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Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Geordie is a regional nickname for a person from the Tyneside[1] region of England, or the name of the English dialect spoken by its inhabitants. Depending on who is using the term, the catchment area for the term Geordie can be as big as the whole north east of England, or as small as the city of Newcastle upon Tyne. Sunderland, however, uses the regional nickname "Mackem" as opposed to Geordie. Similarly, people from the Teesside area (Middlesbrough, Stockton-on-Tees, Redcar, Billingham and surrounding settlements) are known as "Teessiders", or through derision as "Smoggies".

In most aspects Geordie speech is a direct continuation and development of the language spoken by the Anglo-Saxon settlers of this region. Initially mercenaries employed by the Ancient Brythons to fight the Pictish invaders after the end of Roman rule in Britannia in the 5th century, the Angles, Saxons and Jutes who thus arrived became, over time, ascendant politically and - through population transfer from tribal homelands in northern Europe - culturally over the native British. The Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms that emerged during the Dark Ages spoke mutually intelligible varieties of Old English, each varying somewhat in phonology, morphology, syntax and lexicon. Thus, in northern England, dominated by the Kingdom of Northumbria, was found a distinct 'Northumbrian' Old English dialect. Old English, or Anglo-Saxon, is the forebear of Modern English; but while the modern dialects of most other English regions have been much changed by the influences of other foreign languages, Norman-French and Norse in particular, the modern dialects of Northern England (including Geordie), remain closer to the sounds and words of the 'Northumbrian' Anglo-Saxon dialect, thus featuring many characteristics of Old English lost in Standard English.[2][3][4]

In recent times "Geordie" has been used to refer to a supporter of Newcastle United football club.[5]

Contents

Derivation of the term

A number of rival theories explain how the term came about, though all accept that it derives from a familiar diminutive form of the name George[6] which was once the most popular name for eldest sons in the north-east of England.[7]

One explanation is that it was established during the Jacobite Rebellion of 1745. The Jacobites declared that the natives of Newcastle were staunch supporters of the Hanoverian kings, in particular of George II during the 1745 rebellion. This contrasted with rural Northumbria, which largely supported the Jacobite cause. If true, the term may have derived from a popular anti-Hanoverian song ("Cam ye O'er Frae France?"[8]), which calls the first Hanoverian king "Geordie Whelps", meaning "George the Guelph".

Another explanation for the name is that local miners in the north east of England used "Geordie" safety lamps, designed by George Stephenson[9] in 1815, rather than the "Davy lamps" designed by Humphry Davy which were used in other mining communities.

Using the chronological order of two John Trotter Brockett books:

1. Brockett, John Trotter (1829). A Glossary Of North Country Words In Use With Their Etymology And Affinity To Other Languages And Occasional Notices Of local Customs And Popular Superstitions. E. Charnley. pp. 131. "GEORDIE, George—a very common name among the pitmen. “How ! Geordie man ! how is’t”" ;

2. Brockett, John T. (1846). A Glossary of North Country Words. pp. 187. "GEORDIE, George—a very common name among the pitmen. “How ! Geordie man ! how is’t” The Pitmen have given the name of Geordie to Mr George Stephenson's lamp in contra-distinction of the Davy, or Sir Humphry Davy's Lamp." 

Geordie was given to North East pit men, later Brockett acknowledges the pitmen christened their Stephenson lamp ‘Geordie’.[7][10]

Wales[11] also predates the Oxford English Dictionary, she observes that "Geordy" (or "Geordie") was a common name given to pit-men in ballads and songs of the region, noting that such usage turns up as early as 1793. It occurs in the titles of two songs by song-writer Joe Wilson (1841–1875): Geordy, Haud the Bairn and Keep your Feet Still, Geordie. Citing such examples as the song Geordy Black written by Rowland Harrison of Gateshead, she contends that, as a consequence of popular culture, the miner and the keelman had become icons of the region in the 19th century, and "Geordie" was a label that "affectionately and proudly reflected this," replacing the earlier ballad emblem, the figure of Bob Crankie.

Newcastle publisher Frank Graham's Geordie Dictionary states:

"The origin of the word Geordie has been a matter of much discussion and controversy. All the explanations are fanciful and not a single piece of genuine evidence has ever been produced."

In Graham's many years of research, the earliest record he has found of the terms use was in 1823 by local comedian, Billy Purvis. Purvis had set up a booth at the Newcastle Races on the Town Moor. In an angry tirade against a rival showman, who had hired a young pitman called Tom Johnson to dress as a clown, Billy cried out to the clown:

"Ah man, wee but a feul wad hae sold off his furnitor and left his wife. Noo, yor a fair doon reet feul, not an artificial feul like Billy Purvis! Thous a real Geordie! gan man an hide thysel! gan an' get thy picks agyen. Thou may de for the city, but never for the west end o' wor toon."
(Rough translation: "Oh man, who but a fool would have sold off his furniture and left his wife? Now, you're a fair downright fool, not an artificial fool like Billy Purvis! You're a real Geordie! Go, man, and hide yourself! Go and get your picks [axes] again. You may do for the city, but never for the west end of our town!")

Graham is backed up historically by Hotten (1869).[12]

The definition of Geordie as around the Tyne communities was not always the case, as Geordie has been documented for at least 180 to 240 years as meaning the whole of the North East of England. (As referenced in Camden Hotten, John (1869). The Slang Dictionary, Or Vulgar Words, Street Phrases And Fast Expressions of High and Low Society. John Camden Hotten. pp. 142. "“Geordie, general term in Northumberland and Durham for a pitman, or coal-miner. Origin not known; the term has been in use more than a century."" .[12] The book was reprinted in 2004.[13]

BAD-WEATHER GEORDY. A name applied to cockle sellers. "As the season at which cockles are in greatest demand is generally the most stormy in the year - September to March - the sailors' wives at the seaport towns of Northumberland and Durham consider the cry of the cockle man as the harbinger of bad weather, and the sailor, when he hears the cry of 'cockles alive,' in a dark wintry night, concludes that a storm is at hand, and breathes a prayer, backwards, for the soul Of Bad-Weather-Geordy" - S. Oliver, Rambles in Northumberland, 1835.

“Plus Geordieland means Northumberland and Durham” Dobson Tyne 1973[14]

Geographical coverage

When referring to the people, as opposed to the dialect, dictionary definitions of a Geordie typically refer to "a native or inhabitant of Newcastle upon Tyne, England, or its environs",[15] an area that encompasses North Tyneside, Newcastle, South Tyneside and Gateshead.[1][16][17] However, just as a Cockney is often colloquially defined as someone "born within the sound of the Bow bells", a Geordie can be defined as someone born "within spitting distance of the Tyne".[18] Another interpretation is the mining areas of the North East of England.[12]

Although the dialects of North East England were often grouped together as Geordie,[12] in modern times this is incorrect. This misconception is usually made by people from outside the north east.

People from Sunderland have been nicknamed Mackems in recent generations. However, the earliest known recorded use of the term found by the Oxford English Dictionary occurred as late as 1988.[19]

Vocabulary

For a detailed description of the accent and dialect of Tyneside, see Tyneside English. Geordie has a large amount of vocabulary not heard elsewhere in England. Geordie often features as one of the UK's most popular accents.In a newspaper survey, the Geordie accent was found to be the "most attractive in England".[20]

Words still in common use by Geordie dialect speakers today include:

  • Aa, "I"[21]
  • aboot 'about'[22]
  • ahent 'behind'
  • a'reet (/ˈɑːlriːt/) a variation on alright or Hello (Some times used as alreet mate); ‘igh’ is pronounced /i:/ (as in leet (light))
  • awer 'over' as in "Hoy it awer, pet!" meaning "Throw it over, dear." (See below for hoy and pet).
  • aall, all[22]
  • Baccy, tobacco [22]
  • "Baccy Shop", tobacco shop[22]
  • bait 'food'
  • banter 'chat/gossip'
  • bi 'pen'; shortened version of biro
  • buk 'book', pronounced with /u/
  • cannit 'cannot'
  • canny 'pleasant' (the Scottish use of canny is often somewhat less flattering), or to mean 'quite'. Someone could therefore be 'canny canny' in the same way someone can be 'pretty pretty' in standard English.
  • carcastic 'sarcastic'
  • chinn'd 'hurt'
  • chud/chuddy 'chewing gum'
  • D/dee 'do'[22]
  • dappa 'A term used to insult those who are smartly dressed'
  • deeks 'look at'
  • dinnor, dinner[22]
  • divint 'don't'
  • divvie 'stupid person'
  • doon 'down' (e.g. "gan doon toon" - "gone down town")
  • ee used like oh, often in shock "ee neva"
  • forkytail 'earwig'
  • gan 'gone/going' (e.g. "gan doon toon" - "gone down town") OR ("ya gan hyam?" - "are you going home?")
  • geet for "very", also
  • glaiky 'thoughtless, fool, clumsy'
  • haad for "hold" example: 'keep a hadd' is 'keep a hold' and 'had yer gob' becomes 'keep quiet'. That polite little notice in the parks aboot keepin' yor dog on a lead is 'ye cud hev keep a-hadden yor dog'[23]
  • hacky for "dirty"
  • hadaway for "get away"[24], an expression of doubt
  • hinny a term of endearment - "Honey"[23]
  • hoy for "to throw"[23]
  • hoose, house[22]
  • hyem/hyam for "home"
  • is/iz 'me'
  • kairn 'house' or 'home'
  • kets for "sweets/treats"
  • knaa for "to know/know"
  • Lar/Thar instead of though
  • Lend often used for borrow, "can ah lend a bi" meaning "Can I borrow a pen?".
  • lowy 'money'
  • "Ma/Mar/Mam", a variation of Mother[22]
  • marra 'friend'
  • mesel, myself[22]
  • mollycoddle overprotect, "wrap in cotton wool"
  • muggy a marble (the childs toy, not the rock)
  • naa|nar 'no'
  • nowt 'nothing' (nought); ‘(a/o)ugh’ is pronounced /aw/: thowt (thought)
  • neb 'nose' (nebby 'nosy')
  • nettie 'toilet'
  • wiktionary:neewhere 'Nowhere'
  • nowt for "nothing"[23]
  • wiktionary:owt 'Anything'
  • penca a marble (the child's toy, not the rock)
  • pit for "bed"
  • polit for police
  • tab for "cigarette"
  • stottie cake for stottie, a large, flat, unsweetened soft bread loaf/roll
  • sumink for something
  • toby for "stroll"
  • toon for "Town", the phrase "the toon" specifically refers to Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
  • us 'me' (often used to imply oneself - e.g. "are yous looking at us")
  • wey for "well"
  • whey aye for "Yes"
  • wint for wont (also 'wivvint')
  • Wo, Wa, Woh or wat or wot what
  • wor for "our", used mainly in the context of wor kid, meaning 'friend', one's sibling or literally 'our kid'. Used primarily to denote a family member.
  • wuh for "us"
  • wiktionary:ye or yuh for you
  • Yem For Home e.g. "c'mon Pet, let's gan the yem"
  • yous 'you/you lot/all of you' (used as a multiple of 'you' implying more than one person, although it sometimes does simply mean 'you' in its singular form- e.g. "are yous looking at us")

Howay or Haway is broadly comparable to the invocation "Come on!" or the French "Allez-y!" ("Go on!"). Examples of common use include Howay man! or Haway man!, meaning "come on" or "hurry up", Howay the lads! or Haway the lads! as a term of encouragement for a sports team for example(the players tunnel at St James' Park has the phrase just above the entrance to the pitch), or Ho'way!? (with stress on the second syllable) expressing incredulity or disbelief.[23] The 'a' and 'o' in howay/haway convey different strands of aggression, with the ‘a’ being the aggressive. The literal opposite of this word is "Haddaway" (go away), which is not as popular as Howay, but has found frequent use in the phrase "Haddaway an' shite" (Tom Hadaway, Figure 5.2 Haddaway an' shite; ’Cursing like sleet blackening the buds, raging at the monk of Jarrow scribbling his morality and judgement into a book.’[24]).

Divvie or divvy seems to come from the Co-op dividend,[25] or from the two Davy lamps (the more dangerous explosive Scotch Davy[26] used in 1850, commission disapproved of its use in 1886. (inventor not known, and nicknamed Scotch Davy probably given by miners after the Davy lamp was made perhaps by north east miners who used the Stephenson Lamp[9][27]), and the later better designed Davy designed by Humphry Davy also called the Divvy.[28]) As in a north east miner saying ‘Marra, ye keep way from me if ye usin a divvy.' It seems the word divvie then translated to daft lad/lass. Perhaps coming from the fact you’d be seen as foolish going down a mine with a Scotch Divvy when there are safer lamps out, like the Geordie, or the Davy.

The Geordie word netty,[29] meaning a toilet and place of need and necessity for relief[29][30][31] or bathroom,[29][30][31] has an uncertain origin,[32] though some have theorised that it may come from slang used by Roman soldiers on Hadrian's Wall,[33] which may have later become gabinetti in the Romanic Italian language[33] (Such as this article about the Westoe Netty, the subject of a famous painting from Bob Olley[33]. Another article about the Westoe Netty is featured here [34]). However gabbinetto is the Modern Italian diminutive of gabbia, which actually derives from the Latin cavea ("hollow", "cavity", "enclosure") the root of the loanwords that became the Modern English cave, cage, and gaol. Thus, another explanation would be that it comes from a Modern Romanic Italian form of the word gabinetti,[32] though only a relatively small number of Italians have migrated to the North of England, mostly during the 19th century.[35]

Some etymologists connect the word netty to the Modern English word needy. John Trotter Brockett, writing in 1829 in his A glossary of north country words...[31], claims that the etymon[36] of netty (and it's related form neddy) is the Modern English needy and need

Bill Griffiths, in A Dictionary of North East Dialect points to the earlier form, the Old English níd; he writes thusly "MS locates a possible early ex. "Robert Hovyngham sall make... at the other end of his house a knyttyng" York 1419, in which case the root could be OE níd 'necessary'".[30]

Another related word, nessy is thought (by Griffiths) to derive from the Modern English "necessary".[30]

A poem, called ‘YAM’ narrated by author Douglas Kew, demonstrates the usage of a lot of Geordie words.[37][38]

In addition to many different words, Geordie also has phonetics different from Standard English.

Some Myths About Geordie

A number of myths regarding the Geordie dialect may be encountered. These include:

  • The Geordie dialect is in some sense closer to Old English than other dialects of English (the survival of the monophthong [uː] in words such as out and town is often quoted as evidence of this). It is unlikely that any modern variety of English is closer to Old English than any other, and many innovations have occurred in Geordie which have not occurred in other traditional English dialects (the same could be said for any dialect compared with any other): e.g. it is non-rhotic, it has lost the phoneme /x/, it has lost the historical distinction between Middle English /ɛː/ (e.g. in bean) and /eː/ (e.g. in sheep), and has merged the NORTH and FORCE lexical sets.
  • Geordie has been particularly influenced by the language of the Vikings. Although Geordie, like all traditional varieties of Scots and northern English, contains elements derived from Old Norse, it has been subject to much less influence from this language than, for example, the dialects of Yorkshire.
  • The traditional Geordie pronunciation of the word home, [jɛm], is a direct result of Scandinavian influence (since hjem is the word for home in Norwegian).[39] Geordie [jɛm] is the regular development of Old English hām (which is also the source of Standard English home). The sequence [jɛ], deriving from Old English ā, also occurs in the most traditional northeast pronunciations of words such as bone [bjɛn] (< OE bān), stone [stjɛn] (< OE stān) and whole [hjɛl] (< OE hāl).
  • Marcus Bentley, the voice of Big Brother in the UK, has a typical Geordie accent. Although born in Gateshead, Bentley grew up in Stockton-on-Tees, which has quite a different accent.
  • Geordies have a uvular R [ʁ]. This was formerly the case, and still is for some older speakers in Northumberland, but it is now extinct in Tyneside. R is pronounced as typical English [ɹ], sometimes as a tap [ɾ] between vowels, and increasingly as labio-dental [ʋ].

In the media

In recent times, the Geordie dialect has featured prominently in the British media due to its alien dialect to much of the population but also its friendly appeal. Note however that, although the dialect appears, the dialect is toned down for comprehension of the general (non-Northumbrian) public. Television presenters such as Ant and Dec are now happy to use their natural accents on air. Marcus Bentley, the commentator on the UK edition of Big Brother, is often perceived by southerners to have a Geordie dialect. However, he grew up in Stockton on Tees. Brendan Foster and Sid Waddell have both worked as television sports commentators. Cheryl Cole, a member of Girls Aloud and judge on The X Factor, has a Geordie accent. Joe McElderry the winner of X Factor 2009, has a Geordie accent. The song 'Why Aye Man' is also a popular Geordie song by Mark Knopfler.

The dialect was also popularized by the comic magazine Viz, where the dialect is often conveyed phonetically by unusual spellings within the comic strips. Viz magazine was founded on Tyneside by two locals, Chris Donald and his brother Simon.

The Steve Coogan-helmed BBC comedy I'm Alan Partridge featured a Geordie named Michael (Simon Greenall) as the primary supporting character and de facto best friend of the eponymous hero, despite Partridge's referring to Michael at one point as 'just the Work Geordie'.

The movie Goal!, which stars Kuno Becker and Alessandro Nivola, prominently exposes the Newcastle football club, as well as exposing the Geordies and their dialect.

Mike Neville and George House (aka Jarge Hoose), presenters of the BBC local news program Look North, in the 1960s and 1970s, not only incorporated Geordie into the show, albeit usually in comedy pieces pointing up the gulf between ordinary Geordies and officials speaking Standard English, but were responsible for a series of recordings, beginning with Larn Yersel' Geordie[40] which attempted, not always seriously, to bring the Geordie dialect to the rest of England.

The mastermind behind Larn Yersel' Geordie was local humorist Scott Dobson,[41] who wrote several booklets on the theme in the early 1970s, including History O' the Geordies,[42] Advanced Geordie Palaver,[43][44] The Geordie Joke Book (with Dick Irwin)[45] and The Little Broon Book (Bringing out The New Little Broon Book in 1990[46]).

The Jocks and the Geordies was a Dandy comic strip running from 1975 to the early 1990s.

In the lyrics of the song "Sailing to Philadelphia" by Mark Knopfler, Jeremiah Dixon describes himself as a "Geordie boy. Jeremiah Dixon, surveyor of the Mason-Dixon line"[47]. In an earlier live album and video, Alchemy: Dire Straits Live, the band are seen in a pub - on the wall hangs a scoreboard for darts featuring "Geordies" vs. "All Others."

Dorfy, real name Dorothy Samuelson-Sandvid, was a noted Geordie dialect writer who once wrote for the South Shields Gazette.[48][49][50][51][52]

Auf Wiedersehen, Pet was a popular fictional British comedy-drama series about a group of seven British migrant construction workers:[53][54] Wayne, Dennis, Oz, Bomber, Barry, Neville and Moxey, who, in Series 1, are living and working on a German building site. Three of the seven were Geordies. Dennis Patterson (played by Tim Healy) comes from Birtley Co. Durham; Leonard "Oz" Osborne (played by Jimmy Nail) comes from Gateshead; and Neville Hope (played by Kevin Whately) comes from North Shields.

The Hairy Bikers' Cookbook with Geordie Simon King and Dave Myers. The duo's lifestyle TV show is a mixture of cookery and travelogue.[55]

In 1974, Alan Price’s Jarrow song reached number one in the old RNI International Service, and number 4 in the UK charts, which brought to the attention once again of the Jarrow March.[56]

The character Detective Inspector Robert "Robbie" Lewis (formerly Detective Sergeant) in the long-running ITV series Inspector Morse is a self-described Geordie-- although not a "professional" one. His speech variety serves as a foil to Morse's pedantry and RP.

On the arts program "Aria and Pasta," the Northumbrian opera singer Sir Thomas Allen described the dish he prepared as "Geordie Pasta."

The character "Geordie Georgie", as portrayed by Catherine Tate in her eponymous TV show, is a Geordie, complete with a thick affected accent, and is portrayed regularly taking part in (mostly ridiculously ambitious) sponsored events for a North East based charity - the charity in question usually has a website with an outrageous domain name, for instance, the site for the charity she supports for battered husbands is "www.chinnedbythemissus.co.uk". The sketches usually conclude with her remonstrating her co-worker Martin, sometimes by violent means (playing on the Geordie stereotype for violent behaviour), for his apparent non-support of her charitable crusades.[57]

Famous Geordies

References

  1. ^ a b "AskOxford.com - a person from Tyneside". http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/geordie?view=uk. Retrieved 2007-09-01. 
  2. ^ http://www.northeastengland.talktalk.net/GeordieOrigins.htm
  3. ^ http://www.rolyveitch.20m.com/dialect_history.html
  4. ^ http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/sounds/case-studies/geordie/
  5. ^ Arca gives Boro spark to silence bigoted Geordie fans | Match Reports | guardian.co.uk Football
  6. ^ "AskOxford.com - from the given name George". http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/geordie?view=uk. Retrieved 2007-09-01. 
  7. ^ a b Brockett, John Trotter (1829). A Glossary Of North Country Words In Use With Their Etymology And Affinity To Other Languages And Occasional Notices Of local Customs And Popular Superstitions. E. Charnley. pp. 131. "GEORDIE, George-a very common name among the pitmen. “How ! Geordie man ! how is’t”" 
  8. ^ Recorded by the folk group Steeleye Span on their album Parcel of Rogues, 1973.
  9. ^ a b Smiles, Samuel (1859). The Life of George Stephenson, Railway Engineer. pp. 120. "As to the value of the invention of the safety lamp, there could be no doubt; and the colliery owners of Durham and Northumberland, to testify their sense of its importance, determined to present a testimonial to its inventor." 
  10. ^ Brockett, John T. (1846). A Glossary of North Country Words. pp. 187. "GEORDIE, George—a very common name among the pitmen. “How ! Geordie man ! how is’t” The Pitmen have given the name of Geordie to Mr George Stephenson's lamp in contra-distinction of the Davy, or Sir Humphry Davy's Lamp." 
  11. ^ Katie Wales (2006). Northern English: A Cultural and Social History. Cambridge University Press. pp. 134–136. ISBN 0521861071. 
  12. ^ a b c d Camden Hotten, John (1869). The Slang Dictionary, Or Vulgar Words, Street Phrases And Fast Expressions of High and Low Society. John Camden Hotten. pp. 142. "“Geordie, general term in Northumberland and Durham for a pitman, or coal-miner. Origin not known; the term has been in use more than a century."" )
  13. ^ Amazon.com: The Slang Dictionary; or, The Vulgar Words, Street Phrases, and 'Fast' Expressions of High and Low Society: Many with their etymology, and a few with their history traced: John Camden Hotten: Books
  14. ^ Dobson, Scott (1973). A light hearted guide to Geordieland. Graham (1973). ISBN 0902833898. "Plus Geordieland means Northumberland and Durham" 
  15. ^ geordie - Definitions from Dictionary.com
  16. ^ "Jarrow Song". allyrics.net. http://www.allyrics.net/a/10853/Alan_Price-lyrics/174882/Jarrow_Song/index.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-07. 
  17. ^ "Blaydon Races". http://www.tomorrows-history.com/CommunityProjects/PE0100050001/Blaydon%20Races.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-29. 
  18. ^ Geordie Dialect - BBC
  19. ^ "No mackem until 1990". Oxford English Dictionary. http://www.oed.com/bbcwords/mackem.html. Retrieved 2007-10-22. 
  20. ^ http://thescotsman.scotsman.com/uk/Scots-accent-is-UK39s-second.4525816.jp
  21. ^ "A taste of domestic service for Dorfy", South Shields Gazette, 2009-07-01, http://www.shieldsgazette.com/cookson/A-taste-of-domestic-service.5417503.jp 
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i "A housewife's lot, according to Dorfy", South Shields Gazette, 2009-07-22, http://www.shieldsgazette.com/cookson/A-housewife39s-lot-according-to.5483030.jp 
  23. ^ a b c d e "Dorphy dialog". http://web.archive.org/web/20030413133406/http://website.lineone.net/~d.ord/Dorphy.htm. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  24. ^ a b Colls, Robert; Lancaster, Bill; Bryne, David; Carr, Barry; Hadaway, Tom; Knox, Elaine; Plater, Alan; Taylor, Harvey et al. (2005). Geordies. Northumbria University Press. p. 90. ISBN 1904794122. http://www.amazon.co.uk/Geordies-Roots-Regionalism-Robert-Colls/dp/1904794122/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qisbn=1196421632&sr=8-1. "Hadaway an’ shite; ’Cursing like sleet blackening the buds, raging at the monk of Jarrow scribbling his morality and judgement into a book.’" 
  25. ^ IMS: Customer Satisfaction: BIP2005 (Integrated Management Systems). BSI Standards. 2003. pp. 10. ISBN 100580414264. "An early example, which may be remembered by older readers was the Co-op dividend or 'divvie'. On paying their bill, shoppers would quote a number recorded ..." 
  26. ^ Henderson, Clarks, NEIMME: Lamps - No. 14. SCOTCH DAVY LAMP., http://www.mininginstitute.org.uk/lamps/Davy.html, retrieved 2007-12-02, "CONSTRUCTION. Gauzes. Cylindrical, 2 ins diameter. 41/2" high with conical top, a double gauze 1 ins. in depth at the peak. 24 mesh iron. Light. Candle." 
  27. ^ Henderson, Clarks, NEIMME: Lamps - No. 16. STEPHENSON (GEORDIE) LAMP., http://www.mininginstitute.org.uk/lamps/Stephenson.html, retrieved 2007-12-02 
  28. ^ Henderson, Clarks, NEIMME: Lamps - No. 1 - DAVY LAMP., http://www.mininginstitute.org.uk/lamps/Davy.html, retrieved 2007-12-02 
  29. ^ a b c Graham, Frank ((November 1986)). The Geordie Netty: A Short History and Guide. Butler Publishing; New Ed edition. ISBN 0946928088. http://www.amazon.co.uk/Geordie-Netty-Short-History-Guide/dp/0946928088/ref=sr_1_1/026-5166506-7385210?ie=UTF8&s=books&qisbn=1194978041&sr=8-1. 
  30. ^ a b c d Griffiths, Bill (2005-12-01). A Dictionary of North East Dialect. Northumbria University Press. pp. 122. ISBN 1904794165. "Netty outside toilet, Ex.JG Annfield Plain 1930s. “nessy or netty”Newbiggin-in-Teesdale C20/mid; “outside netties” Dobson Tyne 1972; ‘lavatory’ Graham Geordie 1979. EDD distribution to 1900: N’d. NE 2001: in circulation. ?C18 nessy from necessary; ? Ital. cabinette; Raine MS locates a possible early ex. “Robert Hovyngham sall make… at the other end of hys house knyttyng” York 1419, in which case root could be OE nid ‘necessity’. Plus “to go to the Necessary” (public toilet) Errington p.67 Newcastle re 1800s: “lav” Northumbrian III C20/2 re Crawcrook; “oot back” G’head 2001 Q; “larty – toilet, a children’s word, the school larties’” MM S.Shields C20/2 lavatory" 
  31. ^ a b c Trotter Brockett, John (1829). A glossary of north country words, in use. From an original manuscript, with additions.. Oxford University. pp. 214. http://books.google.co.uk/books/pdf/A_glossary_of_north_country_words__in_us.pdf?id=m-8IAAAAQAAJ&output=pdf&sig=ACfU3U246jcCHcRmESGyTIkP9603yOaDZg. "NEDDY, NETTY, a certain place that will not bear a written explanation; but which is depleted to the very life in a tail-piece in the first edition of Bewick’s Land Birds, p. 285. In the second edition a bar is placed against the offending part of this broad display of native humour. Etymon needy, a place of need or necessity." 
  32. ^ a b "Netty". http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/sounds/case-studies/geordie/lexis/. "although some theories suggest it is an abbreviation of Italian gabbinetti, meaning ‘toilet’" 
  33. ^ a b c "Urinal finds museum home". http://arts.guardian.co.uk/art/news/story/0,,2049601,00.html. Retrieved 2007-10-08. "the urinals have linguistic distinction: the Geordie word "netty" for lavatory derives from Roman slang on Hadrian's Wall which became "gabinetto" in Italian" 
  34. ^ "Famed Geordie netty is museum attraction". The Northern Echo. 2007-03-31. http://www.thenorthernecho.co.uk/news/topstories/display.var.1299982.0.famed_geordie_netty_is_museum_attraction.php. 
  35. ^ Saunders, Rod. "Italian Migration to Nineteenth Century Britain: Why and Where, Why?". www.anglo-italianfhs.org.uk. http://www.anglo-italianfhs.org.uk/articles/immigration.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-03. "They were never in great numbers in the northern cities. For example, the Italian Consul General in Liverpool, in 1891, is quoted as saying that the majority of the 80-100 Italians in the city were organ grinders and street sellers of ice-cream and plaster statues. And that the 500-600 Italians in Manchester included mostly Terrazzo specialists, plasterers and modellers working on the prestigious, new town hall. While in Sheffield 100-150 Italians made cutlery." 
  36. ^ (*et•y•mon Pronunciation (t-mn)
    • n. pl. et•y•mons or et•y•ma (-m)
    • 1. An earlier form of a word in the same language or in an ancestor language. For example, Indo-European *duwo and Old English tw are etymons of Modern English two.
    • 2. A word or morpheme from which compounds and derivatives are formed.
    • 3. A foreign word from which a particular loan word is derived. For example, Latin duo, "two," is an etymon of English duodecimal.[1])
  37. ^ YAM narrated by author Douglas Kew. 2007-07-29. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1kKTaOCJROc. Retrieved 2008-01-02. "CAN YOU BELIEVE THIS IS ENGLISH!? "YAM" Pitmatic poem from a Trimdon Lad. From the book "A TRAVELER'S TALE" by Douglas Kew.; DouglasKew TRIMDON Poet YAM pitmatic Geordie" 
  38. ^ Kew, Douglas (2001-02-07). A Traveller's Tale. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 101552125521. http://www.amazon.co.uk/Travellers-Tale-Douglas-Kew/dp/1552125521/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qisbn=1198626070&sr=8-1. 
  39. ^ See, for example, the results on Google if you do a combined search for 'Geordie', 'hyem' and 'Norwegian'
  40. ^ "Neville,Mike: George House - Very Best Of Larn Yersel: Geordie & Geordierama". TV Presenter. 1995-12-13. http://www.hmv.co.uk/hmvweb/displayProductDetails.do?ctx=281;1;-1;-1&sku=489140. Retrieved 2007-11-06. 
  41. ^ Dobson, Scott (March 1970), Larn Yersel' Geordie, Frank Graham, ISBN 0900409576, http://www.amazon.co.uk/Larn-Yersel-Geordie-Scott-Dobson/dp/0900409576/ref=sr_1_2?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1194615370&sr=1-2 
  42. ^ Dobson, Scott (1 June 1970), History O' the Geordies, Frank Graham, ISBN 0900409185, http://www.amazon.co.uk/Histry-O-Geordies-Geordie-beuks/dp/0900409185/ref=sr_1_19?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1194614695&sr=1-19 
  43. ^ Dobson, Scott (June 1970), Advanced Geordie Palaver, Frank Graham, ISBN 090040938X, http://www.amazon.co.uk/Advanced-Geordie-Palaver-beuks/dp/090040938X/ref=sr_1_7?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1194613631&sr=1-7 
  44. ^ Dobson, Scott (April 1993), Advanced Geordie Palaver, Butler Publishing, ISBN 0946928436, http://www.amazon.co.uk/Advanced-Geordie-Palaver-Scott-Dobson/dp/0946928436/ref=sr_1_8?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1194613631&sr=1-8 
  45. ^ Irwin, Dick; Milne, Maurice; Dobson, Scott (1970), The Geordie Joke Book, Graham, ISBN 0900409797 
  46. ^ Dobson, Scott (1990), The new little broon book, Bridge Studios, ISBN 1872010601, http://www.amazon.co.uk/new-little-broon-book/dp/1872010601/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1194626340&sr=8-1 
  47. ^ "Sailing To Philadelphia". http://lyricsplayground.com/alpha/songs/s/sailingtophiladelphia.shtml. Retrieved 2007-11-09. "I Am Jeremiah Dixon; I Am A Geordie Boy" 
  48. ^ "Dorphy, Dorothy Samuelson-Sandvid. Dorphy's Geordie dialog, South Shields Gazette". http://web.archive.org/web/20030413133406/http://website.lineone.net/~d.ord/Dorphy.htm. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  49. ^ Sandvid, D (1970), Basinful o' Geordie: Tyneside Readings, H Hill, ISBN 0900463112 
  50. ^ Sandvid, D (1988), Basinful o' Geordie: Tyneside Readings, Sandhill P, ISBN 0946098123 
  51. ^ Sandvid, D (1969), Between Ye an' Me, H Hill, ISBN 0900463082 
  52. ^ Sandvid, D (1976), I Remember, Tree P, ISBN 0904790029 
  53. ^ "THE ORIGINAL AUF WIEDERSEHEN PET HOMEPAGE". http://www.aufpet.com/. Retrieved 2008-01-17. 
  54. ^ Wayne Winston Norris, Denis Patterson, Leonard “Oz” Osborne, Brian “Bomber” Busbridge, Barry Taylor, Neville Hope, Albert Arthur Moxey. (2002-10-07) (PAL). Auf Wiedersehen Pet Box Set - The Complete Series 1 and 2 [1983]. Region 2. http://www.amazon.co.uk/Auf-Wiedersehen-Pet-Box-Set/dp/B00005UPJX/ref=pd_bbs_6?ie=UTF8&s=dvd&qid=1199487505&sr=8-6. Retrieved 2008-01-17. 
  55. ^ Ferguson, Euan (2005-12-11). "Meet the new Delia and Nigella". Observer Food Monthly. http://observer.guardian.co.uk/foodmonthly/story/0,,1660787,00.html. "'just no relation to what you get late on a Geordie night out,' recalls Si." 
  56. ^ "RNI International Service Number One Hits, 1971–1974". 1974-06-14. http://www.icce.rug.nl/~soundscapes/DATABASES/RNI/rni02extra03.shtml. Retrieved 2009-08-28. "14-06, Jarrow Song, Alan Price" 
  57. ^ "CATHERINE TATE-GEORDIE GEORGIE". fanfiction.net. http://www.fanfiction.net/s/4709728/1/Geordie_Georgiefat_hamsters. Retrieved 2009-02-14. "“We’re doin’ a 96 hour weight lifting session, using only barrels produced by the nuclear power industry, for all the super morbidly obese hamsters in the north east area”" 

External links

geordie cartoon character


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia

Etymology

Diminutive of George.

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Geordie

Plural
-

Geordie

  1. Dialect/colloquial form of English spoken by Geordies, people from Newcastle upon Tyne.
  2. A diminutive of the male given name George.

Noun

Singular
Geordie

Plural
Geordies

Geordie (plural Geordies)

  1. (Northern England and Scottish, obsolete) A guinea.
  2. Someone from Newcastle upon Tyne.

Adjective

Geordie (not comparable)

Positive
Geordie

Comparative
not comparable

Superlative
none (absolute)

  1. Related to or characteristic of Geordies or Newcastle upon Tyne.







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