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Merlin reads his prophecies to Vortigern, from British Library MS Cotton Claudius B VII of Geoffrey of Monmouth's Prophetiae Merlini, c.1250-70

Geoffrey of Monmouth (Latin: Galfridus Monemutensis, Galfridus Arturus, Galfridus Artur, Welsh: Gruffudd ap Arthur, Sieffre o Fynwy) (c. 1100 – c. 1155) was a British cleric and one of the major figures in the development of British history and the popularity of tales of King Arthur. He is best known for his chronicle Historia Regum Britanniae ("History of the Kings of Britain"), widely popular in its day and translated to various other languages from its original Latin.



Geoffrey was probably born some time between 1100 and 1110[1] in Wales or the Welsh Marches. He must have reached the age of majority by 1129, when he is recorded as witnessing a charter. In his Historia, Geoffrey refers to himself as Galfridus Monumetensis, "Geoffrey of Monmouth", which indicates a significant connection to Monmouth, Wales, and which may refer to his birthplace.[2] Geoffrey's works attest to some acquaintance with the place-names of the region.[2] To contemporaries, Geoffrey was known as Galfridus Artur(us) or variants thereof.[2][1] The "Arthur" in these versions of his name may indicate the name of his father, or a nickname based on Geoffrey's scholarly interests.[1] Earlier scholars assumed that Geoffrey was Welsh or at least spoke Welsh,[1] However, it is now recognised that there is no real evidence that Geoffrey was of either Welsh or Cambro-Norman descent, unlike for instance, Gerald of Wales.[2] Geoffrey's knowledge of the Welsh language appears to have been slight.[1] He is likely to have sprung from the same French-speaking elite of the Welsh border country as the writers Gerald of Wales and Walter Map, and Robert, Earl of Gloucester, to whom Geoffrey dedicated versions of his Historia Regum Britanniae.[1] It has been argued, by Frank Stenton among others, that Geoffrey's parents may have been among the many Bretons who took part in William I's Conquest and settled in the southeast of Wales.[2] Monmouth had been in the hands of Breton lords since 1075[2] or 1086[1] and the names Galfridus and Arthur (if interpreted as a patronymic) were more common among the Bretons than the Welsh.[2]

He may have served for a while in a Benedictine priory in Monmouth.[3] However, most of his adult life appears to have been spent outside Wales. Between 1129 and 1151 his name appears on six charters in the Oxford area, sometimes styled magister ("teacher").[1] He was probably a secular Augustinian canon of St. George's college. Oxford castle,[3] All the charters signed by Geoffrey are also signed by Walter, Archdeacon of Oxford, also a canon at that church. Another frequent co-signatory is Ralph of Monmouth, a canon of Lincoln.[1]

On 21 February 1152 Archbishop Theobald consecrated Geoffrey as bishop of St Asaph, having ordained him a priest 10 days before. "There is no evidence that he ever visited his see," writes Lewis Thorpe, "and indeed the wars of Owain Gwynedd make this most unlikely."[4] He appears to have died between 25 December 1154 and 24 December 1155, when his apparent successor, Richard, took office.[1]


Geoffrey wrote several works of interest, all in Latin, the language of learning and literature in Europe during the medieval period. The earliest one to appear was probably the Prophetiae Merlini (Prophecies of Merlin), which he wrote at some point before 1135, and which appears both independently and incorporated into the Historia Regum Britanniae. It consists of a series of obscure prophetic utterances attributed to Merlin, which Geoffrey claimed to have translated from an unspecified language. In this work Geoffrey drew from the established Welsh tradition of prophetic writing attributed to the sage Myrddin, though his knowledge of Myrddin's story at this stage in his career appears to have been slight.[5] Many of its prophesies referring to historical and political events up to Geoffrey's lifetime can be identified – for example, the sinking of the White Ship in 1120, when William Adelin, son of Henry I, died.[1]

Geoffrey introduced the spelling "Merlin", derived from the Welsh "Myrddin". The Welsh scholar Rachel Bromwich observed that this "change from medial dd > l is curious. It was explained by Gaston Paris as caused by the undesirable associations of the French word merde".[6] The first work about this legendary prophet in a language other than Welsh, it was widely read — and believed — much as the prophecies of Nostradamus were centuries later; John Jay Parry and Robert Caldwell note that the Prophetiae Merlini "were taken most seriously, even by the learned and worldly wise, in many nations", and list examples of this credulity as late as 1445.[7]

His major work was the Historia Regum Britanniae (History of the Kings of Britain), the work best known to modern readers. It relates the purported mythical history of Britain, from its first settlement by Brutus, a descendant of the Trojan hero Aeneas, to the death of Cadwallader in the seventh century, taking in Julius Caesar's invasions of Britain, two kings, Leir and Cymbeline, later immortalized by William Shakespeare, and one of the earliest developed narratives of King Arthur.

Geoffrey claims in his dedication that the book is a translation of an "ancient book in the British language that told in orderly fashion the deeds of all the kings of Britain", given to him by Walter, Archdeacon of Oxford. Contemporary historians have dismissed this claim.[8] It is, however, likely that the Archdeacon furnished Geoffrey with some materials in the Welsh language that helped inspire his work, as Geoffrey's position and acquaintance with the Archdeacon would not have afforded him the luxury of fabricating such a claim outright.[9] Much of it is based on the Historia Britonum, a 9th century Welsh-Latin historical compilation, Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum and Gildas's sixth-century polemic De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae expanded with material from Bardic oral tradition, genealogical tracts, and embellished by Geoffrey's own imagination.[10]

Historia Regum Britanniae is now acknowledged as a literary work of national myth containing little reliable history. This has since led many modern scholars to agree with William of Newburgh, who wrote around 1190 that "it is quite clear that everything this man wrote about Arthur and his successors, or indeed about his predecessors from Vortigern onwards, was made up, partly by himself and partly by others, either from an inordinate love of lying, or for the sake of pleasing the Britons."[11] Other contemporaries were similarly unconvinced by Geoffrey's "History". For example, Giraldus Cambrensis recounts the experience of a man possessed by demons: "If the evil spirits oppressed him too much, the Gospel of St John was placed on his bosom, when, like birds, they immediately vanished; but when the book was removed, and the History of the Britons by 'Geoffrey Arthur' (as Geoffrey named himself) was substituted in its place, they instantly reappeared in greater numbers, and remained a longer time than usual on his body and on the book."[12]

However, his major work was widely disseminated across the whole of Medieval Western Europe (Acton Griscom listed 186 extant manuscripts in 1929, and others have been identified since)[13] and it enjoyed a significant afterlife in a variety of forms, including translations/adaptations such as the Anglo-Norman Roman de Brut of Wace, the Middle English Brut of Layamon, and several anonymous Middle Welsh versions known as Brut y Brenhinedd ("Brut of the kings").[14] where it was generally accepted as a true account.

Furthermore, his structuring and reshaping of the Merlin and Arthur myths engendered the vast popularity of Merlin and Arthur myths in later literature, a popularity that lasts to this day; he is generally viewed by scholars as the major establisher of the Arthurian canon.[15] The Historia's effect on the legend of King Arthur was so vast that Arthurian works have been categorized as "pre-" or "post-Galfridian" depending on whether or not they were influenced by him.

The third work attributed to Geoffrey is another hexameter poem Vita Merlini ("Life of Merlin"). The Vita is based much more closely on traditional material about Merlin than are the other works; here he is known as Merlin of the Woods (Merlinus Sylvestris) or Scottish Merlin (Merlinus Caledonius), and is portrayed an old man living as a crazed and grief-stricken outcast in the forest. The story is set long after the timeframe of Historia's Merlin, but the author tries to synchronize the works with references to the mad prophet's previous dealings with Vortigern and Arthur. The Vita did not circulate widely, and the attribution to Geoffrey appears in only one late 13th century manuscript, but contains recognisably Galfridian elements in its construction and content, and most critics are content to recognise it as his.[1]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l J. C. Crick, "Monmouth, Geoffrey of (d. 1154/5)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, accessed 7 June 2009
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Roberts, "Geoffrey of Monmouth, Historia Regnum Britanniae and Brut y Brenhinedd", p. 98.
  3. ^ a b Dunn, Charles W. (1958). Bibliographical Note to History of the Kings of Britain. E.P Dutton & Co.. 
  4. ^ From the introduction to his translation of The History of the Kings of Britain (London: Penguin Books, 1966), p. 12.
  5. ^ Ziolkowski, p. 152.
  6. ^ Bromwich, Trioedd Ynys Prydein: The Welsh Triads, second edition [Cardiff: University of Wales, 1978], p. 472 n.1.
  7. ^ John Jay Parry and Robert Caldwell. "Geoffrey of Monmouth" in Arthurian Literature in the Middle Ages, Roger S. Loomis (ed.), Clarendon Press, Oxford University, 1959, p. 79
  8. ^ Richard M. Loomis, The Romance of Arthur New York & London, Garland Publishing, Inc. 1994, pg. 59
  9. ^ Michael Curley, Geoffrey of Monmouth, p. 12
  10. ^ Thorpe, Kings of Britain pp. 14-19.
  11. ^ Quoted by Thorpe, Kings of Britain, p. 17.
  12. ^ Gerald of Wales, The Journey through Wales/The Description of Wales (Lewis Thorpe ed.), Penguin, 1978, Chapter 5, p 116.
  13. ^ Thorpe, Kings of Britain p. 28
  14. ^ Thorpe, Kings of Britain p. 29
  15. ^ Thorpe, Kings of Britain, p. 20ff., particularly pp. 20–22 & 28–31.

References and further reading

  • Geoffrey of Monmouth. "The History of the Kings of Britain." Edited and translated by Michael Faletra. Broadview Books: Peterborough, Ontario, 2008. ISBN 1-55111639-1
  • Geoffrey of Monmouth. The History of the Kings of Britain. Translated, with introduction and index, by Lewis Thorpe. Penguin Books: London, 1966. ISBN 0-14-044170-0
  • John Jay Parry and Robert Caldwell. "Geoffrey of Monmouth" in Arthurian Literature in the Middle Ages, Roger S. Loomis (ed.). Clarendon Press: Oxford University. 1959. ISBN 0-19-811588-1
  • N. J. Higham. King Arthur: Myth-making and History, London and New York, Routledge, 2002, ISBN 0415213053
  • John Morris. The Age of Arthur: A History of the British Isles from 350 to 650. Barnes & Noble Books: New York. 1996 (originally 1973). ISBN 1-84212-477-3
  • Brynley F. Roberts. "Geoffrey of Monmouth, Historia Regnum Britanniae and Brut y Brenhinedd" in The Arthur of the Welsh: The Arthurian Legend in Medieval Welsh Literature, Cardiff, University of Wales Press, 1991, ISBN 0708313078
  • Michael Skupin, including translations of the Vita Merlini.
  • Curley, Michael. Geoffrey of Monmouth. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1994.
  • Ziolkowski, Jan (1990). "The Nature of Prophecy in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Vita Merlini". In Kugel, James L. (Ed.), Poetry and Prophecy: the Beginnings of a Literary Tradition. Cornell.

External links


English translations available on the web


Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Geoffrey of Monmouth, Gaufridus Monemutensis, or Galfridus Arthurus (c. 1100 – c. 1155) was a British chronicler, poet and bishop, possibly of Breton descent. His hugely influential but for the most part fictional History of the Kings of Britain popularised the legends of King Arthur, Merlin, Cymbeline and Brutus of Troy, and originated the story of King Lear.


Historia Regum Britanniae (History of the Kings of Britain)

English versions are by Aaron Thompson (adapted by John Allen Giles), and are taken from John Allen Giles (ed.) Six Old English Chronicles (London: Henry G. Bohn, 1848), to which page-numbers also refer.

  • Diva potens nemorum terror silvestribus ac spes!
    Cui licet anfractus ire per ethereos,
    Infernasque domos terrestria iura resolve.
    Et dic quas terras nos habitare velis.
    Dic certam sedem qua te venerabor in euum.
    Qua tibi virgineis templa dicabo choris.
    • Goddess of woods, tremendous in the chase
      To mountain boars, and all the savage race!
      Wide o'er the ethereal walks extends thy sway,
      And o'er the infernal mansions void of day!
      Look upon us on earth! unfold our fate,
      And say what region is our destined seat?
      Where shall we next thy lasting temples raise?
      And choirs of virgins celebrate thy praise?
    • Bk. 1, ch. 11; pp. 100-101.
  • Brute sub occasu solis trans Gallica regna
    Insula in occeano est habitata gigantibus olim.
    Nunc deserta quidem gentibus apta tuis.
    Illa tibi fietque tuis locus aptus in aevum;
    Hec erit et natis altera Troia tuis,
    Hic de prole tua reges nascentur et ipsis
    Totius terrae subditus orbis erit.
    • Brutus! there lies beyond the Gallic bounds
      An island which the western sea surrounds,
      By giants once possessed; now few remain
      To bar thy entrance, or obstruct thy reign.
      To reach that happy shore thy sails employ;
      There fate decrees to raise a second Troy,
      And found an empire in thy royal line,
      Which time shall ne'er destroy, nor bounds confine.
    • Bk. 1, ch. 11; p. 101.
  • "Est uspiam pater mi filia quae patrem suum plus quam patrem presumat diligere? Non reor equidem ullam esse quae hoc fateri audeat nisi iocosis veritatem celare nitatur. Nempe ego dilexi te semper ut patrem, et adhuc a proposito meo non divertor. Et si ex me magis extorquere insistis, audi cercudinem amoris quae adversum te habeo et interrogationibus tuis finem impone: et enim quantum habes tantum vales tantumque te diligo."
    • "My father," said she, "is there any daughter that can love her father more than duty requires? In my opinion, whoever pretends to it, must disguise her real sentiments under the veil of flattery. I have always loved you as a father, nor do I yet depart from my purposed duty; and if you insist to have something more extorted from me, hear now the greatness of my affection, which I always bear you, and take this for a short answer to all your questions; look how much you have, so much is your value, and so much do I love you."
    • Bk. 2, ch. 11; p. 115.
  • In hec verba cum fletu et singultu prupit. "O irrevocabilia seria fatorum quae solito cursu fixum iter tenditis cur unquam me ad instabilem felicitatem promovere volvistis cum maior pena sit ipsam amissam recolere quam sequentis infelicitatis presentia urgeri."
    • With deep sighs and tears, he burst forth into the following complaint: – "O irreversible decrees of the Fates, that never swerve from your stated course! why did you ever advance me to an unstable felicity, since the punishment of lost happiness is greater than the sense of present misery?"
    • Bk. 2, ch. 12; p. 117.
  • Accedens deinde proprius rege flexis genibus dixit. "Lauerd King, wassheil." At ille visa facie puelle admiratus est tantum eius decorum et incalvit. Denique interrorogavit interpretem suum quid dixerat puella, et quid ei respondere deberet. Cui interpres dixit, "Vocavit te dominum regem et vocabulo salutacionis honoravit. Quid autem respondere debes est 'drincheil.'"
    • She approached the king, and making a low courtesy, said to him, "Lauerd king wacht heil!" The king, at the sight of the lady's face, was on a sudden both surprised and inflamed with her beauty; and calling on his interpreter, asked him what she said, and what answer he should make her. "She called you, 'Lord king,'" said the interpreter, "and offered to drink your health. Your answer to her must be, Drinc heil!"
    • Bk. 6, ch. 12; p. 186.
  • Tunc invitatis probissimis quibusque ex longe positis regnis, cepit familiam suam augmentare, tantamque facetiam in domo sua habere ita et emulationem longe manentibus populis ingereret. Unde nobilissimus quisque incitatus nichili pendebat se nisi sese sive in induendo sive in arma ferendo ad modo militum Arturi haberet.
    • After this, having invited over to him all persons whatsoever that were famous for valour in foreign nations, he began to augment the number of his domestics, and introduced such politeness into his court, as people of the remotest countries thought worthy of their imitation. So that there was not a nobleman who thought himself of any consideration, unless his clothes and arms were made in the same fashion as those of Arthur's knights.
    • Bk. 9, ch. 11; p. 239.
  • Quicumque vero famosus probitate miles in eadem erat unius coloris vestibus atque armis utebatur facete etiam mulieres consimilia indumenta habentes. Nullius amorem habere dignabantur nisi tercio in milicia probates esset. Efficiebantur ergo caste et meliores et milites pro amore illarum probiores.
    • The knights in [Britain] that were famous for feats of chivalry, wore their clothes and arms all of the same colour and fashion: and the women also no less celebrated for their wit, wore all the same kind of apparel; and esteemed none worthy of their love, but such as had given a proof of their valour in three several battles. Thus was the valour of the men an encouragement for the women's chastity, and the love of the women a spur to the soldier's bravery.
    • Bk. 9, ch. 13; pp. 244-5.
    • Sometimes said to be the earliest reference to love as an ennobling influence.
  • Set et inclitus ille rex Arturus letaliter vulneratus est qui illuc ad sananda vulnera sua in insulam Avallonis evectus, Constantino cognato suo, et filio Cadoris ducis Cornubie diadema Britannie concessit.
    • And even the renowned king Arthur himself was mortally wounded; and being carried thence to the isle of Avallon to be cured of his wounds, he gave up the crown of Britain to his kinsman Constantine, the son of Cador, duke of Cornwall.
    • Bk. 11, ch. 2; p. 271.

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