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George Eliot

Aged 30 by the Swiss artist Alexandre Louis François d'Albert Durade (1804–1886)
Born Mary Anne Evans
22 November 1819(1819-11-22)
South Farm, Arbury Hall, Nuneaton, Warwickshire, England
Died 22 December 1880 (aged 61)
4 Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, London, England
Resting place Highgate Cemetery (East), Highgate, London
Pen name George Eliot
Occupation Novelist
Period Victorian
Notable work(s) The Mill on the Floss (1860), Silas Marner (1861), Middlemarch (1871–72), Daniel Deronda (1876)
Spouse(s) John Cross (m. 1880)
Partner(s) George Henry Lewes (lived together 1854–1878)
Relative(s) Robert Evans and Christiana Pearson (parents); Christiana, Isaac, Robert, and Fanny (siblings)

Mary Anne (Mary Ann, Marian) Evans (22 November 1819 – 22 December 1880), better known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist and one of the leading writers of the Victorian era. She is the author of eight novels, including The Mill on the Floss (1860), Silas Marner (1861), Middlemarch (1871–72), and Daniel Deronda (1876), most of them set in provincial England and well known for their realism and psychological insight.

She used a male pen name, she said, to ensure that her works were taken seriously. Female authors were published under their own names, but Eliot wanted to ensure that she was not seen as merely a writer of romances. An additional factor may have been a desire to shield her private life from public scrutiny and to prevent scandals attending her relationship with the married George Henry Lewes, with whom she lived for over 20 years.[1]

Contents

Biography

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Early life and education

Eliot's birthplace at South Farm, Arbury

Mary Anne Evans was the third child of Robert Evans (1773–1849) and Christiana Evans (née Pearson), the daughter of a local farmer, (1788–1836). When born, Mary Anne, sometimes shortened to Marian,[2] had two teenage siblings, a half-brother, Robert (1802–1864), and sister, Fanny (1805–1882), from her father's previous marriage to Harriet Poynton (?1780-1809). Robert Evans was the manager of the Arbury Hall Estate for the Newdigate family in Warwickshire, and Mary Anne was born on the estate at South Farm. In early 1820 the family moved to a house named Griff, part way between Nuneaton and Coventry. Her full siblings were Christiana, known as Chrissey (1814–1859), Isaac (1816–1890), and twin brothers who survived a few days in March 1821.

The young Evans was obviously intelligent, and thanks to her father's important role on the estate, she was allowed access to the library of Arbury Hall, which greatly aided her education and breadth of learning. Her classical education left its mark; Christopher Stray has observed that "George Eliot's novels draw heavily on Greek literature (only one of her books can be printed correctly without the use of a Greek typeface), and her themes are often influenced by Greek tragedy".[3] Her frequent visits also allowed her to contrast the wealth in which the local landowner lived with the lives of the often much poorer people on the estate, and different lives lived in parallel would reappear in many of her works. The other important early influence in her life was religion. She was brought up within a narrow low church Anglican family, but at that time the Midlands was an area with a growing number of religious dissenters. She boarded at schools in Attleborough, Nuneaton and Coventry. At the second she was taught by the evangelical Maria Lewis—to whom her earliest surviving letters are addressed—and at the Coventry school she received instruction from Baptist sisters.

Move to Coventry

In 1836 her mother died and Evans returned home to act as housekeeper, but she continued correspondence with her tutor Maria Lewis. When she was 21, her brother Isaac married and took over the family home, so Evans and her father moved to Foleshill near Coventry. The closeness to Coventry society brought new influences, most notably those of Charles and Cara Bray. Charles Bray had become rich as a ribbon manufacturer and had used his wealth in building schools and other philanthropic causes. Evans, who had been struggling with religious doubts for some time, became intimate friends with the progressive, free-thinking Brays, whose home was a haven for people who held and debated radical views. The people whom the young woman met at the Brays' house included Robert Owen, Herbert Spencer, Harriet Martineau and Ralph Waldo Emerson. Through this society, Evans was introduced to more liberal theologies, and writers such as David Strauss and Ludwig Feuerbach, who cast doubt on the literal veracity of Biblical stories. In fact, her first major literary work was translating into English Strauss' Life of Jesus (1846), which she completed after it had been begun by another member of the Rosehill circle.

When Evans lost her religious faith, her father threatened to throw her out, although that did not happen. Instead, she respectably attended church for years and continued to keep house for him until his death in 1849. Five days after her father's funeral, she travelled to Switzerland with the Brays. She decided to stay in Geneva alone, living first on the lake at Plongeon (near the present United Nations buildings) and then at the Rue de Chanoines (now the Rue de la Pelisserie) with François and Juliet d’Albert Durade on the second floor ("one feels in a downy nest high up in a good old tree") (her stay is recorded by a plaque on the building). She read avidly and took long walks amongst a natural environment that inspired her greatly. François painted a portrait of her.[4]

Move to London and editorship of the Westminister Review

On her return to England in 1850, she moved to London with the intent of becoming a writer and calling herself Marian Evans. She stayed at the house of John Chapman, the radical publisher whom she had met at Rosehill and who had printed her translation. Chapman had recently bought the campaigning, left-wing journal The Westminster Review, and Evans became its assistant editor in 1851. Although Chapman was the named editor, it was Evans who did much of the work in running the journal, contributing many essays and reviews, until her departure in 1856.[citation needed]

Women writers were not uncommon at the time, but Evans's role at the head of a literary enterprise was. The mere sight of an unmarried young woman mixing with the predominantly male society of London at that time was unusual, even scandalous to some. Although clearly strong-minded, she was frequently sensitive, depressed, and crippled by self-doubt. She was considered to have an ill-favoured appearance,[5] and she formed a number of embarrassing, unreciprocated emotional attachments, including that to her employer, the married Chapman, and Herbert Spencer. However, another highly inappropriate attraction would prove to be much more successful and beneficial for Evans.[citation needed]

Relationship with George Lewes

The philosopher and critic George Henry Lewes met Evans in 1851, and by 1854 they had decided to live together. Lewes was married to Agnes Jervis, but they had agreed to have an open marriage, and in addition to the three children they had together, Agnes had also had several children by other men. Since Lewes was named on the birth certificate as the father of one of these children despite knowing this to be false, and was therefore considered complicit in adultery, he was not able to divorce Agnes. In July 1854 Lewes and Evans travelled to Weimar and Berlin together for the purpose of research. Before going to Germany, Evans continued her interest in theological work with a translation of Feuerbach's Essence of Christianity and while abroad she wrote essays and worked on her translation of Baruch Spinoza's Ethics, which she completed in 1856, but which was not published in her life-time.[6]

The trip to Germany also served as a honeymoon as Evans and Lewes now considered themselves married, with Evans calling herself Marian Evans Lewes, and referring to Lewes as her husband. It was not unusual for men and women in Victorian society to have affairs; Charles Bray, John Chapman, Charles Dickens, Friedrich Engels and Wilkie Collins all had affairs with women they were not married to, though more discreetly than Lewes and Evans. What was scandalous was the Leweses' open admission of the relationship. On their return to England, they lived apart from the literary society of London, both shunning and being shunned in equal measure.

First publication

George Eliot lived at 4 Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, the house where she died in December 1880.

While continuing to contribute pieces to the Westminster Review, Evans had resolved to become a novelist, and she set out a manifesto for herself in one of her last essays for the Review: Silly Novels by Lady Novelists. The essay criticised the trivial and ridiculous plots of contemporary fiction by women. In other essays she praised the realism of novels written in Europe at the time, and an emphasis placed on realistic story-telling would become clear throughout her subsequent fiction. She also adopted a new nom-de-plume, the one for which she would become best known: George Eliot. This masculine name was chosen partly in order to distance herself from the lady writers of silly novels, but it also quietly hid the tricky subject of her marital status.[citation needed]

In 1858 Amos Barton, the first of the Scenes of Clerical Life, was published in Blackwood's Magazine and, along with the other Scenes, was well received. Her first complete novel, published in 1859, was Adam Bede and was an instant success, but it prompted an intense interest in who this new author might be. Scenes of Clerical Life was widely believed to have been written by a country parson or perhaps the wife of a parson. With the release of the incredibly popular Adam Bede, speculation increased markedly, and there was even a pretender to the authorship, one Joseph Liggins. In the end, the real George Eliot stepped forward: Marian Evans Lewes admitted she was the author. The revelations about Eliot's private life surprised and shocked many of her admiring readers, but this apparently did not affect her popularity as a novelist. Eliot's relationship with Lewes afforded her the encouragement and stability she so badly needed to write fiction, and to ease her self-doubt, but it would be some time before they were accepted into polite society. Acceptance was finally confirmed in 1877, when they were introduced to Princess Louise, the daughter of Queen Victoria, who was an avid reader of George Eliot's novels.[citation needed]

After the popularity of Adam Bede, she continued to write popular novels for the next fifteen years. Within a year of completing Adam Bede, she finished The Mill on the Floss, inscribing the manuscript: "To my beloved husband, George Henry Lewes, I give this MS. of my third book, written in the sixth year of our life together, at Holly Lodge, South Field, Wandsworth, and finished 21 March 1860."

Her last novel was Daniel Deronda, published in 1876, whereafter she and Lewes moved to Witley, Surrey; but by this time Lewes's health was failing and he died two years later on 30 November 1878. Eliot spent the next two years editing Lewes's final work Life and Mind for publication, and she found solace with John Walter Cross, an American banker whose mother had recently died.

Marriage to John Cross and death

Eliot's grave in Highgate Cemetery

On 16 May 1880 George Eliot courted controversy once more by marrying a man twenty years younger than herself, and again changing her name, this time to Mary Anne Cross. The legal marriage at least pleased her brother Isaac, who sent his congratulations after breaking off relations with his sister when she had begun to live with Lewes. John Cross was a rather unstable character, and apparently jumped or fell from their hotel balcony into the Grand Canal in Venice during their honeymoon. Cross survived and they returned to England. The couple moved to a new house in Chelsea but Eliot fell ill with a throat infection. This, coupled with the kidney disease she had been afflicted with for the past few years, led to her death on 22 December 1880 at the age of 61.[7]

Eliot was not buried in Westminster Abbey because of her denial of the Christian faith and her "irregular" though monogamous life with Lewes. She was interred in Highgate Cemetery (East), Highgate, London in the area reserved for religious dissenters, next to George Henry Lewes. In 1980, on the centenary of her death, a memorial stone was established for her in the Poets’ Corner.

Several key buildings in her birthplace of Nuneaton are named after her or titles of her novels. For example George Eliot Hospital, George Eliot Community School and Middlemarch Junior School.

Writing

Literary assessment

Throughout her career, Eliot wrote with a politically astute pen. From Adam Bede to The Mill on the Floss and Silas Marner, Eliot presented the cases of social outsiders and small-town persecution. No author since Jane Austen had been as socially conscious and as sharp in pointing out the hypocrisy of the country squires. Felix Holt, the Radical and The Legend of Jubal were overtly political, and political crisis is at the heart of Middlemarch, in which she presents the stories of a number of denizens of a small English town on the eve of the Reform Bill of 1832; the novel is notable for its deep psychological insight and sophisticated character portraits.

Readers in the Victorian era particularly praised her books for their depictions of rural society, for which she drew on her own early experiences, and she shared with Wordsworth the belief that there was much interest and importance in the mundane details of ordinary country lives. Eliot did not, however, confine herself to her bucolic roots. Romola, an historical novel set in late 15th century Florence and touching on the lives of several real persons such as the priest Girolamo Savonarola, displays her wider reading and interests. In The Spanish Gypsy, Eliot made a foray into verse, creating a work whose initial popularity has not endured.

The religious elements in her fiction also owe much to her upbringing, with the experiences of Maggie Tulliver from The Mill on the Floss sharing many similarities with the young Mary Anne Evans's own development. When Silas Marner is persuaded that his alienation from the church means also his alienation from society, the author's life is again mirrored with her refusal to attend church. She was at her most autobiographical in Looking Backwards, part of her final printed work Impressions of Theophrastus Such. By the time of Daniel Deronda, Eliot's sales were falling off, and she faded from public view to some degree. This was not helped by the biography written by her husband after her death, which portrayed a wonderful, almost saintly, woman totally at odds with the scandalous life people knew she had led. In the 20th century she was championed by a new breed of critics; most notably by Virginia Woolf, who called Middlemarch "one of the few English novels written for grown-up people"[8]. The various film and television adaptations of Eliot's books have re-introduced her to the wider-reading public.

Works

Novels

Poetry

  • The Spanish Gypsy (a dramatic poem) 1868
  • Agatha, 1869
  • Armgart, 1871
  • Stradivarius, 1873
  • The Legend of Jubal, 1874
  • Arion, 1874
  • A Minor Prophet, 1874
  • A College Breakfast Party, 1879
  • The Death of Moses, 1879
  • From a London Drawing Room,
  • Count That Day Lost, ?
  • I Grant You Ample Leave

Other

Notes

  1. ^ Karl, Frederick R. George Eliot: Voice of a Century. Norton, 1995. pp. 237-8.
  2. ^ http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/collections/projects/eliot/middlemarch/bio.html#mary According to a University of Virginia research forum published here, her baptismal records record the spelling as Mary Anne, and she uses this spelling in her earliest letters. Around 1857, she began to use Mary Ann. In 1859, she was using Marian, but she reverted to Mary Ann in 1880.
  3. ^ Classics Transformed, p. 81
  4. ^ Hardy BN. George Elliot: A Critic's Biography. Continuum. London 2006 pp42-45.
  5. ^ She had a low forehead, a dull grey eye, a vast pendulous nose, a huge mouth full of uneven teeth and a chin and jawbone 'qui n'en finissent pas'... Now in this vast ugliness resides a most powerful beauty which, in a very few minutes, steals forth and charms the mind, so that you end, as I ended, in falling in love with her. Yes, behold me in love with this great horse-faced bluestocking. Henry James, in a letter to his father, published in Edel, Leon (ed.) Henry James: Selected Letters (1990)
  6. ^ Hughes, Kathryn, George Eliot: The Last Victorian, 168.
  7. ^ "George Eliot". BBC History. 2009-10-15. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/eliot_george.shtml. Retrieved 2009-12-30. 
  8. ^ Woolf, Virginia. "George Eliot." The Common Reader. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and World, 1925. pp. 166-76.

References

  • Stray, Christopher (1998). Classics Transformed: Schools, Universities, and Society in England, 1830-1960. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-815013-X. 

Further reading

  • Haight, Gordon S., George Eliot: A Biography, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1968, ISBN 0-19-811666-7.
  • Haight, Gordon S., ed., George Eliot: Letters, New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University Press, 1954, ISBN 0-300-01088-5.
  • Uglow, Jennifer, George Eliot, London, Virago, 1987, ISBN 0-394-75359-3.
  • Jenkins, Lucien, Collected Poems of George Eliot, London, Skoob Books Publishing, 1989, ISBN 1-871438-35-7
  • Wahba, Magdi (1981), Centenary Essays on George Eliot, Cairo, Egypt: Cairo Studies in English .

Context and background

  • Beer, Gillian, Darwin's Plots: Evolutionary Narrative in Darwin, George Eliot and Nineteenth-Century Fiction, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1983, ISBN 0-521-78392-5.
  • Beer, Gillian, George Eliot, Prentice Hall / Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1986, ISBN 0-7108-0511-X.
  • Chapman, Raymond, The Sense of the Past in Victorian Literature, London, CroomHelm, 1986, ISBN 0-7099-3441-6.
  • Cosslett, Tess, The 'Scientific Movement' and Victorian Literature, Brighton, Harvester, 1982, ISBN 0-312-70298-1.
  • Gilbert, Sandra M., and Gubar, Susan, The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth-Century Literary Imagination, New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University Press, 1979, ISBN 0-300-08458-7.
  • Hughes, Kathryn, George Eliot: The Last Victorian, New York, Farrar Straus Giroux, 1998, ISBN 0-374-16138-0.
  • Edel, Leon (ed.) Henry James: Selected Letters, Belknap Press (1990) ISBN 0674387945
  • Pinney, Thomas, ed., Essays of George Eliot, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1963, ISBN 0-231-02619-6.
  • Rignall, John, ed., 'Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot', Oxford University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-19-860099-2
  • Rignall, John, ed., 'George Eliot and Europe', Scolar Press, 1997, ISBN 1-85928-334-9
  • Shuttleworth, Sally, George Eliot and Nineteenth-Century Science: The Make-Believe of a Beginning, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1984, ISBN 0-521-25786-7.
  • Uglow, Jenny, George Eliot, London, Virago Press, 1988, ISBN 0 86068 400 8.
  • Willey, Basil, Nineteenth-Century Studies: Coleridge to Matthew Arnold, London, Chatto & Windus, 1964, ISBN 0-14-021709-6.
  • Williams, Raymond, The Country and the City, London, Chatto & Windus, 1973, ISBN 0-19-519810-7.

Critical studies

  • Alley, Henry, "The Quest for Anonymity: The Novels of George Eliot", University of Delaware Press, 1997.
  • Ashton, Rosemary, George Eliot, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1983.
  • Beaty, Jerome, Middlemarch from Notebook to Novel: A Study of George Eliot's Creative Method, Champaign, Illinois, University of Illinois, 1960.
  • Carroll, David, ed., George Eliot: The Critical Heritage, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1971.
  • Daiches, David, George Eliot: Middlemarch, London, Edward Arnold, 1963.
  • Dentith, Simon, George Eliot, Brighton, Harvester, 1986.
  • Garrett, Peter K., The Victorian Multiplot Novel: Studies in Dialogical Form, New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University Press, 1980.
  • Graver, Suzanne, George Eliot and Community: A Study in Social Theory and Fictional Form, Berkeley, California, University of California Press, 1984.
  • Harvey, W. J, The Art of George Eliot, London, Chatto & Windus, 1961.
  • Kettle, Arnold. An Introduction to the English Novel, vol. I, London, Hutchinson, 1951.
  • Leavis, F R The Great Tradition, London, Chatto & Windus, 1948.
  • Neale, Catherine, Middlemarch: Penguin Critical Studies,London, Penguin, 1989
  • Swinden, Patrick, eel., George Eliot: Middlemarch, London, Macmillan, 1972.

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

The growing good of the world is partly dependent on unhistoric acts; and that things are not so ill with you and me as they might have been, is half owing to the number who lived faithfully a hidden life, and rest in unvisited tombs.

Mary Ann Evans (22 November 181922 December 1880) was an English novelist and poet, more well-known by her pen name George Eliot, she also for a time used Mary Anne and Marian as variant spellings of her name.

Contents

Sourced

My own experience and development deepen everyday my conviction that our moral progress may be measured by the degree in which we sympathize with individual suffering and individual joy.
  • My own experience and development deepen everyday my conviction that our moral progress may be measured by the degree in which we sympathize with individual suffering and individual joy.
    • Letter to Charles Bray (15 November 1857)
We have all a chance of meeting with some pity, some tenderness, some charity, when we are dead: it is the living only who cannot be forgiven — the living only from whom men's indulgence and reverence are held off...
  • If art does not enlarge men's sympathies, it does nothing morally.
    • Letter to Charles Bray (5 July 1859)
  • I wish to use my last hours of ease and strength in telling the strange story of my experience. I have never fully unbosomed myself to any human being; I have never been encouraged to trust much in the sympathy of my fellow-men. But we have all a chance of meeting with some pity, some tenderness, some charity, when we are dead: it is the living only who cannot be forgiven — the living only from whom men's indulgence and reverence are held off, like the rain by the hard east wind. While the heart beats, bruise it — it is your only opportunity; while the eye can still turn towards you with moist, timid entreaty, freeze it with an icy unanswering gaze; while the ear, that delicate messenger to the inmost sanctuary of the soul, can still take in the tones of kindness, put it off with hard civility, or sneering compliment, or envious affectation of indifference; while the creative brain can still throb with the sense of injustice, with the yearning for brotherly recognition — make haste — oppress it with your ill-considered judgements, your trivial comparisons, your careless misrepresentations.
  • Our deeds are like children that are born to us; they live and act apart from our own will. Nay, children may be strangled, but deeds never: they have an indestructible life both in and out of our consciousness;
  • But veracity is a plant of paradise, and the seeds have never flourished beyond the walls.
The realm of silence is large enough beyond the grave. This is the world of light and speech, and I shall take leave to tell you that you are very dear.
  • I'm proof against that word failure. I've seen behind it. The only failure a man ought to fear is failure of cleaving to the purpose he sees to be best.
  • An election is coming. Universal peace is declared, and the foxes have a sincere interest in prolonging the lives of the poultry.
    • Felix Holt, the Radical (1866)
  • 'Tis God gives skill,
    But not without men's hands: He could not make
    Antonio Stradivari's violins
    Without Antonio.
    • Stradivarius (c. 1868)
  • I like not only to be loved, but also to be told that I am loved. I am not sure that you are of the same kind. But the realm of silence is large enough beyond the grave. This is the world of light and speech, and I shall take leave to tell you that you are very dear.
  • Blessed is the influence of one true, loving human soul on another.
    • As quoted in The New Dictionary of Thoughts : A Cyclopedia of Quotations from the Best Authors of the World, both Ancient and Modern (1960) compiled by Tryon Edwards, C. N. Catrevas, Jonathan Edwards, and Ralph Emerson Browns

Scenes of Clerical Life (1858)

This volume contains three stories: "The Sad Fortunes of the Rev. Amos Barton", "Mr Gilfil's Love Story" and "Janet's Repentance". The full text is available from Project Gutenberg.
  • Nice distinctions are troublesome. It is so much easier to say that a thing is black, than to discriminate the particular shade of brown, blue, or green, to which it really belongs. It is so much easier to make up your mind that your neighbour is good for nothing, than to enter into all the circumstances that would oblige you to modify that opinion.
    • "The Sad Fortunes of the Rev. Amos Barton" Ch. 4
  • Every man who is not a monster, a mathematician, or a mad philosopher, is the slave of some woman or other.
    • "The Sad Fortunes of the Rev. Amos Barton" Ch. 4
  • [Most people] are neither extraordinarily silly, nor extraordinarily wicked, nor extraordinarily wise; their eyes are neither deep and liquid with sentiment, nor sparkling with suppressed witticisms; they have probably had no hairbreadth escapes or thrilling adventures; their brains are certainly not pregnant with genius, and their passions have not manifested themselves at all after the fashion of a volcano. [...] Depend upon it, you would gain unspeakably if you would learn with me to see some of the poetry and the pathos, the tragedy and the comedy, lying in the experience of a human soul that looks out through dull grey eyes, and that speaks in a voice of quite ordinary tones.
    • "The Sad Fortunes of the Rev. Amos Barton" Ch. 5
  • Any coward can fight a battle when he's sure of winning; but give me the man who has pluck to fight when he's sure of losing. That's my way, sir; and there are many victories worse than a defeat.
  • Opposition may become sweet to a man when he has christened it persecution.
    • Janet's Repentance, Ch. 8
  • The blessed work of helping the world forward, happily does not wait to be done by perfect men.
    • "Janet's Repentance" Ch. 10 in Scenes of Clerical Life (1858); this has appeared in paraphrased form as: "The important work of moving the world forward does not wait to be done by perfect men."
  • Worldly faces, never look so worldly as at a funeral.
    • "Janet's Repentance" Ch. 25

Adam Bede (1859)

Full text online
  • It's but little good you'll do a-watering the last year's crop.
  • Deep, unspeakable suffering may well be called a baptism, a regeneration, the initiation into a new state.
  • We hand folks over to God's mercy, and show none ourselves.
  • Our deeds determine us, as much as we determine our deeds ...
  • Consequences are unpitying. Our deeds carry their terrible consequences, quite apart from any fluctuations that went before — consequences that are hardly ever confined to ourselves.
  • Family likeness has often a deep sadness in it. Nature, that great tragic dramatist, knits us together by bone and muscle, and divides us by the subtler web of our brains; blends yearning and repulsion; and ties us by our heart-strings to the beings that jar us at every movement.
  • Imagination is a licensed trespasser: it has no fear of dogs, but may climb over walls and peep in at windows with impunity.
  • The natur o' things doesn't change, though it seems as if one's own life was nothing but change. The square o' four is sixteen, and you must lengthen your lever in proportion to your weight, is as true when a man's miserable as when he's happy; and the best o' working is, it gives you a grip hold o' things outside your own lot."
  • Love has a way of cheating itself consciously, like a child who plays at solitary hide-and-seek; it is pleased with assurances that it all the while disbelieves.
  • "There's folks as make bad butter and trusten to the salt t' hide it." (Mrs Poyser)
  • It was a still afternoon — the golden light was lingering languidly among the upper boughs, only glancing down here and there on the purple pathway and its edge of faintly sprinkled moss: an afternoon in which destiny disguises her cold awful face behind a hazy radiant veil, encloses us in warm downy wings, and poisons us with violet-scented breath.
  • Such young unfurrowed souls roll to meet each other like two velvet peaches that touch softly and are at rest; they mingle as easily as two brooklets that ask for nothing but to entwine themselves and ripple with ever-interlacing curves in the leafiest hiding-places.
Falsehood is so easy, truth so difficult...
  • Her heart lived in no cherished secrets of its own, but in feelings which it longed to share with all the world.
  • People who love downy peaches are apt not to think of the stone, and sometimes jar their teeth terribly against it.
  • One can say everything best over a meal.
  • "I like breakfast-time better than any other moment in the day," said Mr. Irwine. "No dust has settled on one's mind then, and it presents a clear mirror to the rays of things."
  • These fellow-mortals, every one, must be accepted as they are: you can neither straighten their noses, nor brighten their wit, nor rectify their dispositions; and it is these people — amongst whom your life is passed — that it is needful you should tolerate, pity, and love: it is these more or less ugly, stupid, inconsistent people whose movements of goodness you should be able to admire — for whom you should cherish all possible hopes, all possible patience. And I would not, even if I had the choice, be the clever novelist who could create a world so much better than this, in which we get up in the morning to do our daily work, that you would be likely to turn a harder, colder eye on the dusty streets and the common green fields — on the real breathing men and women, who can be chilled by your indifference or injured by your prejudice; who can be cheered and helped onward by your fellow-feeling, your forbearance, your outspoken, brave justice.
    So I am content to tell my simple story, without trying to make things seem better than they were; dreading nothing, indeed, but falsity, which, in spite of one's best efforts, there is reason to dread. Falsehood is so easy, truth so difficult. The pencil is conscious of a delightful facility in drawing a griffin — the longer the claws, and the larger the wings, the better; but that marvellous facility which we mistook for genius is apt to forsake us when we want to draw a real unexaggerated lion. Examine your words well, and you will find that even when you have no motive to be false, it is a very hard thing to say the exact truth, even about your own immediate feelings — much harder than to say something fine about them which is not the exact truth.
    • Ch. 17
  • Human feeling is like the mighty rivers that bless the earth: it does not wait for beauty — it flows with resistless force and brings beauty with it.
  • All honour and reverence to the divine beauty of form! Let us cultivate it to the utmost in men, women, and children — in our gardens and in our houses. But let us love that other beauty too, which lies in no secret of proportion, but in the secret of deep human sympathy. Paint us an angel, if you can, with a floating violet robe, and a face paled by the celestial light; paint us yet oftener a Madonna, turning her mild face upward and opening her arms to welcome the divine glory; but do not impose on us any aesthetic rules which shall banish from the region of Art those old women scraping carrots with their work-worn hands, those heavy clowns taking holiday in a dingy pot-house, those rounded backs and stupid weather-beaten faces that have bent over the spade and done the rough work of the world — those homes with their tin pans, their brown pitchers, their rough curs, and their clusters of onions. In this world there are so many of these common coarse people, who have no picturesque sentimental wretchedness! It is so needful we should remember their existence, else we may happen to leave them quite out of our religion and philosophy and frame lofty theories which only fit a world of extremes. Therefore, let Art always remind us of them; therefore let us always have men ready to give the loving pains of a life to the faithful representing of commonplace things — men who see beauty in these commonplace things, and delight in showing how kindly the light of heaven falls on them. There are few prophets in the world; few sublimely beautiful women; few heroes. I can't afford to give all my love and reverence to such rarities: I want a great deal of those feelings for my every-day fellow-men, especially for the few in the foreground of the great multitude, whose faces I know, whose hands I touch for whom I have to make way with kindly courtesy.
  • It seems to me now, if I was to find Father at home to-night, I should behave different; but there's no knowing — perhaps nothing 'ud be a lesson to us if it didn't come too late.
  • It was the last weakness he meant to indulge in; and a man never lies with more delicious languor under the influence of a passion than when he has persuaded himself that he shall subdue it to-morrow.
  • There are so many of us, and our lots are so different, what wonder that Nature's mood is often in harsh contrast with the great crisis of our lives? We are children of a large family, and must learn, as such children do, not to expect that our hurts will be made much of — to be content with little nurture and caressing, and help each other the more.
  • There is no despair so absolute as that which comes with the first moments of our first great sorrow, when we have not yet known what it is to have suffered and be healed, to have despaired and to have recovered hope.
  • There's no pleasure i' living if you're to be corked up for ever, and only dribble your mind out by the sly, like a leaky barrel.
  • It is well known to all experienced minds that our firmest convictions are often dependent on subtle impressions for which words are quite too coarse a medium.
  • Men's lives are as thoroughly blended with each other as the air they breathe: evil spreads as necessarily as disease.
  • Doubtless a great anguish may do the work of years, and we may come out from that baptism of fire with a soul full of new awe and new pity.
  • How is it that the poets have said so many fine things about our first love, so few about our later love? Are their first poems their best? Or are not those the best which come from their fuller thought, their larger experience, their deeper-rooted affections?
  • They kissed each other with a deep joy.
    What greater thing is there for two human souls, than to feel that they are joined for life — to strengthen each other in all labour, to rest on each other in all sorrow, to minister to each other in all pain, to be one with each other in silent unspeakable memories at the moment of the last parting?
  • You told me the truth when you said to me once, "There's a sort of wrong that can never be made up for."
  • Come in, Adam, and rest; it has been a hard day for thee.

The Mill on the Floss (1860)

It seems to me we can never give up longing and wishing while we are thoroughly alive. There are certain things we feel to be beautiful and good, and we must hunger after them...
  • Anger and jealousy can no more bear to lose sight of their objects than love...
  • I think I should have no other mortal wants, if I could always have plenty of music. It seems to infuse strength into my limbs, and ideas into my brain. Life seems to go on without effort, when I am filled with music.
  • There is no feeling, except the extremes of fear and grief, that does not find relief in music.
  • I should like to know what is the proper function of women, if it is not to make reasons for husbands to stay at home, and still stronger reasons for bachelors to go out.
  • I've never any pity for conceited people, because I think they carry their comfort about with them.
  • Childhood has no forebodings; but then, it is soothed by no memories of outlived sorrow.
  • How lovely the little river is, with its dark changing wavelets! It seems to me like a living companion while I wander along the bank, and listen to its low, placid voice . . .
  • Better spend an extra hundred or two on your son's education, than leave it him in your will.
  • These bitter sorrows of childhood! when sorrow is all new and strange, when hope has not yet got wings to fly beyond the days and weeks, and the space from summer to summer seems measureless.
  • We could never have loved the earth so well if we had had no childhood in it...
  • If a man means to be hard, let him keep in his saddle and speak from that height, above the level of pleading eyes, and with the command of a distant horizon.
  • Ugly and deformed people have great need of unusual virtues, because they are likely to be extremely uncomfortable without them. (Book V.)
  • There was no gleam, no shadow, for the heavens, too, were one still, pale cloud; no sound or motion in anything but the dark river that flowed and moaned like an unresting sorrow.
  • High achievements demand some other unusual qualification besides an unusual desire for high prizes.
  • It is doubtful whether our soldiers would be maintained if there were not pacific people at home who like to fancy themselves soldiers. War, like other dramatic spectacles, might possibly cease for want of a "public."
  • If boys and men are to be welded together in the glow of transient feeling, they must be made of metal that will mix, else they inevitably fall asunder when the heat dies out.
  • If I got places, sir, it was because I made myself fit for 'em. If you want to slip into a round hole, you must make a ball of yourself; that's where it is.
  • It seems to me we can never give up longing and wishing while we are thoroughly alive. There are certain things we feel to be beautiful and good, and we must hunger after them. How can we ever be satisfied without them until our feelings are deadened?
  • She and Stephen were in that stage of courtship which makes the most exquisite moment of youth, the freshest blossom-time of passion, — when each is sure of the other's love, but no formal declaration has been made, and all is mutual divination, exalting the most trivial word, the lightest gesture, into thrills delicate and delicious as wafted jasmine scent.
  • One gets a bad habit of being unhappy.
  • There is something strangely winning to most women in that offer of the firm arm; the help is not wanted physically at that moment, but the sense of help, the presence of strength that is outside them and yet theirs, meets a continual want of the imagination.
  • Jealousy is never satisfied with anything short of an omniscience that would detect the subtlest fold of the heart.
  • More helpful than all wisdom is one draught of simple human pity that will not forsake us.
  • Nature repairs her ravages, — repairs them with her sunshine, and with human labor. The desolation wrought by that flood had left little visible trace on the face of the earth, five years after. The fifth autumn was rich in golden cornstacks, rising in thick clusters among the distant hedgerows; the wharves and warehouses on the Floss were busy again, with echoes of eager voices, with hopeful lading and unlading.
    And every man and woman mentioned in this history was still living, except those whose end we know.
  • Nature repairs her ravages, but not all. The uptorn trees are not rooted again; the parted hills are left scarred; if there is a new growth, the trees are not the same as the old, and the hills underneath their green vesture bear the marks of the past rending. To the eyes that have dwelt on the past, there is no thorough repair.
  • Renunciation remains sorrow, though a sorrow borne willingly.

O May I Join the Choir Invisible (1867)

O May I Join the Choir Invisible
O may I join the choir invisible
Of those immortal dead who live again
In minds made better by their presence...
  • O may I join the choir invisible
    Of those immortal dead who live again
    In minds made better by their presence; live
    In pulses stirred to generosity,
    In deeds of daring rectitude, in scorn
    For miserable aims that end with self,
    In thoughts sublime that pierce the night like stars,
    And with their mild persistence urge men's search
    To vaster issues.
  • So to live is heaven:
    To make undying music in the world,
    Breathing a beauteous order that controls
    With growing sway the growing life of man.
  • This is life to come, —
    Which martyred men have made more glorious
    For us who strive to follow. May I reach
    That purest heaven, — be to other souls
    The cup of strength in some great agony,
    Enkindle generous ardor, feed pure love,
    Beget the smiles that have no cruelty,
    Be the sweet presence of a good diffused,
    And in diffusion ever more intense!
    So shall I join the choir invisible
    Whose music is the gladness of the world.

The Legend of Jubal (1869)

A poem based on the biblical character Jubal - Full text online
When Cain was driven from Jehovah's land
He wandered eastward, seeking some far strand
Ruled by kind gods who asked no offerings
Save pure field-fruits...
  • When Cain was driven from Jehovah's land
    He wandered eastward, seeking some far strand
    Ruled by kind gods who asked no offerings
    Save pure field-fruits
    , as aromatic things,
    To feed the subtler sense of frames divine
    That lived on fragrance for their food and wine:
    Wild joyous gods, who winked at faults and folly,
    And could be pitiful and melancholy.
    He never had a doubt that such gods were;
    He looked within, and saw them mirrored there.
  • There comes a night when all too late
    The mind shall long to prompt the achieving hand,
    The eager thought behind closed portals stand,
    And the last wishes to the mute lips press
    Buried ere death in silent helplessness.
  • While the arm is strong to strike and heave,
    Let soul and arm give shape that will abide...
  • Lamech's sons were heroes of their race:
    Jubal, the eldest, bore upon his face
    The look of that calm river-god, the Nile,
    Mildly secure in power that needs not guile.
  • Jubal had a frame
    Fashioned to finer senses, which became
    A yearning for some hidden soul of things
    ,
    Some outward touch complete on inner springs
    That vaguely moving bred a lonely pain,
    A want that did but stronger grow with gain
    Of all good else, as spirits might be sad
    For lack of speech to tell us they are glad.
  • Each day he wrought and better than he planned,
    Shape breeding shape beneath his restless hand.
    (The soul without still helps the soul within,
    And its deft magic ends what we begin.)

    Nay, in his dreams his hammer he would wield
    And seem to see a myriad types revealed,
    Then spring with wondering triumphant cry,
    And, lest the inspiring vision should go by,
    Would rush to labor with that plastic zeal
    Which all the passion of our life can steal
    For force to work with. Each day saw the birth
    Of various forms, which, flung upon the earth,
    Seemed harmless toys to cheat the exacting hour,
    But were as seeds instinct with hidden power.
    • On the work of the metal-smith Tubal-Cain
  • Then, as the metal shapes more various grew,
    And, hurled upon each other, resonance drew,
    Each gave new tones, the revelations dim
    Of some external soul that spoke for him
    :
    The hollow vessel's clang, the clash, the boom,
    Like light that makes wide spiritual room
    And skyey spaces in the spaceless thought,
    To Jubal such enlarged passion brought,
    That love, hope, rage, and all experience,
    Were fused in vaster being, fetching thence
    Concords and discords, cadences and cries
    That seemed from some world-shrouded soul-to rise,
    Some rapture more intense, some mightier rage,
    Some living sea that burst the bounds of man's brief age.
The song shall spread and swell as rivers do,
And I will teach our youth with skill to woo
This living lyre, to know its secret will;
Its fine division of the good and ill.
So shall men call me sire of harmony,
And where great Song is, there my life shall be.
  • Jubal sat lonely, all around was dim,
    Yet his face glowed with light revealed to him
  • Such patience have the heroes who begin,
    Sailing the first toward lands which others win.

    Jubal must dare as great beginners dare,
    Strike form's first way in matter rude and bare,
    And, yearning vaguely toward the plenteous choir
    Of the world's harvest, make one poor small lyre.
  • "This wonder which my soul hath found,
    This heart of music in the might of sound,
    Shall forthwith be the share of all our race,
    And like the morning gladden common space:
    The song shall spread and swell as rivers do,
    And I will teach our youth with skill to woo
    This living lyre, to know its secret will;
    Its fine division of the good and ill.
    So shall men call me sire of harmony,
    And where great Song is, there my life shall be.
    "
    Thus glorying as a god beneficent,
    Forth from his solitary joy he went
    To bless mankind.
The heart must break
For lack of voice, or fingers that can wake
The lyre's full answer; nay, its chords were all
Too few to meet the growing spirit's call.
  • 'Twas easy following where invention trod
    — All eyes can see when light flows out from God.

    And thus did Jubal to his race reveal
    Music their larger soul, where woe and weal
    Filling the resonant chords, the song, the dance,
    Moved with a wider-winged utterance.
  • New voices come to me where'er I roam,
    My heart too widens with its widening home:
    But song grows weaker, and the heart must break
    For lack of voice, or fingers that can wake
    The lyre's full answer; nay, its chords were all
    Too few to meet the growing spirit's call.

    The former songs seem little, yet no more
    Can soul, hand, voice, with interchanging lore
    Tell what the earth is saying unto me:
    The secret is too great, I hear confusedly.
  • No farther will I travel: once again
    My brethren I will see, and that fair plain
    Where I and song were born.
    There fresh-voiced youth
    Will pour my strains with all the early truth
    Which now abides not in my voice and hands,
    But only in the soul, the will that stands
    Helpless to move. My tribe remembering Will cry,
    "'Tis he!" and run to greet me, welcoming.
Sudden and near the trumpet's notes out-spread,
And soon his eyes could see the metal flower,
Shining upturned, out on the morning pour
Its incense audible...
  • Sudden and near the trumpet's notes out-spread,
    And soon his eyes could see the metal flower,
    Shining upturned, out on the morning pour
    Its incense audible; could see a train
    From out the street slow-winding on the plain
    With lyres and cymbals, flutes and psalteries,
    While men, youths, maids, in concert sang to these
    With various throat, or in succession poured,
    Or in full volume mingled. But one word
    Ruled each recurrent rise and answering fall,
    As when the multitudes adoring call
    On some great name divine, their common soul,
    The common need, love, joy, that knits them in one whole.
    The word was "Jubal!"... "Jubal" filled the air,
    And seemed to ride aloft, a spirit there,
    Creator of the choir, the full-fraught strain
    That grateful rolled itself to him again.
    The aged man adust upon the bank
    — Whom no eye saw — at first with rapture drank
    The bliss of music, then, with swelling heart,
    Felt, this was his own being's greater part,
    The universal joy once born in him.
  • No eye saw him, while with loving pride
    Each voice with each in praise of Jubal vied.

    Must he in conscious trance, dumb, helpless lie
    While all that ardent kindred passed him by?
    His flesh cried out to live with living men,
    And join that soul which to the inward ken
    Of all the hymning train was present there.
  • He rushed before them to the glittering space,
    And, with a strength that was but strong desire,
    Cried, "I am Jubal, I!.... I made the lyre!"
    The tones amid a lake of silence fell
    Broken and strained, as if a feeble bell
    Had tuneless pealed the triumph of a land
    To listening crowds in expectation spanned.
    Sudden came showers of laughter on that lake;
    They spread along the train from front to wake
    In one great storm of merriment, while he
    Shrank doubting whether he could Jubal be...
  • But ere the laughter died from out the rear,
    Anger in front saw profanation near;
    Jubal was but a name in each man's faith
    For glorious power untouched by that slow death
    Which creeps with creeping time
    ; this too, the spot,
    And this the day, it must be crime to blot,
    Even with scoffing at a madman's lie:
    Jubal was not a name to wed with mockery.
    Two rushed upon him: two, the most devout
    In honor of great Jubal, thrust him out,
    And beat him with their flutes.
    'Twas little need;
    He strove not, cried not, but with tottering speed,
    As if the scorn and howls were driving wind
    That urged his body, serving so the mind
    Which could but shrink and yearn, he sought the screen
    Of thorny thickets, and there fell unseen.
    The immortal name of Jubal filled the sky,
    While Jubal lonely laid him down to die.
  • He said within his soul, "'This is the end:
    O'er all the earth to where the-heavens bend
    And hem men's travel, I have breathed my soul:
    I lie here now the remnant of that whole,
    The embers of a life, a lonely pain;
    As far-off rivers to my thirst were vain,
    So of my mighty years nought comes to me again."
  • I see a face of love,
    Fair as sweet music when my heart was strong:
    Yea — art thou come again to me, great Song?"
    The face bent over him like silver night
    In long-remembered summers; that calm light
    Of days which shine in firmaments of thought,
    That past unchangeable, from change still wrought.
  • "Jubal," the face said, "I am thy loved Past,
    The soul that makes thee one from first to last.
    I am the angel of thy life and death,
    Thy outbreathed being drawing its last breath.
    Am I not thine alone, a dear dead bride
    Who blest thy lot above all men's beside?
  • Wouldst thou have asked aught else from any god
    Whether with gleaming feet on earth he trod
    Or thundered through the skies — aught else for share
    Of mortal good, than in thy soul to bear
    The growth of song, and feel the sweet unrest
    Of the world's spring-tide in thy conscious breast?

    No, thou hadst grasped thy lot with all its pain,
    Nor loosed it any painless lot to gain
    Where music's voice was silent; for thy fate
    Was human music's self incorporate:
    Thy senses' keenness and thy passionate strife
    Were flesh of her flesh and her womb of Life.
  • With thy coming Melody was come.
    This was thy lot, to feel, create, bestow,
    And that immeasurable life to know
    From which the fleshly self falls shrivelled, dead,
    A seed primeval that has forests bred.
  • It is the glory of the heritage
    Thy life has left, that makes thy outcast age:
    Thy limbs shall lie dark, tombless on this sod,
    Because thou shinest in man's soul, a god,
    Who found and gave new passion and new joy
    That nought but Earth's destruction can destroy.
    Thy gifts to give was thine of men alone:
    'Twas but in giving that thou couldst atone
    For too much wealth amid their poverty.

Middlemarch (1871)

Full text online
That Spanish woman who lived three hundred years ago, was certainly not the last of her kind...
  • Who that cares much to know the history of man, and how the mysterious mixture behaves under the varying experiments of Time, has not dwelt, at least briefly, on the life of Saint Theresa, has not smiled with some gentleness at the thought of the little girl walking forth one morning hand-in-hand with her still smaller brother, to go and seek martyrdom in the country of the Moors? Out they toddled from rugged Avila, wide-eyed and helpless-looking as two fawns, but with human hearts, already beating to a national idea; until domestic reality met them in the shape of uncles, and turned them back from their great resolve. That child-pilgrimage was a fit beginning. Theresa's passionate, ideal nature demanded an epic life: what were many-volumed romances of chivalry and the social conquests of a brilliant girl to her? Her flame quickly burned up that light fuel; and, fed from within, soared after some illimitable satisfaction, some object which would never justify weariness, which would reconcile self-despair with the rapturous consciousness of life beyond self. She found her epos in the reform of a religious order.
    • Prelude
  • That Spanish woman who lived three hundred years ago, was certainly not the last of her kind. Many Theresas have been born who found for themselves no epic life wherein there was a constant unfolding of far-resonant action; perhaps only a life of mistakes, the offspring of a certain spiritual grandeur ill-matched with the meanness of opportunity; perhaps a tragic failure which found no sacred poet and sank unwept into oblivion.
    • Prelude
  • Some have felt that these blundering lives are due to the inconvenient indefiniteness with which the Supreme Power has fashioned the natures of women: if there were one level of feminine incompetence as strict as the ability to count three and no more, the social lot of women might be treated with scientific certitude. Meanwhile the indefiniteness remains, and the limits of variation are really much wider than any one would imagine from the sameness of women's coiffure and the favorite love-stories in prose and verse. Here and there a cygnet is reared uneasily among the ducklings in the brown pond, and never finds the living stream in fellowship with its own oary-footed kind. Here and there is born a Saint Theresa, foundress of nothing, whose loving heart-beats and sobs after an unattained goodness tremble off and are dispersed among hindrances, instead of centring in some long-recognizable deed.
    • Prelude
  • Miss Brooke had that kind of beauty which seems to be thrown into relief by poor dress.
    • First lines.
  • She could not reconcile the anxieties of a spiritual life involving eternal consequences, with a keen interest in gimp and artificial protrusions of drapery. Her mind was theoretic, and yearned by its nature after some lofty conception of the world which might frankly include the parish of Tipton and her own rule of conduct there; she was enamoured of intensity and greatness, and rash in embracing whatever seemed to her to have those aspects; likely to seek martyrdom, to make retractations, and then to incur martyrdom after all in a quarter where she had not sought it. Certainly such elements in the character of a marriageable girl tended to interfere with her lot, and hinder it from being decided according to custom, by good looks, vanity, and merely canine affection.
  • If youth is the season of hope, it is often so only in the sense that our elders are hopeful about us; for no age is so apt as youth to think its emotions, partings, and resolves are the last of their kind. Each crisis seems final, simply because it is new.
  • What loneliness is more lonely than distrust?
  • Will not a tiny speck very close to our vision blot out the glory of the world, and leave only a margin by which we see the blot?
  • People glorify all sorts of bravery except the bravery they might show on behalf of their nearest neighbors.
  • One must be poor to know the luxury of giving!
  • Every limit is a beginning as well as an ending. Who can quit young lives after being long in company with them, and not desire to know what befell them in their after-years? For the fragment of a life, however typical, is not the sample of an even web: promises may not be kept, and an ardent outset may be followed by declension; latent powers may find their long-waited opportunity; a past error may urge a grand retrieval.
  • Marriage, which has been the bourne of so many narratives, is still a great beginning, as it was to Adam and Eve, who kept their honeymoon in Eden, but had their first little one among the thorns and thistles of the wilderness. It is still the beginning of the home epic — the gradual conquest or irremediable loss of that complete union which makes the advancing years a climax, and age the harvest of sweet memories in common.
  • Some set out, like Crusaders of old, with a glorious equipment of hope and enthusiasm and get broken by the way, wanting patience with each other and the world.
  • What do we live for, if it is not to make life less difficult to each other? I cannot be indifferent to the troubles of a man who advised me in my trouble, and attended me in my illness.
  • There is no creature whose inward being is so strong that it is not greatly determined by what lies outside it. A new Theresa will hardly have the opportunity of reforming a conventual life, any more than a new Antigone will spend her heroic piety in daring all for the sake of a brother's burial: the medium in which their ardent deeds took shape is forever gone. But we insignificant people with our daily words and acts are preparing the lives of many Dorotheas, some of which may present a far sadder sacrifice than that of the Dorothea whose story we know.
  • But what we call our despair is often only the painful eagerness of unfed hope.
  • Her finely touched spirit had still its fine issues, though they were not widely visible. Her full nature, like that river of which Cyrus broke the strength, spent itself in channels which had no great name on the earth. But the effect of her being on those around her was incalculably diffusive: for the growing good of the world is partly dependent on unhistoric acts; and that things are not so ill with you and me as they might have been, is half owing to the number who lived faithfully a hidden life, and rest in unvisited tombs.
    • Last lines.

Daniel Deronda (1876)

Full text online
Those who trust us educate us.
  • The best augury of a man's success in his profession is that he thinks it the finest in the world.
  • The beings closest to us, whether in love or hate, are often virtually our interpreters of the world, and some feather-headed gentleman or lady whom in passing we regret to take as legal tender for a human being may be acting as a melancholy theory of life in the minds of those who live with them — like a piece of yellow and wavy glass that distorts form and makes colour an affliction. Their trivial sentences, their petty standards, their low suspicions, their loveless ennui, may be making somebody else's life no better than a promenade through a pantheon of ugly idols.
  • The mother's yearning, that completest type of the life in another life which is the essence of real human love, feels the presence of the cherished child even in the debased, degraded man.
  • A difference of taste in jokes is a great strain on the affections.
  • It is good to be unselfish and generous; but don't carry that too far. It will not do to give yourself to be melted down for the benefit of the tallow-trade; you must know where to find yourself.
    • This has been paraphrased as: "Be courteous, be obliging, but don't give yourself over to be melted down for the benefit of the tallow trade."
  • The miller's daughter of fourteen could not believe that high gentry behaved badly to their wives, but her mother instructed her — "Oh, child, men's men: gentle or simple, they're much of a muchness..."
  • Vanity is as ill at ease under indifference as tenderness is under a love which it cannot return . . .
  • Gossip is a sort of smoke that comes from the dirty tobacco-pipes of of those who diffuse it: it proves nothing but the bad taste of the smoker.
  • Ignorance gives one a large range of probabilities.
  • I say that the strongest principle of growth lies in human choice.
  • You know nothing about Hope, that immortal, delicious maiden forever courted forever propitious, whom fools have called deceitful, as if it were Hope that carried the cup of disappointment, whereas it is her deadly enemy, Certainty, whom she only escapes by transformation.
  • There's no disappointment in memory, and one's exaggerations are always on the good side.
  • Those who trust us educate us.
  • There is a great deal of unmapped country within us which would have to be taken into account in an explanation of our gusts and storms.
    • Book 3, Ch. 24

Silas Marner (1885)

Full text online
In old days there were angels who came and took men by the hand and led them away from the city of destruction. We see no white-winged angels now. But yet men are led away from threatening destruction: a hand is put into theirs, which leads them forth gently towards a calm and bright land, so that they look no more backward; and the hand may be a little child's.
  • Do we not wile away moments of inanity or fatigued waiting by repeating some trivial movement or sound, until the repetition has bred a want, which is incipient habit?
  • When Squire Cass's standing dishes diminished in plenty and freshness, his guests had nothing to do but to walk a little higher up the village to Mr. Osgood's, at the Orchards, and they found hams and chines uncut, pork-pies with the scent of the fire in them, spun butter in all its freshness — everything, in fact, that appetites at leisure could desire, in perhaps greater perfection, though not in greater abundance, than at Squire Cass's.
  • The rich ate and drank freely, accepting gout and apoplexy as things that ran mysteriously in respectable families . . .
  • That big muscular frame of his held plenty of animal courage, but helped him to no decision when the dangers to be braved were such as could neither be knocked down nor throttled.
  • The yoke a man creates for himself by wrong-doing will breed hate in the kindliest nature . . .
  • A man will tell you that he has worked in a mine for forty years unhurt by an accident as a reason why he should apprehend no danger, though the roof is beginning to sink . . .
  • Instead of trying to still his fears, he encouraged them, with that superstitious impression which clings to us all, that if we expect evil very strongly it is the less likely to come . . .
  • He had a sense that the old man meant to be good-natured and neighbourly; but the kindness fell on him as sunshine falls on the wretched — he had no heart to taste it, and felt that it was very far off him.
  • Formerly, his heart had been as a locked casket with its treasure inside; but now the casket was empty, and the lock was broken. Left groping in darkness, with his prop utterly gone, Silas had inevitably a sense, though a dull and half-despairing one, that if any help came to him it must come from without; and there was a slight stirring of expectation at the sight of his fellow-men, a faint consciousness of dependence on their goodwill.
  • She was perfectly quiet now, but not asleep — only soothed by sweet porridge and warmth into that wide-gazing calm which makes us older human beings, with our inward turmoil, feel a certain awe in the presence of a little child, such as we feel before some quiet majesty or beauty in the earth or sky — before a steady glowing planet, or a full-flowered eglantine, or the bending trees over a silent pathway.
  • "Ah," said Dolly, with soothing gravity, "it's like the night and the morning, and the sleeping and the waking, and the rain and the harvest — one goes and the other comes, and we know nothing how nor where. We may strive and scrat and fend, but it's little we can do arter all — the big things come and go wi' no striving o' our'n — they do, that they do; and I think you're in the right on it to keep the little un, Master Marner, seeing as it's been sent to you, though there's folks as thinks different."
  • In old days there were angels who came and took men by the hand and led them away from the city of destruction. We see no white-winged angels now. But yet men are led away from threatening destruction: a hand is put into theirs, which leads them forth gently towards a calm and bright land, so that they look no more backward; and the hand may be a little child's.
  • That quiet mutual gaze of a trusting husband and wife is like the first moment of rest or refuge from a great weariness or a great danger — not to be interfered with by speech or action which would distract the sensations from the fresh enjoyment of repose.
  • When a man had deserved his good luck, it was the part of his neighbors to wish him joy.
  • Nothing is so good as it seems beforehand...

Quotes about Eliot

  • She is magnificently ugly — deliciously hideous... in this vast ugliness resides a most powerful beauty which, in a very few minutes steals forth and charms the mind, so that you end as I ended, in falling in love with her.
  • What is remarkable, extraordinary — and the process remains inscrutable and mysterious — is that this quiet, anxious, sedentary, serious, invalidical English lady, without animal spirits, without adventures, without extravagance, assumption, or bravado, should have made us believe that nothing in the world was alien to her; should have produced such rich, deep, masterly pictures of the multifold life of man.
    • Henry James, Atlantic Monthly (May 1885)
  • You see, it was really George Eliot who started it all… It was she who started putting all the action inside.
    • D. H. Lawrence, quoted in D. H. Lawrence: a personal record Jessie Chambers Wood (1935)
  • Folks will want things intellectually done, so they take refuge in in George Eliot. I am very fond of her, but I wish she'd take her specs off, and come down off the public platform.
    • D. H. Lawrence, letter to Blanch Jennings (22 December 1908)

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1911 encyclopedia

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From LoveToKnow 1911

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Simple English

File:George
George Eliot

Mary Ann (Marian) Evans (22 November 181922 December 1880), better known by her pen name George Eliot[1][2], was an English novelist. She was one of the leading writers of the Victorian era. Middlemarch is perhaps her most famous book.

She was the youngest child of Robert and Christiana Evans. Mary Ann attended Miss Latham's boarding school and then Mrs Wallington's Boarding School at Nuneaton in 1828.[2]

In 1850, Evans travelled the first time to the continent of Europe. There, she translated the book Essence of Christianity into English. This was the only book she published under her real name and not under her pseudonym George Eliot.[3]

Evans became ill in on December 19 1880. Later, her kidney problem started again. Due to this illness, she died on 22 December 1880.[1]

References


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