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George Rogers Clark
November 19, 1752 (1752-11-19) – February 13, 1818 (aged 65)
George Rogers Clark.jpg
George Roberts Clark Signature.svg
Nickname Conqueror of the Old Northwest
Place of birth Albemarle County, Virginia
Place of death Louisville, Kentucky
Resting place Cave Hill Cemetery
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branch Virginia Militia
Years of service 1776–1790
Rank lieutenant colonel
Commands held Western Frontier
Battles/wars American Revolutionary War

Northwest Indian War

George Rogers Clark (November 19, 1752 – February 13, 1818) was a soldier from Virginia and the highest ranking American military officer on the northwestern frontier during the American Revolutionary War. He served as leader of the Kentucky militia throughout much of the war. Clark is best known for his celebrated captures of Kaskaskia (1778) and Vincennes (1779), which greatly weakened British influence in the Northwest Territory. Because the British ceded the entire Northwest Territory to the United States in the 1783 Treaty of Paris, Clark has often been hailed as the "Conqueror of the Old Northwest."

Clark's military achievements all came before his 30th birthday. Afterwards he led militia in the opening engagements of the Northwest Indian War, but was accused of being drunk on duty. Despite his demand for a formal investigation into the accusations, he was disgraced and forced to resign. He left Kentucky to live on the Indiana frontier. Never fully reimbursed by Virginia for his wartime expenditures, Clark spent the final decades of his life evading creditors, and living in increasing poverty and obscurity. He was involved in two failed conspiracies to open the Spanish-controlled Mississippi River to American traffic. After suffering a stroke and losing his leg, Clark was aided in his final years by family members, including his younger brother William, one of the leaders of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Clark died of a stroke on February 13, 1818.


Early years

George Rogers Clark was born on November 19, 1752 in Charlottesville, Virginia, not far from the home of Thomas Jefferson.[1] He was the second of ten children of John Clark and Ann Rogers Clark, who were Anglicans of English and Scots ancestry.[2] Five of their six sons became officers during the American Revolutionary War. Their youngest son, William Clark, was too young to fight in the Revolution, but later became famous as a leader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. In about 1756, after the outbreak of the French and Indian War (part of the worldwide Seven Years' War), the family moved away from the frontier to Caroline County, Virginia, and lived on a 400-acre plantation that later grew to over 2,000 acres.[3]

Little is known of Clark's schooling. He lived with his grandfather so he could attend Donald Robertson's school with James Madison and John Taylor of Caroline and received a common education.[4] He was also tutored at home, as was usual for Virginian planters' children of the period. Becoming a planter, he was taught to survey land by his father.

At age nineteen, Clark left his home on his first surveying trip into western Virginia.[5] In 1772, as a twenty-year-old surveyor, Clark made his first trip into Kentucky via the Ohio River at Pittsburgh.[6] Thousands of settlers were entering the area as a result of the Treaty of Fort Stanwix of 1768.[7] In 1774, Clark was preparing to lead an expedition of ninety men down the Ohio River when war broke out with the American Indians. Although most of Kentucky was not inhabited by Indians, several tribes used the area for hunting. The tribes living in the Ohio country had not been party to the treaty signed with the Cherokee, which ceded the Kentucky hunting grounds to Britain for settlement. They attacked the European-American settlers to try to push them out of the area, conflicts that eventually culminated in Lord Dunmore's War. Clark served in the war as a captain in the Virginia militia.[8]

Revolutionary War

As the American Revolutionary War began in the East, settlers in Kentucky were involved in a dispute over the region's sovereignty. Richard Henderson, a judge and land speculator from North Carolina, had purchased much of Kentucky from the Cherokee in an illegal treaty. Henderson intended to create a proprietary colony known as Transylvania, but many Kentucky settlers did not recognize Transylvania's authority over them. In June 1776, these settlers selected Clark and John Gabriel Jones to deliver a petition to the Virginia General Assembly, asking Virginia to formally extend its boundaries to include Kentucky.[9] Clark and Jones traveled via the Wilderness Road to Williamsburg, where they convinced Governor Patrick Henry to create Kentucky County, Virginia. Clark was given 500 lb (230 kg) of gunpowder to help defend the settlements and was appointed a major in the Kentucky County militia.[10] Clark was just twenty-four years old, but older settlers such as Daniel Boone, Benjamin Logan, and Leonard Helm looked to him as a leader.

Statue of George Rogers Clark on the Riverfront Plaza/Belvedere in Louisville, Kentucky, the city he virtually founded during his campaign to capture the Illinois country.

Illinois campaign

In 1777, the American Revolutionary War intensified in Kentucky. Armed and encouraged by British lieutenant governor Henry Hamilton at Fort Detroit, Native Americans, waged war and raided the Kentucky settlers in hopes of reclaiming the region as their hunting ground. The Continental Army could spare no men for an invasion of the Northwest or the defense of distant Kentucky. Defense was left entirely to the local men.[11] Clark participated in several skirmishes against the Native American raiders. As a leader of the defense of Kentucky, Clark believed that the best way to end these raids was to seize British outposts north of the Ohio River, thereby destroying British influence with the Indians.[12] Clark asked Governor Henry for permission to lead a secret expedition to capture the nearest British posts, which were located in the Illinois country. Governor Henry commissioned Clark as a lieutenant colonel in the Virginia militia and authorized him to raise troops for the expedition.[13]

US Postage Stamp, 1929 issue; George Rogers Clark recaptured Fort Sackville in the February 23, 1779 Battle of Vincennes without losing a single soldier

In July 1778, Clark and about 175 men crossed the Ohio River at Fort Massac and marched to Kaskaskia, taking it on the night of July 4.[14] Cahokia, Vincennes, and several other villages and forts in British territory were subsequently captured without firing a shot, because most of the French-speaking and American Indian inhabitants were unwilling to take up arms on behalf of the British. To counter Clark's advance, Henry Hamilton reoccupied Vincennes with a small force.[15] In February 1779, Clark returned to Vincennes in a surprise winter expedition and retook the town, capturing Hamilton in the process. The winter expedition was Clark's most significant military achievement and became the source of his reputation as an early American military hero.[16] When news of his victory reached General George Washington, Clark's success was celebrated and was used to encourage the alliance with France. Washington recognized his achievement had been gained without support from the regular army in men or funds.[17] Virginia capitalized on Clark's success by laying claim to the whole of the Northwest, calling it Illinois County, Virginia.[18]

Clark's march to Vincennes—the most celebrated event of his career—has been often depicted, as in this illustration by F. C. Yohn.

Final years of the war

Clark's ultimate goal during the Revolutionary War was to seize British-held Detroit, but he could never recruit enough men to make the attempt. The Kentucky militiamen generally preferred to defend their homes by staying closer to Kentucky rather than making a long and potentially perilous expedition to Detroit. In June 1780, a mixed force of British and Indians, including Shawnee, Delaware, Wyandot and others, from Detroit invaded Kentucky, capturing two fortified settlements and carrying away scores of prisoners. In August 1780, Clark led a retaliatory force that won a victory near the Shawnee village of Pekowee,[19] near the current location of Springfield, Ohio.[20]

The next year Clark was promoted to brigadier general by Governor Thomas Jefferson, and was given command of all the militia in the Kentucky and Illinois counties. He prepared again to lead an expedition against Detroit. Although Washington transferred a small group of regulars to assist Clark, the detachment was disastrously defeated in August 1781 before they could meet up with Clark, ending the campaign.[21][22]

In August 1782, another British-Indian force defeated the Kentucky militia at the Battle of Blue Licks. Although Clark had not been present at the battle, as senior military officer, he was severely criticized in the Virginia Council for the disaster.[23] In response, Clark led another expedition into the Ohio country, destroying several Indian towns along the Great Miami River in the last major expedition of the war.[24]

The importance of Clark's activities in the Revolutionary War has been the subject of much debate among historians. As early as 1779 he was called the Conqueror of the Northwest by George Mason.[25] Because the British ceded the entire Northwest Territory to the United States in the 1783 Treaty of Paris, some historians, including William Hayden English, credit Clark with nearly doubling the size of the original Thirteen Colonies by seizing control of the Illinois country during the war. Clark's Illinois campaign—particularly the surprise march to Vincennes—was greatly celebrated and romanticized.[17] Other historians, such as Lowell Harrison, have downplayed the importance of the campaign in the peace negotiations and the outcome of the war, arguing that Clark's "conquest" was little more than a temporary occupation.[26][27]

Later years

Bust of Clark at Locust Grove, in the vicinity of Louisville, Kentucky — George Rogers Clark's final residence

Clark was just thirty years old when the Revolutionary War ended, but his greatest military achievements were already behind him. Ever since Clark's victories in Illinois, settlers had been pouring into Kentucky, often illegally squatting on Indian land north of the Ohio River. From 1784 until 1788 Clark served as the superintendent-surveyor for Virginia's war veterans and surveyed the lands granted to them for their service in the war. The position brought a small income, but Clark devoted very little time to the enterprise.[28] Clark helped to negotiate the Treaty of Fort McIntosh in 1785[29] and the Treaty of Fort Finney in 1786 with tribes north of the river, but violence between Native Americans and Kentucky settlers continued to escalate.[28]

According to a 1790 U.S. government report, 1,500 Kentucky settlers had been killed in Indian raids since the end of the Revolutionary War.[30] In an attempt to end these raids, Clark led an expedition of 1,200 drafted men against Indians towns on the Wabash River in 1786, one of the first actions of the Northwest Indian War.[31] The campaign ended without a victory: lacking supplies, about three-hundred militiamen mutinied, and Clark had to withdraw, but not before concluding a ceasefire with the Indians. It was rumored, most notably by James Wilkinson, that Clark had often been drunk on duty.[32] Many years later, Wilkinson was found to be working as an secret agent of the Spanish Government. When Clark learned of the rumors he demanded an official inquiry be made, but his request was declined by Governor of Virginia, and Virginia Council condemned Clark's actions. Clark's reputation was tarnished, he never again led men in battle and left Kentucky, moving into the Indiana frontier near Clarksville[32][33]

Life in Indiana

Clark lived most of the rest of his life in financial difficulties. Clark had financed the majority of his military campaigns with borrowed funds. When creditors began to come to him for these unpaid debts, he was unable to obtain recompense from Virginia or the United States Congress because record keeping on the frontier during the war had been haphazard. For his services in the war Virginia gave Clark a gift of 150,000 acres (610 km2) of land. The soldiers who fought with Clark also received smaller tracts of land. Together with Clark's Grant and his other holdings, his ownership encompassed all of present day Clark County, Indiana and most of the surrounding counties.[34] Although Clark had claims to tens of thousands of acres of land resulting from his military service and land speculation, he was "land-poor", i.e. he owned much land but lacked the means to make money from it.

With his career seemingly over and his prospects for prosperity doubtful, on February 2, 1793, Clark offered his services to Edmond-Charles Genêt, the controversial ambassador of revolutionary France, hoping to earn money to maintain his estate.[35] Western Americans were outraged that the Spanish, who controlled Louisiana, denied Americans free access to the Mississippi River, their only easy outlet for long distance commerce. The Washington Administration was also seemingly deaf to western concerns about opening the Mississippi to U.S. commerce. Clark proposed to Genêt that, with French financial support, he could lead an expedition to drive the Spanish out of the Mississippi Valley. Genêt appointed Clark "Major General in the Armies of France and Commander-in-chief of the French Revolutionary Legion on the Mississippi River."[36] Clark began to organize a campaign to seize New Madrid, St. Louis, Natchez, and New Orleans, getting assistance from old comrades such as Benjamin Logan and John Montgomery, and winning the tacit support of Kentucky governor Isaac Shelby.[37] Clark spent $4,680 ($58,931 in 2009 chained dollars) of his own money for supplies.[38] In early 1794, however, President Washington issued a proclamation forbidding Americans from violating U.S. neutrality and threatened to dispatch General Anthony Wayne to Fort Massac to stop the expedition. The French government recalled Genêt and revoked the commissions he granted to the Americans for the war against Spain. Clark's planned campaign gradually collapsed, and he was unable to have the French reimburse him for his expenses.[39]

Due to his growing debt, it became impossible for Clark to continue holding his land which became subject to seizure. Much of his land was deeded to friends or transferred to family members where it could be held for him, rather than lost to the creditors.[40] After a few years, the lenders and their assigns closed in and deprived the veteran of almost all of the property that remained in his name. Clark, once the largest landholder in the Northwest Territory, was left with only a small plot of land in Clarksville, where he built a small gristmill which he worked with two African American slaves.[41] Clark lived on for another two decades, and continued to struggle with alcohol abuse, a problem which had plagued him on-and-off for many years. He was very bitter about his treatment and neglect by Virginia, and blamed his misfortune on them.[35]

The Indiana Territory chartered the Indiana Canal Company in 1805 to build a canal around the Falls of the Ohio, near Clarksville. Clark was named to the board of directors and was part of the surveying team that assisted in laying out the route of the canal. The company collapsed the next year before construction could begin, when two of the fellow board members, including Vice President Aaron Burr, were arrested for treason. Burr was plotting to seize Louisiana from Spain and open the Mississippi to the Americans. A large part of the company's $1.2 million($60.5 million in 2009 chained dollars) in investments was unaccounted for, and where the funds went was never determined.[42]

Return to Kentucky

Grave site of Clark at Cave Hill Cemetery in Louisville

In 1809, Clark suffered a severe stroke. Falling into an operating fireplace, he suffered a burn on one leg so severe as to necessitate the amputation of the limb.[43] It was impossible for Clark to continue to operate his mill, so he became a dependent member of the household of his brother-in-law, Major William Croghan, a planter at Locust Grove farm eight miles (13 km) from the growing town of Louisville.[44] During 1812, the Virginia General Assembly granted Clark a pension of four-hundred dollars per year, and finally recognized his services in the Revolution by granting him a ceremonial sword.[45] After a second stroke, Clark died at Locust Grove, February 13, 1818, and was buried at Locust Grove Cemetery two days later.[46]

In his funeral oration, Judge John Rowan succinctly summed up the stature and importance of George Rogers Clark during the critical years on the Trans-Appalachian frontier: "The mighty oak of the forest has fallen, and now the scrub oaks sprout all around."[47]

Clark's body was exhumed along with the rest of his family members on October 29, 1869, and reburied at Cave Hill Cemetery in Louisville.[48][49]

Several years after Clark's death the state of Virginia granted his estate $30,000 ($566,647 in 2009 chained dollars) as a partial payment on the debts that they owed him.[40] The government of Virginia continued to find debt to Clark for decades, with the last payment to his estate being made in 1913.[50] Clark never married and he kept no account of any romantic relationships, although his family held that he had once been in love with Teresa de Leyba, sister of Don Fernando de Leyba, the Spanish Governor of Louisiana. Writings from his niece and cousin in the Draper Manuscripts attest to their belief in Clark's lifelong disappointment over the failed romance.[51]


On May 23, 1928, President Calvin Coolidge ordered a memorial to George Rogers Clark to be erected in Vincennes. Completed in 1933, the George Rogers Clark Memorial, built in Roman Classical style, stands on what was then believed to be the site of Fort Sackville, and is now the George Rogers Clark National Historical Park. It includes a statue of Clark by Hermon Atkins MacNeil.[52] On February 25, 1929, to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the surrender of Fort Sackville, the U.S. Post Office Department issued a 2-cent postage stamp that depicted the surrender.[53] In April 1929, the Paul Revere Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution of Muncie, Indiana erected a monument to George Rogers Clark on Washington Avenue in Fredericksburg, Virginia. The marker doesn't identify the connection between General Clark and Fredericksburg, so this choice of location is currently a mystery.[54] In 1975, the Indiana General Assembly designated February 25 George Rogers Clark Day in Indiana.[53] Built in 1929, the George Rogers Clark Memorial Bridge (Second Street Bridge) carries U.S. Highway 31, over the Ohio River at Louisville, Kentucky.

[[File:HMcNeil-GRClark.jpg|thumb|upright|Statue by MacNeil at Other statues of Clark can be found in:

Places named for Clark include:

And finally, schools named after Clark include:

  • George Rogers Clark Elementary School in Clarksville, Indiana,
  • George Rogers Clark Middle/High School in Hammond, Indiana,
  • George Rogers Clark High School in Winchester, Kentucky
  • Clark Middle School in Winchester, Kentucky
  • Clark Elementary School in Charlottesville, Virginia
  • George Rogers Clark Middle School in Vincennes, Indiana
  • George Rogers Clark Elementary School of Chicago.[55]
  • George Rogers Clark Elementary School in Paducah, Kentucky

See also


  1. ^ Palmer, 3
  2. ^ English, Vol 1, pg 35-38
  3. ^ Palmer, 4–5
  4. ^ English, 1:56
  5. ^ Palmer, 51
  6. ^ English, 1:60
  7. ^ Palmer, 56
  8. ^ Palmer, 74
  9. ^ English, 1:70-71
  10. ^ Harrison, 9
  11. ^ Palmer, 394
  12. ^ English, 1:87
  13. ^ English, 1:92
  14. ^ English 1:168
  15. ^ English, 1:234
  16. ^ Palmer, IV
  17. ^ a b Palmer, 391–394
  18. ^ Palmer, 400 & 421
  19. ^ English, 2:682
  20. ^ Raitz, Karl, ed. A Guide to the National Road. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1996, 200-201. Accessed 2009-09-22.
  21. ^ English, 2:730
  22. ^ Palmer, 424
  23. ^ Harrison, 93–94
  24. ^ English, 2:758-760
  25. ^ Palmer, 79
  26. ^ Harrison, 118
  27. ^ Palmer, IIX
  28. ^ a b Harrison, 101
  29. ^ English, 2:790–791
  30. ^ James, 325
  31. ^ Harrison, 102
  32. ^ a b Harrison, 104
  33. ^ English, 2:800-803
  34. ^ Indiana Historical Bureau. "Plat of Clark's Grant". Retrieved 2008-08-05. 
  35. ^ a b Harrison, 105
  36. ^ English, 2:818
  37. ^ English, 2:821–822
  38. ^ James, 425
  39. ^ Harrison, 106
  40. ^ a b Harrison, 100
  41. ^ English, 2:862
  42. ^ Dunn, 382–383
  43. ^ English, 2:869
  44. ^ English, 2:882
  45. ^ "Clark after the Revolution". Indiana Historical Bureau. Retrieved 2008-08-25. 
  46. ^ English, 2:887
  47. ^ "George Rogers Clark National Historic Park". National Parks Service. Retrieved 2009-03-22. 
  48. ^ English, 2:897. Several bodies were exhumed before Clark's skeleton was finally identified by the military uniform, amputated leg, and red hair. English stated an exhumed date of 1889
  49. ^ "Clark's Death". Indiana Historical Bureau. Retrieved 2008-08-25. , The IHB states the exhumed date to be in 1869.
  50. ^ Harrison, 98
  51. ^ Palmer, 297
  52. ^ "George Rogers Clark National Historic Park". National Parks Service. Retrieved 2008-08-25. 
  53. ^ a b "Celebrating Clark". Indiana Historical Bureau. Retrieved 2008-08-25. 
  54. ^ "George Rogers Clark Historical Marker". The Historical Marker database. Retrieved 2008-07-15. 
  55. ^ "George Rogers Clark Elementary School". Retrieved 2008-08-28. 


Further reading

  • Bakeless, John (1957). Background to Glory: The Life of George Rogers Clark. Lincoln:University of Nebraska Press: Bison Book. ISBN 0-8032-6105-5. 
  • Bodley, Temple (1926). George Rogers Clark: His Life and Public Services. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 
  • Butterfield, Consul Willshire (1904). History of George Rogers Clark's Conquest of the Illinois and the Wabash Towns, 1778 and 1779. Columbus, Ohio: Heer. 
  • Carstens, Kenneth C. and Nancy Son Carstens, eds (2004). The Life of George Rogers Clark, 1752–1818: Triumphs and Tragedies. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. ISBN 0-313-32217-1. 

External links


Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

George Rogers Clark (1752-11-191818-02-13) was an American pioneer and military officer credited with winning the Northwest Territory during the American Revolution.


  • If a country were not worth protecting, it was not worth claiming.
    • Clark to the Virginia Council, Autumn 1775, requesting aid for Kentucky.[1]
  • I know the case is desperate, but, sire, we must either quit the country or attack Mr. Hamilton. No time is to be lost. Was I sure of a re-enforcement I should not attempt it. Who knows what fortune will do for us? Great things have been effected by a few men well conducted. Perhaps we may be fortunate. We have this consolation that our case is just, and that our country will be grateful and not condemn our conduct, in case we fall through; if so, this country as well as Kentucky, I believe, is lost.
    • Letter to Virginia Governor Patrick Henry (1779-02-03), from William Hayden English, Conquest of the Country Northwest of the River Ohio, 1778–1783, and Life of Gen. George Rogers Clark (Indianapolis: Bowen-Merrill, 1896) vol. 1, pp. 262-263
  • Never was a person more mortified than I was at this time, to see so fair an opportunity to push a victory; Detroit lost for want of a few men.
    • After aborting plans to raid Fort Detroit due to a lack of enlistments (1779), quoted in Wilson, George R. (1946). The Buffalo Trace. Indiana Historical Society Publications, volume 15, number 2. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society. pp. 189.  
  • I have given the United States half the territory they possess, and for them to suffer me to remain in poverty, in consequence of it, will not redound much to their honor hereafter.
    • Letter to General Jonathan Clark, George's elder brother (1792-05-11), from William Hayden English, Conquest of the Country Northwest of the River Ohio, 1778–1783, and Life of Gen. George Rogers Clark (1896), vol. 2, p. 789
  • Our cause is just . . . our country will be grateful"
  • I carry in my right hand war, and peace in my left... Here is a bloody belt and a white one. Take which you please.
    • Clark, Speech to the Indian Chiefs at Cahokia (1778)[1]
  • My name is Clark, and I have come out to see what you brave fellows are doing in Kentucky and to lend you a helping hand, if necessary.
    • Account of Clark's appearance in Harrodsburg, from Collins History of Kentucky[2]


  1. In the words of George Rogers Clark (link below)

External links

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

GEORGE ROGERS CLARK (1752-1818), American frontier military leader, was born near Charlottesville, in Albemarle county, Virginia, on the ,9th of November 1752. Early in life he became a land-surveyor; he took part in Lord Dunmore's War (1774), and in 1775 went as a surveyor for the Ohio Company to Kentucky (then a district of Virginia), whither he removed early in 1776. His iron will, strong passions, audacious courage and magnificent physique soon made him a leader among his frontier neighbours, by whom in 1776 he was sent as a delegate to the Virginia legislature. In this capacity he was instrumental in bringing about the organization of Kentucky as a county of Virginia, and also obtained from Governor Patrick Henry a supply of powder for the Kentucky settlers. Convinced that the Indians were instigated and supported in their raids against the American settlers by British officers stationed in the forts north of the Ohio river, and that the conquest of those forts would put an end to the evil, he went on foot to Virginia late in 1777 and submitted to Governor Henry and his council a plan for offensive operations. On the 2nd of January 1778 he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel, received £1200 in depreciated currency, and was authorized to enlist troops; and by the end of May he was at the falls of the Ohio (the site of Louisville) with about 175 men. The expedition proceeded to Fort Kaskaskia, on the Mississippi, in what is now Illinois. This place and Cahokia, also on the Mississippi, near St Louis, were defended by small British garrisons, which depended upon the support of the French habitants. The French being willing to accept the authority of Virginia, both forts were easily taken. Clark gained the friendship of Father Pierre Gibault, the priest at Kaskaskia, and through his influence the French at Vincennes on the Wabash were induced (late in July) to change their allegiance. On the 17th of December Lieut.-Governor Henry Hamilton, the British commander at Detroit, recovered Vincennes and went into winter quarters. Late in February 1779 he was surprised by Clark and compelled to give up Vincennes and its fort, Fort Sackville, and to surrender himself and his garrison of about 80 men, as prisoners of war. With the exception of Detroit and several other posts on the Canadian frontier the whole of the North-West was thus brought under American influence; many of the Indians, previously hostile, became friendly, and the United States was put in a position to demand the cession of the North-West in the treaty of 1783. For this valuable service, in which Clark had freely used his own private funds, he received practically no recompense either from Virginia or from the United States, and for many years before his death he lived in poverty. To him and his men, however, the Virginia legislature granted 150,000 acres of land in 1781, which was subsequently located in what are now Clark, Floyd and Scott counties, Indiana; Clark's individual share was 8049 acres, but from this he realized little. Clark built Fort Jefferson on the Mississippi, 4 or 5 m. below the mouth of the Ohio, in 1780, destroyed the Indian towns Chillicothe and Piqua in the same year, and in November 1782 destroyed the Indian towns on the Miami river. With this last expedition his active military service virtually ended, and in July 1783 he was relieved of his command by Virginia. Thereafter he lived on part of the land granted to him by Virginia or in Louisville for the rest tof his life. In 1793 he accepted from Citizen Genet a commission as "major-general in the armies of France, and commander-in-chief of the French Revolutionary Legion in the Mississippi Valley," and tried to raise a force for an attack upon the Spanish possessions in the valley of the Mississippi. The scheme, however, was abandoned after Genet's recall. Disappointed at what he regarded as his country's ingratitude, and broken down by excessive drinking and paralysis, he lost his once powerful influence and lived in comparative isolation until his death, near Louisville, Kentucky, on the 13th of February 1818.

See W. H. English, Conquest of the Country north-west of the River Ohio, 1778-1783, and Life of George Rogers Clark (2 vols., Indianapolis and Kansas City, 1896), an accurate and detailed work, which represents an immense amount of research among both printed and .manuscript sources. Clark's own accounts of his expeditions, and other interesting documents, are given in the appendix to this work.

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