a signatory and to which the successor states are bound.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One reason that the genocide has attracted little attention may be that the Guatemalan government has been friendly to the United States.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But other than the losers of World War II, none of the 20th-century genocide perpetrators has been brought to justice.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

[34] .Despite official protests from other signatories (notably Cyprus and Norway) on the ethics and legal standing of these reservations, the immunity from prosecution they grant has been invoked from time to time, as when the United States refused to allow a charge of genocide brought against it by Yugoslavia following the 1999 Kosovo War.^ I'll note your email, but if we're gonna take the time why not have the arguments where they might benefit others?
  • Daylight Atheism > Defending Genocide 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They saw someone standing with them at the most difficult and dangerous times.

^ We need to guarantee that President Bush and our UNSC representative support justice and peace in Darfur and show this by ensuring that the UNSC allows the ICC to continue with their efforts to charge al-Bashir with genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes.

[35]
.It is commonly accepted that, at least since World War II, genocide has been illegal under customary international law as a peremptory norm, as well as under conventional international law.^ Victims of the 1915 Armenian Genocide, as well as victims of countless other genocides across the world, you are in our thoughts and prayers...don't worry, you have not been forgotten.
  • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In this instance, I'll grant that the apologists have a point: in their theology, God is responsible not just for the genocidal deaths of the Canaanites, but for every other painful and brutal death in the world as well.
  • Daylight Atheism > Defending Genocide 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The authors do not attempt to tell the complete story of Jewish guerilla resistance during World War II. [45] .
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

.Acts of genocide are generally difficult to establish for prosecution, because a chain of accountability must be established.^ Once the acts of genocide come under control, and accountability for the crimes is being enforced, the processes of peacebuilding , reconciliation , and healing must begin.

^ President, we are now terribly disappointed because you acted not much differently than your predecessors on the Armenian Genocide issue.

^ We must then ask ourselves, if Michel Bagaragaza(6), principal witness of the prosecution in this trial, will not benefit from this acquittal during the appeal, because the same causes produce the same effects.
  • The Harvard Law Record - Release of Rwanda's mastermind of death promotes genocide denial 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hlrecord.org [Source type: Original source]

.International criminal courts and tribunals function primarily because the states involved are incapable or unwilling to prosecute crimes of this magnitude themselves.^ International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia .
  • Genocide:Meaning and Definition 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Preamble to the Statute the State Parties agreed to the Statute, while: " Affirming that the most serious crimes of concern to the international community as a whole must not go unpunished and that their effective prosecution must be ensured by taking measures at the national level and by enhancing international cooperation, .
  • Genocide:Meaning and Definition 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Determined to these ends and for the sake of present and future generations, to establish an independent permanent International Criminal Court in relationship with the United Nations system, with jurisdiction over the most serious crimes of concern to the international community as a whole .
  • Genocide:Meaning and Definition 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

Nuremberg Trials

.Because the universal acceptance of international laws, defining and forbidding genocide was achieved in 1948, with the promulgation of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG), those criminals who were prosecuted after the war in international courts, for taking part in the Holocaust were found guilty of crimes against humanity and other more specific crimes like murder.^ Fine introduction to war crimes and genocide.
  • Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction - Bibliography 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.genocidetext.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Worthwhile study of genocide and crimes against humanity.
  • Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction - Bibliography 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.genocidetext.net [Source type: Academic]

^ We only find it abhorrent when the genocide is committed against other humans.
  • Daylight Atheism > Defending Genocide 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

Nevertheless the Holocaust is universally recognized to have been a genocide and the term, that had been coined the year before by Raphael Lemkin,[36] appeared in the indictment of the 24 Nazi leaders, Count 3, stated that all the defendants had "conducted deliberate and systematic genocide – namely, the extermination of racial and national groups..."[37]

Rwanda

Skulls of Rwandan genocide victims in museum
.The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) is a court under the auspices of the United Nations for the prosecution of offenses committed in Rwanda during the genocide which occurred there during April, 1994, commencing on 6 April.^ The United Nations has failed to stop the current genocides in Rwanda and Bosnia.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On Wednesday, March 4, 2009, the International Criminal Court in The Hague issued a landmark arrest warrant for President Omar al Bashir of Sudan.

^ With the exceptions of the rulers of the nations that lost World War II, none of the perpetrators of genocide in the 20th century have been prosecuted for crimes against humanity.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

The ICTR was created on 8 November 1994 by the Security Council of the United Nations in order to judge those people responsible for the acts of genocide and other serious violations of the international law performed in the territory of Rwanda, or by Rwandan citizens in nearby states, between 1 January and 31 December 1994.
So far, the ICTR has finished nineteen trials and convicted twenty seven accused persons. On December 14, 2009 two more men were accused and convicted for their crimes. .Another twenty five persons are still on trial.^ Most between the ages of fifteen and twenty-five began to flee from one village to another and toward India.
  • Gendercide Watch: Genocide in Bangladesh, 1971 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gendercide.org [Source type: Original source]

Twenty-one are awaiting trial in detention, two more added on December 14, 2009. Ten are still at large.[38] The first trial, of Jean-Paul Akayesu, began in 1997. He was executed the same day that Jean Kambanda, the interim Prime Minister, pled guilty, March 21, 2003.

Former Yugoslavia

.The term Bosnian Genocide is used to refer either to the genocide committed by Serb forces in Srebrenica in 1995,[39] or to ethnic cleansing that took place during the 1992-1995 Bosnian War (an interpretation rejected by a majority of scholars).^ As with the countries described in Lethal Laws, the gun controls were generally not instituted by the genocidal regimes; rather, the laws were in place before the murderous government took office.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Argues that men are biologically programmed to wage war and commit genocide.
  • Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction - Bibliography 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.genocidetext.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Armenian girls during the genocide committed suicide so they wouldn't marry a turk or muslim, why am i going to choose to marry one, or any non-Armenian.
  • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

[40]
.In 2001 the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) judged that the 1995 Srebrenica massacre was an act of genocide.^ The calls for some sort of international genocide tribunal for Pol Pot and his aides have not been heard for years."
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I do care about the Armenian Genocide and it should be mentioned over and over, with the hope that such a terrible and criminal act DO NOT HAPPEN again.
  • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (Although discovered by the authors too late for inclusion in Lethal Laws, the gun control laws in both Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia were similar to gun control laws which have facilitated genocide in other nations.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

[41]
.On 26 February 2007 the International Court of Justice (ICJ), in the Bosnian Genocide Case upheld the ICTY's earlier finding that the Srebrenica massacre constituted genocide, but found that the Serbian government had not participated in a wider genocide on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina during the war, as the Bosnian government had claimed.^ We can never forget this massacre, it left us with open wounds and we cant close it until we find justice, and every time they deny this genocide it is like they pour pounds of salt over the open bleeding wound again.
  • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But other than the losers of World War II, none of the 20th-century genocide perpetrators has been brought to justice.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are no limitations, no quantification to how much I care in regard to the Armenian Genocide and massacres committed by the Young Turk Government and Ottoman Empire in 1915.
  • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

[42]
.On 12 July 2007, European Court of Human Rights when dismissing the appeal by Nikola Jorgic against his conviction for genocide by a German court (Jorgic v.^ Human Right, therefore I care about the Armenian Genocide ...
  • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Worthwhile study of genocide and crimes against humanity.
  • Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction - Bibliography 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.genocidetext.net [Source type: Academic]

^ I was simply pointing out that human beings still find it quite normal to commit 'genocide' against other species of life.
  • Daylight Atheism > Defending Genocide 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

.Germany) noted that the German courts wider interpretation of genocide has since been rejected by international courts considering similar cases.^ Kuwait agreed to exempt Americans from prosecution for war crimes, genocide , and crimes against humanity by the International Criminal Court.
  • Genocide (Harper's Magazine) 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ The first of these was the first conviction for genocide ever delivered by an international court in the case of Prosecutor v.

^ The chief prosecutor of the International Criminal Court has filed genocide charges against Sudan's president for a five-year campaign of violence in Darfur.
  • Genocide: News & Videos about Genocide - CNN.com 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC topics.edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

[43][44][45] .The ECHR also noted that in the 21 century "Amongst scholars, the majority have taken the view that ethnic cleansing, in the way in which it was carried out by the Serb forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina in order to expel Muslims and Croats from their homes, did not constitute genocide.^ God's ordering someone else to carry out the acts; .
  • Daylight Atheism > Defending Genocide 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And there's also the difficulty that God's ordering someone else to carry out the acts; I don't think genocide, even if somehow actually necessary*, is good for the moral character of a people.
  • Daylight Atheism > Defending Genocide 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

However, there are also a considerable number of scholars who have suggested that these acts did amount to genocide"[46]
.About 30 people have been indicted for participating in genocide or complicity in genocide during the early 1990s in Bosnia.^ Or do your own research (if you are objective) with people who already accepted their implication during the genocide.
  • The Harvard Law Record - Release of Rwanda's mastermind of death promotes genocide denial 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hlrecord.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Think about what this same doctor Haing Ngor went through when his wife suffered life-threatening complications during childbirth.
  • FREEDOM VIRTUALLY ENDS GENOCIDE AND MASS MURDER 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ That reveals a lot about the deep effects of such a tragedy on seemingly successful people who have survived a genocide and rebuilt their lives.
  • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

.To date after several plea bargains and some convictions that were successfully challenged on appeal only Radislav Krstic had been found guilty of complicity in genocide in an international court.^ The calls for some sort of international genocide tribunal for Pol Pot and his aides have not been heard for years."
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

.December 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Three others have been found guilty of participating in genocides in Bosnia by German courts, one of whom Nikola Jorgic lost an appeal against his conviction in the European Court of Human Rights.^ The Commission's intent is to focus on the extent to which ethnic cleansing, the destruction of cultural sites, and associated war crimes and crimes against humanity constitute genocide in Bosnia and other parts of the former Yugoslavia.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And one thing that I know that I will seek to do as Chairman of the International Operations and Human Rights Committeeand Mr. Moran is a member of that subcommitteeis to get all the information.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Human Right, therefore I care about the Armenian Genocide ...
  • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

.Several former members of the Bosnian Serb security forces are currently on trial in Bosnia and Herzegovina indicted on several charges including genocide.^ In my years as a member and former Chairman of this Commission, nothing has caused me more anguish than the suffering of Bosnia and the failure of the international community to stop this genocide when it had and has the means to do so.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ OK. I think I heard you respond to the question of direct evidence, as to whether or not the Serbian government or the Bosnian Serbs, the rogue government there, have engaged in genocide.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Second, more recently here in the United States, in the annual Human Rights Report, the Administration, which had previously used the term ``acts of genocide,'' to describe what Bosnian Serbs had committed in Bosnia, now has used simply the term ``genocide.''
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

.Slobodan Milosevic, as the former President of Serbia and of Yugoslavia was the most senior political figure to stand trial at the ICTY. He died on 11 March 2006 during his trial where he was accused of genocide or complicity in genocide in territories within Bosnia and Herzegovina, so no verdict was returned.^ The Commission's intent is to focus on the extent to which ethnic cleansing, the destruction of cultural sites, and associated war crimes and crimes against humanity constitute genocide in Bosnia and other parts of the former Yugoslavia.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In his view it is not a war, in fact, because if the Serb radicals who took control of most of Bosnia wanted a greater Serbia under their domination, it was theirs for the taking.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The most complete account of the politics of the genocide and its regional repercussions.
  • Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction - Bibliography 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.genocidetext.net [Source type: Academic]

.In 1995 the ICTY issued a warrant for the arrest of Bosnian Serbs Radovan Karadzic and Ratko Mladic on several charges including genocide.^ On Wednesday, March 4, 2009, the International Criminal Court in The Hague issued a landmark arrest warrant for President Omar al Bashir of Sudan.

^ Riyadh and Abuzaid were attacked by the government and the janjaweed the day after the arrest warrant was issued in retaliation for cheering and celebrating upon news of the ICC’s decision.

^ In an unprecedented move, the International Criminal Court has issued an arrest warrant for Sudan’s President Omar al-Bashir.

.On 21 July 2008 Karadzic was arrested in Belgrade, and he is currently in The Hague prison awaiting trial.^ U.N. judges adjourned the long-awaited war-crimes trial of Radovan Karadzic on Monday after the former Bosnian Serb leader refused to appear on the opening day.
  • Genocide: News & Videos about Genocide - CNN.com 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC topics.edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ The war crimes trial of former Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic is set to begin October 26, the U.N. war crimes tribunal at The Hague said Friday.
  • Genocide: News & Videos about Genocide - CNN.com 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC topics.edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ Radovan Karadzic was arrested in Belgrade and awaits imminent extradition to The Hague, where he will face charges of genocide for his role in the Srebrenica massacres and the siege of Sarajevo.
  • Genocide (Harper's Magazine) 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

Ratko Mladic is still at large.

By the International Criminal Court

.To date all international prosecutions for genocide have been brought in specially convened international tribunals.^ Kuwait agreed to exempt Americans from prosecution for war crimes, genocide , and crimes against humanity by the International Criminal Court.
  • Genocide (Harper's Magazine) 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Britain will join an international criminal court that will have jurisdiction over war crimes , genocide , and crimes against humanity; the United States still refuses to join the court, which fifteen countries have joined to date.
  • Genocide (Harper's Magazine) 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Samuel Musabyimana, a former Anglican bishop in Rwanda, was charged with genocide by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda.
  • Genocide (Harper's Magazine) 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.Since 2002, the International Criminal Court can exercise its jurisdiction if national courts are unwilling or unable to investigate or prosecute genocide, thus being a "court of last resort," leaving the primary responsibility to exercise jurisdiction over alleged criminals to individual states.^ If genocide is going on it is by individuals and is not state-sponsored.
  • The People Who Cover Up Genocide, UCLA International Institute 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.international.ucla.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Recalling that it is the duty of every State to exercise its criminal jurisdiction over those responsible for international crimes, .
  • Genocide:Meaning and Definition 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Britain will join an international criminal court that will have jurisdiction over war crimes , genocide , and crimes against humanity; the United States still refuses to join the court, which fifteen countries have joined to date.
  • Genocide (Harper's Magazine) 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.Due to the United States concerns over the ICC, the United States prefers to continue to use specially convened international tribunals for such investigations and potential prosecutions.^ The ICC quickly added a note to their own website stating that there had been “no decision concerning the possible arrest warrant” of Sudan’s al-Bashir.

^ I care because RESPONSIBILITY for such atrocities are neither acknowledged by those who committed them, nor by their descendants who continue to deny them, nor by those governments such as the United States that turn a blind eye to them.
  • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

^ International organizations such as the United Nations are plainly insufficient.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

[47]

Darfur, Sudan

.The on-going conflict in Darfur, Sudan, which started in 2003, was declared a "genocide" by United States Secretary of State Colin Powell on 9 September 2004 in testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee.^ We write to you in response to your testimony before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations on July 30, 2009.

^ To find an event in the United States visit the Save Darfur Coalition events calendar .

^ If I can just point out, in my testimony I quote one of the former State Department officers who did a study of what the Administration did do and know about genocide.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

[48] .Since that time however, no other permanent member of the UN Security Council has followed suit.^ The UN Security Council was finally moved to action by RTLM threats against General Dallaire and the peacekeeping troops under his command.
  • Part 1: Hate media in Rwanda• Call to genocide: radio in Rwanda, 1994: International Development Research Centre 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The greatest challenge following genocide is rebuilding a society, since a conflict that at one time might have been resolved may now have become intractable.

^ However, churches, synagogues, and other religious temples still remain in tact from the Ottoman era, so there was no religious hate against Armenians.

In fact, in January 2005, an International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur, authorized by UN Security Council Resolution 1564 of 2004, issued a report to the Secretary-General stating that "the Government of the Sudan has not pursued a policy of genocide."[49] .Nevertheless, the Commission cautioned that "The conclusion that no genocidal policy has been pursued and implemented in Darfur by the Government authorities, directly or through the militias under their control, should not be taken in any way as detracting from the gravity of the crimes perpetrated in that region.^ Audiences leave the theatre wondering how it was possible for genocide to occur in full public view at the end of the twentieth century and why no action had been taken to halt the broadcasts that were promoting the worst of all crimes.
  • Part 1: Hate media in Rwanda• Call to genocide: radio in Rwanda, 1994: International Development Research Centre 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United Nations Security Council passed a resolution calling on Sudan to disarm its militias in Darfur but declined to use the word "sanctions" and made no mention of using force to stop the ongoing genocide ; Sudan denounced the resolution as a declaration of war.
  • Genocide (Harper's Magazine) 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ "Genocide is sustained purposeful action by a perpetrator to physically destroy a collectivity directly or indirectly, through interdiction of the biological and social reproduction of group members, sustained regardless of the surrender or lack of threat offered by the victim."
  • Genocide:Meaning and Definition 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

.International offences such as the crimes against humanity and war crimes that have been committed in Darfur may be no less serious and heinous than genocide."^ Crimes against Humanity (62) .
  • Dissident Voice : The Rwanda Genocide Fabrications 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We only find it abhorrent when the genocide is committed against other humans.
  • Daylight Atheism > Defending Genocide 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This war is no less so.
  • publish.nyc.indymedia.org | Genocide or Peace 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.nyc.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

[49] .In March 2005, the Security Council formally referred the situation in Darfur to the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, taking into account the Commission report but without mentioning any specific crimes.^ The resolution, which for the first time formally invokes the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide , says that the council will "consider" sanctions if the genocide continues.
  • Genocide (Harper's Magazine) 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ U.N. officials and diplomats said the chief prosecutor of the International Criminal Court will seek an arrest warrant Monday charging Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir with crimes against humanity and genocide in Darfur .
  • Genocide: News & Videos about Genocide - CNN.com 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC topics.edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ The United Nations Security Council passed a resolution calling on Sudan to disarm its militias in Darfur but declined to use the word "sanctions" and made no mention of using force to stop the ongoing genocide ; Sudan denounced the resolution as a declaration of war.
  • Genocide (Harper's Magazine) 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

[50] .Two permanent members of the Security Council, the United States and China, abstained from the vote on the referral resolution.^ Sarah B. Sewall and Carl Kaysen, eds., The United States and the International Criminal Court: National Security and International Law .
  • Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction - Bibliography 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.genocidetext.net [Source type: Academic]

[51] .As of his fourth report to the Security Council, the Prosecutor has found "reasonable grounds to believe that the individuals identified [in the UN Security Council Resolution 1593] have committed crimes against humanity and war crimes," but did not find sufficient evidence to prosecute for genocide.^ Fine introduction to war crimes and genocide.
  • Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction - Bibliography 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.genocidetext.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Worthwhile study of genocide and crimes against humanity.
  • Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction - Bibliography 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.genocidetext.net [Source type: Academic]

^ We only find it abhorrent when the genocide is committed against other humans.
  • Daylight Atheism > Defending Genocide 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

[52]
.In April 2007, the Judges of the ICC issued arrest warrants against the former Minister of State for the Interior, Ahmad Harun, and a Militia Janjaweed leader, Ali Kushayb, for crimes against humanity and war crimes.^ The Commission's intent is to focus on the extent to which ethnic cleansing, the destruction of cultural sites, and associated war crimes and crimes against humanity constitute genocide in Bosnia and other parts of the former Yugoslavia.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is also the 1954 Hague Convention for the protection of cultural property in war time, to which former Yugoslavia was a signatory and to which the successor states are bound.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The final report of the Commission, which is also here, takes a strong position in favor of considering these acts as crimes against humanity, and we have no hesitation about that.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

[53]
.On 14 July 2008, prosecutors at the International Criminal Court (ICC), filed ten charges of war crimes against Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir: three counts of genocide, five of crimes against humanity and two of murder.^ Fine introduction to war crimes and genocide.
  • Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction - Bibliography 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.genocidetext.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Worthwhile study of genocide and crimes against humanity.
  • Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction - Bibliography 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.genocidetext.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Let us file a case in international court against Turkey!
  • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

.The ICC's prosecutors have claimed that al-Bashir "masterminded and implemented a plan to destroy in substantial part" three tribal groups in Darfur because of their ethnicity.^ We need to guarantee that President Bush and our UNSC representative support justice and peace in Darfur and show this by ensuring that the UNSC allows the ICC to continue with their efforts to charge al-Bashir with genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes.

^ The ICC quickly added a note to their own website stating that there had been “no decision concerning the possible arrest warrant” of Sudan’s al-Bashir.

^ Motives There has been considerable research on why a perpetrator should want to destroy a group or, if not destroy the group as such, murder people because of their group membership.
  • Genocide:Meaning and Definition 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

.On 4 March 2009 the ICC issued a warrant of arrest for Omar Al Bashir, President of Sudan as the ICC Pre-Trial Chamber I concluded that his position as head of state does not grant him immunity against prosecution before the ICC. The warrant was for war crimes and crimes against humanity.^ Arkan, otherwise known as Zeljko Raznjatovic, is a man we discovered had eight arrest warrants outstanding for him with Interpol.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Commission's intent is to focus on the extent to which ethnic cleansing, the destruction of cultural sites, and associated war crimes and crimes against humanity constitute genocide in Bosnia and other parts of the former Yugoslavia.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The final report of the Commission, which is also here, takes a strong position in favor of considering these acts as crimes against humanity, and we have no hesitation about that.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

.It did not include the crime of genocide because the majority of the Chamber did not find that the prosecutors had provided enough evidence to include such a charge.^ I think that the 1915 armenian genocide happened because my granfather and my great grand father died from it and so did my aunts uncles and cousins.
  • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But we believe there is enough evidence to give us cause to believe that the highest levels have implemented a plan of genocide and war crimes?
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Now, these do not qualify, I think, as examples of genocide per se, but they seem to be right on the edge of major war crimes.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

[54]

Genocide in history

The preamble to the CPPCG not only states that "genocide is a crime under international law, contrary to the spirit and aims of the United Nations and condemned by the civilized world", but that "at all periods of history genocide has inflicted great losses on humanity".
.Determining which historical events constitute genocide and which are merely criminal or inhuman behavior is not a clear-cut matter.^ WHAT IS GENOCIDE? Genocide is foremost an international crime for which individuals, no matter how high in authority, may be indicted, tried, and punished by the International Criminal Court (ICC).
  • Genocide:Meaning and Definition 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ That these inhumane acts, among others, were explicitly included in the ICC Statute is a major advance in genocide criminal law.
  • Genocide:Meaning and Definition 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Institutions of government It is clear from empirical and historical research that democide, including genocide (however defined), are facets of totalitarian systems, and to a lesser extent of authoritarian ones.
  • Genocide:Meaning and Definition 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Furthermore, in nearly every case where accusations of genocide have circulated, partisans of various sides have fiercely disputed the interpretation and details of the event, often to the point of promoting wildly different versions of the facts.^ Many of the facts regarding numbers, locations, and the context of forced relocations are disputed by reputable experts on both sides.

^ In this instance, I'll grant that the apologists have a point: in their theology, God is responsible not just for the genocidal deaths of the Canaanites, but for every other painful and brutal death in the world as well.
  • Daylight Atheism > Defending Genocide 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Life in Turkey in 1915 was very different, but, genocide accusations aside, most Americans know nothing of it.

An accusation of genocide is certainly not taken lightly and will almost always be controversial. .Revisionist attempts to deny or challenge genocides (mainly the Holocaust) are, in some countries, illegal.^ Inaction in the face of genocide is both immoral and illegal, but here we are witnesses to yet another attempt in this century to annihilate a people.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ward Churchill, A Little Matter of Genocide: Holocaust and Denial in the Americas, 1492 to the Present .
  • Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction - Bibliography 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.genocidetext.net [Source type: Academic]

Stages of genocide and efforts to prevent it

.For genocide to happen, there must be certain preconditions.^ So there is no doubt that the recognition of the genocide is a must, but it would be a crime otherwise!
  • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

Foremost among them is a national culture that does not place a high value on human life. A totalitarian society, with its assumed superior ideology, is also a precondition for genocidal acts.[55] .In addition, members of the dominant society must perceive their potential victims as less than fully human: as “pagans,” “savages,” “uncouth barbarians,” “unbelievers,” “effete degenerates,” “ritual outlaws,” “racial inferiors,” “class antagonists,” “counterrevolutionaries,” and so on.^ As members of the human race, we can't allow our civilization to be so degraded, our fellow brothers and sisters of the human race to become the victims of rape, or torture, of displacement, of the most cruel ways of domination.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The victims of most of the other genocides were much less likely than European Jews to be able to write Western languages (or to be able to write at all).
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We must acknowledge that the human lives lost in Afghanistan hold no less importance than the citizens of the United States that were also lost to sick and needless violence.
  • publish.nyc.indymedia.org | Genocide or Peace 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.nyc.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

[56] .In themselves, these conditions are not enough for the perpetrators to commit genocide.^ These governments are the very governments least likely to perpetrate genocide.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This racism underlay the genocide they committed against these minorities, but also played a role in their vicious incursions into Vietnam and massacre of its citizen.
  • FREEDOM VIRTUALLY ENDS GENOCIDE AND MASS MURDER 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The eighth stage of genocide Stanton identifies is denial by perpetrators "that they committed any crimes."
  • Nadia Hijab: When Does It Become Genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To do that—that is, to commit genocide—the perpetrators need a strong, centralized authority and bureaucratic organization as well as pathological individuals and criminals.^ WHAT IS GENOCIDE? Genocide is foremost an international crime for which individuals, no matter how high in authority, may be indicted, tried, and punished by the International Criminal Court (ICC).
  • Genocide:Meaning and Definition 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ "Genocide is a form of one-sided mass killing in which a state or other authority intends to destroy a group, as that group and membership in it are defined by the perpetrator."
  • Genocide:Meaning and Definition 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We need to do everything that we can to bring the criminals who have perpetrated this to their comeuppance, and I appreciate the opportunity to serve.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

.Also required is a campaign of vilification and dehumanization of the victims by the perpetrators, who are usually new states or new regimes attempting to impose conformity to a new ideology and its model of society.^ We have 575 affidavits of victims who identified their perpetrators.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If the kind of people who specialize in perpetrating genocide are bullies by nature, how many bullies are willing to take a chance of getting shot by the intended victim?
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nor will we cease to discuss and remind others of the systematic attempt at extermination of the Armenians, a people who have never in the history of the planet declared war on any peoples, countries or states.
  • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

[57]

M. Hassan Kakar[58]

.In 1996 Gregory Stanton the president of Genocide Watch presented a briefing paper called "The 8 Stages of Genocide" at the United States Department of State.^ One reason that the genocide has attracted little attention may be that the Guatemalan government has been friendly to the United States.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, so-called "assault rifles" are virtually never used in crime in the United States (they are used in less than one percent of homicides), but they are the best weapons for civilian resistance to a genocidal government.
  • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If I can just point out, in my testimony I quote one of the former State Department officers who did a study of what the Administration did do and know about genocide.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

[59] In it he suggested that genocide develops in eight stages that are "predictable but not inexorable".[59][60]
.The Stanton paper was presented at the State Department, shortly after the Rwanda genocide and much of the analysis is based on why that genocide occurred.^ Such declarations echo at least three of the “8 stages of genocide” identified by Genocide Watch president Gregory Stanton in the 1990s after the Rwanda genocide: Classification, dehumanization, and polarization.
  • When Does It Become Genocide? « INTIFADA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC intifada-palestine.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Such declarations echo at least three of the "8 stages of genocide" identified by Genocide Watch president Gregory Stanton in the 1990s after the Rwanda genocide: Classification, dehumanization, and polarization.
  • Nadia Hijab: When Does It Become Genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, the United States government "said that what was happening in Rwanda was not genocide but 'acts of genocide.'"
  • The People Who Cover Up Genocide, UCLA International Institute 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.international.ucla.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The preventative measures suggested, given the original target audience, were those that the United States could implement directly or use their influence on other governments to have implemented.^ The United States government could have achieved this immediately by a Vietnamese Blitzkrieg .

^ The perpetrator is not necessarily a state's government or its military, but may be an international organization, such as a UN peacekeeping one, NATO, or a terrorist or guerrilla organization, among others.
  • Genocide:Meaning and Definition 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The term "Rwandan genocide," Kimenyi said, is used by some writers not to signify the murder of the Tutsis "but to suggest apparently that the two groups were killing each other."
  • The People Who Cover Up Genocide, UCLA International Institute 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.international.ucla.edu [Source type: Original source]

Stage Characteristics Preventive measures
1.
Classification
People are divided into "us and them". "The main preventive measure at this early stage is to develop universalistic institutions that transcend... divisions."
2.
Symbolization
"When combined with hatred, symbols may be forced upon unwilling members of pariah groups..." "To combat symbolization, hate symbols can be legally forbidden as can hate speech".
3.
Dehumanization
"One group denies the humanity of the other group. Members of it are equated with animals, vermin, insects or diseases." "Local and international leaders should condemn the use of hate speech and make it culturally unacceptable. Leaders who incite genocide should be banned from international travel and have their foreign finances frozen."
4.
Organization
"Genocide is always organized... Special army units or militias are often trained and armed..." "The U.N. should impose arms embargoes on governments and citizens of countries involved in genocidal massacres, and create commissions to investigate violations"
5.
Polarization
"Hate groups broadcast polarizing propaganda..." "Prevention may mean security protection for moderate leaders or assistance to human rights groups...Coups d’état by extremists should be opposed by international sanctions."
6.
Preparation
"Victims are identified and separated out because of their ethnic or religious identity..." "At this stage, a Genocide Emergency must be declared. ..."
7.
Extermination
"It is "extermination" to the killers because they do not believe their victims to be fully human." "At this stage, only rapid and overwhelming armed intervention can stop genocide. Real safe areas or refugee escape corridors should be established with heavily armed international protection."
8.
Denial
"The perpetrators... deny that they committed any crimes..." "The response to denial is punishment by an international tribunal or national courts"
In a paper for the Social Science Research Council Dirk Moses criticises Stanton approach concluding:
.In view of this rather poor record of ending genocide, the question needs to be asked why the "genocide studies" paradigm cannot predict and prevent genocides with any accuracy and reliability.^ As a half-breed and direct bi-product of the genocide?s end result, I have never held a belief quite as close as this one and cannot imagine that I could.
  • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yes, precisely; but the hypothetical referred to, in context, was a stipulative example where it is the case that genocide is the only means available to prevent an even worse end.
  • Daylight Atheism > Defending Genocide 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Interviewer asked specific questions about my families experience with the genocide and growing up as children in Kharpert and Mezireh.
  • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

.The paradigm of "genocide studies," as currently constituted in North America in particular, has both strengths and limitations.^ All we do know is that the perpetrators of genocide were quick studies who were remarkably attuned both to the tactics of their predecessors and to the worlds response.

.While the moral fervor and public activism is admirable and salutary, the paradigm appears blind to its own implication in imperial projects that are themselves as much part of the problem as they are part of the solution.^ The government is being blamed however they lay the blame on others and remove themselves from any implications of wrong doings.

^ Apparently, they were considered as morally neutral, since they weren't yet old enough to be held accountable or to have done much right or wrong.
  • Daylight Atheism > Defending Genocide 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As part of the campaign’s launch, a series of print and online advertisements are appearing in national publications this week.

.The US government called Darfur a genocide to appease domestic lobbies, and because the statement cost it nothing.^ We have traveled to more US communities and connected them with more survivors of the Darfur genocide.

^ Obviously, the “intelligence” concerned the ongoing genocide, and the lobbying presumably involves appeals that the US do something about it.
  • Dissident Voice : The Rwanda Genocide Fabrications 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I will stop at nothing to get information on the genocide out the public and support everyone in making the Turkish Government accept that the genocide occured.
  • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

.Darfur will end when it suits the great powers that have a stake in the region.^ (CNN) The African Union has announced it will leave its 7,000 troops in the Darfur region until at least the end of the year.
  • Genocide: News & Videos about Genocide - CNN.com 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC topics.edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

Dirk Moses[61]

Prevention of Genocide Task Force

.On 8 December 2008, the Prevention of Genocide Task Force, co-chaired by Madeline Albright, a former US Secretary of State, and William Cohen, a former US Secretary of Defence, released its final report which concludes that the US government can prevent genocide and mass atrocities in the future.^ The final report and theannexes were completed by me, even though the Commission was terminated, through resources that we obtained in the United States and through my university, without any financial assistance from the United Nations to complete the task.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If I can just point out, in my testimony I quote one of the former State Department officers who did a study of what the Administration did do and know about genocide.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A recently released CIA report confirmed that Serb militants have been responsible for nearly 90 percent of the atrocities committed during Yugoslavia's violent break-up.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

[62]
In the words of Mr. Cohen, “This report provides a blueprint that can enable the United States to take preventive action, along with international partners, to forestall the specter of future cases of genocide and mass atrocities.”[63]
Recommendations include:
  • a proactive role of the US president which would demonstrate to the US and the World that preventing genocide and mass atrocities is a national priority
  • creating a body within the United States National Security Council to analyze threats and consider preventative action
  • set up a fund of $250 million for crisis prevention and response
  • help create an international network for the sharing of information and the coordination of preventative action [64]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide
  2. ^ Verdirame, Guglielmo "The Genocide Definition in the Jurisprudence of the Ad Hoc Tribunals", International & Comparative Law Quarterly (2000), 49 : 578-598 Cambridge University Press, doi:10.1017/S002058930006437X. Abstract
  3. ^ Naomi Klein. The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism, Macmillan, 2007 ISBN 0805079831, 9780805079838. p. 101, see footnote
  4. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, second edition draft entry 2004. "genocide".
  5. ^ Raphael Lemkin Axis Rule in Occupied Europe: Laws of Occupation - Analysis of Government - Proposals for Redress Chapter IX: Genocide a new term and new conception for destruction of nations, (Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1944), pages 79 - 95
  6. ^ a b c Raphael Lemkin - EuropeWorld, 22/6/2001
  7. ^ "By 'genocide', we mean the destruction of a nation or of an ethnic group." Axis Rule in Occupied Europe, ix. 79. As quoted in the 3rd Oxford English Dictionary.
  8. ^ Oxford English Dictionary "Genocide" citing Sunday Times 21 October 1945.
  9. ^ Raphael Lemkin, Axis Rule in Occupied Europe (Wash., D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1944), p. 79.
  10. ^ Robert Gellately & Ben Kiernan (2003). The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 267. ISBN 0521527503. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ay76mYBLU3sC&pg=PA267&dq=where+Stalin+was+presumably+anxious+to+avoid+his+purges+being+subjected+to+genocidal+scrutiny&ei=spQHR_3wH4PupwLX9JCgDQ&ie=ISO-8859-1&sig=suohkDH9HmLiBxpySx1tf8bEOn8. 
  11. ^ Staub, Ervin. The Roots of Evil: The Origins of Genocide and Other Group Violence. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 8. ISBN 0-521-42214-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=29u-vt_KgGEC&pg=PA8&lpg=PA8&dq=genocide+political+economic+groups+soviet+union&source=web&ots=uDb44sHgNn&sig=p3cz359teRaU5hdnZD7bImddDP4#PPA8,M1. 
  12. ^ From a statement made by Mr. Morozov, representative of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, on 19 April 1948 during the debate in the Ad Hoc Committee on Genocide (E/AC.25/SR.12).
  13. ^ See Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, opened for signature on 23 May 1969, United Nations Treaty Series, vol. 1155, No. I-18232.
  14. ^ Mandate, structure and methods of work: Genocide I of the UN Commission of Experts to examine violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia, created by Security Council resolution 780 (1992) of 6 October 1992.
  15. ^ European Court of Human Rights Judgement in Jorgic v. Germany (Application no. 74613/01) paragraphs 18, 36,74
  16. ^ European Court of Human Rights Judgement in Jorgic v. Germany (Application no. 74613/01) paragraphs 43-46
  17. ^ What is Genocide? McGill Faculty of Law (McGill University)
  18. ^ Prosecutor v. Radislav Krstic - Trial Chamber I - Judgment - IT-98-33 (2001) ICTY8 (2 August 2001)
  19. ^ a b Prosecutor v. Radislav Krstic - Appeals Chamber - Judgment - IT-98-33 (2004) ICTY 7 (19 April 2004)
  20. ^ Prosecutor v. Radislav Krstic - Appeals Chamber - Judgment - IT-98-33 (2004) ICTY 7 (19 April 2004) See Paragraph 6: "Article 4 of the Tribunal's Statute, like the Genocide Convention, covers certain acts done with "intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such."
  21. ^ Statute of the International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, U.N. Doc. S/25704 at 36, annex (1993) and S/25704/Add.1 (1993), adopted by Security Council on 25 May 1993, Resolution 827 (1993).
  22. ^ Resolution 1674 (2006)
  23. ^ William Schabas War crimes and human rights: essays on the death penalty, justice and accountability, Cameron May, 2008 ISBN 1905017634, 9781905017638. p. 791
  24. ^ a b Kurt Jonassohn & Karin Solveig Björnson, Genocide and Gross Human Rights Violations in Comparative Perspective: In Comparative Perspective, Transaction Publishers, 1998, ISBN 0765804174, 9780765804174. pp. 133-135
  25. ^ M. Hassan Kakar Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982 University of California press © 1995 The Regents of the University of California.
  26. ^ M. Hassan Kakar 4. The Story of Genocide in Afghanistan: 13. Genocide Throughout the Country
  27. ^ Frank Chalk, Kurt Jonassohn The History and Sociology of Genocide: Analyses and Case Studies, Yale University Press, 1990, ISBN 0-300-04446-1
  28. ^ Jones, Adam. Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction, Routledge/Taylor & Francis Publishers, 2006. ISBN 0-415-35385-8. Chapter 1: The Origins of Genocide pp.20-21
  29. ^ What is Genocide? McGill Faculty of Law (McGill University) source cites Barbara Harff and Ted Gurr Toward empirical theory of genocides and politicides, International Studies Quarterly, 37:3, 1988
  30. ^ Origins and Evolution of the Concept in the Science Encyclopedia by Net Industries. states "Politicide, as [Barbara] Harff and [Ted R.] Gurr define it, refers to the killing of groups of people who are targeted not because of shared ethnic or communal traits, but because of 'their hierarchical position or political opposition to the regime and dominant groups' (p. 360)". But does not give the book title to go with the page number.
  31. ^ Staff. There are NO Statutes of Limitations on the Crimes of Genocide! On the website of the American Patriot Friends Network. Cites Barbara Harff and Ted Gurr "Toward empirical theory of genocides and politicides," International Studies Quarterly 37, 3 [1988].
  32. ^ Daniel D. Polsby and Don B. Kates, Jr. of Holocaust and gun control, Washington University Law Quarterly 1997, (Cite as 75 Wash. U. L.Q. 1237). Article cites Citing Barbara Harff, Recognizing Genocides and Politicides, in GENOCIDE WATCH 27 (Helen Fein ed., 1992) pp.37,38
  33. ^ Domocide versus genocide; which is what?
  34. ^ United Nations Treaty Collection (As of 9 October 2001): Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide on the web site of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
  35. ^ (See for example the submission by Agent of the United States, Mr. David Andrews to the ICJ Public Sitting, 11 May 1999)
  36. ^ Oxford English Dictionary: 1944 R. Lemkin Axis Rule in Occupied Europe ix. 79 "By 'genocide' we mean the destruction of a nation or of an ethnic group."
  37. ^ Oxford English Dictionary "Genocide" citing Sunday Times 21 October 1945
  38. ^ These figures need revising they are from the ICTR page which says see www.ictr.org
  39. ^ Staff. Bosnian genocide suspect extradited, BBC, 2 April 2002
  40. ^ European Court of Human Rights - Jorgic v. Germany Judgment, 12 July 2007. § 47
  41. ^ The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia found in Prosecutor v. Radislav Krstic - Trial Chamber I - Judgment - IT-98-33 (2001) ICTY8 (2 August 2001) that genocide had been committed. (see paragraph 560 for name of group in English on whom the genocide was committed). It was upheld in Prosecutor v. Radislav Krstic - Appeals Chamber - Judgment - IT-98-33 (2004) ICTY 7 (19 April 2004)
  42. ^ "Courte: Serbia failed to prevent genocide, UN court rules". Associated Press. 2007-02-26. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/n/a/2007/02/26/international/i033600S38.DTL&type=politics. 
  43. ^ ECHR Jorgic v. Germany. § 42 citing Prosecutor v. Krstic, IT-98-33-T, judgment of 2 August 2001, §§ 580
  44. ^ ECHR Jorgic v. Germany Judgment, 12 July 2007. § 44 citing Prosecutor v. Kupreskic and Others (IT-95-16-T, judgment of 14 January 2000), § 751. In 14 January 2000 the ICTY ruled in the Prosecutor v. Kupreskic and Others case that the killing of 116 Muslims in order to expel the Muslim population from a village, was persecution, not of genocide.
  45. ^ ICJ press release 2007/8 26 February 2007
  46. ^ ECHR Jorgic v. Germany Judgment, 12 July 2007. § 47
  47. ^ Statement by Carolyn Willson, Minister Counselor for International Legal Affairs, on the Report of the ICC, in the UN General AssemblyPDF (123 KB) 23 November 2005
  48. ^ POWELL DECLARES KILLING IN DARFUR 'GENOCIDE', The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer, September 9, 2004
  49. ^ a b Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur to the United Nations Secretary-GeneralPDF (1.14 MB), 25 January 2005, at 4
  50. ^ Security Council Resolution 1593 (2005)PDF (24.8 KB)
  51. ^ SECURITY COUNCIL REFERS SITUATION IN DARFUR, SUDAN, TO PROSECUTOR OF INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT, UN Press Release SC/8351, March 31, 2005
  52. ^ Fourth Report of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, to the Security Council pursuant to UNSC 1593 (2005)PDF (597 KB), Office of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, December 14, 2006.
  53. ^ Statement by Mr. Luis Moreno Ocampo, Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, to the United Nations Security Council pursuant to UNSCR 1593 (2005), International Criminal Court, 5 June 2008
  54. ^ ICC issues a warrant of arrest for Omar Al Bashir, President of Sudan (ICC-CPI-20090304-PR394), ICC press release, 4 March 2009
  55. ^ M. Hassan Kakar References Chapter 4. The Story of Genocide in Afghanistan Footnote 9. Citing Horowitz, quoted in Chalk and Jonassohn, Genocide, 14.
  56. ^ M. Hassan Kakar References Chapter 4. The Story of Genocide in Afghanistan Footnote 10. Citing For details, see Carlton, War and Ideology.
  57. ^ M. Hassan Kakar References Chapter 4. The Story of Genocide in Afghanistan Footnote 11. Citing Horowitz, quoted in Chalk and Jonassohn, Genocide, 13.
  58. ^ M. Hassan Kakar ,Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979–1982, University of California Press, 1995.
  59. ^ a b Gregory Stanton. The 8 Stages of Genocide, Genocide Watch, 1996
  60. ^ The FBI has found somewhat similar stages for hate groups.
  61. ^ Dirk Moses Why the Discipline of "Genocide Studies" Has Trouble Explaining How Genocides End?, Social Science Research Council, 22 December 2006
  62. ^ Christian Science Monitor 9 December 2008
  63. ^ PGTF press release
  64. ^ Report of the Prevention of Genocide Task Force pp. 111-114

References

Further reading

Books
  • Andreopoulos, George J., ed. (1994). Genocide: Conceptual and Historical Dimensions. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0812232496. 
  • Chalk, Frank; Kurt Jonassohn (1990). The History and Sociology of Genocide: Analyses and Case Studies. Yale University Press. ISBN 0300044461. 
  • Charny, Israel W. (1 December 1999). Encyclopedia of Genocide. ABC-Clio Inc. ISBN 0874369282. 
  • Conversi, Daniele (2005). "Genocide, ethnic cleansing, and nationalism". in Gerard Delanty, Krishan Kumar (eds). Handbook of Nations and Nationalism. vol. 1. London: Sage Publications. pp. 319–333. ISBN 1412901014. 
  • Goldhagen, Daniel (2009). .Worse Than War: Genocide, Eliminationism, and the Ongoing Assault on Humanity.^ No matter what the group who was destroyed were going to do, it can hardly be worse than genocide!!
    • Daylight Atheism > Defending Genocide 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ What is worse than genocide?
    • Daylight Atheism > Defending Genocide 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Demonstrating that "genocide is the only means available to avoid [worse than genocide event X]" is a task and a half, though!
    • Daylight Atheism > Defending Genocide 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    PublicAffairs. pp. 672. ISBN 1586487698.
     
  • Harff, Barbara (August 2003). Early Warning of Communal Conflict and Genocide: Linking Empirical Research to International Responses. Westview Press. ISBN 0813398401. 
  • Hochschild, Adam (1998). King Leopold's Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 0395759242. 
  • Horowitz, Irving (2001). Taking Lives: Genocide and State Power (5th ed.). Transaction Publishers. ISBN 0765800942. 
  • Jonassohn, Kurt; Karin Björnson (1998). .Genocide and Gross Human Rights Violations.^ Human Right, therefore I care about the Armenian Genocide ...
    • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I care not only as an Armenian, but also as a human being who believes that such unrestrained, state-sponsored violation of human rights should never have occurred.
    • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If we are to be serious--and not merely sanctimonious--about human rights, then we must be serious about eradicating genocide.
    • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

    Transaction Publishers. ISBN 1560003146.
     
  • Kelly, Michael J. (2005). Nowhere to Hide: Defeat of the Sovereign Immunity Defense for Crimes of Genocide & the Trials of Slobodan Milosevic and Saddam Hussein. Peter Lang. ISBN 0820478350. 
  • Kiernan, Ben (2007). Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur. Yale University Press. ISBN 0300100981. 
  • Laban, Alexander (2002). Genocide: An Anthropological Reader. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 063122355X. 
  • Lemarchand, René (1996). Burundi: Ethnic Conflict and Genocide. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521566231. 
  • MacKinnon, Catharine A. (2006). Are Women Human?: And Other International Dialogues. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674025555. 
  • Power, Samantha (2003). "A Problem from Hell": America and the Age of Genocide. Harper Perennial. ISBN 0060541644. 
  • Rosenfeld, Gavriel D. (1999). "The Politics of Uniqueness: Reflections on the Recent Polemical Turn in Holocaust and Genocide Scholarship". Holocaust and Genocide Studies 13 (1): 28–61. doi:10.1093/hgs/13.1.28. 
  • Rotberg, Robert I.; Thomas G. Weiss (1996). From Massacres to Genocide: The Media, Public Policy, and Humanitarian Crises. Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 0815775903. 
  • Rummel, R.J. (March 1997). Death by Government. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 1560009276. http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/NOTE1.HTM. 
  • Shaw, Martin (2007). What is Genocide?. Cambridge: Polity Press. ISBN 0745631827. 
  • Sunga, Lyal S. (1997). .The Emerging System of International Criminal Law: Developments in Codification and Implementation.^ He is the author and editor of 23 books on U.S. criminal law, international and comparative criminal law and human rights.
    • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

    Kluwer. ISBN 9041104720.
     
  • Sunga, Lyal S. (1992). .Individual Responsibility in International Law for Serious Human Rights Violations.^ And one thing that I know that I will seek to do as Chairman of the International Operations and Human Rights Committeeand Mr. Moran is a member of that subcommitteeis to get all the information.
    • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He is the author and editor of 23 books on U.S. criminal law, international and comparative criminal law and human rights.
    • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He is a member of the Human Rights subcommittee of the International Relations Committee.
    • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

    Springer. ISBN 0792314530.
     
  • Totten, Samuel; William S. Parsons, and Israel W. Charny (2008). Century of Genocide: Critical Essays and Eyewitness Accounts (3rd ed.). Routledge. ISBN 0415990858. 
  • Valentino, Benjamin A. (2004). .Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the 20th Century.^ The first Genocide of the 20th century is still not recognized by many countries.
    • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But other than the losers of World War II, none of the 20th-century genocide perpetrators has been brought to justice.
    • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ To the contrary, the history of the 20th century suggests that most people who perpetrate genocide get away with it.
    • The book OF Books: LETHAL LAWS - Gun Control IS the Key to GENOCIDE! 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.gunownersalliance.com [Source type: Original source]

    Cornell University Press. ISBN 0801439655.
     
  • Weitz, Eric D. (2003). .A Century of Genocide: Utopias of Race and Nation.^ How cah such great leading nations, examples of human rights and democracy turn a blind eye and not condemn the 1st Genocide of the 20th Century.
    • who cares about the armenian genocide? 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC april24.com [Source type: Original source]

    Princeton University Press. pp. 360. .ISBN 0691122717. 
Overviews
Resources
Research Programs

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

Contents

.The aim of this learning project (or set of projects) is to study the social psychology of human beings in the context of genocide, including its causes, consequences, and what can be done to prevent or minimise mass killing of human ethnic groups by other human groups.^ SGN Social Networking Other projects .

^ Early, respected study of the psychology of genocide.
  • Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction - Bibliography 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.genocidetext.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The history of humankind is a litany of mass killings, not for food as in the animal kingdom, but for territorial acquisition, to increase power and domination of others.

Nyamata Memorial Site, skulls. Nyamata, Rwanda.
Warning This social psychology (psychology) page is currently under construction.
00%.svg Completion status: this resource is a stub, so not much has been done yet.

What is genocide?

This section is a stub. You can help Wikiversity by expanding it.
.Have a go at defining genocide and consider the issues involved in coming up with a definition.^ Failing to both acknowledge ongoing human rights violations by the GoS and consider these violations as another component of its genocidal campaign .

^ So, it will depend on how one defines or interprets the definition of the genocide convention as encompassing the entire group or just groups in a particular regional context.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

Did you know that the term only came into existence in 1944?

Socio-psychological factors

Falun Dafa, stop the persecution parade New York 2007.jpg
Add more socio-psychological factors which are involved in and particularly which contribute to genocide. If one interests you, then write some more here (or on the linked pages) about it and how it connects with genocide:

Stages of genocide

.One way of understanding how and why genocide occurs is to view it as evolving through a series of socio-cultural stages.^ The problem we're probably going to run into is that we won't be able to agree on how to establish any of that one way or the other.
  • Daylight Atheism > Defending Genocide 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So, it will depend on how one defines or interprets the definition of the genocide convention as encompassing the entire group or just groups in a particular regional context.
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the very basic questions was, is this genocide, is there a clear way to establish that fact?
  • GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

Add a table of these here for further discussion and consideration (the table can be copied from the Wikipedia link below).
This section is a stub. You can help Wikiversity by expanding it.

See also

References

  1. Baum, S. K. (2004). A bell curve of hate? Journal of Genocide Research, 6, 567-577.
  2. Staub, E. (2006). .Reconciliation after genocide, mass killing, or intractable conflict: Understanding the roots of violence, psychological recovery, and steps toward a general theory.^ Armenian genocide is the proper term for the mass killings of Muslims by Armenian Vampires (such as Tashnak and Hinchak Bandits) throughout Ottoman land.

    ^ Christian P. Scherrer, Genocide and Crisis in Central Africa: Conflict Roots, Mass Violence, and Regional War .
    • Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction - Bibliography 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.genocidetext.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Ervin Staub, The Roots of Evil: The Origins of Genocide and Other Group Violence .
    • Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction - Bibliography 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.genocidetext.net [Source type: Academic]

    Political Psychology, 27, 867-894.
  3. Woolf, L. M. & Hulsizer, M. R. (2005). .Psychosocial roots of genocide: Risk, prevention, and intervention.^ Charny, Israel W. (1991) Genocide: Intervention and Prevention.
    • Human Rights Bibliography: Genocide, Ethnocide, Ecocide, with Special Reference to Indigenous Peoples: A Bibliography 27 January 2010 23:55 UTC www.aaanet.org [Source type: Academic]

    Journal of Genocide Research, 7, 101-128.

Simple English

Genocide is the crime of killing many people who are all part of one ethnic group, religious group, or some sort of similar group, and trying to destroy that group. Genocide is done usually by a group, such as a government, or military group, not by one person or a small number of people. Usually, the motivation for genocide is based on political reasons.

The word genocide was made up by Raphael Lemkin, a Polish Jew, in 1944, from the words "genos" (Greek for family, tribe or race) and "-cide" (from the Latin "occidere", to kill). It was first used to the Nazi Holocaust, when many groups, including Jews and others, were killed.

Ustashe of Croatia are another example of genocidial horror. About a million of Serbs were killed in WWII in Ustashe concentration camps. Methods used were disgusting even to German Nazis.

Another example of genocide was when about a million of the Tutsi group of people of Rwanda were killed along with Hutus who were against the genocide in 1994.

In 1933 Lemkin made a speech to the Legal Council of the League of Nations conference on international criminal law in Madrid, for which he prepared an essay on the Crime of Barbarity as a crime against international law. The purpose of the crime, which later evolved into the idea of genocide, was based mostly on the experience of Assyrians[1] massacred in Iraq on 11 August 1933. The event in Iraq reminded him of earlier similar events of the Armenian Genocide during World War I.[2]

References

  1. Raphael Lemkin - EuropeWorld, 22/6/2001
  2. Raphael Lemkin - EuropeWorld, 22/6/2001

Other pages


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 30, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Genocide, which are similar to those in the above article.








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