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George Washington


In office
April 30, 1789 – March 4, 1797
Vice President John Adams
Succeeded by John Adams

In office
June 15, 1775 – December 23, 1783
Appointed by Continental Congress
Succeeded by Henry Knoxb

In office
July 13, 1798 – December 14, 1799
President John Adams
Preceded by James Wilkinson
Succeeded by Alexander Hamilton

Born February 22, 1732(1732-02-22)
Westmoreland County, Colony of Virginia, British America
Died December 14, 1799 (aged 67)
Mount Vernon, Virginia,
United States
Resting place Washington family vault,
Mount Vernon, Virginia, United States
Nationality American
Political party None
Spouse(s) Martha Dandridge Custis Washington
Children John Parke Custis (stepson)
Martha Parke Custis (stepdaughter)
Eleanor Parke Custis Lewis (step-granddaughter, raised by Washington)
George Washington Parke Custis (step-grandson, raised by Washington)
Occupation Farmer (Planter)
Soldier (Officer)
Religion Church of England / Episcopal
Signature
Military service
Allegiance United Kingdom Kingdom of Great Britain
 United States
Years of service 1752–1758
1775–1783
1798–1799
Rank Lieutenant General
General of the Armies of the United States (posthumously in 1976)
Commands British Army's Virginia Regiment
Continental Army
United States Army
Battles/wars French and Indian War
*Battle of Jumonville Glen
*Battle of Fort Necessity
*Battle of the Monongahela
*Battle of Fort Duquesne
American Revolutionary War
*Boston campaign
*New York campaign
*New Jersey campaign
*Philadelphia campaign
*Yorktown Campaign
Awards Congressional Gold Medal, Thanks of Congress
a See President of the United States, in Congress Assembled.
b General Knox served as the Senior Officer of the United States Army.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 [O.S. February 11, 1731][1][2][3]– December 14, 1799) served as the first President of the United States from 1789 to 1797[4][5][6] and as the commander of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War from 1775 to 1783. Because of his significant role in the revolution and in the formation of the United States, he is often referred to as "Father of His Country".[7][8]
The Continental Congress appointed Washington commander-in-chief of the American revolutionary forces in 1775. The following year, he forced the British out of Boston, lost New York City, and crossed the Delaware River in New Jersey, defeating the surprised enemy units later that year. Because of his strategy, Revolutionary forces captured the two main British combat armies at Saratoga and Yorktown. Negotiating with Congress, the colonial states, and French allies, he held together a tenuous army and a fragile nation amid the threats of disintegration and failure. Following the end of the war in 1783, King George III asked what Washington would do next and was told of rumors that he'd return to his farm; this prompted the king to state, "If he does that, he will be the greatest man in the world." Washington did return to private life and retired to his plantation at Mount Vernon.[9]
He presided over the Philadelphia Convention that drafted the United States Constitution in 1787 because of general dissatisfaction with the Articles of Confederation. Washington became President of the United States in 1789 and established many of the customs and usages of the new government's executive department. He sought to create a nation capable of surviving in a world torn asunder by war between Britain and France. His unilateral Proclamation of Neutrality of 1793 provided a basis for avoiding any involvement in foreign conflicts. He supported plans to build a strong central government by funding the national debt, implementing an effective tax system, and creating a national bank. Washington avoided the temptation of war and a decade of peace with Britain began with the Jay Treaty in 1795; he used his prestige to get it ratified over intense opposition from the Jeffersonians. Although never officially joining the Federalist Party, he supported its programs and was its inspirational leader. Washington's farewell address was a primer on republican virtue and a stern warning against partisanship, sectionalism, and involvement in foreign wars. He was awarded the first Congressional Gold Medal with the Thanks of Congress in 1776.[10]
Washington died in 1799. Henry Lee, delivering the funeral oration, declared Washington "first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen".[11] Historical scholars consistently rank him as one of the greatest United States presidents.

Contents

Early life

George Washington was born on February 22, 1732 [O.S. February 11, 1731][1][2][3] the first child of Augustine Washington and his second wife, Mary Ball Washington, on their Pope's Creek Estate near present-day Colonial Beach in Westmoreland County, Virginia. His father had four children by his first wife, Jane Butler: two died young, but two sons survived (Lawrence, born circa 1718, and Augustine, born circa 1720), making George the third son, but very much younger. Moving to Ferry Farm in Stafford County at age six, George was educated in the home by his father and eldest brother.[12] Washington's ancestors were from Sulgrave, England. His great-grandfather, John Washington, immigrated to Virginia in 1657.[13] The growth of tobacco as a commodity in Virginia could be measured by the number of slaves imported to cultivate it. When Washington was born, the population of the colony was 50 percent black, mostly enslaved Africans and African Americans.[14]
In his youth, Washington worked as a surveyor, and acquired what would become invaluable knowledge of the terrain around his native Colony of Virginia.[15] His eldest brother's marriage into the powerful Fairfax family gained young George the patronage of Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron and the Proprietor of the Northern Neck, which encompassed some five million acres. In late July 1749, immediately following the establishment of the town of Alexandria, Virginia along the Potomac River, 17-year old George was commissioned as the first Surveyor of the newly created Culpeper County, Virginia in the interior of the colony. This appointment was undoubtedly secured at the behest of Lord Fairfax and his cousin (and resident land agent) William Fairfax of Belvoir, who sat on the Governor's Council.[16]

Career

Washington embarked upon a career as a planter, which historians defined as those who held 20 or more slaves. In 1748, he was invited to help survey Lord Fairfax's lands west of the Blue Ridge. In 1749, he was appointed to his first public office, surveyor of newly created Culpeper County.[12][17] Through his half-brother, Lawrence Washington, he became interested in the Ohio Company, which aimed to exploit Western lands. In 1751, George and his half-brother traveled to Barbados, staying at Bush Hill House,[18] hoping for an improvement in Lawrence's tuberculosis. This was the only time George Washington traveled outside what is now the United States.[19] After Lawrence's death in 1752, George inherited part of his estate and took over some of Lawrence's duties as adjutant of the colony.[20]
Washington presents message at Fort Le Boeuf in 1753
In late 1752, Virginia's newly arrived Governor, Robert Dinwiddie, divided command of the militia into four regions and George applied for one of the commands, his only qualifications being his zeal and being the younger brother of the former adjutant. Washington was appointed a district adjutant general in the Virginia militia in 1752,[12] which appointed him Major Washington at the age of 20. He was charged with training the militia in the quarter assigned to him.[21] At age 21, in Fredericksburg, Washington became a Master Mason in the organization of Freemasons, a fraternal organization that was a lifelong influence.[22][23]
In December 1753, Washington was asked by Governor Dinwiddie to carry a British ultimatum to the French Canadians on the Ohio frontier.[12] Washington assessed French military strength and intentions, and delivered the message to the French Canadians at Fort Le Boeuf in present-day Waterford, Pennsylvania. The message, which went unheeded, called for the French Canadians to abandon their development of the Ohio country. The two colonial powers were heading toward worldwide conflict. Washington's report on the affair was widely read on both sides of the Atlantic.

French and Indian War (Seven Years War)

In 1754, Dinwiddie commissioned Washington a Lieutenant Colonel and ordered him to lead an expedition to Fort Duquesne to drive out the French Canadians.[12] With his American Indian allies led by Tanacharison, Washington and his troops ambushed a French Canadian scouting party of some 30 men, led by Joseph Coulon de Jumonville.[24] A larger and better-positioned French Canadian and Indian force overwhelmed Washington and his troops at Fort Necessity, resulting in Washington's only military surrender. The terms of surrender included a statement that Washington had assassinated Jumonville after the ambush. Washington could not read French, and, unaware of what it said, signed his name.[25] Released by the French Canadians, Washington returned to Virginia, where he was cleared of blame for the defeat, but resigned because he did not like the new arrangement of the Virginia Militia.[25]
In 1755, Washington was an aide to British General Edward Braddock on the ill-fated Monongahela expedition.[12] This was a major effort to retake the Ohio Country. While Braddock was killed and the expedition ended in disaster, Washington distinguished himself as the Hero of the Monongahela.[26] While Washington's role during the battle has been debated, biographer Joseph Ellis asserts that Washington rode back and forth across the battlefield, rallying the remnant of the British and Virginian forces to a retreat.[27] Subsequent to this action, Washington was given a difficult frontier command in the Virginia mountains, and was rewarded by being promoted to colonel and named commander of all Virginia forces.[12]
In 1758, Washington participated as a Brigadier General in the Forbes expedition that prompted French evacuation of Fort Duquesne, and British establishment of Pittsburgh.[12] Later that year, Washington resigned from active military service and spent the next sixteen years as a Virginia planter and politician.[28]

Militia versus regular army

As a colonial militia officer, albeit a high ranking one, Washington was acutely conscious of the disparity between officers in the militia and the regular British Army establishment. His eldest brother Lawrence had been fortunate to be awarded a commission in the British Army, as "Captain in a Regiment of Foot", in summer 1740, when the British Army raised a new regiment (the 61st Foot, known as Gooch's American Regiment) in the colonies, for service in the West Indies during the War of Jenkins' Ear.[29][30] Each colony was allowed to appoint its own company officers—the captains and lieutenants—and Colonel William Blakeney distributed signed commissions to the various governors.[31] Fifteen years later, when General Braddock arrived in Virginia in 1755 with two regiments of regulars (the 44th and 48th Foot), Washington sought to obtain a commission, but none were available for purchase.[32] Rather than serve as a militia lieutenant colonel, where he would be outranked by more junior officers in the regulars, Washington chose to serve in a private capacity as aide-de-camp to the general; as an aide, he could command British regulars.[33] Following Braddock's defeat, the British Parliament decided in November 1755 to create a new Royal American Regiment of Foot—later renamed King's Royal Rifle Corps. Unlike the earlier "American Regiment" of 1740–42, all of the officers were recruited in England and Europe in early 1756.

Between the wars: Mount Vernon

A mezzotint of Martha Dandridge Custis, based on a 1757 portrait by John Wollaston.
On January 6, 1759, Washington married the widow Martha Dandridge Custis. Surviving letters suggest that he may have been in love at the time with Sally Fairfax, the wife of a friend. Some historians believe George and Martha were distantly related.
Nevertheless, George and Martha made a good marriage, and together raised her two children from her previous marriage, John Parke Custis and Martha Parke Custis, affectionately called "Jackie" and "Patsy" by the family. Later the Washingtons raised two of Mrs. Washington's grandchildren, Eleanor Parke Custis and George Washington Parke Custis. George and Martha never had any children together — his earlier bout with smallpox (possibly followed by tuberculosis) may have made him sterile. The newlywed couple moved to Mount Vernon, near Alexandria, where he took up the life of a planter and political figure.[34]
Washington's marriage to Martha, a wealthy widow, greatly increased his property holdings and social standing. He acquired one-third of the 18,000 acre (73 km²) Custis estate upon his marriage, and managed the remainder on behalf of Martha's children. He frequently bought additional land in his own name. In addition, he was granted land in what is now West Virginia as a bounty for his service in the French and Indian War. By 1775, Washington had doubled the size of Mount Vernon to 6,500 acres (26 km2), and had increased the slave population there to more than 100 persons. As a respected military hero and large landowner, he held local office and was elected to the Virginia provincial legislature, the House of Burgesses, beginning in 1758.[35]
Washington enlarged the mansion at Mount Vernon after his marriage.
Washington lived an aristocratic lifestyle—fox hunting was a favorite leisure activity. Like most Virginia planters, he imported luxuries and other goods from England and paid for them by exporting his tobacco crop. Extravagant spending and the unpredictability of the tobacco market meant that many Virginia planters of Washington's day were losing money. (Thomas Jefferson, for example, would die deeply in debt.)
Washington began to pull himself out of debt by diversification. By 1766, he had switched Mount Vernon's primary cash crop from tobacco to wheat, a crop that could be sold in America, and diversified operations to include flour milling, fishing, horse breeding, spinning, and weaving. Patsy Custis's death in 1773 from epilepsy enabled Washington to pay off his British creditors, since half of her inheritance passed to him.[36]
The earliest known portrait of Washington, painted in 1772 by Charles Willson Peale, showing Washington in uniform as colonel of the Virginia Regiment.
During these years, Washington concentrated on his business activities and remained somewhat aloof from politics. Although he expressed opposition to the 1765 Stamp Act, the first direct tax on the colonies, he did not take a leading role in the growing colonial resistance until after protests of the Townshend Acts (enacted in 1767) had become widespread. In May 1769, Washington introduced a proposal drafted by his friend George Mason, which called for Virginia to boycott English goods until the Acts were repealed. Parliament repealed the Townshend Acts in 1770, and, for Washington at least, the crisis had passed. However, Washington regarded the passage of the Intolerable Acts in 1774 as "an Invasion of our Rights and Privileges". In July 1774, he chaired the meeting at which the "Fairfax Resolves" were adopted, which called for, among other things, the convening of a Continental Congress. In August, Washington attended the First Virginia Convention, where he was selected as a delegate to the First Continental Congress.[37]

American Revolution

Portrait of George Washington in military uniform, painted by Rembrandt Peale
After fighting broke out in April 1775, Washington appeared at the Second Continental Congress in military uniform, signaling that he was prepared for war. Washington had the prestige, the military experience, the charisma and military bearing, the reputation of being a strong patriot, and the South, especially Virginia, supported him. Although he did not explicitly seek the office of commander and even claimed that he was not equal to it, there was no serious competition. Congress created the Continental Army on June 14, 1775. Nominated by John Adams of Massachusetts, Washington was then appointed Major General and elected by Congress to be Commander-in-chief.[12]
Washington assumed command of the Continental Army in the field at Cambridge, Massachusetts in July 1775,[12] during the ongoing siege of Boston. Realizing his army's desperate shortage of gunpowder, Washington asked for new sources. American troops raided British arsenals, including some in the Caribbean, and some manufacturing was attempted. They obtained a barely adequate supply (about 2.5 million pounds) by the end of 1776, mostly from France.[38] Washington reorganized the army during the long standoff, and forced the British to withdraw by putting artillery on Dorchester Heights overlooking the city. The British evacuated Boston and Washington moved his army to New York City.
Although negative toward the patriots in the Continental Congress, British newspapers routinely praised Washington's personal character and qualities as a military commander. These articles were bold, as Washington was enemy general who commanded an army in a cause that many Britons believed would ruin the empire.[39] Washington's refusal to become involved in politics buttressed his reputation as a man fully committed to the military mission at hand and above the factional fray.
In August 1776, British General William Howe launched a massive naval and land campaign designed to seize New York and offer a negotiated settlement. The Continental Army under Washington engaged the enemy for the first time as an army of the newly declared independent United States at the Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the entire war. Some historians see his army's subsequent nighttime retreat across the East River, without the loss of a single life or materiel, as one of Washington's greatest military feats.[40] This and several other British victories sent Washington scrambling out of New York and across New Jersey, which left the future of the Continental Army in doubt. On the night of December 25, 1776, Washington staged a counterattack, leading the American forces across the Delaware River to capture nearly 1,000 Hessians in Trenton, New Jersey. Washington followed up his victory at Trenton with another one at Princeton in early January. These victories alone were not enough to ensure ultimate victory, however, as many did not reenlist or deserted during the harsh winter. Washington reorganized the army with increased rewards for staying and punishment for desertion, which raised troop numbers effectively for subsequent battles.[41]
British forces defeated Washington's troops in the Battle of Brandywine on September 11, 1777. Howe outmaneuvered Washington and marched into Philadelphia unopposed on September 26. Washington's army unsuccessfully attacked the British garrison at Germantown in early October. Meanwhile, Burgoyne, out of reach from help from Howe, was trapped and forced to surrender his entire army at Saratoga, New York. France responded to Burgoyne's defeat by entering the war, openly allying with America and turning the Revolutionary War into a major worldwide war. Washington's loss of Philadelphia prompted some members of Congress to discuss removing Washington from command. This attempt failed after Washington's supporters rallied behind him.[42]
Washington's army camped at Valley Forge in December 1777, staying there for the next six months. Over the winter, 2,500 men of the 10,000-strong force died from disease and exposure. The next spring, however, the army emerged from Valley Forge in good order, thanks in part to a full-scale training program supervised by Baron von Steuben, a veteran of the Prussian general staff. The British evacuated Philadelphia to New York in 1778 but Washington attacked them at Monmouth and drove them from the battlefield. Afterwards, the British continued to head towards New York. Washington moved his army outside of New York.
In the summer of 1779 at Washington's direction, General John Sullivan carried out a decisive scorched earth campaign that destroyed at least forty Iroquois villages throughout present-day central and upstate New York in retaliation for Iroquois and Tory attacks against American settlements earlier in the war. Washington delivered the final blow to the British in 1781, after a French naval victory allowed American and French forces to trap a British army in Virginia. The surrender at Yorktown on October 17, 1781, marked the end of most fighting. Though known for his successes in the war and of his life that followed, Washington suffered many defeats before achieving victory.
Depiction by John Trumbull of Washington resigning his commission as commander-in-chief
In March 1783, Washington used his influence to disperse a group of Army officers who had threatened to confront Congress regarding their back pay. By the Treaty of Paris (signed that September), Great Britain recognized the independence of the United States. Washington disbanded his army and, on November 2, gave an eloquent farewell address to his soldiers.[43]
On November 25, the British evacuated New York City, and Washington and the governor took possession. At Fraunces Tavern on December 4, Washington formally bade his officers farewell and on December 23, 1783, he resigned his commission as commander-in-chief, emulating the Roman general Cincinnatus. He was an exemplar of the republican ideal of citizen leadership who rejected power. During this period, there was no position of President of the United States under the Articles of Confederation, the forerunner to the Constitution.
Washington's retirement to Mount Vernon was short-lived. He made an exploratory trip to the western frontier in 1784,[12] was persuaded to attend the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in the summer of 1787, and was unanimously elected president of the Convention. He participated little in the debates involved (though he did vote for or against the various articles), but his high prestige maintained collegiality and kept the delegates at their labors. The delegates designed the presidency with Washington in mind, and allowed him to define the office once elected. After the Convention, his support convinced many, including the Virginia legislature, to vote for ratification; the new Constitution was ratified by all 13 states.

Presidency

Portrait by Gilbert Stuart, 1795
The Electoral College elected Washington unanimously in 1789, and again in the 1792 election; he remains the only president to have received 100% of the electoral votes. At his inauguration, he insisted on having Barbados Rum served.[44] John Adams was elected vice president. Washington took the oath of office as the first President under the Constitution for the United States of America on April 30, 1789, at Federal Hall in New York City although, at first, he had not wanted the position.[45]
The 1st United States Congress voted to pay Washington a salary of $25,000 a year—a large sum in 1789. Washington, already wealthy, declined the salary, since he valued his image as a selfless public servant. At the urging of Congress, however, he ultimately accepted the payment, to avoid setting a precedent whereby the presidency would be perceived as limited only to independently wealthy individuals who could serve without any salary. Washington attended carefully to the pomp and ceremony of office, making sure that the titles and trappings were suitably republican and never emulated European royal courts. To that end, he preferred the title "Mr. President" to the more majestic names suggested.
Washington proved an able administrator. An excellent delegator and judge of talent and character, he held regular cabinet meetings to debate issues before making a final decision. In handling routine tasks, he was "systematic, orderly, energetic, solicitous of the opinion of others but decisive, intent upon general goals and the consistency of particular actions with them."[46]
Washington reluctantly served a second term as president. He refused to run for a third, establishing the customary policy of a maximum of two terms for a president, which later became law by the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution.[47]

Domestic issues

Washington was not a member of any political party and hoped that they would not be formed, fearing conflict and stagnation. His closest advisors formed two factions, setting the framework for the future First Party System. Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton had bold plans to establish the national credit and build a financially powerful nation, and formed the basis of the Federalist Party. Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, founder of the Jeffersonian Republicans, strenuously opposed Hamilton's agenda, but Washington favored Hamilton over Jefferson.
The Residence Act of 1790, which Washington signed, authorized the President to select the specific location of the permanent seat of the government, which would be located along the Potomac River. The Act authorized the President to appoint three commissioners to survey and acquire property for this seat. Washington personally oversaw this effort throughout his term in office. In 1791, the commissioners named the permanent seat of government "The City of Washington in the Territory of Columbia" to honor Washington. In 1800, the Territory of Columbia became the District of Columbia when the federal government moved to the site according to the provisions of the Residence Act.[48][49]
In 1791, Congress imposed an excise on distilled spirits, which led to protests in frontier districts, especially Pennsylvania. By 1794, after Washington ordered the protesters to appear in U.S. district court, the protests turned into full-scale riots known as the Whiskey Rebellion. The federal army was too small to be used, so Washington invoked the Militia Act of 1792 to summon the militias of Pennsylvania, Virginia, and several other states. The governors sent the troops and Washington took command, marching into the rebellious districts.[50] There was no fighting, but Washington's forceful action proved the new government could protect itself. It also was one of only two times that a sitting President would personally command the military in the field. These events marked the first time under the new constitution that the federal government used strong military force to exert authority over the states and citizens.

Foreign affairs

Statue of Washington in Paris, France
In 1793, the revolutionary government of France sent diplomat Edmond-Charles Genêt, called "Citizen Genêt," to America. Genêt issued letters of marque and reprisal to American ships so they could capture British merchant ships. He attempted to turn popular sentiment towards American involvement in the French war against Britain by creating a network of Democratic-Republican Societies in major cities. Washington rejected this interference in domestic affairs, demanded the French government recall Genêt, and denounced his societies.
Hamilton and Washington designed the Jay Treaty to normalize trade relations with Britain, remove them from western forts, and resolve financial debts left over from the Revolution. John Jay negotiated and signed the treaty on November 19, 1794. The Jeffersonians supported France and strongly attacked the treaty. Washington and Hamilton, however, mobilized public opinion and won ratification by the Senate by emphasizing Washington's support. The British agreed to depart their forts around the Great Lakes, the Canadian-U.S. boundary was adjusted, numerous pre-Revolutionary debts were liquidated, and the British opened their West Indies colonies to American trade. Most importantly, the treaty delayed war with Britain and instead brought a decade of prosperous trade with that country. This angered the French and became a central issue in political debates.

Farewell Address

Washington's Farewell Address (issued as a public letter in 1796) was one of the most influential statements of American political values.[51] Drafted primarily by Washington himself, with help from Hamilton, it gives advice on the necessity and importance of national union, the value of the Constitution and the rule of law, the evils of political parties, and the proper virtues of a republican people. While he declined suggested versions[52] that would have included statements that morality required a "divinely authoritative religion," he called morality "a necessary spring of popular government". He said, "Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined education on minds of peculiar structure, reason and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle."[53]
Washington's public political address warned against foreign influence in domestic affairs and American meddling in European affairs. He warned against bitter partisanship in domestic politics and called for men to move beyond partisanship and serve the common good. He warned against 'permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world',[54] saying the United States must concentrate primarily on American interests. He counseled friendship and commerce with all nations, but warned against involvement in European wars and entering into long-term "entangling" alliances. The address quickly set American values regarding religion and foreign affairs.

Retirement and death

After retiring from the presidency in March 1797, Washington returned to Mount Vernon with a profound sense of relief. He devoted much time to farming.
On July 4, 1798, Washington was commissioned by President John Adams to be Lieutenant General and Commander-in-chief of the armies raised or to be raised for service in a prospective war with France. He served as the senior officer of the United States Army between July 13, 1798, and December 14, 1799. He participated in the planning for a Provisional Army to meet any emergency that might arise, but did not take the field.[12][55]
On December 12, 1799, Washington spent several hours inspecting his farms on horseback, in snow and later hail and freezing rain. He sat down to dine that evening without changing his wet clothes. The next morning, he awoke with a bad cold, fever, and a throat infection called quinsy that turned into acute laryngitis and pneumonia. Washington died on the evening of December 14, 1799, at his home aged 67, while attended by Dr. James Craik, one of his closest friends, Dr. Gustavus Richard Brown, Dr. Elisha C. Dick, and Tobias Lear V, Washington's personal secretary. Lear would record the account in his journal, writing that Washington's last words were "'Tis well." Modern doctors believe that Washington died largely because of his treatment, which included calomel and bloodletting, resulting in a combination of shock from the loss of five pints of blood, as well as asphyxia and dehydration.[56]
Throughout the world, men and women were saddened by Washington's death. Napoleon ordered ten days of mourning throughout France; in the United States, thousands wore mourning clothes for months.[55] To protect their privacy, Martha Washington burned the correspondence between her husband and herself following his death. Only three letters between the couple have survived.

Interment and new tomb

On December 18, 1799, a funeral was held at Mount Vernon, and Washington was interred in a tomb on the estate.[57]
Congress passed a joint resolution to construct a marble monument in the United States Capitol for his body, supported by Martha. In December 1800, the United States House passed an appropriations bill for $200,000 to build the mausoleum, which was to be a pyramid that had a base 100 feet (30 m) square. Southern opposition to the plan defeated the measure because they felt it was best to have his body remain at Mount Vernon.[58]
In 1831, for the centennial of his birth, a new tomb was constructed to receive his remains. That year, an attempt was made to steal the body of Washington, but proved to be unsuccessful.[59] Despite this, a joint Congressional committee in early 1832 debated the removal of Washington's body from Mount Vernon to a crypt in the Capitol, built by Charles Bullfinch in the 1820s. Yet again, Southern opposition proved very intense, antagonized by an ever-growing rift between North and South. Congressman Wiley Thompson of Georgia expressed the fear of Southerners when he said:
"Remove the remains of our venerated Washington from their association with the remains of his consort and his ancestors, from Mount Vernon and from his native State, and deposit them in this capitol, and then let a severance of the Union occur, and behold the remains of Washington on a shore foreign to his native soil."[60]
This ended any talk of the movement of his remains, and he was moved to the new tomb that was constructed there on October 7, 1837, presented by John Struthers of Philadelphia.[61] After the ceremony, the inner vault's door was closed and the key was thrown into the Potomac.[62]

Administration, Cabinet and Supreme Court appointments

The Washington Cabinet
Office Name Term
President George Washington 1789–1797
Vice President John Adams 1789–1797
Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson 1790–1793
Edmund Randolph 1794–1795
Timothy Pickering 1795–1797
Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton 1789–1795
Oliver Wolcott, Jr. 1795–1797
Secretary of War Henry Knox 1789–1794
Timothy Pickering 1794–1795
James McHenry 1796–1797
Attorney General Edmund Randolph 1789–1794
William Bradford 1794–1795
Charles Lee 1795–1797

Portrait of George Washington by Gilbert Stuart
Supreme Court Appointments by President George Washington
Position Name Term
Chief Justice John Jay 1789–1795 (resigned)
John Rutledge 1795–1796 (rejected)
William Cushing 1796 (declined)
Oliver Ellsworth 1796–1800 (resigned)
Associate Justice James Wilson 1789–1798
William Cushing 1789–1810
John Blair 1789–1795
Robert H. Harrison 1789 (declined)
John Rutledge 1789–1791
James Iredell 1790–1799
Thomas Johnson 1792–1793
William Paterson 1793–1806
Samuel Chase 1796–1811
States joining the Union under Washington's Presidency
Original states:
New states:

Legacy

Representative Henry Lee, a Revolutionary War comrade and father of the Civil War general Robert E. Lee, famously eulogized Washington as follows:
First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen, he was second to none in humble and enduring scenes of private life. Pious, just, humane, temperate, and sincere; uniform, dignified, and commanding; his example was as edifying to all around him as were the effects of that example lasting...Correct throughout, vice shuddered in his presence and virtue always felt his fostering hand. The purity of his private character gave effulgence to his public virtues...Such was the man for whom our nation mourns.[11]
Lee's words set the standard by which Washington's overwhelming reputation was impressed upon the American memory. Washington set many precedents for the national government and the presidency in particular.
As early as 1778, Washington was lauded as the "Father of His Country".[63]
During the United States Bicentennial year, George Washington was posthumously appointed to the grade of General of the Armies of the United States by the congressional joint resolution Public Law 94-479 passed on January 19, 1976, with an effective appointment date of July 4, 1976.[12] This restored Washington's position as the highest-ranking military officer in U.S. history.

Monuments and memorials

Today, Washington's face and image are often used as national symbols of the United States, along with the icons such as the flag and great seal. Perhaps the most prominent commemoration of his legacy is the use of his image on the one-dollar bill and the quarter-dollar coin. Washington, together with Theodore Roosevelt, Thomas Jefferson, and Abraham Lincoln, is depicted in stone at the Mount Rushmore Memorial. The Washington Monument, one of the most well known American landmarks, was built in his honor. The George Washington Masonic National Memorial in Alexandria, Virginia, constructed entirely with voluntary contributions from members of the Masonic Fraternity, was also built in his honor.[64]
Many things have been named in honor of Washington. Washington's name became that of the nation's capital, Washington, D.C., only one of two capitals across the globe to be named after an American president (the other is Monrovia, Liberia). The state of Washington is the only state to be named after an American (Maryland, Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia are all named in honor of British monarchs, and Pennsylvania and Delaware after British subjects). George Washington University and Washington University in St. Louis were named for him, as was Washington and Lee University (once Washington Academy), which was renamed due to Washington’s large endowment in 1796. Countless American cities and towns feature a Washington Street among their thoroughfares.
The Confederate Seal prominently featured George Washington on horseback, in the same position as a statue of him in Richmond, Virginia.
There is even a statue of Washington in London, the capital of his enemies. Based on Jean Antoine Houdon's marble statue in Richmond, Virginia, it was given to the British Nation in 1921 by the Commonwealth of Virginia. It stands in front of the National Gallery at Trafalgar Square. It has been claimed that the soil on which the statue stands also comes from America since Washington is reported to have said that he would never stand on English ground.[65][66]

Washington and slavery

The slave trade continued throughout George Washington’s life. On the death of his father in 1743, the 11-year-old inherited 10 slaves. At the time of his marriage to Martha Custis in 1759, he personally owned at least 36 (and the widow's third of her first husband's estate brought at least 85 "dower slaves" to Mount Vernon). Using his wife's great wealth he bought land, tripling the size of the plantation, and additional slaves to farm it. By 1774, he paid taxes on 135 slaves (this does not include the "dowers"). The last record of a slave purchase by him was in 1772, although he later received some slaves in repayment of debts.[67] Washington also used white indentured servants.[68][69]
Before the American Revolution, Washington expressed no moral reservations about slavery, but in 1786, Washington wrote to Robert Morris, saying, "There is not a man living who wishes more sincerely than I do, to see a plan adopted for the abolition of slavery."[70] In 1778, he wrote to his manager at Mount Vernon that he wished "to get quit of negroes". Maintaining a large, and increasingly elderly, slave population at Mount Vernon was not economically profitable. Washington could not legally sell the "dower slaves," however, and because these slaves had long intermarried with his own slaves, he could not sell his slaves without breaking up families.[71]
As president, Washington brought seven slaves to New York City in 1789 to work in the first presidential household– Oney Judge, Moll, Giles, Paris, Austin, Christopher Sheels, and William Lee. Following the transfer of the national capital to Philadelphia in 1790, he brought nine slaves to work in the President's HouseOney Judge, Moll, Giles, Paris, Austin, Christopher Sheels, Hercules, Richmond, and Joe (Richardson).[72] Oney Judge and Hercules escaped to freedom from Philadelphia, and there were foiled escape attempts from Mount Vernon by Richmond and Christopher Sheels.
Pennsylvania had begun an abolition of slavery in 1780, and prohibited nonresidents from holding slaves in the state longer than six months. If held beyond that period, the state's Gradual Abolition Law[73] gave those slaves the power to free themselves. Washington argued (privately) that his presence in Pennsylvania was solely a consequence of Philadelphia's being the temporary seat of the federal government, and that the state law should not apply to him. On the advice of his attorney general, Edmund Randolph, he systematically rotated the President's House slaves in and out of the state to prevent their establishing a six-month continuous residency. This rotation was itself a violation of the Pennsylvania law, but the President's actions were not challenged.
The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793[74] established the legal mechanism by which a slaveholder could recover his property, a right guaranteed by the Fugitive Slave Clause of the U.S. Constitution (Article IV, Section 2). Passed overwhelmingly by Congress and signed into law by Washington, the 1793 Act made assisting an escaped slave a federal crime, overruled all state and local laws giving escaped slaves sanctuary, and allowed slave catchers into every U.S. state and territory.
Washington was the only prominent, slaveholding Founding Father who emancipated his slaves. His actions were influenced by his close relationship with Marquis de La Fayette. He did not free his slaves in his lifetime, however, but included a provision in his will to free his slaves upon the death of his wife. At the time of his death, there were 317 slaves at Mount Vernon– 123 owned by Washington, 154 "dower slaves," and 40 rented from a neighbor.[75]
Martha Washington bequeathed the one slave she owned outright– Elisha– to her grandson George Washington Parke Custis. Following her death in 1802, her grandchildren inherited the dower slaves.
It has been argued that Washington did not speak out publicly against slavery, because he did not wish to create a split in the new republic, with an issue that was sensitive and divisive.[76] Even if Washington had opposed the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, his veto probably would have been overridden. (The Senate vote was not recorded, but the House passed it overwhelmingly, 47 to 8.)[77]
On March 4, 1850, the possibility of Southern Secession over the issue of slavery, eventually deferred by the Compromise of 1850, arose. The prominent Southern leader John C. Calhoun invoked Washington's memory in support of the Southern cause, saying, "The illustrious Southerner whose mortal remains repose on the western bank of the Potomac was one of us - a slave-holder and a planter" [78]
Cultural depictions of George Washington
Back of statue facing a city building whose facade is Greek columns covered by a huge U.S. flag
The statue of Washington outside Federal Hall in New York City, looking on Wall Street
Profile of stone face jutting out from a mountainside. Three workers clamber over it, each about the height of the face's upper lip.
Construction on the George Washington portrait at Mount Rushmore, c. 1932. 
Shiny silver coin with profile of Washington bust. He faces left regally and wears a colonial-style queue in his hair. "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" is at top, "QUARTER DOLLAR" at bottom, "LIBERTY" at left, and "IN GOD WE TRUST" above "S" at right. Just below the bust is "JF uc" in tiny letters.
Washington is commemorated on the quarter
Gold coin with bust of Washington facing slightly left of but looking sternly straight at the viewer. "GEORGE WASHINGTON" is above, "1st PRESIDENT 1789–1797" below, and "JFM" in tiny letters at the bust's base.
Washington is also commemorated on some dollar coins

Religious beliefs

Washington was baptized into the Church of England when he was less than two months old.[79][80] In 1765, when the Church of England was still the state religion,[81] he served on the vestry (lay council) for his local church. Throughout his life, he spoke of the value of righteousness, and of seeking and offering thanks for the "blessings of Heaven."
In a letter to George Mason in 1785, Washington wrote that he was not among those alarmed by a bill "making people pay towards the support of that [religion] which they profess," but felt that it was "impolitic" to pass such a measure, and wished it had never been proposed, believing that it would disturb public tranquility.[82]
His adopted daughter, Nelly Custis Lewis, stated: "I have heard her [Nelly's mother, Eleanor Calvert Custis, who resided in Mount Vernon for two years] say that General Washington always received the sacrament with my grandmother [Martha Washington] before the revolution."[83] Washington frequently accompanied his wife to Christian church services; however, there is no record of his ever taking communion, and he would regularly leave services before communion—with the other non-communicants (as was the custom of the day), until, after being admonished by a rector, he ceased attending at all on communion Sundays.[84][85] Before communion, believers are admonished to take stock of their spiritual lives and not to participate in the ceremony unless he finds himself in the will of God.[86][83] Historians and biographers continue to debate the degree to which he can be counted as a Christian, and the degree to which he was a deist.
He was an early supporter of religious toleration and freedom of religion. In 1775, he ordered that his troops not show anti-Catholic sentiments by burning the pope in effigy on Guy Fawkes Night. When hiring workmen for Mount Vernon, he wrote to his agent, "If they be good workmen, they may be from Asia, Africa, or Europe; they may be Mohammedans, Jews, or Christians of any sect, or they may be Atheists."[86][87] In 1790, he wrote a response to a letter from the Touro Synagogue, in which he said that as long as people remain good citizens, they do not have to fear persecution for having differing beliefs or faiths. This was a relief to the Jewish community of the United States, since the Jews had been either expelled or discriminated against in many European countries.
...the Government of the United States ... gives to bigotry no sanction, to persecution no assistance. ... May the children of the Stock of Abraham, who dwell in this land, continue to merit and enjoy the good will of the other Inhabitants; while every one shall sit in safety under his own vine and figtree, and there shall be none to make him afraid. May the father of all mercies scatter light and not darkness in our paths, and make us all in our several vocations useful here, and in his own due time and way everlastingly happy.
The United States Bill of Rights was in the process of being ratified at the time.

Freemasonry

George Washington lays U.S. Capitol's cornerstone in Grand Master Freemason regalia
On November 4, 1752, George Washington was initiated into Freemasonry in Fredericksburg lodge.[88] On April 29, 1788, he was appointed Worshipful Master of Alexandria Lodge 22,[89] and held that office when he was elected President of the United States. At his inauguration, the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of New York administered his oath of office. On September 18, 1793, he laid the cornerstone of the U.S. Capitol wearing full Masonic Grand Master regalia.

Personal life

Along with Martha's biological family noted above, George Washington had a close relationship with his nephew and heir Bushrod Washington, son of George's younger brother John Augustine Washington. Bushrod became an Associate Justice on the US Supreme Court after George's death.
As a young man, Washington had red hair.[90][91] A popular myth is that he wore a wig, as was the fashion among some at the time. Washington did not wear a wig; instead, he powdered his hair,[92] as represented in several portraits, including the well-known unfinished Gilbert Stuart depiction.[93]
Washington suffered from problems with his teeth throughout his life. He lost his first adult tooth when he was twenty-two and had only one left by the time he became President.[94] John Adams claims he lost them because he used them to crack Brazil nuts but modern historians suggest the mercury oxide, which he was given to treat illnesses such as smallpox and malaria, probably contributed to the loss. He had several sets of false teeth made, four of them by a dentist named John Greenwood.[94] Contrary to popular belief, none of the sets were made from wood. The set made when he became President was carved from hippopotamus and elephant ivory, held together with gold springs.[95] The hippo ivory was used for the plate, into which real human teeth and bits of horses' and donkeys' teeth were inserted. Dental problems left Washington in constant pain, for which he took laudanum.[96] This distress may be apparent in many of the portraits painted while he was still in office, including the one still used on the $1 bill.
One of the most enduring myths about George Washington involves his chopping down his father's cherry tree and, when asked about it, using the famous line "I cannot tell a lie, I did it with my little hatchet." There is no evidence that this ever occurred.[97] It, along with the story of Washington skipping a silver dollar across the Potomac River, was part of a book of mythic stories written by Mason Weems that made Washington a legendary figure beyond his wartime and presidential achievements.

U.S. postage issues

George Washington appears on contemporary currency, including the one-dollar bill and the quarter. On U.S. postage stamps however, Washington appears numerous times and in many different denominations. Washington has been depicted on U.S. postage stamps more than all other notable Americans combined, including Abraham Lincoln and Benjamin Franklin.[98]
Washington, general issue of 1862, 24c
Washington, general issue of 1895, 1c
Washington-Franklin Issue of 1914, 5c
Washington-Franklin Issue of 1916, 7c
Washington, Bicentennial Issue of 1932, 2c
Washington, Bicentennial Issue of 1932, 10c
Washington at Prayer, Valley Forge, issue of 1928, 2c
Washington Takes Oath, Issue of 1939, 3c

See also

References: biographies

  • Buchanan, John. The Road to Valley Forge: How Washington Built the Army That Won the Revolution (2004). 368 pp.
  • Burns, James MacGregor and Dunn, Susan. George Washington. Times, 2004. 185 pp. explore leadership style
  • Cunliffe, Marcus. George Washington: Man and Monument (1958), explores both the biography and the myth
  • Grizzard, Frank E., Jr. George! A Guide to All Things Washington. Buena Vista and Charlottesville, VA: Mariner Publishing. 2005. ISBN 0-9768238-0-2. Grizzard is a leading scholar of Washington.
  • Hirschfeld, Fritz. George Washington and Slavery: A Documentary Portrayal. University of Missouri Press, 1997.
  • Ellis, Joseph J. His Excellency: George Washington. (2004) ISBN 1-4000-4031-0. Acclaimed interpretation of Washington's career.
  • Elkins, Stanley M. and Eric McKitrick. The Age of Federalism. (1994) the leading scholarly history of the 1790s.
  • Ferling, John E. The First of Men: A Life of George Washington (1989). Biography from a leading scholar.
  • Fischer, David Hackett. Washington's Crossing. (2004), prize-winning military history focused on 1775–1776.
  • Flexner, James Thomas. Washington: The Indispensable Man. (1974). ISBN 0-316-28616-8 (1994 reissue). Single-volume condensation of Flexner's popular four-volume biography.
  • Freeman, Douglas S. George Washington: A Biography. 7 volumes, 1948–1957. The standard scholarly biography, winner of the Pulitzer Prize. A single-volume abridgement by Richard Harwell appeared in 1968
  • Grizzard, Frank E., Jr. George Washington: A Biographical Companion. ABC-CLIO, 2002. 436 pp. Comprehensive encyclopedia by leading scholar
  • Grizzard, Frank E., Jr. The Ways of Providence: Religion and George Washington. Buena Vista and Charlottesville, VA: Mariner Publishing. 2005. ISBN 0-9768238-1-0.
  • Higginbotham, Don, ed. George Washington Reconsidered. University Press of Virginia, (2001). 336 pp of essays by scholars
  • Higginbotham, Don. George Washington: Uniting a Nation. Rowman & Littlefield, (2002). 175 pp.
  • Hofstra, Warren R., ed. George Washington and the Virginia Backcountry. Madison House, 1998. Essays on Washington's formative years.
  • Lengel, Edward G. General George Washington: A Military Life. New York: Random House, 2005. ISBN 1-4000-6081-8.
  • Lodge, Henry Cabot. George Washington, 2 vols. (1889), vol 1 at Gutenberg; vol 2 at Gutenberg
  • McDonald, Forrest. The Presidency of George Washington. 1988. Intellectual history showing Washington as exemplar of republicanism.
  • Smith, Richard Norton Patriarch: George Washington and the New American Nation Focuses on last 10 years of Washington's life.
  • Spalding, Matthew. "George Washington's Farewell Address", The Wilson Quarterly v20#4 (Autumn 1996) pp: 65+.
  • Stritof, Sheri and Bob. "George and Martha Washington" http://marriage.about.com/od/presidentialmarriages/p/gwashington.htm
  • Wiencek, Henry. An Imperfect God: George Washington, His Slaves, and the Creation of America. (2003).

Further reading

Notes

  1. ^ a b Engber, Daniel (2006).What's Benjamin Franklin's Birthday?. (Both Franklin's and Washington's confusing birth dates are clearly explained.) Retrieved on June 17, 2009.
  2. ^ a b The birth and death of George Washington are given using the Gregorian calendar. However, he was born when Britain and her colonies still used the Julian calendar, so contemporary records record his birth as February 11, 1731. The provisions of the Calendar (New Style) Act 1750, implemented in 1752, altered the official British dating method to the Gregorian calendar with the start of the year on January 1.
  3. ^ a b "Image of page from family Bible". Papers of George Washington. http://gwpapers.virginia.edu/project/faq/bible.html. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  4. ^ Under the Articles of Confederation Congress called its presiding officer "President of the United States in Congress Assembled". He had no executive powers, but the similarity of titles has confused people into thinking there were other presidents before Washington. Merrill Jensen, The Articles of Confederation (1959), 178–9
  5. ^ "George Washington". Library of Congress. http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/aa/wash. Retrieved June 27, 2009. 
  6. ^ "Rediscovering George Washington". Public Broadcasting Service. http://www.pbs.org/georgewashington/father/index.html. Retrieved June 27, 2009. 
  7. ^ "George Washington". Library of Congress. http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/aa/wash. Retrieved June 27, 2009. 
  8. ^ "Rediscovering George Washington". Public Broadcasting Service. http://www.pbs.org/georgewashington/father/index.html. Retrieved June 27, 2009. 
  9. ^ Johnson, Paul (2005). George Washington: The Founding Father. HarperCollins. p. 78. ISBN 0-06-075365-X. "In London, George III questioned the American-born painter Benjamin West what Washington would do now he had won the war. 'Oh,' said West, 'they say he will return to his farm.' 'If he does that,' said the king, 'he will be the greatest man in the world.'" 
  10. ^ "Loubat, J. F. and Jacquemart, Jules, Illustrator, The Medallic History of the United States of America 1776-1876". Gutenberg.org. 2007-06-20. http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/21880. Retrieved 2009-08-06. 
  11. ^ a b Henry Lee's eulogy to George Washington, December 26, 1799. Safire, William (2004). Lend Me Your Ears: Great Speeches in History. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 185–186. ISBN 0-393-05931-6. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Bell, William Gardner (1983). Commanding Generals and Chiefs of Staff: 1775-2005; Portraits & Biographical Sketches of the United States Army's Senior Officer. Center of Military History – United States Army. pp. 52 & 66. CMH Pub 70–14. ISBN 0160723760. http://www.history.army.mil/books/CG&CSA/CG-TOC.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-04. 
  13. ^ Dorothy Twohig, "The Making of George Washington", in Warren R. Hofstra, ed., George Washington and the Virginia Backcountry (Madison, 1998).
  14. ^ "Slavery at Popes Creek Plantation", George Washington Birthplace National Monument, National Park Service, accessed Apr 15, 2009
  15. ^ At the time Virginia included West Virginia and the upper Ohio Valley area around present day Pittsburgh.
  16. ^ Abbott, W.W., editor. The Papers of George Washington: Colonial Series, Volume 1 (University Press of Virginia:1983) p. 9
  17. ^ "Washington As Public Land Surveyor: Boyhood and Beginnings" George Washington: Surveyor and Mapmaker. American Memory. Library of Congress. Retrieved on May 17, 2007.
  18. ^ Bush Hill House - Colonial Williamsburg Research Division
  19. ^ "George Washington House Restoration Project in Barbados". http://www.georgewashingtonbarbados.org/. Retrieved 2008-01-21. 
  20. ^ "George Washington: Making of a Military Leader", American Memory, Library of Congress. Retrieved on May 17, 2007
  21. ^ Sparks, Jared (1839). The Life of George Washington, Boston: Ferdinand Andrews. p. 17. Digitized by Google. Retrieved on May 17, 2007.
  22. ^ Tabbert, Mark A. (January 29, 2007). "A Masonic Memorial to a Virtuous Man". Pietre-Stones Review of Freemasonry. Retrieved on May 17, 2007.
  23. ^ Washington Daylight Lodge #14 (2006). "Commemoration of George Washington’s Birthday". Retrieved on August 21, 2007.
  24. ^ Fred Anderson, Crucible of War (Vintage Books, 2001), p. 6.
  25. ^ a b Lengel p.48
  26. ^ On British attitudes see John Shy, Numerous and Armed: Reflections on the Military Struggle for American Independence (1990) p. 39; Douglas Edward Leach. Roots of Conflict: British Armed Forces and Colonial Americans, 1677–1763 (1986) p. 106; and John Ferling. Setting the World Ablaze: Washington, Adams, Jefferson, and the American Revolution (2002) p. 65
  27. ^ Ellis, Joseph J. His Excellency: George Washington. (2004) ISBN 1-4000-4031-0.
  28. ^ For negative treatments of Washington's excessive ambition and military blunders, see Bernhard Knollenberg, George Washington: The Virginia Period, 1732–1775 (1964) and Thomas A. Lewis, For King and Country: The Maturing of George Washington, 1748–1760 (1992).
  29. ^ Lawrence Washington's Captain's Commission, signed by King George II, and awarded by Virginia Governor William Gooch on July 10, 1740, survives in the Mount Vernon estate archives, document W-734
  30. ^ Chartrand & Rickman, Colonial American Troops, 1610–1774 (Vol.1) (Osprey Publishing: 2002) p. 45.
  31. ^ Leach, Douglas. Roots of Conflict: British Armed Forces and Colonial Americans, 1677–1763 (University of North Carolina Press:1986) p.50. ISBN 0-8078-4258-3
  32. ^ see: Bruce, Anthony. The Purchase System in the British Army, 1660-1871 (London:1980, Royal Historical Society) ISBN 0901050571
  33. ^ Rasmussen & Tilton. George Washington: The Man Behind the Myths. (University Press of Virginia: 1999) p.57. ISBN 0-8139-1900-2
  34. ^ John K. Amory, M.D., "George Washington’s infertility: Why was the father of our country never a father?", Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 81, No. 3, March 2004. (online, PDF format)
  35. ^ "Acreage, slaves, and social standing", Joseph Ellis, His Excellency, George Washington, pp. 41–42, 48.
  36. ^ Fox hunting: Ellis p. 44. Mount Vernon economy: John Ferling, The First of Men, pp. 66–67; Ellis pp. 50–53; Bruce A. Ragsdale, "George Washington, the British Tobacco Trade, and Economic Opportunity in Pre-Revolutionary Virginia", in Don Higginbotham, ed., George Washington Reconsidered, pp. 67–93.
  37. ^ Washington, quoted in Ferling, p. 99.
  38. ^ Orlando W. Stephenson, "The Supply of Gunpowder in 1776", American Historical Review, Vol. 30, No. 2 (January 1925), pp. 271–281 in JSTOR
  39. ^ Bickham, Troy O. "Sympathizing with Sedition? George Washington, the British Press, and British Attitudes During the American War of Independence", William and Mary Quarterly 2002 59(1): 101–122. ISSN 0043-5597 Fulltext online in History Cooperative
  40. ^ McCullough, David (2005). 1776. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0743226714. 
  41. ^ George Washington Biography, American-Presidents.com. Retrieved July 29, 2009.
  42. ^ Fleming, T: "Washington's Secret War: the Hidden History of Valley Forge", Smithsonian Books, 2005
  43. ^ George Washington Papers 1741–1799: Series 3b Varick Transcripts, American Memory, Library of Congress, Accessed May 22, 2006.
  44. ^ Frost, Doug (January 6, 2005). "Rum makers distill unsavory history into fresh products". San Francisco Chronicle.
  45. ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot (1972). "Washington's First Administration: 1789–1793". The Oxford History of the American People, Vol. 2. Meridian. 
  46. ^ Leonard D. White, The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History (1948)
  47. ^ After Franklin Delano Roosevelt was elected to an unprecedented four terms, the two-term limit was formally integrated into the Federal Constitution by the twenty-second Amendment.
  48. ^ Crew, Harvey W., Webb, William Bensing, Wooldridge, John, Centennial History of the City of Washington, D.C., United Brethren Publishing House, Dayton, Ohio, 1892, Chapter IV. "Permanent Capital Site Selected", p. 87 in Google Books. Accessed May 7, 2009.
  49. ^ Text of Residence Act in ""American Memory" in official website of the U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved April 15, 2009.
  50. ^ Hoover, Michael. "The Whiskey Rebellion". United States Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau. http://www.ttb.gov/public_info/whisky_rebellion.shtml. Retrieved 2007-10-19. 
  51. ^ Matthew Spalding, The Command of its own Fortunes: Reconsidering Washington's Farewell Address", in William D. Pederson, Mark J. Rozell, Ethan M. Fishman, eds. George Washington (2001) ch 2; Virginia Arbery, "Washington's Farewell Address and the Form of the American Regime" in Gary L. Gregg II and Matthew Spalding, eds. George Washington and the American Political Tradition. 1999 pp. 199–216.
  52. ^ "Library of Congress – see Farewell Address section". Loc.gov. 2003-10-27. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/rel06.html. Retrieved 2009-08-06. 
  53. ^ "Religion and the Federal Government". Religion and the Founding of the American Republic. Library of Congress Exhibition. Retrieved on May 17, 2007.
  54. ^ "Washington's Farewell Address, 1796"
  55. ^ a b The World Book Encyclopedia. W*X*Y*Z (1969 ed.). Field Enterprises Educational Corporation. 1969 [1917]. p. 84a. LOC 69-10030. 
  56. ^ Vadakan, M.D., Vibul V. (Winter/Spring 2005). "A Physician Looks At The Death of Washington". Early America Review. Archiving Early America. http://www.earlyamerica.com/review/2005_winter_spring/washingtons_death.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-17. 
  57. ^ "The Funeral". The Papers of George Washington. University of Virginia. http://gwpapers.virginia.edu/project/exhibit/mourning/funeral.html. 
  58. ^ Boorstin, Daniel (1965). The Americans: The National Experience. Vintage Books. pp. 349–350. ISBN 394703588. 
  59. ^ Johnston, Elizabeth Bryant (1889). Visitors' Guide to Mount Vernon. Gibson Brothers, Printers. pp. 14–15. http://books.google.com/books?id=7p5BAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA14. 
  60. ^ Boorstin, p. 350.
  61. ^ Washington, George; Jefferson, Thomas; Peters, Richard (1847). Knight, Franklin. ed. Letters on Agriculture. Washington: Franklin Knight. pp. 177–180. http://books.google.com/books?id=N58TAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA177-IA1. Retrieved February 11, 2010. 
  62. ^ "Mount Vernon Visited; The Home of Washington As It Exists Today". The New York Times: p. 2. March 12, 1881. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9C05E3DE133EE433A25751C1A9659C94609FD7CF. "The body was placed in this sarcophagus on October 7, 1837, when the door of the inner vault was closed and the key thrown in the Potomac." 
  63. ^ He has gained fame around the world as a quintessential example of a benevolent national founder. Gordon Wood concludes that the greatest act in his life was his resignation as commander of the armies—an act that stunned aristocratic Europe. Gordon Wood, The Radicalism of the American Revolution (1992), pp 105–6; Edmund Morgan, The Genius of George Washington (1980), pp 12–13; Sarah J. Purcell, Sealed With Blood: War, Sacrifice, and Memory in Revolutionary America (2002) p. 97; Don Higginbotham, George Washington (2004); Ellis, 2004. The earliest known image in which Washington is identified as such is on the cover of the circa 1778 Pennsylvania German almanac (Lancaster: Gedruckt bey Francis Bailey).
  64. ^ "Welcome to the George Washington Masonic Memorial". Gwmemorial.org. http://www.gwmemorial.org/. Retrieved 2009-08-06. 
  65. ^ Laura Porter. "George Washington Statue". About.com. http://golondon.about.com/od/londonpictures/ig/Less-seen-Sights/George-Washington-Statue.htm. Retrieved Janaury 03, 2010. 
  66. ^ George Washington statue at LondonTaxiTour.Com
  67. ^ Fritz Hirschfeld, George Washington and Slavery: A Documentary Portrayal, University of Missouri, 1997, pp. 11-12
  68. ^ "The forgotten history of Britain's white slaves". Telegraph.co.uk. May 3, 2007.
  69. ^ "George Washington: Farmer", by Paul Leland Haworth.
  70. ^ Letter of April 12, 1786, in W. B. Allen, ed., George Washington: A Collection (Indianapolis: Library Classics, 1989), 319.
  71. ^ Slave raffle linked to Washington's reassessment of slavery: Wiencek, pp. 135–36, 178–88. Washington's decision to stop selling slaves: Hirschfeld, p. 16. Influence of war and Wheatley: Wiencek, ch 6. Dilemma of selling slaves: Wiencek, p. 230; Ellis, pp. 164–7; Hirschfeld, pp. 27–29.
  72. ^ "Biographical sketches of the 9". Ushistory.org. 1995-07-04. http://www.ushistory.org/presidentshouse/slaves/index.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-06. 
  73. ^ "Pennsylvania's Gradual Abolition Law (1780)". Ushistory.org. 1995-07-04. http://www.ushistory.org/presidentshouse/history/gradual.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-06. 
  74. ^ "The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793". Ushistory.org. 1995-07-04. http://www.ushistory.org/presidentshouse/history/slaveact1793.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-06. 
  75. ^ "1799 Mount Vernon Slave Census". Gwpapers.virginia.edu. http://gwpapers.virginia.edu/documents/will/slavelist.html. Retrieved 2009-08-06. 
  76. ^ Twohig, "That Species of Property", pp. 127–28.
  77. ^ "Slavery by the Numbers". Ushistory.org. 1995-07-04. http://www.ushistory.org/presidentshouse/slaves/numbers.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-06. 
  78. ^ Speech published in "The Penguin Book of Historical Speeches", Ed. Brian MacArthur, London, 1995, P. 255
  79. ^ "George Washington Birthplace - National Monument - Family Bible entry". National Park Service Online Books. http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/hh/26/hh26f.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-17. 
  80. ^ "The Papers of George Washington - Image of Bible Record for Washington Family". University of Virginia. http://gwpapers.virginia.edu/project/faq/bible.html. Retrieved 2010-02-17. 
  81. ^ Colonial Williamsburg website has several articles on religion in colonial Virginia
  82. ^ "George Washington to George Mason, October 3, 1785, LS". Library of Congress: American Memory. http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mgw/mgw2/012/2440242.jpg. Retrieved 2006-09-05. 
  83. ^ a b "Proof that Washington was a Christian?". ushistorg.org. http://www.ushistory.org/valleyforge/youasked/060.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-17.  includes 1833 letter from Eleanor Parke Custis Lewis to Jared Sparks
  84. ^ Sprague, Rev. Wm. B.. "Annals of the American Pulpit". pp. 394. http://books.google.ca/books?id=_xISAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA394&dq=sprague+annals+abercrombie+washington. 
  85. ^ Neill, Rev. E.D. (1885-01-02). "article reprinted from Episcopal Recorder" (PDF). NY Times. pp. 3. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9404E1DA1138E033A25751C0A9679C94649FD7CF&oref=slogin. 
  86. ^ a b Steiner, Franklin. "The Religious Beliefs of Our Presidents". Internet Infidels. http://www.infidels.org/library/historical/franklin_steiner/presidents.html#1. 
  87. ^ Boller, Paul F (1963). George Washington & Religion. p. 118.  letter to Tench Tilghman asking him to secure a carpenter and a bricklayer for his Mount Vernon estate, March 24, 1784
  88. ^ "Washington as a Freemason". Phoenixmasonry.org. http://www.phoenixmasonry.org/washington_as_a_freemason.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-17. 
  89. ^ http://www.francmasoncoleccion.es/2-GEORGE-WASHINGTON-MASON-MASONERIA/george-washington-as-mason-masones-famosos.php
  90. ^ Homans, Charles (2004-10-06). "Taking a New Look at George Washington". The Papers of George Washington: Washington in the News. Alderman Library, University of Virginia. http://gwpapers.virginia.edu/articles/news/chicago.html. Retrieved 2007-09-28. 
  91. ^ Ross, John F (October 2005). Unmasking George Washington. Smithsonian Magazine. 
  92. ^ "George Washington's Mount Vernon: Answers". http://www.mountvernon.org/visit/plan/index.cfm/pid/446/. Retrieved 2006-06-30. 
  93. ^ Gilbert Stuart. "Smithsonian National Picture Gallery: George Washington (the Athenaeum portrait)". http://www.npg.si.edu/cexh/stuart/athen1.htm. Retrieved 2006-06-30. 
  94. ^ a b Lloyd, John; Mitchinson, John (2007). The Book of General Ignorance. Harmony. p. 97. http://books.google.com/books?id=1Mjd2GCRPmAC&pg=PA97. 
  95. ^ Barbara Glover. "George Washington - A Dental Victim". http://www.americanrevolution.org/dental.html. Retrieved 2006-06-30. 
  96. ^ "George Washington Portrait: A National Treasure". Smithsonian National Portrait Gallery. http://www.georgewashington.si.edu/portrait/face.html. Retrieved 2010-02-17. 
  97. ^ Nicholas F. Gier, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho (1980 and 2005). "Religious Liberalism and the Founding Fathers". http://www.class.uidaho.edu/ngier/305/foundfathers.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-11. 
  98. ^ This is easily confirmed by viewing any stamp catalog of US Postage stamps. The Washington-Franklin issues of 1908–1917 alone put the number of Washington issues greater than any other.

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Quotes

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From Wikiquote

I hold the maxim no less applicable to public than to private affairs, that honesty is always the best policy.
George Washington (22 February 173214 December 1799) was the successful Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War from 1775 to 1783, and later became the first President of the United States, an office to which he was elected, unanimously, twice and remained in from 1789 to 1797.

Contents

Sourced

  • Nothing is a greater stranger to my breast, or a sin that my soul more abhors, than that black and detestable one, ingratitude.
    • Letter to Governor Dinwiddie (29 May 1754)
  • There is a Destiny which has the control of our actions, not to be resisted by the strongest efforts of Human Nature.
    • Letter to Mrs. George William Fairfax (12 September 1758)
.
But lest some unlucky event should happen unfavorable to my reputation, I beg it may be remembered by every gentleman in the room that I this day declare with the umost sincerity, I do not think myself equal to the command I am honored with.
  • But lest some unlucky event should happen unfavorable to my reputation, I beg it may be remembered by every gentleman in the room that I this day declare with the utmost sincerity, I do not think myself equal to the command I am honored with.
    • Washington's formal acceptance of command of the Army (16 June 1775), quoted in The Writings of George Washington : Life of Washington (1837) edited by Jared Sparks, p.^ Through all his life, George Washington was a true gentleman.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Ella Bennett 5 Jackson (Alfred Henry 4 , George Washington 3 , George 2 , John 1 ) was born 23 September 1859, and died 05 May 1904.
      • Descendants of George Washington Jackson 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.eg.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ The young George Washington — who, when not commanding troops, spends his time as a geologist named Bryan Cunning — is jovial and chatty.
      • What Would George Washington Do? The Guinea Pig Diaries Book Excerpt - Esquire 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.esquire.com [Source type: Original source]

      141
  • Discipline is the soul of an army. .It makes small numbers formidable; procures success to the weak, and esteem to all.
    • Letter of Instructions to the Captains of the Virginia Regiments (29 July 1759)
  • Unhappy it is though to reflect, that a Brother's Sword has been sheathed in a Brother's breast, and that, the once happy and peaceful plains of America are either to be drenched with Blood, or Inhabited by Slaves.^ Washington said that the once happy America must be drenched in blood, or inhabited by slaves, and that no true man could hesitate to choose death for himself rather than slavery for his country.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The messenger who carried the letter was Alexander Hamilton, a mere youth, though he was captain of artillery.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If the British should see the colonists weak and unprepared, they would either conquer them or offer them an inglorious peace.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    Sad alternative! But can a virtuous Man hesitate in his choice?
  • Every post is honorable in which a man can serve his country.
  • I have often thought how much happier I should have been, if instead of accepting of a command under such circumstances, I had taken my musket upon my shoulders and entered the rank, or if I could have justified the measure of posterity, and my own conscience, had retired to the back country, and lived in a wigwam. .If I shall be able to rise superior to these, and many other difficulties which might be enumerated, I shall most religiously believe that the finger of Providence is in it, to blind the eyes of our enemies; for surely if we get well through this month, it must be for want of their knowing the disadvantages we labor under.^ He studied the Indians carefully, for he wanted to understand their ways so that he might know how to deal with them.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Well, Washington had such an ego that he wanted to make sure nothing similar happened to him.
    • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Indeed, all through the war, the most cruel enemies the patriots had were their Tory neighbors.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Could I have forseen the difficulties which have come upon us, could I have known that such a backwardness would have been discovered in the old soldiers to the service, all the generals upon earth should not have convinced me of the propriety of delaying an attack upon Boston till this time.^ He was much loved by the army for his bravery and generosity and all were glad when “Old Put” was appointed Major−General.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The coming of January, 1862, brought the news that the United States Marshal was making a list of all property owned or leased by anyone in rebellion or in the service of a state government in rebellion, for all such property had been ordered confiscated.
    • Descendants of George Washington Jackson 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.eg.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The British moved upon the city and found it easy to land, because the soldiers, left to defend the first fort they attacked, ran off in confusion.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    • In a letter to Reed, during the siege of Boston (January 14, 1776)-McCullogh pg 79
Discipline is the soul of an army. It makes small numbers formidable; procures success to the weak, and esteem to all.
  • To expect ... the same service from raw and undisciplined recruits, as from veteran soldiers, is to expect what never did and perhaps never will happen. .Men, who are familiarized to danger, meet it without shrinking; whereas troops unused to service often apprehend danger where no danger is.^ He had been reënforced with troops from the command of Colonel Fry, who had died on the way, and Washington was now made commander of the joint forces of about three hundred men.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He succeeded in getting together one hundred and fifty men, who were poorly equipped, and without training.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Though often misunderstood and ridiculed by men who did not agree with him, he never failed to do what he thought was right.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Letter to the President of Congress (9 February 1776)
  • Let us therefore animate and encourage each other, and show the whole world that a Freeman, contending for liberty on his own ground, is superior to any slavish mercenary on earth.
    • General Orders, Headquarters, New York (2 July 1776)
  • The General hopes and trusts that every officer and man will endeavor to live and act as becomes a Christian soldier defending the dearest rights and liberties of his country.
    • General Order, (9 July 1776) George Washington Papers at the Library of Congress, 1741-1799: Series 3g Varick Transcripts
  • The time is now near at hand which must probably determine whether Americans are to be freemen or slaves; whether they are to have any property they can call their own; whether their houses and farms are to be pillaged and destroyed, and themselves consigned to a state of wretchedness from which no human efforts will deliver them.^ He said he hoped that it would inspire each man to live and act with courage, “as became a Christian soldier defending the dearest rights and liberties of his country.” The people of New York tore down a statue of King George and melted it into bullets for the army.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Washington knew his forces were not strong enough to defend New York.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He came with a proposal of peace from England and tried to deliver it in the form of a message addressed to “George Washington.” Washington, resenting this insult, refused to receive the message and did not accept it until it was returned properly addressed to “General George Washington.” Congress thanked him for making the British respect the dignity of his office.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    The fate of unborn millions will now depend, under God, on the courage and conduct of this army. .Our cruel and unrelenting enemy leaves us only the choice of brave resistance, or the most abject submission.^ Indeed, all through the war, the most cruel enemies the patriots had were their Tory neighbors.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .We have, therefore, to resolve to conquer or die.
  • If I were to put a curse on my worst enemy, it would to be to wish him in my posistion now.^ On August 26 and 27 (1776), the enemy surrounded the fortifications at Brooklyn on Long Island.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It was now a year since the Battle of Lexington was fought and Washington feared that the war would be a long one.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Now, normally, my reaction would have been mild annoyance mixed with amusement.
    • What Would George Washington Do? The Guinea Pig Diaries Book Excerpt - Esquire 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.esquire.com [Source type: Original source]

    I just do not know what to do. It seems impossible to continue my command in this situation, but if I withdraw, all will be lost.
    • After the fall of Fort Washington, 1776
.
The fate of unborn millions will now depend, under God, on the courage and conduct of this army...
  • There is nothing that gives a man consequence, and renders him fit for command, like a support that renders him independent of everybody but the State he serves.^ To this lovely home, surrounded by lawns and stately trees, Lawrence gave the name Mount Vernon, in honor of the Admiral under whom he had served.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ General Arnold was made an officer in the British army, but nobody trusted him, and the men hated his command.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Washington had been twice defeated, but his courage and wisdom were so great that Virginia had made him Commander−in−Chief of her forces.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Letter to the president of Congress, Heights of Harlem (24 September 1776)
  • To place any dependence upon militia, is, assuredly, resting upon a broken staff.Men just dragged from the tender scenes of domestic life - unaccustomed to the din of arms - totally unacquainted with every kind of military skill, which being followed by a want of confidence in themselves when opposed to troops regularly trained, disciplined, and appointed, superior in knowledge, and superior in arms, makes them timid and read to fly from their own shadows.^ Washington did all he could to relieve their sufferings, and in a letter to Congress, he begged for better pay for the men and better supplies.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ His military knowledge and experience enabled him to make rules and regulations for an army, and he advised what forts should be garrisoned.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Congress sent him to Washington, who realized that his experience would be valuable, and who asked him to drill and discipline the troops.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    • Letter to the president of Congress, Heights of Harlem (24 September 1776)
.
If men are to be precluded from offering their sentiments on a matter which may involve the most serious and alarming consequences that can invite the consideration of mankind, reason is of no use to us...
  • Parade with me my brave fellows, we will have them soon!^ The gallant Montgomery led his men up the heights, dashing forward with the cry, “Push on, my brave boys!
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Washington rallying his troops at the Battle of Princeton(January 3, 1777).^ They kept back troops Washington needed and then criticized him for not fighting a decisive battle.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      .[2]
  • My brave fellows, you have done all I asked you to do, and more than can be reasonably expected; but your country is at stake, your wives, your houses and all that you hold dear.^ Think you'll hear all the laughter from your side?
    • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    ^ My son George's youngest child died since you left and Wirt Camper's daughter is scarcely expected to live.
    • Descendants of George Washington Jackson 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.eg.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ What many of you may not know is the reason he didn't die in all those battles he was in, was because he retreated faster than the enemy could advance.
    • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    .You have worn yourselves out with fatigues and hardships, but we know not how to spare you.^ Do you know how he killed them?
    • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Winter set in, and the troops were poorly clad and worn out from hardships.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ PM WarGames @ MadMonk - Do you know how Teddy Bears got named after him?
    • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    .If you will consent to stay one month longer, you will render that service to the cause of liberty, and to your country, which you probably can never do under any other circumstances.^ AM Sigma I don't give a fuck what country made this site, doesn't change the fact you're all digging your own grave.
    • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Not only do you not know your history and what good came of that president, but your blind of what your current one is up to.
    • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Are you the one during recess would run from the kids chasing you that you annoyed by saying 'My Dad could beat your Dad up?!'
    • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    .
    • Encouraging his men to re-enlist in the army (31 December 1776)
  • While we are zealously performing the duties of good citizens and soldiers, we certainly ought not to be inattentive to the higher duties of religion.^ The men had enlisted for only a short time and numbers returned home after this term of enlistment expired; so it was hard to keep the army up to fighting strength.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He had proved to the world that his troops were not afraid of the British army, and his men, in spite of their losses, were encouraged by this encounter with trained European soldiers.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    To the distinguished character of Patriot, it should be our highest glory to add the more distinguished character of Christian. .
    • General Orders (2 May 1778); published in Writings of George Washington (1932), Vol.XI, pp.^ Ella Bennett 5 Jackson (Alfred Henry 4 , George Washington 3 , George 2 , John 1 ) was born 23 September 1859, and died 05 May 1904.
      • Descendants of George Washington Jackson 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.eg.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ General Lee, who never would take orders from Washington, commanded his men to retreat.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ May Paxton 5 Jackson (Alfred Henry 4 , George Washington 3 , George 2 , John 1 ) was born 1863 in Virginia.
      • Descendants of George Washington Jackson 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.eg.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      342-343
  • No distance can keep anxious lovers long asunder. .
    • Letter to the Marquis de Lafayette (30 September 1779)
  • A slender acquaintance with the world must convince every man, that actions, not words, are the true criterion of the attachment of his friends, and that the most liberal professions of good will are very far from being the surest marks of it. I should be happy that my own experience had afforded fewer examples of the little dependence to be placed upon them.^ Another who volunteered his services was Washington's devoted friend, the young French nobleman, the Marquis de Lafayette.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Washington said that the once happy America must be drenched in blood, or inhabited by slaves, and that no true man could hesitate to choose death for himself rather than slavery for his country.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is a interesting and funny place to singles who are seeking for true love and friends online.
    • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    .
    • Letter to Major-General John Sullivan (15 December 1779), published in The Writings of George Washington (1890) by Worthington Chauncey Ford, Vol.^ Washington had gone to consult with the French commander in Newport (R. I.), when Major André and General Arnold met.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Phoebe Ann 6 Turner (Hetty Georgiana 5 Jackson, James Taylor 4 , George Washington 3 , George 2 , John 1 ) was born about March 1886 in Morgantown, West Virginia.
      • Descendants of George Washington Jackson 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.eg.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ George Washington 3 Jackson (George 2 , John 1 ) was born 07/09 February 1791 in (West) Virginia, and died 20 August 1876 in Weston, Lewis County, (West) Virginia.
      • Descendants of George Washington Jackson 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.eg.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      8, p. 139
  • Example, whether it be good or bad, has a powerful influence. .
    • Letter to Lord Stirling (5 March 1780)
  • Without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive.^ General Richard Montgomery, who commanded a force on Lake Champlain, marched up to Montreal, which surrendered (November, 1775) without a struggle.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    And with it, everything honorable and glorious. .
  • If men are to be precluded from offering their sentiments on a matter which may involve the most serious and alarming consequences that can invite the consideration of mankind, reason is of no use to us; the freedom of speech may be taken away, and dumb and silent we may be led, like sheep to the slaughter.
    • Address to officers of the Army (15 March 1783)
  • Gentlemen, you will permit me to put on my spectacles, for, I have grown not only gray, but almost blind in the service of my country.^ Officers resigned from the army and men deserted.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They only get points taken away for not doing their duty, like the turd that H.W. spawned.
    • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Not only do you not know your history and what good came of that president, but your blind of what your current one is up to.
    • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    • Statement as he put on his glasses before delivering his response to the first Newburgh Address (15 March 1783)
.
Had this day been wanting, the World had never seen the last stage of perfection to which human nature is capable of attaining...
  • You will, by the dignity of your Conduct, afford occasion for Posterity to say, when speaking of the glorious example you have exhibited to Mankind, had this day been wanting, the World had never seen the last stage of perfection to which human nature is capable of attaining.
    • Response to the first Newburgh Address (15 March 1783)
  • Happy, thrice happy shall they be pronounced hereafter, who have contributed any thing, who have performed the meanest office in erecting this stupendous fabrick of Freedom and Empire on the broad basis of Independency; who have assisted in protecting the rights of humane nature and establishing an Asylum for the poor and oppressed of all nations and religions.
    • General Orders (18 April 1783)
  • It may be laid down, as a primary position, and the basis of our system, that every citizen who enjoys the protection of a free government, owes not only a proportion of his property, but even of his personal services to the defence of it, and consequently that the Citizens of America (with a few legal and official exceptions) from 18 to 50 Years of Age should be borne on the Militia Rolls, provided with uniform Arms, and so far accustomed to the use of them, that the Total strength of the Country might be called forth at Short Notice on any very interesting Emergency.^ They had to decide as to who in all the country, could best be trusted with this important and responsible position.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ You know who SHOULD be there?
    • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    ^ You should all be ashamed of your president :) .
    • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    .
    • "Sentiments on a Peace Establishment" in a letter to Alexander Hamilton (2 May 1783); published in The Writings of George Washington (1938), edited by John C. Fitzpatrick, Vol.^ Gertrude B. 5 Bennett (Margaret Elizabeth 4 Jackson, George Washington 3 , George 2 , John 1 ) was born 01 November 1851, and died 26 May 1926 in Buckhannon, Upshur County, West Virginia.
      • Descendants of George Washington Jackson 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.eg.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Ella Bennett 5 Jackson (Alfred Henry 4 , George Washington 3 , George 2 , John 1 ) was born 23 September 1859, and died 05 May 1904.
      • Descendants of George Washington Jackson 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.eg.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ The messenger who carried the letter was Alexander Hamilton, a mere youth, though he was captain of artillery.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      26, p. .289
  • Having now finished the work assigned me, I retire from the great theatre of Action; and bidding an Affectionate farewell to this August body under whose orders I have so long acted, I here offer my commission, and take my leave of all the employments of public life.^ His last words, while standing on the scaffold, were, “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.” The army in New York was in great danger of being surrounded and captured by the British, whose 17 George Washington gunboats bombarded all the forts.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Washington had no authority over troops from any other colony, nor would officers commissioned by the King take orders from him.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He took up his new work with methodical patience, and 30 George Washington was most fortunate in having the help of great men.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    • Address to Congress resigning his commission (23 December 1783)
  • A people... who are possessed of the spirit of commerce, who see and who will pursue their advantages may achieve almost anything.
It was not my intention to doubt that, the Doctrines of the Illuminati... had not spread in the United States... no one is more truly satisfied of this fact than .I am.
  • If you tell the Legislatures they have violated the treaty of peace and invaded the prerogatives of the confederacy they will laugh in your face.^ He'll shoot you in the face & you'll end up apologizing to him on TV for having your face in front of the barrel.
    • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    ^ All you have to do is to tell them they are being attacked, and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger.

    What then is to be done? .Things cannot go on in the same train forever.
    It is much to be feared, as you observe, that the better kind of people being disgusted with the circumstances will have their minds prepared for any revolution whatever.^ PM little.gimpy Where the hell is Abraham Lincoln, i was sure he was going to be number 1, seeing that he was a beast, and the closest thing America has ever had to being a dictator.
    • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    ^ As you know, we have no "race suicide"; our streets are full of young people and children who, after school is out, have nowhere to go excepting the movies" where there is nothing to improve their minds and much beside the close atmosphere to ruin their health.
    • Descendants of George Washington Jackson 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.eg.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The ironic thing is that if all of the people who think of themselves as cynics or skeptics made noise, things would instantly change for the better.

    We are apt to run from one extreme into another. .To anticipate & prevent disasterous contingencies would be the part of wisdom & patriotism.
    What astonishing changes a few years are capable of producing!^ His wisdom and justice were so great that, in all these years, the wisest men have found little in the actions of Washington they would change.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .I am told that even respectable characters speak of a monarchical form of government without horror.
    From thinking proceeds speaking, thence to acting is often but a single step.^ I was taking a class about the forming of the US government and our professor told us an awesomely badass story about George Washington.
    • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    But how irrevocable & tremendous! What a triumph for the advocates of despotism to find that we are incapable of governing ourselves, and that systems founded on the basis of equal liberty are merely ideal & falacious! .Would to God that wise measures may be taken in time to avert the consequences we have but too much reason to apprehend.^ And as quoted in the Seattle Times, May 15, 2001 , the Dalai Lama said: If someone has a gun and is trying to kill you, it would be reasonable to shoot back with your own gun.


    Retired as I am from the world, I frankly acknowledge I cannot feel myself an unconcerned spectator. Yet having happily assisted in bringing the ship into port & having been fairly discharged; it is not my business to embark again on a sea of troubles. .Nor could it be expected that my sentiments and opinions would have much weight on the minds of my Countrymen — they have been neglected, tho' given as a last legacy in the most solemn manner.^ The English were now having so much trouble in Europe that it was difficult for them to carry on the war in America; but they were not willing to make peace on terms that America would accept.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This splendid victory gave the Americans large quantities of military stores, but most of all, it gave them confidence, for they had at last beaten the British forces.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Are you the one during recess would run from the kids chasing you that you annoyed by saying 'My Dad could beat your Dad up?!'
    • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    I had then perhaps some claims to public attention. I consider myself as having none at present.
  • If they have real grievances redress them, if possible; or acknowledge the justice of them, and your inability to do it at the moment. If they have not, employ the force of government against them at once.
.
Democratical States must always feel before they can see: it is this that makes their Governments slow, but the people will be right at last...
  • It was not my intention to doubt that, the Doctrines of the Illuminati, and principles of Jacobinism had not spread in the United States.^ The Constitution shall never be construed to authorize Congress to prevent the people of the United States, who are peaceable citizens, from keeping their own arms.

    ^ Sure, t he government apparently planned the Afghanistan war before 9/11 (see this and this ).

    ^ The Democratic−Republicans, who were led by Jefferson, wanted the States to hold the chief power, because they were afraid a strong central government might be turned into a monarchy.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .On the contrary, no one is more truly satisfied of this fact than I am.

    The idea that I meant to convey, was, that I did not believe that the Lodges of Free Masons in this Country had, as Societies, endeavoured to propagate the diabolical tenets of the first, or pernicious principles of the latter (if they are susceptible of seperation).^ I have no idea which one is my favorite.
    • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The 9/11 Commissioners had been fretting over the fact that, in their words, "No one was in charge of coordination among intelligence agencies."

    ^ I. No person will be permitted to take with him or her more than sixty pounds of baggage.
    • Descendants of George Washington Jackson 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.eg.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .That Individuals of them may have done it, or that the founder, or instrument employed to found, the Democratic Societies in the United States, may have had these objects; and actually had a seperation of the People from their Government in view, is too evident to be questioned.^ After four months of careful consideration and labor, they offered to the American people the glorious Constitution, upon which has been built up the great Republic of the United States.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ [T]he unlimited power of the sword is not in the hands of either the federal or the state governments, but where I trust in God it will ever remain, in the hands of the People.

    ^ The Constitution shall never be construed to authorize Congress to prevent the people of the United States, who are peaceable citizens, from keeping their own arms.

  • Democratical States must always feel before they can see: it is this that makes their Governments slow, but the people will be right at last.
.
Unwilling am I, in the evening of a life nearly consumed in public cares, to quit a peaceful abode for an Ocean of difficulties...
  • The preservation of the sacred fire of liberty, and the destiny of the republican model of government, are justly considered as deeply, perhaps as finally staked, on the experiment entrusted to the hands of the American people.
    • First Inaugural Address (30 April 1789)
  • For myself the delay may be compared with a reprieve; for in confidence I assure you, with the world it would obtain little credit that my movements to the chair of Government will be accompanied by feelings not unlike those of a culprit who is going to the place of his execution: so unwilling am I, in the evening of a life nearly consumed in public cares, to quit a peaceful abode for an Ocean of difficulties, without that competency of political skill, abilities and inclination which is necessary to manage the helm.^ What country can preserve its liberties if their rulers are not warned from time to time that their people preserve the spirit of resistance.

    ^ Indeed, he says that torture of innocent Iraqis by Americans is the main reason that foreign fighters started fighting against Americans in Iraq in the first place .

    ^ (The Constitution preserves) the advantage of being armed which Americans possess over the people of almost every other nation…(where) the governments are afraid to trust the people with arms.

    .
    • Comment to General Henry Knox on the delay in assuming office (March 1789)
  • In executing the duties of my present important station, I can promise nothing but purity of intentions, and, in carrying these into effect, fidelity and diligence.^ At half-past seven Mendelssohns wedding march resounded from the hall above, where the orchestra was stationed, and presently the attendants, Messrs.
    • Descendants of George Washington Jackson 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.eg.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In February, Colonel Henry Knox returned from the forts on Lake Champlain with a long train of forty−two ox−sleds, carrying artillery and ammunition.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ General Greene was also very considerate, and the proud heart of Gates, who had wronged both these men, was melted, by their kindness, into lasting love for them.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Message to the US Congress (9 July 1789); The Writings of George Washington: Being His Correspondence, Addresses, Messages, and Other Papers, Official and Private (1837) edited by Jared Sparks,p.^ I was taking a class about the forming of the US government and our professor told us an awesomely badass story about George Washington.
      • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

      ^ He came with a proposal of peace from England and tried to deliver it in the form of a message addressed to “George Washington.” Washington, resenting this insult, refused to receive the message and did not accept it until it was returned properly addressed to “General George Washington.” Congress thanked him for making the British respect the dignity of his office.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ The horses became so tired that he and Christopher Gist decided to hurry on foot, in advance of the others, to the 7 George Washington fork of the Ohio, leaving their horses to be brought later.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      159 (PDF)
.
The Government of the United States, which gives to bigotry no sanction, to persecution no assistance, requires only that they who live under its protection should demean themselves as good citizens in giving it on all occasions their effectual support.
  • Impressed with a conviction that the due administration of justice is the firmest pillar of good Government, I have considered the first arrangement of the Judicial department as essential to the happiness of our Country, and to the stability of its political system; hence the selection of the fittest characters to expound the law, and dispense justice, has been an invariable object of my anxious concern.^ All is good in the world my friend.
    • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    ^ AM choppin_meat420 Here's another good Jackson quote: "Yes I have; please give my compliments to my friends in your State and say to them, that if a single drop of blood shall be shed there in opposition to the laws of the United States, I will hang the first man I can lay my hand on engaged in such treasonable conduct, upon the first tree I can reach."
    • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    ^ He seized all the boats on the river and when Lord Cornwallis marched into Trenton, there were no boats for his troops and they could not cross the river to attack the Americans.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • The Citizens of the United States of America have a right to applaud themselves for giving to Mankind examples of an enlarged and liberal policy: a policy worthy of imitation. All possess alike liberty of conscience and immunities of citizenship.^ I'm guessing by "American" you meant "the United States of America" in which case your title becomes redundant.
    • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Constitution shall never be construed to authorize Congress to prevent the people of the United States, who are peaceable citizens, from keeping their own arms.

    ^ But the example that comes closest to the situation facing the United States today is that of Japan after its late-80s bubble burst, leaving serious debt problems behind.

    .It is now no more that toleration is spoken of, as if it was by the indulgence of one class of people that another enjoyed the exercise of their inherent natural rights.^ Gates was very headstrong, however, and thought he knew more than any one could tell him and would take no advice from officers on the ground.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But he tolerates the existence of Bagram military prison in Afghanistan, where more than 600 people are being held without charge.

    ^ I kind of want to go back in time and do George Washington right now, unfortunately he'd probably send me to work the fields afterwards for no pay.
    • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    .For happily the Government of the United States, which gives to bigotry no sanction, to persecution no assistance, requires only that they who live under its protection should demean themselves as good citizens in giving it on all occasions their effectual support.

    May the Children of the Stock of Abraham, who dwell in this land, continue to merit and enjoy the good will of the other Inhabitants; while every one shall sit under his own vine and fig tree, and there shall be none to make him afraid.^ AM choppin_meat420 Here's another good Jackson quote: "Yes I have; please give my compliments to my friends in your State and say to them, that if a single drop of blood shall be shed there in opposition to the laws of the United States, I will hang the first man I can lay my hand on engaged in such treasonable conduct, upon the first tree I can reach."
    • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    ^ They ended up calling an ambulance for him, as they were afraid he would have a heart attack, due to severe shock.
    • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Often he took out his surveying instruments and spent a day laying out his land, or he planted trees and vines about his house and lawns.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Letter to the Hebrew Congregation of Newport, Rhode Island (1790)
  • To be prepared for war is one of the most effectual means of preserving peace.
    • First Annual Address, to both Houses of Congress (8 January 1790).
    • Compare: "Qui desiderat pacem præparet bellum" (translated: "Who would desire peace should be prepared for war"), Vegetius, Rei Militari 3, Prolog.; "In pace, ut sapiens, aptarit idonea bello" (translated: "In peace, as a wise man, he should make suitable preparation for war"), Horace, Book ii.^ While Washington was in doubt as to what move Clinton would make, messengers came from England with offers of peace for the colonies.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ The Federalists, who were led by Hamilton, wanted to make a strong central government, which would develop the country and be respected abroad.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ If the British should see the colonists weak and unprepared, they would either conquer them or offer them an inglorious peace.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      satire ii.
All see, and most admire, the glare which hovers round the external trappings of elevated office. To me there is nothing in it, beyond the lustre which may be reflected from its connection with a power of promoting human felicity.
  • All see, and most admire, the glare which hovers round the external trappings of elevated office. .To me there is nothing in it, beyond the lustre which may be reflected from its connection with a power of promoting human felicity.
    • Letter to Catherine Macaulay Graham (9 January1790)
  • It is better to offer no excuse than a bad one.
    • Letter to his niece, Harriet Washington (30 October 1791)
  • Of all the animosities which have existed among mankind, those which are caused by difference of sentiments in religion appear to be the most inveterate and distressing, and ought most to be deprecated. I was in hopes that the enlightened and liberal policy, which has marked the present age, would at least have reconciled Christians of every denomination so far that we should never again see the religious disputes carried to such a pitch as to endanger the peace of society.^ The casket was carried out upon the veranda that all might see his face.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If the British should see the colonists weak and unprepared, they would either conquer them or offer them an inglorious peace.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Gates was very headstrong, however, and thought he knew more than any one could tell him and would take no advice from officers on the ground.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    • Letter to Edward Newenham (20 October 1792)
  • We have abundant reason to rejoice that in this Land the light of truth & reason has triumphed over the power of bigotry and superstition, and that every person may here worship God according to the dictates of his own heart. .In this enlightened age & in this Land of equal liberty it is our boast, that a man's religious tenets will not forfeit the protection of the Laws, nor deprive him of the right of attaining & holding the highest offices that are known in the United States.
  • Make the most of the Indian hemp seed, and sow it everywhere!^ The coming of January, 1862, brought the news that the United States Marshal was making a list of all property owned or leased by anyone in rebellion or in the service of a state government in rebellion, for all such property had been ordered confiscated.
    • Descendants of George Washington Jackson 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.eg.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In January, 1894, he was appointed chief clerk of the dead letter office at Washington, holding that position for nearly two years, and in September, 1895, he was promoted to the position of superintendent of the division of postoffice supplies.
    • Descendants of George Washington Jackson 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.eg.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ II. No person will be allowed to take with him or her more than $100 in United States funds, gold and silver included.
    • Descendants of George Washington Jackson 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.eg.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • George Washington in a note to his gardener at Mount Vernon (1794), The Writings of George Washington, Volume 33, page 270 (Library of Congress)
  • When one side only of a story is heard and often repeated, the human mind becomes impressed with it insensibly.
    • Letter to Edmund Pendleton (22 January 1795)
  • Rise early, that by habit it may become familiar, agreeable, healthy, and profitable.^ Ella Bennett 5 Jackson (Alfred Henry 4 , George Washington 3 , George 2 , John 1 ) was born 23 September 1859, and died 05 May 1904.
    • Descendants of George Washington Jackson 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.eg.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ But its one window was the only one that looked upon the tomb on the hillside, and so Mrs. Washington, after the death of her husband, moved into this little room.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ One of the members, John Adams, called him “the modest and virtuous, the generous and brave George Washington.” Washington's early life and training fitted him in a wonderful way for this great and difficult post.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .It may, for a while, be irksome to do this, but that will wear off; and the practice will produce a rich harvest forever thereafter; whether in public or private walks of life.^ The day after they walked off, something happened that put new life into the camp.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    • Letter to George Washington Parke Custis (7 January 1798)
.
I had rather be on my farm than be emperor of the world...
  • It is infinitely better to have a few good men than many indifferent ones.^ One young officer and fifty men could not hold out against so many.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    • Letter to James McHenry (10 August 1798)
  • I am principled against this kind of traffic in the human species... and to disperse the families I have an aversion.
    • Statement against slavery, in letter to Robert Lewis (18 August 1799)
  • Government is not reason, it is not eloquence — it is force! Like fire, it is a dangerous servant and a fearful master. Never for a moment should it be left to irresponsible action.
    • As quoted in The Cry for Justice: An Anthology of the Literature of Social Protest (1915) Edited by Upton Sinclair, p. .305. No earlier or original source for this often quoted statement is cited by Sinclair, or has yet been found in research done for Wikiquote.
    • Unsourced variant : Government is not reason, it is not eloquence, it is force; like fire, a troublesome servant and a fearful master.^ If the representatives of the people betray their constituents, there is then no recourse left but in the exertion of that original right of self defense which is paramount to all positive forms of government...

      .Never for a moment should it be left to irresponsible action.
  • I had rather be in my grave than in my present situation, I had rather be on my farm than be emperor of the world; and yet they charge me with wanting to be a king.
    • Response to newspaper criticisms of his presidency, as quoted in The Alumni Register of the University of Pennsylvania (1925), p.473
  • I die hard but am not afraid to go.^ Pennsylvania built a President's Mansion, but it was so big and fine that Washington refused to live in it, and so it was used for the Pennsylvania University.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If Obama or McCain did that they'd get my vote easily, hands down, no contest Who wants to shoot Obama or McCain for me?
    • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If a lil irate, though rather them than that dumbarse you have as president at the moment.
    • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    .I believed from my first attack that I should not survive it — my breath cannot last long.^ He had no idea where the British would attack first, and so had spread the army out until it was a long, weak line.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • The first sentence here is sometimes presented as being his last statement before dying, but they are reported as part of the fuller statement, and as being said in the afternoon prior to his death in Life of Washington (1859) by Washington Irving, and his actual last words are stated to have been those reported by Tobias Lear below.
  • Tis well.
    • Washington's last words, as recorded by Tobias Lear, in his journal (14 December 1799).^ He died on December 14, 1799, as bravely as he had lived.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Ella Bennett 5 Jackson (Alfred Henry 4 , George Washington 3 , George 2 , John 1 ) was born 23 September 1859, and died 05 May 1904.
      • Descendants of George Washington Jackson 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.eg.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ The number two man at the State Department, Colonel Lawrence B. Wilkerson, said that many of those tortured at Guantanamo Bay were innocent, but that the Bush administration did not really care whether they were innocent or not.

      Washington said this after being satisfied that precautions would be taken against his being buried prematurely:
About ten o'clk he made several attempts to speak to me before he could effect it, at length he said, — "I am just going. Have me decently buried; and do not let my body be put into the Vault in less than three days after I am dead." I bowed assent, for I could not speak. He then looked at me again and said, "Do you understand me? I replied "Yes." "Tis well" said he.
  • A conflation of the last two quotes has also sometimes been reported as his last statement: "It is well. I die hard but am not afraid to go"
I have the consolation to believe, that, while choice and prudence invite me to quit the political scene, patriotism does not forbid it...

Farewell Address (1796)

The Farewell Address (17 September 1796)] Full text at Wikisource
.
  • Every day the increasing weight of years admonishes me more and more, that the shade of retirement is as necessary to me as it will be welcome. Satisfied, that, if any circumstances have given peculiar value to my services, they were temporary, I have the consolation to believe, that, while choice and prudence invite me to quit the political scene, patriotism does not forbid it.
  • Interwoven as is the love of liberty with every ligament of your hearts, no recommendation of mine is necessary to fortify or confirm the attachment.
    The unity of Government, which constitutes you one people, is also now dear to you.^ Two former high-level CIA officers have said that the government's recent "reform" of the intelligence services has made it more difficult to fight terrorism.

    ^ My parents hated guns, and believed that they only lead to crime and to accidental shootings.

    ^ PM CatcherFOX I just can`t believe how funny you people are....
    • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    It is justly so; for it is a main pillar in the edifice of your real independence, the support of your tranquillity at home, your peace abroad; of your safety; of your prosperity; of that very Liberty, which you so highly prize.
  • It is of infinite moment, that you should properly estimate the immense value of your national Union to your collective and individual happiness; that you should cherish a cordial, habitual, and immovable attachment to it; accustoming yourselves to think and speak of it as of the Palladium of your political safety and prosperity; watching for its preservation with jealous anxiety; discountenancing whatever may suggest even a suspicion, that it can in any event be abandoned; and indignantly frowning upon the first dawning of every attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest, or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together the various parts.
.
Interwoven as is the love of liberty with every ligament of your hearts, no recommendation of mine is necessary to fortify or confirm the attachment.
  • While, then, every part of our country thus feels an immediate and particular interest in Union, all the parts combined cannot fail to find in the united mass of means and efforts greater strength, greater resource, proportionably greater security from external danger, a less frequent interruption of their peace by foreign nations; and, what is of inestimable value, they must derive from Union an exemption from those broils and wars between themselves, which so frequently afflict neighbouring countries not tied together by the same governments, which their own rivalships alone would be sufficient to produce, but which opposite foreign alliances, attachments, and intrigues would stimulate and embitter.^ In ‘78-79 the Senate was trying to pass a law against international terrorism - in every version they produced, the lawyers said the US would be in violation" (the audio is here ) Why Does This Matter?

    ^ The coming of January, 1862, brought the news that the United States Marshal was making a list of all property owned or leased by anyone in rebellion or in the service of a state government in rebellion, for all such property had been ordered confiscated.
    • Descendants of George Washington Jackson 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.eg.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In other words, by assuming huge portions of the risk from banks trading in toxic derivatives, and by spending trillions that they don't have, central banks have put their countries at risk from default.

    .Hence, likewise, they will avoid the necessity of those overgrown military establishments, which, under any form of government, are inauspicious to liberty, and which are to be regarded as particularly hostile to Republican Liberty. In this sense it is, that your Union ought to be considered as a main prop of your liberty, and that the love of the one ought to endear to you the preservation of the other.
  • One of the expedients of party to acquire influence, within particular districts, is to misrepresent the opinions and aims of other districts. You cannot shield yourselves too much against the jealousies and heart-burnings, which spring from these misrepresentations; they tend to render alien to each other those, who ought to be bound together by fraternal affection.
  • To the efficacy and permanency of your Union, a Government for the whole is indispensable. No alliances, however strict, between the parts can be an adequate substitute; they must inevitably experience the infractions and interruptions, which all alliances in all times have experienced.^ At first if he gave Margaret a thought at all, it must have been only as the child of one of his friends.
    • Descendants of George Washington Jackson 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.eg.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ He seized all the boats on the river and when Lord Cornwallis marched into Trenton, there were no boats for his troops and they could not cross the river to attack the Americans.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ U.S. military officials took statements from the teenagers last month and are contacting others who say they were held at what Afghans call Bagram's "black prison," a detention center run by U.S. Special Operations forces.

    .Sensible of this momentous truth, you have improved upon your first essay, by the adoption of a Constitution of Government better calculated than your former for an intimate Union, and for the efficacious management of your common concerns.
  • The basis of our political systems is the right of the people to make and to alter their Constitutions of Government.^ He is right and that makes you the tard.
    • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Washington said they had God's help in “laying the foundation for tranquillity and happiness.” The people accepted the Constitution and turned to Washington for their first President.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ (The Constitution preserves) the advantage of being armed which Americans possess over the people of almost every other nation…(where) the governments are afraid to trust the people with arms.

    But the Constitution which at any time exists, till changed by an explicit and authentic act of the whole people, is sacredly obligatory upon all.
    The very idea of the power and the right of the people to establish Government presupposes the duty of every individual to obey the established Government.
It is of infinite moment, that you should properly estimate the immense value of your national Union to your collective and individual happiness.
  • I have already intimated to you the danger of parties in the state, with particular reference to the founding of them on geographical discriminations. .Let me now take a more comprehensive view, and warn you in the most solemn manner against the baneful effects of the spirit of party, generally.
  • The alternate domination of one faction over another, sharpened by the spirit of revenge, natural to party dissension, which in different ages and countries has perpetrated the most horrid enormities, is itself a frightful despotism. But this leads at length to a more formal and permanent despotism.^ Gates was very headstrong, however, and thought he knew more than any one could tell him and would take no advice from officers on the ground.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The colonies were independent of one another, but knew they must stand together against the injustice of England.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This is where he lead a group of American soldiers against a larger, more apt force of British Soldiers.
    • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    .The disorders and miseries, which result, gradually incline the minds of men to seek security and repose in the absolute power of an individual; and sooner or later the chief of some prevailing faction, more able or more fortunate than his competitors, turns this disposition to the purposes of his own elevation, on the ruins of Public Liberty.
  • The common and continual mischiefs of the spirit of party are sufficient to make it the interest and duty of a wise people to discourage and restrain it.
    It serves always to distract the Public Councils, and enfeeble the Public Administration.^ Fortunately for America, the conspiracy against Washington failed and the only result was to make his name and fame brighter and more widespread.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He told them that nearly three thousand of his men were unfit for duty because they were almost naked, and two thousand more were sick for want of food and shelter.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But he tolerates the existence of Bagram military prison in Afghanistan, where more than 600 people are being held without charge.

    It agitates the Community with ill-founded jealousies and false alarms; kindles the animosity of one part against another, foments occasionally riot and insurrection.
.
Let me now take a more comprehensive view, and warn you in the most solemn manner against the baneful effects of the spirit of party, generally.
  • Of all the dispositions and habits, which lead to political prosperity, Religion and Morality are indispensable supports. In vain would that man claim the tribute of Patriotism, who should labor to subvert these great pillars of human happiness, these firmest props of the duties of Men and Citizens.^ You know who SHOULD be there?
    • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    ^ His will provided that, after the death of his wife, all his slaves should be free and he left money for those who could not earn a living.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ AM Nyarlahotep Pharmaceutical products Generic cialis viagra levitra online pills Professional shopping for pharmaceutical products.In this shop you will be able to find all interesting you tablets.We can offer you such pills as cialis viagra levitra on the most low prices.
    • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    The mere Politician, equally with the pious man, ought to respect and to cherish them. .A volume could not trace all their connexions with private and public felicity.
  • Let us with caution indulge the supposition, that morality can be maintained without religion.^ Moving our money will let us all - left and right - vote with our wallets and regain some control over our economy and our finances.

    Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined education on minds of peculiar structure, reason and experience both forbid us to expect, that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle.
  • It is substantially true, that virtue or morality is a necessary spring of popular government. .The rule, indeed, extends with more or less force to every species of free government.
  • Promote, then, as an object of primary importance, institutions for the general diffusion of knowledge.^ Whenever you give up that force, you are ruined…The great object is that every man be armed.

    .In proportion as the structure of a government gives force to public opinion, it is essential that public opinion should be enlightened.
  • As a very important source of strength and security, cherish public credit.^ They were supposed to force these people, the Italian public, to turn to the state to ask for greater security."

    One method of preserving it is, to use it as sparingly as possible; avoiding occasions of expense by cultivating peace, but remembering also that timely disbursements to prepare for danger frequently prevent much greater disbursements to repel it; avoiding likewise the accumulation of debt, not only by shunning occasions of expense, but by vigorous exertions in time of peace to discharge the debts, which unavoidable wars may have occasioned, not ungenerously throwing upon posterity the burthen, which we ourselves ought to bear.
.
Of all the dispositions and habits, which lead to political prosperity, Religion and Morality are indispensable supports.
  • Observe good faith and justice towards all Nations; cultivate peace and harmony with all. Religion and Morality enjoin this conduct; and can it be, that good policy does not equally enjoin it?^ The father was unswerving in his allegiance to the Democratic party, and, reared in its faith, the son likewise has accorded equally staunch support to the principles and policies for which the sterling old party stands sponsor.
    • Descendants of George Washington Jackson 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.eg.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It will be worthy of a free, enlightened, and, at no distant period, a great Nation, to give to mankind the magnanimous and too novel example of a people always guided by an exalted justice and benevolence.^ Voice or no voice, the people can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders.

    ^ He said truly, “I walk untrodden ground,” for there was no great republic in history whose example he could follow.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Her Scotch−Irish people, always brave, had declared themselves independent of Great Britain a whole year before Congress had dared to do so.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Who can doubt, that, in the course of time and things, the fruits of such a plan would richly repay any temporary advantages, which might be lost by a steady adherence to it?^ This time, it is not the usual suspects such as Brazil and Mexico who are in the worst positions.

    ^ "This Time, It Is Not The Usual Suspects Such As Brazil And Mexico Who Are In the Worst Positions.

    .Can it be, that Providence has not connected the permanent felicity of a Nation with its Virtue?
  • Nothing is more essential, than that permanent, inveterate antipathies against particular Nations, and passionate attachments for others, should be excluded; and that, in place of them, just and amicable feelings towards all should be cultivated. The Nation, which indulges towards another an habitual hatred, or an habitual fondness, is in some degree a slave.^ The crossing was extremely dangerous and it took more than ten hours to get the troops and their guns on the other side.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On the other hand, the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder argues that - while there have been numerous record lows - there have been more record highs than lows in the past decade, and that the ratio of record highs to record lows has actually increased.

    ^ As Bloomberg notes this morning, some of the nation's largest banks have actually bought more risky home loans instead of getting them off their balance sheets.

    It is a slave to its animosity or to its affection, either of which is sufficient to lead it astray from its duty and its interest. .Antipathy in one nation against another disposes each more readily to offer insult and injury, to lay hold of slight causes of umbrage, and to be haughty and intractable, when accidental or trifling occasions of dispute occur.^ Even the most backward nation could always get hold of rifles from one source or another, so that Boers, Bulgars, Abyssinians, Moroccans--even Tibetans--could put up a fight for their independence, sometimes with success.

    ^ One young officer and fifty men could not hold out against so many.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The colonies were independent of one another, but knew they must stand together against the injustice of England.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    Hence frequent collisions, obstinate, envenomed, and bloody contests.
.
In proportion as the structure of a government gives force to public opinion, it is essential that public opinion should be enlightened...
  • Real Patriots, who may resist the intrigues of the favourite, are liable to become suspected and odious; while its tools and dupes usurp the applause and confidence of the people, to surrender their interests.^ Washington alone held the faith and confidence of the people, and they begged him to give them four years more.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The people were frightened into submission and on May 12, 1780, the city of Charleston surrendered, and Lincoln and his army became prisoners of war.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The patriots of New Jersey rallied to the help of the army and drove off the British, who withdrew, burning houses and killing people as they went.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    (Note: spelling/capitalization likely original.[3])
  • The great rule of conduct for us, in regard to foreign nations, is, in extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little political connexion as possible. So far as we have already formed engagements, let them be fulfilled with perfect good faith. Here let us stop.
  • 'Tis our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world; so far, I mean, as we are now at liberty to do it; for let me not be understood as capable of patronizing infidelity to existing engagements. .I hold the maxim no less applicable to public than to private affairs, that honesty is always the best policy. I repeat it, therefore, let those engagements be observed in their genuine sense.^ It was no less than the marriage of Mrs. Maxwells daughter, Sallie, to Hon, Lewis Bennett, of Weston.
    • Descendants of George Washington Jackson 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.eg.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    But, in my opinion, it is unnecessary and would be unwise to extend them.
  • There can be no greater error than to expect or calculate upon real favors from nation to nation.
.
Observe good faith and justice towards all Nations; cultivate peace and harmony with all.
  • Harmony, liberal intercourse with all nations, are recommended by policy, humanity, and interest.
  • In offering to you, my countrymen, these counsels of an old and affectionate friend, I dare not hope they will make the strong and lasting impression I could wish; that they will control the usual current of the passions, or prevent our nation from running the course, which has hitherto marked the destiny of nations.^ They escaped, traveling as fast as they could all night and all the next day.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ AM Nyarlahotep Pharmaceutical products Generic cialis viagra levitra online pills Professional shopping for pharmaceutical products.In this shop you will be able to find all interesting you tablets.We can offer you such pills as cialis viagra levitra on the most low prices.
    • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    ^ He seized all the boats on the river and when Lord Cornwallis marched into Trenton, there were no boats for his troops and they could not cross the river to attack the Americans.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .But, if I may even flatter myself, that they may be productive of some partial benefit, some occasional good; that they may now and then recur to moderate the fury of party spirit, to warn against the mischiefs of foreign intrigue, to guard against the impostures of pretended patriotism; this hope will be a full recompense for the solicitude for your welfare, by which they have been dictated.
    • This has sometimes been misquoted as: Guard against the postures of pretended patriotism.
  • The duty of holding a neutral conduct may be inferred, without any thing more, from the obligation which justice and humanity impose on every nation, in cases in which it is free to act, to maintain inviolate the relations of peace and amity towards other nations.
  • Though, in reviewing the incidents of my administration, I am unconscious of intentional error, I am nevertheless too sensible of my defects not to think it probable that I may have committed many errors.^ Some of the parties she and her husband had are still remembered by visitors now of the museum.
    • Descendants of George Washington Jackson 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.eg.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Whole companies would leave at the end of their enlistment, even though they were greatly needed.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ When told of his appointment, he accepted, though he said he did not think he was “equal to the command he was honored with.” He refused to take any pay for his services, saying that no money, nor anything else but duty and patriotism could tempt him to leave his home.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    Whatever they may be, I fervently beseech the Almighty to avert or mitigate the evils to which they may tend. I shall also carry with me the hope, that my Country will never cease to view them with indulgence; and that, after forty-five years of my life dedicated to its service with an upright zeal, the faults of incompetent abilities will be consigned to oblivion, as myself must soon be to the mansions of rest.

Misattributed

Statements originally made by others, that have become wrongly attributed to Washington
He seemed to enjoy a triumph over me. Methought I heard him think, "Ay! I am fairly out and you are fairly in! See which of us will be the happiest!" ~ .John Adams
  • Associate yourself with Men of good Quality if you Esteem your own Reputation; for 'tis better to be alone than in bad Company.
    • This is from a set of maxims which Washington copied out in his own hand as a school-boy: "Rules of Civility and Decent Behaviour in Company and Conversation" Rule # 56 written out by Washington ca.^ AM AmericanPsycho Let's see if you can be a badass here: http://criminal-corruption.info/register.php?REF=7 You can be president, just of your own gang.
      • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

      ^ That's right, you took the laziest sport and made it your own, but yes, we did play it first :) .
      • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

      ^ AM Sigma I don't give a fuck what country made this site, doesn't change the fact you're all digging your own grave.
      • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

      1744:
These maxims originated in the late sixteenth century in France and were popularly circulated during Washington's time. Washington wrote out a copy of the 110 Rules in his school book when he was about sixteen-years old... During the days before mere hero worship had given place to understanding and comprehension of the fineness of Washington's character, of his powerful influence among men, and of the epoch-making nature of the issues he so largely shaped, it was assumed that Washington himself composed the maxims, or at least that he compiled them. It is a satisfaction to find that his consideration for others, his respect for and deference to those deserving such treatment, his care of his own body and tongue, and even his reverence for his Maker, all were early inculcated in him by precepts which were the common practice in decent society the world over. These very maxims had been in use in France for a century and a half, and in England for a century, before they were set as a task for the schoolboy Washington.
  • The government of the United States is not, in any sense, founded on the Christian religion.
    • This statement was made by an official representative of the U.S., but is actually a line from the English version of the Treaty of Tripoli of 1796, initially signed by a representative of the US on 4 November 1796 during Washington's presidency, approved by Congress 7 June 1797 and finally signed by President John Adams on 10 June 1797. Article 11 of it reads:
As the government of the United States of America is not in any sense founded on the Christian Religion,— as it has in itself no character or enmity against the laws, religion or tranquility of Musselmen,— and as the said States never have entered into any war or act of hostility against any Mehomitan nation, it is declared by the parties that no pretext arising from religious opinions shall ever produce an interruption of the harmony existing between the two countries.
  • Joel Barlow, who had served as Washington's chaplain, and was also a good friend of Paine and Jefferson was the representative in charge of the translation.
  • A solemn scene it was indeed... He seemed to enjoy a triumph over me. Methought I heard him think, "Ay! I am fairly out and you are fairly in! .See which of us will be the happiest!"
    • John Adams, in a letter to his wife Abigail was here expressing his impression of what Washington seemed to be thinking after Adams was inaugurated as President.^ On the 4th of March, 1797, John Adams was inaugurated as the second President of the United States.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ CHAPTER VIII 83 Washington Retires to Mount Vernon—Inaugurated as First President of the United States—His Reelection—His Death at Mount Vernon.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ John Adams was Vice−President.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      .These impressions have sometimes been quoted as if they were something Washington had actually said to Adams.^ Washington said they had God's help in “laying the foundation for tranquillity and happiness.” The people accepted the Constitution and turned to Washington for their first President.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Another French officer said of Washington's horses, “They are as good as they are beautiful, and all perfectly trained.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ His wisdom and justice were so great that, in all these years, the wisest men have found little in the actions of Washington they would change.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      .Quoted in A History of the United States and Its People: From Their Earliest Records to the Present Time (1904) by William Abbatt and Elroy McKendree Avery, p.177; John Adams (2002) by David G. McCullough, p.^ About this time, two political parties began to form in the United States.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ After four months of careful consideration and labor, they offered to the American people the glorious Constitution, upon which has been built up the great Republic of the United States.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Source: Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1771-Present .
      • Descendants of George Washington Jackson 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.eg.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      469; and The Portable John Adams (2004) edited by John Patrick Diggins, p. xi
    • Unsourced variants: Well, I am fairly out and you are fairly in. Now we shall see who enjoys it the most!
      Ah! I am fairly out and you are fairly in! See which of us will be the happiest!
Spurious quotations
Statements which evidence indicates are fabrications, never actually said by anyone prior to their being attributed to Washington.
.
  • I cannot tell a lie, I did it with my little hatchet.
    • The earliest source of this quote was a famous anecdote in The Life of George Washington, with Curious Anecdotes Laudable to Himself and Exemplary to his Countrymen (1806) by Parson Weems, which is not considered a credible source, and many incidents recounted in the work are now considered to have sprung entirely from Weems imagination.^ Through all his life, George Washington was a true gentleman.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ The many cares and hardships Washington had suffered had made him ill and he returned to Mount Vernon, hoping that his military life was over.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ He took up his new work with methodical patience, and 30 George Washington was most fortunate in having the help of great men.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      .This derives from an anecdote of Washington, as a young boy, confessing to his father Augustine Washington that it was he who had cut a cherished cherry tree.
    • Variant:Father, I cannot tell a lie, I cut the tree.
  • Firearms stand next in importance to the Constitution itself.^ His father, Augustine Washington, was a prosperous Virginia planter, and owned several fine estates.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ George Washington The next day, July 3, 1775, Washington took command of the Continental Army under a large elm tree, which still stands on the Cambridge Common.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ She was his father's second wife and there were two little lads already in the home, Lawrence and Augustine, when she came to take the place of their mother who had died.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .They are the American people's liberty teeth and keystone under independence.^ After four months of careful consideration and labor, they offered to the American people the glorious Constitution, upon which has been built up the great Republic of the United States.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    The church, the plow, the prairie wagon and citizen's firearms are indelibly related. .From the hour the Pilgrims landed, to the present day, events, occurrences, and tendencies prove that to insure peace, security, and happiness, the rifle and pistol are equally indispensable.^ The speaker said, “Sit down, Mr. Washington, your modesty equals your valor!” For fifteen years, Washington led a peaceful and happy life with his family.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Every corner of this land knows firearms, and more than 99 99/100 percent of them by their silence indicate they are in safe and sane hands.^ They did many wise things, but none was more fortunate than this choice of a Commander−in−Chief for the Continental Army.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ His troops were unequal to the enemy in every way, and though the war had lasted more than two years, he had never dared to risk a real battle.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ After the first night, they found it more comfortable to sleep out under the sky than in the poor, untidy lodgings of the settlers.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .The very atmosphere of firearms anywhere and everywhere restrains evil interference — they deserve a place of honor with all that's good.^ Another French officer said of Washington's horses, “They are as good as they are beautiful, and all perfectly trained.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    When firearms go, all goes— we need them every hour. .
    • Sometimes purported to have been made in an "Address to the Second Session of the First United States Congress, 7 January 1790, according to the Boston Independent Chronicle (14 January 1790)", this quote is palpably bogus, as this essay at a pro-gun site makes plain.
  • A free people ought not only to be armed and disciplined, but they should have sufficient arms and ammunition to maintain a status of independence from any who might attempt to abuse them, which would include their own government.^ The President and Mrs. Washington often went on foot to call on their friends, and that the people might meet them freely, they held public receptions on Friday evenings from eight to ten.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ After working a whole day, with only a small hatchet, they made a raft.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Federalists, who were led by Hamilton, wanted to make a strong central government, which would develop the country and be respected abroad.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    • Purported speech to Congress, January 7, 1790 in the Boston Independent Chronicle, January 14, 1790.
  • It is impossible to rightly govern the world without God and the Bible. .
    • Washington is known to have made some official statements of public piety, but this is not one of them.^ One of the problems Washington had to meet was the warlike attitude of the Indians, with whom there was some border fighting.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ A few months before this, Congress had made some changes in the quartermaster (the officer who attends to supplies) and in the commissary (food) departments, although Washington had opposed the changes.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      .Though this assertion is very widely reported to have been said in Washington's Farewell Address (17 September 1796), this is not actually the case, as any search of the documents would reveal.^ Before he left Virginia, Washington went to say farewell to his mother, knowing he would never see her again.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ He sent his Farewell Address to Congress, and it has been said that nothing finer has ever been written than his last great message to his countrymen.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      It has also been presented as having been part of his Proclamation on January 1, 1795 of February 19th, 1795 as a day of national Thanksgiving in this form:
It is in an especial manner our duty as a people, with devout reverence and affectionate gratitude, to acknowledge our many and great obligations to Almighty God, and to implore Him to continue and confirm the blessings we experienced. It is impossible to rightly govern the world without God and the Bible. It is impossible to account for the creation of the universe, without the agency of a Supreme Being. It is impossible to govern the universe without the aid of a Supreme Being. It is impossible to reason without arriving at a Supreme Being. Religion is as necessary to reason, as reason is to religion. The one cannot exist without the other. A reasoning being would lose his reason, in attempting to account for the great phenomena of nature, had he not a Supreme Being to refer to.
In the above paragraph the italicized portion appears to be entirely bogus, and there is no actual record of such a statement ever having been made by Washington. The first sentence is an almost accurate rendition of one from Washington's official proclamation, being a portion of this segment:
In such a state of things it is in an especial manner our duty as a people, with devout reverence and affectionate gratitude, to acknowledge our many and great obligations to .Almighty God and to implore Him to continue and confirm the blessings we experience. Deeply penetrated with this sentiment, I, George Washington, President of the United States, do recommend to all religious societies and denominations, and to all persons whomsoever, within the United States to set apart and observe Thursday, the 19th day of February next as a day of public thanksgiving and prayer, and on that day to meet together and render their sincere and hearty thanks to the Great Ruler of Nations for the manifold and signal mercies which distinguish our lot as a nation...^ The storm continued all night and all day.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ They escaped, traveling as fast as they could all night and all the next day.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The President and Mrs. Washington often went on foot to call on their friends, and that the people might meet them freely, they held public receptions on Friday evenings from eight to ten.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

It is to be noted that there is genuine piety expressed in this statement, but it is not of any sectarian kind, Christian or otherwise. The last portion of the bogus statement which uses it is a truncation of what might also be another genuine statement. In A Life of Washington (1836) by James K. Paulding, Washington is quoted as having stated:
It is impossible to reason without arriving at a Supreme Being. Religion is as necessary to reason as reason is to religion. The one cannot exist without the other. A reasoning being would lose his reason in attempting to account for the great phenomena of nature, had he not a Supreme Being to refer to; and well has it been said, that if there had been no God, mankind would have been obliged to imagine one.
In the spurious version of the Thanksgiving proclamation which uses a portion of this, Washington's allusions to .Voltaire's famous statement that "If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him" has been omitted.^ He wrote to his wife, telling her to be brave and that he trusted God would soon bring him safely home.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The British did not follow him, and this left Washington in doubt as to what their next move would be.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

In the cases of these "quotations" it seems that if statements suitable to their sectarian interests do not exist, some people feel it necessary to invent them.
.
  • The Jews work more effectively against us than the enemy's armies.^ They did many wise things, but none was more fortunate than this choice of a Commander−in−Chief for the Continental Army.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ His troops were unequal to the enemy in every way, and though the war had lasted more than two years, he had never dared to risk a real battle.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It had been more than half a year since the General had seen his family and his work was made easier by having with him those he loved.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .They are a hundred times more dangerous to our liberties and the great cause we are engaged in.^ At this time, Lafayette was fighting for the cause of liberty in France.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .It is much to be lamented that each state, long ago, has not hunted them down as pests to society and the greatest enemies we have to the happiness of America.^ Beside this, he held forty−four other tracts of land in nine different States, and he was one of the greatest land owners in America.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Sometimes rendered : "They (the Jews) work more effectively against us, than the enemy's armies.^ They did many wise things, but none was more fortunate than this choice of a Commander−in−Chief for the Continental Army.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ His troops were unequal to the enemy in every way, and though the war had lasted more than two years, he had never dared to risk a real battle.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ It had been more than half a year since the General had seen his family and his work was made easier by having with him those he loved.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      .They are a hundred times more dangerous to our liberties and the great cause we are engaged in...^ At this time, Lafayette was fighting for the cause of liberty in France.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      .It is much to be lamented that each state, long ago, has not hunted them down as pest to society and the greatest enemies we have to the happiness of America."
    • Both of these are doctored statements that have been widely disseminated as genuine on many anti-semitic websites; They are distortions derived from a statement that was attributed to Washington in Maxims of George Washington about currency speculators during the Revolutionary war, not about Jews: "This tribe of black gentry work more effectually against us, than the enemy's arms.^ The speaker said, “Sit down, Mr. Washington, your modesty equals your valor!” For fifteen years, Washington led a peaceful and happy life with his family.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Those who had no guns sharpened their saws into swords and fastened hunting knives on long poles and thus armed, these soldiers gave the British a great deal of trouble.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ When these three handsome young officers reached the cities along the way, they were splendidly entertained, for every one wanted to honor Washington.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      .They are a hundred times more dangerous to our liberties, and the great cause we are engaged in.^ At this time, Lafayette was fighting for the cause of liberty in France.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      .It is much to be lamented that each State, long ere this, has not hunted them down as pests to society, and the greatest enemies we have to the happiness of America."^ Beside this, he held forty−four other tracts of land in nine different States, and he was one of the greatest land owners in America.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      More information is available at Snopes. com: ."To Bigotry, No Sanction"
    • This quotation is a classic anti-semitic hoax, evidently begun during or just before World War Two by American Nazi sympathizers, and since then has been repeated, for example, in foreign propaganda directed at Americans.^ When the war broke out, there was, of course, no American money.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      In fact it is knitted from two separate letters by Washington, in reverse chronology, neither of them mentioning Jews. The first part of this forgery are taken from Washington's letter to Edmund Pendleton, Nov. 1, 1779 {and the original can be found in the Library of Congress's online service at http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mgw/mgw3h/001/378378.jpg }. I have tried to reproduce Washington's spelling and punctuation exactly. In that letter Washington complains about black marketeers and others undermining the purchasing power of colonial currency:
... but I am under no apprehension of a capital injury from ay other source than that of the continual depreciation of our Money. This indeed is truly alarming, and of so serious a nature that every other effort is in vain unless something can be done to restore its credit. .... .Where this has been the policy (in Connecticut for instance) the prices of every article have fallen and the money consequently is in demand; but in the other States you can scarce get a single thing for it, and yet it is with-held from the public by speculators, while every thing that can be useful to the public is engrossed by this tribe of black gentry, who work more effectually against us that the enemys Arms; and are a hundd.^ Beside this, he held forty−four other tracts of land in nine different States, and he was one of the greatest land owners in America.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If needed, use the feedback form to let us know more details.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

times more dangerous to our liberties and the great cause we are engaged in.
The second part of this fabricated quote is from Washington's letter to Joseph Reed, Dec. 12, 1778 {and can be found at the Library of Congress using the same URL but ending in /193192.jpg}, which again condemns war profiteers (the parenthetical list in the quotation is Washington's own words which he put there in parentheses):
It gives me very sincere pleasure to find that there is likely to be a coalition ... so well disposed to second your endeavours in bringing those murderers of our cause (the monopolizers, forestallers, and engrossers) to condign punishment. .It is much to be lamented that each State long ere this has not hunted them down as the pests of society, and the greatest Enemys we have to the happiness of America.^ Beside this, he held forty−four other tracts of land in nine different States, and he was one of the greatest land owners in America.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.I would to God that one of the most attrocious of each State was hung in Gibbets upons a gallows five times as high as the one prepared by Haman.^ It is beautifully laid out with magnificent avenues, parks, fountains and stately buildings, and is one of the finest and most comfortable cities in the world.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.No punishment in my opinion is too great for the Man who can build his greatness upon his Country's ruin.^ Washington planted the British flag upon the still smoking ruins and on the same site built Fort Pitt, which he named in honor of the great English statesman.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

  • We had quitters during the Revolution too... we called them "Kentuckians."
    • This attribution apparently originated with a statement of a cartoon version of Washington on an episode of The Simpsons. Though not initially presented as a genuine quote this has sometimes been attributed to Washington.

Quotes about Washington

.
More than all, and above all, Washington was master of himself.
^ These troubles were almost more than he could bear, but his feelings were soothed by a letter from General Washington, full of tender sympathy and expressions of confidence.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But being called to account at all was more than Arnold could bear.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

~ Charles Francis Adams
These should be arranged alphabetically by author
.
  • He is polite with dignity, affable without formality, distant without haughtiness, grave without austerity; modest, wise and good.
  • More than all, and above all, Washington was master of himself. If there be one quality more than another in his character which may exercise a useful control over the men of the present hour, it is the total disregard of self when in the most elevated positions for influence and example.^ With all this knowledge and experience, with his clear mind and high courage, Washington was the most dangerous foe the British could have.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Washington himself led about twenty−four hundred men, with artillery, to a crossing at a point nine miles up the river.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Gates was very headstrong, however, and thought he knew more than any one could tell him and would take no advice from officers on the ground.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

  • If I were to characterize George Washington's feelings toward his country, I should be less inclined than most people to stress what is called Washington's love of his country.^ Washington had with him but three thousand soldiers, ragged and half starved, but they loved their Commander and were ready to make any sacrifice for him and their country.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He took up his new work with methodical patience, and 30 George Washington was most fortunate in having the help of great men.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ When the news reached the people that Washington was dead, the whole country went into deepest mourning.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .What impresses me as far more important is what I should call Washington's respect for his country.^ All over the country and especially in New York, many persons, called Tories, were still loyal to King George III, and Washington feared treachery from them.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • It is most appropriately hung, nothing ever made the British shit like the sight of George Washington.^ [Illustration: Washington and Alexander Hamilton] 20 George Washington The British landed at Elkton, Maryland—about fifty miles from Philadelphia.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He took up his new work with methodical patience, and 30 George Washington was most fortunate in having the help of great men.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ After their success in the South, the British made an attempt to capture Washington's headquarters at Morristown.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Ethan Allen in Britain, after the Revolution, commenting on a George Washington picture in an outhouse.^ Braddock's 2 George Washington Staff—French and Indian War—Washington Made Commander of Virginia Forces—Causes of the American Revolution—Washington a Member of the First Continental Congress.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      [citation needed]
  • A total stranger to religious prejudices, which have so often excited Christians of one denomination to cut the throats of those of another.
    • John Bell[citation needed]
  • Washington wasn't born good. Only practice and habit made him so. .
  • George Washington was perhaps the one indispensable man among the founders. It is hard to imagine any of the others commanding the respect needed to lead the Continental Army to victory over Great Britain, preside over the Constitutional Convention, and serve the United States as its first president.^ Indian scouts tracked the Frenchmen to a forest near a place called Great Meadows, where, in May, Washington and his men attacked them on one side and the Indians on the other.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Washington planted the British flag upon the still smoking ruins and on the same site built Fort Pitt, which he named in honor of the great English statesman.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In the Virginia Convention, Washington was one of the first to say that the colonies ought to be allowed to govern themselves, make their own laws and decide their own taxes.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Little in Washington’s early life gave a hint of the great achievements to come.^ One of the members, John Adams, called him “the modest and virtuous, the generous and brave George Washington.” Washington's early life and training fitted him in a wonderful way for this great and difficult post.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ His wisdom and justice were so great that, in all these years, the wisest men have found little in the actions of Washington they would change.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.
George Washington is one of the beacons placed at intervals along the highroad of history.
^ Indian scouts tracked the Frenchmen to a forest near a place called Great Meadows, where, in May, Washington and his men attacked them on one side and the Indians on the other.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When these three handsome young officers reached the cities along the way, they were splendidly entertained, for every one wanted to honor Washington.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Lord Fairfax knew no one who could do this so well as George Washington, for he was strong and fair enough to deal wisely with the rough settlers.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

~ Orestes Ferrara
  • The great citizen, the first-born son of the New World. .
  • Washington absorbed, and later came to personify what you might call the dignity code. The code was based on the same premise as the nation’s Constitution — that human beings are flawed creatures who live in constant peril of falling into disasters caused by their own passions.^ As soon as Washington saw this fork, he marked it as a splendid location for a fort, of which we shall learn more later.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Washington now encamped at Great Meadows where he dug rude trenches, which he called Fort Necessity.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Washington planted the British flag upon the still smoking ruins and on the same site built Fort Pitt, which he named in honor of the great English statesman.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    Artificial systems have to be created to balance and restrain their desires.
    The dignity code commanded its followers to be disinterested — to endeavor to put national interests above personal interests. It commanded its followers to be reticent — to never degrade intimate emotions by parading them in public. It also commanded its followers to be dispassionate — to distrust rashness, zealotry, fury and political enthusiasm. .
  • A degree of silence envelops Washington’s actions; he moved slowly; one might say that he felt charged with future liberty, and that he feared to compromise it.^ But its one window was the only one that looked upon the tomb on the hillside, and so Mrs. Washington, after the death of her husband, moved into this little room.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Lafayette, who was in Virginia, sent word to Washington that the British troops had landed at Yorktown (instead of going to New York), and that Cornwallis was strongly fortified there.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ After the Battle of Monmouth, Clinton took up his quarters in New York and Washington remained in New Jersey.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .It was not his own destiny that inspired this new species of hero: it was that of his country; he did not allow himself to enjoy what did not belong to him; but from that profound humility what glory emerged!
    Search the woods where Washington’s sword gleamed: what do you find?^ Washington quietly heard each side and did his best to keep the two men at peace, for the country needed both.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ When the news reached the people that Washington was dead, the whole country went into deepest mourning.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ All over the country and especially in New York, many persons, called Tories, were still loyal to King George III, and Washington feared treachery from them.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    Tombs? No; a world! .Washington has left the United States behind for a monument on the field of battle.^ The farm−house, called “Wakefield,” was burned, but the United States Government built a monument to mark the place where it stood.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ CHAPTER VIII 83 Washington Retires to Mount Vernon—Inaugurated as First President of the United States—His Reelection—His Death at Mount Vernon.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ... Washington’s Republic lives on; Bonaparte’s empire is destroyed. .Washington and Bonaparte emerged from the womb of democracy: both of them born to liberty, the former remained faithful to her, the latter betrayed her.^ Though Washington was born and educated in America and belongs truly to Americans, he was such a friend to humanity, such a champion of liberty, that the whole world claims him as a model.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]


    .Washington acted as the representative of the needs, the ideas, the enlightened men, the opinions of his age; he supported, not thwarted, the stirrings of intellect; he desired only what he had to desire, the very thing to which he had been called: from which derives the coherence and longevity of his work. That man who struck few blows because he kept things in proportion has merged his existence with that of his country: his glory is the heritage of civilisation; his fame has risen like one of those public sanctuaries where a fecund and inexhaustible spring flows.^ Someone asked Patrick Henry who was the greatest man among them and he said, “Colonel Washington, if you speak of solid information and sound judgment.” These men met, not as members of separate colonies, but as Americans with one country and one cause.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ General Thomas Sumter, who was nicknamed the “Game Cock,” gathered together a few men.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ His greatest desire was to devote himself to country life, but he was needed too much by the colony to be allowed to live as a private man.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

  • I would say Benjamin Franklin was wiser than Washington, Hamilton was more brilliant, Jefferson was more intellectually sophisticated, Adams was more engaging........Madison was more politically astute, but Washington was still the greatest.^ For months, Washington had watched the British fleet in New York harbor and now it put to sea with eighteen thousand men on board.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The British held New York and Washington knew the people would lose heart if Philadelphia should also be taken.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ All over the country and especially in New York, many persons, called Tories, were still loyal to King George III, and Washington feared treachery from them.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .And they would all agree to that.^ His wisdom and justice were so great that, in all these years, the wisest men have found little in the actions of Washington they would change.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ When the war broke out, the patriot settlers in the Wyoming Valley, Pennsylvania, decided they would join in the defense of the country and they drove all the Tories out of the Valley.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ André begged them to release him and made them all kinds of offers if they would, but they marched him off ten miles to the nearest fort.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    • Joseph E. Ellis[citation needed]
      .
      He was, indeed, in every sense of the words, a wise, a good, and a great man.
      ^ Jefferson said of him that no motive of interest or friendship or hatred could influence him; “he was in every sense of the word a wise, a good and a great man.” At the close of his second term, 1797, Washington insisted upon retiring, and he counted the days until he might lay aside the cares of office and seek his rest.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      ~ .Thomas Jefferson
  • George Washington is one of the beacons placed at intervals along the highroad of history.
  • Washington's appointments, when president, were made with a view to gather all the talent of the country in support of the national government; and he bore many things which were personally disagreeable in an endeavor to do this.^ Through all his life, George Washington was a true gentleman.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ His last words, while standing on the scaffold, were, “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.” The army in New York was in great danger of being surrounded and captured by the British, whose 17 George Washington gunboats bombarded all the forts.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Of all the men in Virginia, the Governor chose George Washington, only twenty−one years old, for this dangerous and important journey!
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

  • From the moment when he took command of the army, Washington was, indeed, "first in the hearts of his countrymen." And the student of our history cannot help remarking how providential it was that, at the outset of this sturggle, Washington should come to the front.^ Washington said they had God's help in “laying the foundation for tranquillity and happiness.” The people accepted the Constitution and turned to Washington for their first President.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ While Washington and his soldiers were skirmishing with the British and while they were encamped at Valley Forge, Benjamin Franklin, one of the foremost thinkers and statesmen of the time, was in Europe making friends for the American cause and asking help for the struggling colonists.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He took up his new work with methodical patience, and 30 George Washington was most fortunate in having the help of great men.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Eighty-Six years later, at the beginning of the rebellion, there was no accepted chief.^ Two and a half years later, she died there and her body was laid beside that of Washington.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    Lincoln was doubted by the North and, and the army had no true leader. .By a slow process Lincoln's commanding strength became known; by an equally tedious sifting of the generals the qualities of Grant, Sherman, Thomas and Meade were discovered.^ General Benjamin Lincoln and Commander Whipple were, therefore, left alone to defend Charleston, which they did bravely, though it was bombarded on all sides by the British.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Only the tremendous resources of the North could have withstood the strain of such a delay.^ So Colonel Washington hurried the road building as much as possible, but at best he could make only slow progress in such mountainous country.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    Had the same process been necessary at the outset of the Revolution, the colonies could have scarcely maintainted the struggle. .Had not Washington been at hand, accepted by the Congress and admired by the army, the virtual leader of both, the chances of success would have been slight.^ Congress thanked Washington for the victory and gave Wayne a medal for his courage and success.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Many colonists, who had seen no hope of success, now believed that Washington's generalship would triumph.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Congress sent him to Washington, who realized that his experience would be valuable, and who asked him to drill and discipline the troops.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .But he was Lincoln and Grant in one.
    Time and time again, through the long years, it was Washington alone who brought victory from defeat.^ It was now a year since the Battle of Lexington was fought and Washington feared that the war would be a long one.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Of all the men in Virginia, the Governor chose George Washington, only twenty−one years old, for this dangerous and important journey!
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He sent General Charles Lee (who, by this time, had been released by the British) with six thousand men to start the battle, while he brought up the main division.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Without him, the colonies might have won their independence as the result of an almost interminable guerilla warfare; but with him the fight was definite, glorious, and-for the infant republic, mercifully short.^ Washington asked him, “Why do you come?” “To fight for American Independence,” he said.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Allen French on the importance of Washington-The Siege of Boston
  • I often say of George Washington that he was one of the few in the whole history of the world who was not carried away by power.^ In the Virginia Convention, Washington was one of the first to say that the colonies ought to be allowed to govern themselves, make their own laws and decide their own taxes.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The whole country went wild with joy over this great victory, and the Americans did not forget that the 28 George Washington French, with their men, money and ships, made it possible for them to win.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The General was so busy that he was often obliged to leave his guests at the table, 14 George Washington while his own meal remained unfinished.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • George Washington might have fought the Redcoats.^ The English fought bravely, but Half King and his men deserted 8 George Washington Washington.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .But he left Barings, the great London bank in charge of his personal finances throughout the war, and Barings did not let him down.^ The British did not follow him, and this left Washington in doubt as to what their next move would be.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ His colored servant was going to let down some bars for him, but he leaped over them and dashed into the midst of the fight.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

  • Eternity alone can reveal to the human race its debt of gratitude to the peerless and immortal name of Washington.
  • Washington is beyond question one of the greatest men in history, one of the noblest men who ever lived. He is a towering figure in the establishment of the United States and he did more than any other man to create and preserve the Republic.^ In this he showed skill beyond almost any other man in history.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Someone asked Patrick Henry who was the greatest man among them and he said, “Colonel Washington, if you speak of solid information and sound judgment.” These men met, not as members of separate colonies, but as Americans with one country and one cause.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Indian scouts tracked the Frenchmen to a forest near a place called Great Meadows, where, in May, Washington and his men attacked them on one side and the Indians on the other.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    Here was a man whose very strength resided in his austere sobriety, who in his own person demonstrated this soundness of America. He was a good man, not a demigod; he was an honest administrator, not a brilliant statesman; he was a military man, but never a militarist. He was touchingly proud of America, proud that it was his country that was given the historic chance of becoming a model of religious as well as political freedom. .In a letter to the Hebrew Congregation of Newport, Rhode Island, whose service he once attended, he stressed that in America freedom of religious worship was one of the "inherent natural rights," where government "gives to bigotry no sanction, to persecution no assistance."^ A great many were faint−hearted enough to give up, even though America had sacrificed so much for freedom.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Washington was freely giving himself to the just and righteous cause of American freedom, and he would not be discouraged even by want of spirit and obedience in his troops.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Washington was an exceptional man; with reason he became so merged with America that his is the most prominent name in the land.^ Fortunately for America, the conspiracy against Washington failed and the only result was to make his name and fame brighter and more widespread.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ General Greene became one of Washington's most faithful and lifelong friends, and was one of the greatest generals of the Revolution.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

  • His excellency General Washington has arrived amoungst us, universally admired. Joy was visable on every countenance.
    • General Nathanael Greene on the arrival of George Washington in Boston, 1775-1776, McCullough pg 20
  • If he does that, he will be the greatest man in the world.
    • George III of the United Kingdom, upon hearing from painter Benjamin West of Washington's impending retirement as Commander in Chief of the Continental Army (1783)[citation needed]
      .
      Never did nature and fortune combine more perfectly to make a man great, and to place him in the same constellation with whatever worthies have merited from man an everlasting remembrance.
      ^ Fortunately for America, the conspiracy against Washington failed and the only result was to make his name and fame brighter and more widespread.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ They did many wise things, but none was more fortunate than this choice of a Commander−in−Chief for the Continental Army.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Though often misunderstood and ridiculed by men who did not agree with him, he never failed to do what he thought was right.
      • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      ~ .Thomas Jefferson
  • No nobler figure ever stood in the forefront of a nation's life. Washington was grave and courteous in address; his manners were simple and unpretending; his silence and the serene calmness of his temper spoke of a perfect self-mastery; but little there was in his outer bearing to reveal the grandeur of soul which lifts his figure with all the simple majesty of an ancient statue, out of the smaller passions, the meaner impulses of the world around him.^ Through all his life, George Washington was a true gentleman.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The many cares and hardships Washington had suffered had made him ill and he returned to Mount Vernon, hoping that his military life was over.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Congress thanked Washington, and great soldiers all over the world praised him for the wonderful way in which he had led his soldiers out of the enemy's pitfalls and turned defeat to victory.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]


    .It was only as the weary fight went on that the colonists learned, little by little, the greatness of their leader — his clear judgment, his calmness in the hour of danger or defeat; the patience with which he waited, the quickness and hardness with which he struck, the lofty and serene sense of duty that never swerved from its task through resentment or jealousy, that never, through war or peace, felt the touch of a meaner ambition; that knew no aim save that of guarding the freedom of his fellow-countrymen; and no personal longing save that of returning to his own fireside when their freedom was secured.^ The men had enlisted for only a short time and numbers returned home after this term of enlistment expired; so it was hard to keep the army up to fighting strength.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Washington thought that the only way to secure a glorious and lasting peace was to be prepared to carry on the war.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But Washington endured their fault−finding in silence, for he knew that an open battle with such a powerful foe meant certain defeat, and patriotism so filled his heart that it left no room for selfish ambition.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]


    .It was almost unconsciously that men learned to cling to Washington with a trust and faith such as few other men have won, and to regard him with reverence which still hushes us in presence of his memory.^ Washington, who was always careful about other people's property, was sometimes obliged to let his men seize food from the farmers.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Washington alone held the faith and confidence of the people, and they begged him to give them four years more.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Indian scouts tracked the Frenchmen to a forest near a place called Great Meadows, where, in May, Washington and his men attacked them on one side and the Indians on the other.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Washington had no smashing, stunning victories.^ He did not report the victory to Washington, as was his duty, and paid no attention to his commands.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    He was not a military genius, and his tactical and strategic maneuvers were not the sort that awed men. Military glory was not the source of his reputation. Something else was involved. Washington's genius, his greatness, lay in his character. He was, as Chateubriand said, a "hero of unprecedented kind." There had never been a great many like Washington before. .Washington became a great man and was acclaimed as a classical hero because of the way he conducted himself during times of temptation.^ During this disheartening time, General Greene was a great help, with his courage and patriotism and cheerfulness.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ George Washington General Lee's forces at last arrived, though the General himself, because of his carelessness and laziness, had been captured on the way.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Congress thanked Washington, and great soldiers all over the world praised him for the wonderful way in which he had led his soldiers out of the enemy's pitfalls and turned defeat to victory.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .It was his moral character that set him off from other men.^ His noble character gave him a high place among the leading men of his colony.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]


    .Washington fit the 18th-century image of a great man, of a man of virtue.^ One of the members, John Adams, called him “the modest and virtuous, the generous and brave George Washington.” Washington's early life and training fitted him in a wonderful way for this great and difficult post.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    This virtue was not given to him by nature. He had to work for it, to cultivate it, and everyone sensed that. .Washington was a self-made hero, and this impressed an 18th-century enlightened world that put great stock in men controlling both their passions and their destinies.^ Indian scouts tracked the Frenchmen to a forest near a place called Great Meadows, where, in May, Washington and his men attacked them on one side and the Indians on the other.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For months, Washington had watched the British fleet in New York harbor and now it put to sea with eighteen thousand men on board.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The whole country went wild with joy over this great victory, and the Americans did not forget that the 28 George Washington French, with their men, money and ships, made it possible for them to win.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    Washington seemed to possess a self-cultivated nobility.
  • He is the best and the greatest man the world ever knew... Neither depressed by disappointment and difficulties, nor elated with a temporary success. He retreats like a General and attacks like a Hero. .
  • When the clergy addressed General Washington on his departure from the government, it was observed in their consultation that he had never on any occasion said a word to the public which showed a belief in the Christian religion and they thought they should so pen their address as to force him at length to declare publicly whether he was a Christian or not.^ But Washington only said, “We should never despair.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Washington said they had God's help in “laying the foundation for tranquillity and happiness.” The people accepted the Constitution and turned to Washington for their first President.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ One of the members, John Adams, called him “the modest and virtuous, the generous and brave George Washington.” Washington's early life and training fitted him in a wonderful way for this great and difficult post.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    They did so. However [Dr. Rush] observed the old fox was too cunning for them. .He answered every article of their address particularly except that, which he passed over without notice.^ Months passed without much being done, except dashing skirmishes now and then.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    Rush observes he never did say a word on the subject in any of his public papers except in his valedictory letter to the Governors of the states whn he resigned his commission in the army, wherein he speaks of the benign influence of the Christian religion. .I know that Gouvemeur Morris, who pretended to be in his secrets & believed himself to be so, has often told me that General Washington believed no more of that system than he himself did.^ [Illustration: A Messenger came to Benedict Arnold] General Washington came back from Newport two days earlier than he was expected.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ General Lee, who never would take orders from Washington, commanded his men to retreat.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Many colonists, who had seen no hope of success, now believed that Washington's generalship would triumph.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.
Let him who looks for a monument to Washington look around the United States.
^ Washington, who always admired courageous deeds, allowed him to make the attempt.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington, who was always careful about other people's property, was sometimes obliged to let his men seize food from the farmers.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress sent him to Washington, who realized that his experience would be valuable, and who asked him to drill and discipline the troops.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

Your freedom, your independence, your national power, your prosperity, and your prodigious growth are a monument to him. ~ .Lajos Kossuth
  • His mind was great and powerful, without being of the very first order; his penetration strong, though, not so acute as that of a Newton, Bacon, or Locke; and as far as he saw, no judgment was ever sounder.^ From this point, he saw General Howe capture Fort Washington and, without power to prevent it, beheld his brave men bayoneted by the cruel German soldiers.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ While he, in New York, was facing foes within and without, Congress in Philadelphia was discussing this great question behind locked doors.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ These papers were very fair and wise and showed the noble minds and loyal hearts of these early great Americans.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    It was slow in operation, being little aided by invention or imagination, but sure in conclusion.
  • On the whole, his character was, in its mass, perfect, in nothing bad, in few points indifferent; and it may truly be said, that never did nature and fortune combine more perfectly to make a man great, and to place him in the same constellation with whatever worthies have merited from man an everlasting remembrance. ...^ Indian scouts tracked the Frenchmen to a forest near a place called Great Meadows, where, in May, Washington and his men attacked them on one side and the Indians on the other.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Fortunately for America, the conspiracy against Washington failed and the only result was to make his name and fame brighter and more widespread.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They did many wise things, but none was more fortunate than this choice of a Commander−in−Chief for the Continental Army.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .These are my opinions of General Washington, which I would vouch at the judgment seat of God, having been formed on an acquaintance of thirty years...^ His wisdom and justice were so great that, in all these years, the wisest men have found little in the actions of Washington they would change.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ General Lee, who never would take orders from Washington, commanded his men to retreat.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It was now a year since the Battle of Lexington was fought and Washington feared that the war would be a long one.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

  • He was incapable of fear, meeting personal dangers with the calmest unconcern. Perhaps the strongest feature in his character was prudence, never acting until every circumstance, every consideration, was maturely weighed; refraining if he saw a doubt, but, when once decided, going through with his purpose, whatever obstacles opposed. His integrity was most pure, his justice the most inflexible I have ever known, no motives of interest or consanguinity, of friendship or hatred, being able to bias his decision. .He was, indeed, in every sense of the words, a wise, a good, and a great man. His temper was naturally high toned; but reflection and resolution had obtained a firm and habitual ascendancy over it.^ Jefferson said of him that no motive of interest or friendship or hatred could influence him; “he was in every sense of the word a wise, a good and a great man.” At the close of his second term, 1797, Washington insisted upon retiring, and he counted the days until he might lay aside the cares of office and seek his rest.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    If ever, however, it broke its bonds, he was most tremendous in his wrath. In his expenses he was honorable, but exact; liberal in contributions to whatever promised utility; but frowning and unyielding on all visionary projects and all unworthy calls on his charity. .His heart was not warm in its affections; but he exactly calculated every man’s value, and gave him a solid esteem proportioned to it. His person, you know, was fine, his stature exactly what one would wish, his deportment easy, erect and noble; the best horseman of his age, and the most graceful figure that could be seen on horseback.^ When he was fourteen, one of these officers would have appointed him midshipman in the British navy.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Gates was very headstrong, however, and thought he knew more than any one could tell him and would take no advice from officers on the ground.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ His noble character gave him a high place among the leading men of his colony.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen. ~ .Henry Lee
  • Let him who looks for a monument to Washington look around the United States.^ General Lee, who never would take orders from Washington, commanded his men to retreat.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Washington, who always admired courageous deeds, allowed him to make the attempt.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Washington, who was always careful about other people's property, was sometimes obliged to let his men seize food from the farmers.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    Your freedom, your independence, your national power, your prosperity, and your prodigious growth are a monument to him. .
  • First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen.
    • Henry Lee, from his eulogy for Washington, presented to Congress on 26 December 1799
  • Washington's is the mightiest name of earth — long since mightiest in the cause of civil liberty; still mightiest in moral reformation. On that name no eulogy is expected.^ It was now a year since the Battle of Lexington was fought and Washington feared that the war would be a long one.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This was Washington's first skirmish and it opened the French and Indian War that lasted seven years.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Washington planted the British flag upon the still smoking ruins and on the same site built Fort Pitt, which he named in honor of the great English statesman.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    It cannot be. To add brightness to the sun, or glory to the name of Washington, is alike impossible. Let none attempt it. In solemn awe pronounce the name, and in its naked deathless splendor leave it shining on.
  • Had Washington been born in the days of idolatry, he would be worshiped as a god. If there are spots on his characters, they are like spots on the sun, only discernible by the magnifying powers of a telescope.
  • You have in American history one of the great captains of all times. It might be said of him, as it was of William the Silent, that he seldom won a battle but he never lost a campaign.^ All loyal Americans love and honor him, the greatest man in the history of the Republic.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Early in the morning of the 19th of April, 1775, the first battle of the great American Revolution was fought (the Battle of Lexington).
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He said truly, “I walk untrodden ground,” for there was no great republic in history whose example he could follow.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Washington's genius lay in his understanding of power, both military power, and political power, an understanding unmatched by that of any of his contempporaries.
  • "One afternoon several young gentlemen, visitors at Mount Vernon, and myself were engaged in pitching the bar, one of the athletic sports common in those days, when suddenly the colonel appeared among us.^ Washington quietly heard each side and did his best to keep the two men at peace, for the country needed both.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Until he was nineteen, George spent his time at his work, or at home with his mother or at Mount Vernon with Lawrence.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Of all the men in Virginia, the Governor chose George Washington, only twenty−one years old, for this dangerous and important journey!
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    He requested to be shown the pegs that marked the bounds of our efforts; then, smiling, and without putting off his coat, held out his hand for the missile. .No sooner,"observed the narrator, with emphasis, "did the heavy iron bar feel the grasp of his mighty hand than it lost the power of gravitation, and whizzed through the air, striking the ground far, very far, beyond our utmost limits.^ Gates was very headstrong, however, and thought he knew more than any one could tell him and would take no advice from officers on the ground.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ An Indian chief said, “A Power mightier than we shielded him.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    We were indeed amazed, as we stood around, all stripped to the buff, with shirt sleeves rolled up, and having thought ourselves very clever fellows, while the colonel, on retiring, pleasantly observed, 'When you beat my pitch, young gentlemen, I'll try again.'"
    • Charles Willson Peale, recounting an incident of 1772, as quoted in Recollections and Private Memoirs of Washington (1861), edited by Benson J. Lossing
  • I bet after seeing us, George Washington would sue us for calling him "father."
  • The name of an iron man goes round the world.
    .It takes a long time to forget an iron man.
    • Carl Sandburg in "Washington Monument by Night" in Slabs of the Sunburnt West (1922)
  • May it please Heaven that his example shall continue to serve as a beacon to our Republics in their darkest moments of doubt and adversity.
  • George Washington is the only president who didn't blame the previous administration for his troubles.^ Washington had a busy time watching Burgoyne on the Hudson and the lakes, watching Howe, who was occupying New York and New Jersey, and guarding the coast.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The game is yet in our hands; to play it well is all we have to do.” Washington's greatness is shown not only by his skill in action, but by the patience with which he could wait.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Lord Fairfax knew no one who could do this so well as George Washington, for he was strong and fair enough to deal wisely with the rough settlers.
    • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    • Unknown author, quoted in The Quotable Politician (2003) by William B. Whitman

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  1. [1]

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799), the first president of the United States, was born at Bridges Creek, Westmoreland county, Virginia, on the 22nd (Old Style 11th) of February 1732. The genealogical researches of Mr Henry E. Waters.^ George Washington ,1st President of the United States .
  • George Pres. WASHINGTON 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.gencircles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The only state named for a president is the state of Washington .
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ George Washington 1ST President .
  • George Pres. WASHINGTON 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.gencircles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

seem to have established the connexion of the family with the .Washingtons of Sulgrave, Northamptonshire, England.^ Washington's ancestors were from Sulgrave , England ; his great-grandfather, John Washington , immigrated to Virginia in 1657.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.The brothers John and Lawrence Washington appear in Virginia.^ About the middle of the seventeenth century John and Lawrence Washington, two brothers, of a younger branch of the family, both Cavaliers who had adhered to the fortunes of Charles I., emigrated to Virginia, and purchased extensive estates in Westmoreland County, between the Potomac and the Rappahannock rivers.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington's ancestors were from Sulgrave , England ; his great-grandfather, John Washington , immigrated to Virginia in 1657.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington had two older half-brothers: Lawrence and Augustine, Jr. "Austin" and four younger siblings: Betty, Samuel, John Augustine "Jack", and Charles.
  • George Washington Biography plus pictures, news, information and products. 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.biographyplus.com [Source type: Original source]

in .1658. John took up land at Bridges Creek, became a member of the House of Burgesses in 1666, and died in 1676. His eldest son, Lawrence, married Mildred Warner, by whom he had three children - John, Augustine (1694-1743) and Mildred.^ He nearly died, his son nearly died, and the injuries both mental and physical did end up killing both of them.
  • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

^ McKinley was born at Parkersburg, Wood county, West Virginia, and is a son of John S. and Amanda (Camden) McKinley, both of whom were born and reared in that part of Virginia that is now the state of West Virginia.
  • Descendants of George Washington Jackson 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.eg.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Martha Washington's son, John Parke Custis, inherited immediately two-thirds of his father's land and slaves.
  • Papers of George Washington 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC gwpapers.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

Augustine Washington married twice. .By the first marriage, with Jane Butler, there were four children, two of whom, Lawrence and Augustine, grew to manhood.^ Five presidents remarried after the death of their first wives——two of whom, Tyler and Wilson, remarried while in the White House.

^ She was his father's second wife and there were two little lads already in the home, Lawrence and Augustine, when she came to take the place of their mother who had died.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington had two older half-brothers: Lawrence and Augustine, Jr. "Austin" and four younger siblings: Betty, Samuel, John Augustine "Jack", and Charles.
  • George Washington Biography plus pictures, news, information and products. 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.biographyplus.com [Source type: Original source]

By the second marriage, in 1730,.. with .Mary Ball, descendant of a family which migrated to Virginia in 1657, there were six children - George, Betty, Samuel,..^ Margaret Elizabeths uncle, John George Jackson, served in the Virginia General Assembly and was elected to six successive sessions of congress.
  • Descendants of George Washington Jackson 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.eg.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Through this fortunate brother, George became intimate with the best families in Virginia.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And always there were young people, friends of the Bennett children from Baltimore, Richmond, Charlottesville, and West Virginia centers.
  • Descendants of George Washington Jackson 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.eg.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

John, Charles and Mildred. .Upon the death of the father,..^ George inherited Ferry Farm upon his father's death, and eventually acquired Mount Vernon after Lawrence's death.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Lawrence inherited the estate at Hunting Creek, on the Potomac,_ later known as Mount Vernon, and George the estate on the Rappahannock, nearly opposite Fredericksburg, where his father usually lived.^ George inherited Ferry Farm upon his father's death, and eventually acquired Mount Vernon after Lawrence's death.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lawrence Washington inherited another family property from his father, which he later named Mount Vernon .
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The farm on the Rappahannock had been given to George by their father.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.Of Washington's early life little is known, probably because there was little unusual to tell.^ I tell him that I had been skeptical of George Washington early on, but now I'm liking him more and more.
  • What Would George Washington Do? The Guinea Pig Diaries Book Excerpt - Esquire 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.esquire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The experience of the Convention may well have shown Washington that there would be little substantive support from antislavery spokesmen if he had decided to take a vigorous position on the question.
  • Papers of George Washington 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC gwpapers.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We sit down, and Dean tells me about life as Washington's doppelganger.
  • What Would George Washington Do? The Guinea Pig Diaries Book Excerpt - Esquire 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.esquire.com [Source type: Original source]

.The story of the hatchet and the cherry-tree, and similar tales, are undoubtedly apocryphal, having been coined by Washington's most popular biographer, Mason Weems (d.^ The "Cherry Tree" episode was invented in 1806 by Parson Mason Weems in a book commemorating Washington's life that was first published in 1800.
  • Prints of George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.philaprintshop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An early biographer, Parson Weems , was the source of the famous story about young Washington cutting down a cherry tree and confessing this to his father, in an 1800 book entitled The Life of George Washington; With Curious Anecdotes, Equally Honorable to Himself and Exemplary to His Young Countrymen.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to one of his most notable biographers, Joseph Ellis, Washington possessed no moral anxiety over owning slaves.
  • George Washington Biography plus pictures, news, information and products. 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.biographyplus.com [Source type: Original source]

1825). .1 There is nothing to show that the boy's life was markedly different from that common to Virginia families in easy circumstances; plantation affairs, hunting, fishing, and a little reading making up its substance.^ One of Gus Washington's properties where the family resided from about 1735-1737 was Little Hunting Creek Farm.
  • George Washington Biography plus pictures, news, information and products. 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.biographyplus.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There was a cavilling, criticising spirit among the different parties in America; for there were many who did not comprehend the situation, and who were disappointed that nothing decisive was done.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

.From 1735 to 1739 he lived at what is now called Mount Vernon, and afterwards at the estate on the Rappahannock.^ Washington's election was a disappointment to Martha Washington, the First Lady, who wanted to continue living in quiet retirement at Mount Vernon after the war.
  • George Washington Biography plus pictures, news, information and products. 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.biographyplus.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Upon Lawrence Washington's death from tuberculosis in July 1752, George Washington rented and eventually inherited the estate, Mount Vernon, in Fairfax County (near Alexandria).
  • George Washington Biography plus pictures, news, information and products. 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.biographyplus.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington's retirement to Mount Vernon was short-lived.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.His education was only elementary and very defective, except in mathematics, in which he was largely self-taught; and although at his death he left a considerable library, he was never an assiduous reader.^ Believing that the Republic would stand secure only upon a foundation of education, courage and conscience, he left money for a great American University.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The death of Gus Washington left the family in difficult circumstances and prevented young George from receiving an education in England as his older brothers Lawrence and Austin did.
  • George Washington Biography plus pictures, news, information and products. 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.biographyplus.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although he had throughout his life a good deal of official contact with the French, he never mastered their language.^ The horrors of the revolt of the slaves on Saint Domingue against their French masters were immediately apparent although less understood in the United States were the appalling conditions that had inspired the revolt.
  • Papers of George Washington 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC gwpapers.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

Some careful reading of good books there must have been, however, for in spite of pervading illiteracy, common in that age, in matters of grammar and spelling, he acquired a dignified and effective English style.. .The texts of his writings, as published by Jared Sparks, have been so "edited" in these respects as to destroy their value as evidence; but the edition of Mr Worthington C. Ford restores the original texts.^ Letter to Major-General John Sullivan (15 December 1779), published in The Writings of George Washington (1890) by Worthington Chauncey Ford, Vol.
  • George Washington - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Sentiments on a Peace Establishment" in a letter to Alexander Hamilton (2 May 1783); published in The Writings of George Washington (1938), edited by John C. Fitzpatrick, Vol.
  • George Washington - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington's formal acceptance of command of the Army (16 June 1775), quoted in The Writings of George Washington : Life of Washington (1837) edited by Jared Sparks, p.
  • George Washington - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

.Washington left school in the autumn of 1747, and from this time we begin to know something of his life.^ Before he left Virginia, Washington went to say farewell to his mother, knowing he would never see her again.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ On April 16, 1789, Washington left Mount Vernon to begin his journey to New York City to assume the presidency.
  • Papers of George Washington 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC gwpapers.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He was then at Mount Vernon with his half-brother Lawrence, who was also his guardian.^ Lawrence's health did not improve: he returned to Mount Vernon, where he died in 1752.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington's election was a disappointment to Martha Washington, the First Lady, who wanted to continue living in quiet retirement at Mount Vernon after the war.
  • George Washington Biography plus pictures, news, information and products. 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.biographyplus.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington had two older half-brothers: Lawrence and Augustine, Jr. "Austin" and four younger siblings: Betty, Samuel, John Augustine "Jack", and Charles.
  • George Washington Biography plus pictures, news, information and products. 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.biographyplus.com [Source type: Original source]

.Lawrence was a son-in-law of William Fairfax, proprietor of the neighbouring plantation of Belvoir, and agent for the extensive Fairfax lands in the colony.^ His chief work for the next three years was on the vast tracts of land owned by Lord Fairfax, the uncle of Lawrence Washington's wife.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ William Fairfax, Lawrence's father-in-law and cousin of Virginia's largest landowner, Thomas Lord Fairfax , was also a formative influence.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cited in William M. Wiecek, "The Statutory Law of Slavery and Race in the Thirteen Mainland Colonies of British America," WMQ 34 (1977): 278-79.
  • Papers of George Washington 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC gwpapers.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Lawrence had served with Fairfax at Cartagena, and had made the acquaintance of Admiral Edward Vernon, from whom Mount Vernon was named.^ To this lovely home, surrounded by lawns and stately trees, Lawrence gave the name Mount Vernon, in honor of the Admiral under whom he had served.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He organized an army, but, fortunately, peace was made without bloodshed, and he was glad to go back to Mount Vernon.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Until he was nineteen, George spent his time at his work, or at home with his mother or at Mount Vernon with Lawrence.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.The story that a commission as midshipman was obtained for George through the good offices of the admiral, but that the opposition of the boy's mother put an end to the scheme, seems to lack proof.^ While he was still a young boy, he wrote out for himself a long list of rules of politeness and good 5 George Washington behavior.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Here's what happened: since I have no office, and since I have three extremely loud boys, my mother-in-law lends me her studio apartment when she's away on a trip.
  • What Would George Washington Do? The Guinea Pig Diaries Book Excerpt - Esquire 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.esquire.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1748, however, through the influence of Thomas, Lord Fairfax, the head of the family, who had come to America to live, Washington, then only sixteen years of age, was appointed surveyor of the Fairfax property; and an appointment as public surveyor soon followed.^ Through the influence of his friend Lord Fairfax he was appointed a public surveyor, and for three years he steadfastly pursued this laborious profession.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He is the only president who didn't live in Washington, D.C. during his presidency.

^ Lord Fairfax, who had become greatly interested in the youth and had made him a frequent companion, giving him the inestimable advantage of familiar intercourse with a thoroughbred gentleman of varied accomplishments, in 1748 sent this sixteen-year-old lad to survey his vast estates in the unexplored lands at the base of the Alleghany Mountains.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

.The next three years were spent in this service, most of the time on the frontier.^ During their first three years in the White House, the Hoovers dined alone only three times, each time on their wedding anniversary.

^ The promotion did not come, and so, in 1758, Washington resigned from active military service and spent the next sixteen years as a Virginia planter and politician.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His chief work for the next three years was on the vast tracts of land owned by Lord Fairfax, the uncle of Lawrence Washington's wife.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.He always retained a disposition to speculate in western lands, the ultimate value of which he early appreciated; many of his later investments of this character are treated in C. W. Butterfield's Washington-Crawford Letters (1877).^ Washington's Farewell Address (Issued as a public letter) was one of the most influential statements of American political values.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington's Farewell Address (issued as a public letter) was the defining statement of Federalist party principles and one of the most influential statements of American political values.
  • George Washington Biography plus pictures, news, information and products. 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.biographyplus.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Provides many anecdotes regarding Carver's early years and later inventions.
  • The legacy of George Washington Carver--Magazine & journal articles 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.lib.iastate.edu [Source type: Academic]

He seems, too, to have impressed others already with his force of mind and character. .In 1751 he accompanied his half-brother Lawrence, who was stricken with consumption, to the West Indies, where he had an attack of small-pox which left him marked for life.^ This was interrupted by a trip to the West Indies with his beloved brother Lawrence, who was ill of consumption.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ A voyage to Barbadoes in 1751 cultivated his habits of clear observation, and in 1752 his brother's death imposed on him the responsibility of the estates and the daughter left to his care by his brother Lawrence.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Before long, Lawrence went away to the wars, serving under Admiral Vernon in the West Indies.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

Lawrence died in the following year, making George executor under the will and residuary heir of Mount Vernon; and the latter estate became his in 1761.
.In October 1753, on the eve of the last French and Indian war, Washington was chosen by Governor Robert Dinwiddie as the agent to warn the French away from their new posts on the Ohio, in western Pennsylvania.^ This was Washington's first skirmish and it opened the French and Indian War that lasted seven years.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ French and Indian War: 1754-1763 .
  • George Washington Biography plus pictures, news, information and products. 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.biographyplus.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Among his exploits was the capture of Port Duquesne, now Pittsburgh, in 1758, which terminated the French domination of the Ohio, and opened up Western Pennsylvania to enterprising immigrants.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

.He accomplished the winter journey safely, though with considerable danger and hardship; and shortly after his return was appointed lieutenant-colonel of a Virginia regiment, under Colonel Joshua Fry.^ His admirable conduct on this occasion resulted in his appointment as lieutenant-colonel of the Virginia regiment of six companies sent to the Ohio frontier; and in this campaign Washington gained new laurels, surprising and defeating the French.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He sent his valued Virginia riflemen, under Colonel Daniel Morgan, to help fight Burgoyne's Indians.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ "If upon taking good advise it is found expedient to send them back to Virginia, I wish to have it accomplished under pretext that may decieve both them and the Public."
  • Papers of George Washington 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC gwpapers.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In April 1754 he set out with two companies for the Ohio, defeated (28th May) a force of French and Indians at Great Meadows (in the present Fayette county, Pennsylvania), but at Fort Necessity in this vicinity was forced to capitulate (3rd July), though only after a vigorous defence.^ French and Indian War: 1754-1763 .
  • George Washington Biography plus pictures, news, information and products. 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.biographyplus.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After fighting broke out at Lexington and Concord in April, 1775, Washington appeared at the Second Continental Congress in military uniformthe only delegate to do so, signaling his interest in becoming commander of the colonial forces.
  • George Washington Biography plus pictures, news, information and products. 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.biographyplus.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indian scouts tracked the Frenchmen to a forest near a place called Great Meadows, where, in May, Washington and his men attacked them on one side and the Indians on the other.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.For his services he received the thanks of the House of Burgesses.^ For his rare services this young man of twenty-six received the thanks of the House of Burgesses, of which he had been elected a member at the close of the war.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

.When General Edward Braddock arrived in Virginia in February 1755, Washington wrote him a diplomatically worded letter, and was presently made a member 1 Weems was a Protestant Episcopal clergyman, who first published a brief biography of Washington in 1800, and later (1806) considerably expanded it and introduced various apocryphal anecdotes.^ This episode"later known as the " Conway Cabal ""failed after Washington's supporters rallied behind him.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Letter to Major-General John Sullivan (15 December 1779), published in The Writings of George Washington (1890) by Worthington Chauncey Ford, Vol.
  • George Washington - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Artnet magazine (November 1999) His excellency General Washington has arrived amoungst us, universally admired.
  • George Washington - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

.The biography, though worthless, had an immense circulation, and is to a considerable degree responsible for the traditional conception of Washington.^ Although he appreciated the inefficiency of the institution, there is little evidence that the moral and ethical considerations of slavery troubled Washington to any considerable degree before the Revolution.
  • Papers of George Washington 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC gwpapers.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

of the staff, with the rank of colonel. .His personal relations with Braddock were friendly throughout, and in the calamitous defeat he showed for the first time that fiery energy which always lay hidden beneath his calm and unruffled exterior.^ The story of Washington's bravery in Braddock's defeat was known throughout the country.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The scene shows Washington delivering his first inaugural address to the House and Senate in the old New York City Hall, which served as the U.S. Capitol at the time.
  • Prints of George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.philaprintshop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prints showing Washington were issued during his life-time and pretty much continuously throughout the nineteenth century.
  • Prints of George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.philaprintshop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He ranged the whole field on horseback, making himself the most conspicuous target for Indian bullets, and, in spite of what he called the "dastardly behaviour" of the regular troops, saved the expedition from annihilation, and brought the remnant of his Virginians out of action in fair order.^ Letter To the members of the New Church of Baltimore (22 January 1793) Make the most of the Indian hemp seed, and sow it everywhere!
  • George Washington - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In order to call the militia out, he arranged a system of signals.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

In spite of his reckless exposure, he was one of the few unwounded officers. .In August, after his return, he was commissioned commander of the Virginia forces, being then twenty-three years old.^ Of all the men in Virginia, the Governor chose George Washington, only twenty−one years old, for this dangerous and important journey!
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When George was eight years old, Lawrence returned home, having finished his studies.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After nearly three years of excavation, archaeologists have confirmed the discovery of the site of George Washington's boyhood home near the banks of the Rappahannock River in northeast Virginia.
  • George Washington: News & Videos about George Washington - CNN.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

.For about two years his task was that of "defending a frontier of more than 350 m.^ It had been more than half a year since the General had seen his family and his work was made easier by having with him those he loved.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ So he continued two years more at school, studying mathematics, engineering and surveying.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Jackson have had a married life of a little more than thirty years, nearly half of it spent in Newark and in several other Ohio towns.
  • Descendants of George Washington Jackson 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.eg.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

with .700 men," a task rendered the more difficult by the insubordination and irregular service of his soldiers, and by irritating controversies over official precedence.^ Two former high-level CIA officers have said that the government's recent "reform" of the intelligence services has made it more difficult to fight terrorism.

.To settle the latter question he made a journey to Boston, in 1756, to confer with Governor William Shirley.^ Naturally, all sorts of disputes arose and finally Washington decided to go to Boston to put all these questions before Governor General William Shirley.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.In the winter of 1757 his health broke down, but in the next year he had the pleasure of commanding the advance guard of the expedition under General John Forbes which occupied Fort Duquesne and renamed it Fort Pitt.^ The first was an invasion by General John Burgoyne down the Hudson River from Canada designed to reach New York city and cut off New England.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was under the command of an able and experienced veteran, General Burgoyne.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1758, he took part in the Forbes Expedition , which successfully drove the French away from Fort Duquesne .
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.(See Pittsburg: History.) At the end of the year he resigned his commission, the war in Virginia being at an end, and in January 1759 married Martha Dandridge (1732-1802), widow of Daniel Parke Custis.^ And his fortunes were still further advanced by his marriage in 1759 with the richest woman in the region, Martha, the widow of Daniel Parke Custis.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ See Sylvia R. Frey, "Between Slavery and Freedom: Virginia Blacks in the American Revolution", Journal of Southern History , 49 (1983): 383-85.
  • Papers of George Washington 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC gwpapers.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Martha Washington's son, John Parke Custis, inherited immediately two-thirds of his father's land and slaves.
  • Papers of George Washington 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC gwpapers.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

.For the next fifteen years Washington's life at Mount Vernon, where he made his home after his marriage, was that of a typical Virginia planter of the more prosperous sort, a consistent member and vestryman of the Established (Episcopal) Church, a large slave-holder, a strict but considerate master, and.^ Washington enlarged the mansion at Mount Vernon after his marriage.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington's remains were buried at Mount Vernon .
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And then he turned to the placidities of domestic life in his home at Mount Vernon.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

a widely trusted man of affairs. .His extraordinary escape in Braddock's defeat had led a colonial preacher to declare in a sermon his belief that the young man had been preserved to be "the saviour of his country"; but if there was any such impression it soon died away, and Washington gave his associates no reason to consider him a man of uncommon endowments.^ The story of Washington's bravery in Braddock's defeat was known throughout the country.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no indication that he ever considered any such course.
  • Papers of George Washington 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC gwpapers.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But past downturns had very different causes, and there’s no good reason to regard them as good precedents .

.His marriage brought him an increase of about $100,000 in his property, making him one of the richest men in the colonies; and he was able to develop his plantation and enlarge its extent.^ With his small army on the right bank of the Delaware, toilsomely increased to about four thousand men, he now meditated offensive operations against the unsuspecting British, who had but just chased him out of New Jersey.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His noble character gave him a high place among the leading men of his colony.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington, who was always careful about other people's property, was sometimes obliged to let his men seize food from the farmers.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.His attitude towards slavery has been much discussed, but it does not seem to have been different from that of many other planters of that day: he did not think highly of the system, but had no invincible repugnance to it, and saw no way of getting rid of it.^ Washington, like many others of his post-Revolutionary generation, still blamed Britain for hanging slavery around colonial necks.
  • Papers of George Washington 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC gwpapers.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Extravagant spending and the unpredictability of the tobacco market meant that many Virginia planters of Washington's day were losing money.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I know that Gouvemeur Morris, who pretended to be in his secrets & believed himself to be so, has often told me that General Washington believed no more of that system than he himself did.
  • George Washington - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

In his treatment of slaves he was exacting, but not harsh, and was averse to selling them save in case of necessity. His diaries show a minutely methodical conduct of business, generous indulgence in hunting, comparatively little reading and a wide acquaintance with the leading men of the colonies, but no marked indications of what is usually considered to be "greatness." As in the case of Lincoln, he was educated into greatness by the increasing weight of his responsibilities and the manner in which he met them. .Like others of the dominant planter class in Virginia, he was repeatedly elected to the House of Burgesses, but the business which came before the colonial assembly was for some years of only local importance, and he is not known to have made any set speeches in the House, or to have said anything beyond a statement of his opinion and the reasons for it.^ He held local office and was elected to the Virginia provincial legislature, the House of Burgesses.
  • George Washington Biography plus pictures, news, information and products. 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.biographyplus.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Only president elected to the House after his presidency.

^ Elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses, 1759 .
  • George Washington Biography plus pictures, news, information and products. 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.biographyplus.com [Source type: Original source]

.He was present on the 29th of May 1765, when Patrick Henry introduced his famous resolutions against the Stamp Act.^ When the Stamp Act was passed by the infatuated Parliament of Great Britain, Washington was probably the richest man in the country, but as patriotic as Patrick Henry.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

.That he thought a great deal on public questions, and took full advantage of his legislative experience as a means of political education, is shown by his letter of the 5th of April 1769 to his neighbour, George Mason, communicating the Philadelphia non-importation resolutions, which had just reached him.^ Washington's Farewell Address (Issued as a public letter) was one of the most influential statements of American political values.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Remember how Dean said George Washington has sensitized him to just how uncivil these times are?
  • What Would George Washington Do? The Guinea Pig Diaries Book Excerpt - Esquire 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.esquire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In May 1769, Washington introduced a proposal drafted by his friend George Mason which called for Virginia to boycott English goods until the Acts were repealed.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.In this he considers briefly the best means of peaceable resistance to the policy of the ministry, but even at that early date faces frankly and fully the probable final necessity of resisting by force, and endorses it, though only as a last resort.^ Although the English had been final victors at Bunker Hill, the American militia, behind their intrenchments, under Prescott, had repulsed twice their number of the best soldiers of Europe, and retired at last only for want of ammunition.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ George Washington General Lee's forces at last arrived, though the General himself, because of his carelessness and laziness, had been captured on the way.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Even though Teddy roosevelt was a Trooper, who punched asthma in the face, John Adams had fun getting shot.
  • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

.In May following, when the House of Burgesses was dissolved, he was among the members who met at the Raleigh tavern and adopted a non-importation agreement; and he himself kept the agreement when others did not.^ For his rare services this young man of twenty-six received the thanks of the House of Burgesses, of which he had been elected a member at the close of the war.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was a member of the Virginia Legislature, then called the House of Burgesses, of which he attended every meeting and was careful to know all about the affairs of the colony.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ His half-brother Lawrence had married a relative of Lord Fairfax, who had settled in Virginia on the restoration of Charles II. Lawrence was also the owner of the estate of Mount Vernon, on the Potomac,--the wealthiest member of his family, and a prominent member of the Virginia House of Burgesses.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

.Though on friendly terms with Governor Norborne Berkeley, Baron Botetourt and his successor, John Murray, earl of Dunmore, he nevertheless took a prominent part, though without speechmaking, in the struggles of the Assembly against Dunmore, and his position was always a radical one.^ At the battle of New Orleans, against unsurmountable odds (and with the help of John Lafitte, a French Pirate) he took on two of the British's best commanders and won, even though out-numbered close to 12-to-one.
  • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

.As the breach widened, he even opposed petitions to the king and parliament, on the ground that the claims to taxation and control had been put forward by the ministry on the basis of right, not of expediency, that the ministry could not abandon the claim of right and the colonies could not admit it, and that petitions must be, as they already had been, rejected.^ The colonies were independent of one another, but knew they must stand together against the injustice of England.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The colonies were not represented in the British Parliament (where the laws were made) and so claimed that Parliament had no right to tax them.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ They wrote a petition to the King and letters to the people of England and of Canada.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

"Shall we," he writes in a letter, "after this whine and cry for relief?" .On the 5th of August 1774 the Virginia convention appointed Washington as one of seven delegates to the first Continental Congress, which met at Philadelphia on the 5th of September, and with this appointment his national career, which was to continue with but two brief intervals until his death, begins.^ In August, he attended the First Virginia Convention , where he was selected as a delegate to the First Continental Congress .
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was one of several delegates chosen to represent Virginia in the General Congress, which was held at Carpenters' Hall in Philadelphia, September 5, 1774.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ From the beginning of Abraham Lincolns national political career, campaign promoters paired him with George Washington, hoping that the Founding Fathers reputation would rub off on the young politician.
  • Prints of George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.philaprintshop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His letters during his service in Congress show that he had fully grasped the questions at issue, that he was under no delusions as to the outcome of the struggle over taxation, and that he expected war.^ War, under the most favorable circumstances, is no play; but under great difficulties, has a dismal and rugged look before which delusions rapidly disappear.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

"More blood will be spilled on this occasion," he wrote, "if the ministry are determined to push matters to extremity, than history has ever yet furnished instances of in the annals of North America." His associates in Congress at once recognized his military ability, and although he was not a member of any of the committees of the Congress, he seems to have aided materially in securing the endorsement by Congress of the Suffolk county, Massachusetts, resolves (see Milton, Mass.) looking towards organized resistance. .On the adjournment of the Congress he returned to Virginia, where he continued to be active, as a member of the House of Burgesses, in urging on the organization, equipment and training of troops, and even undertook in person to drill volunteers.^ The winter he passed in patient vigilance; he wrote expostulating letters to Congress, and even went personally to Philadelphia to labor with its members.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For his rare services this young man of twenty-six received the thanks of the House of Burgesses, of which he had been elected a member at the close of the war.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His half-brother Lawrence had married a relative of Lord Fairfax, who had settled in Virginia on the restoration of Charles II. Lawrence was also the owner of the estate of Mount Vernon, on the Potomac,--the wealthiest member of his family, and a prominent member of the Virginia House of Burgesses.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

.His attitude towards the mother country at this time, however, must not be misunderstood.^ No alliances, however strict, between the parts can be an adequate substitute; they must inevitably experience the infractions and interruptions, which all alliances in all times have experienced.
  • George Washington - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

.Much as he expected war, he was not yet ready to declare in favour of independence, and he did not ally himself with the party of independence until the course of events made the adoption of any other course impossible.^ Actually, we (the U.S. and our allies) DID win the Cold War, and it DIRECTLY because of President Reagan's economic, social, and military policies.
  • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

^ We did not win the Cold War, the USSR burned itself out by its placing sketchy military objectives above the health of its economy, you could take a lesson from current events if you were smart enough, or, go take a history course.
  • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

.In March 1775 he was appointed a delegate from Virginia to the second Continental Congress, where he served on committees for fortifying New York, collecting ammunition, raising money and formulating army rules.^ [Illustration: Israel Putnam] 12 George Washington CHAPTER III BEGINNING OF THE REVOLUTION—WASHINGTON MADE COMMANDER−IN−CHIEF OF THE CONTINENTAL ARMY—BRITISH FORCED TO LEAVE BOSTON—1775−1776 [Illustration: A Ragged Continental] At the second Continental Congress, held May 10, 1775, Washington was made chairman of committees for getting ammunition, supplies and money for the war.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Letter to Mr. George William Fairfax (31 May 1775) George Washington Papers at the Library of Congress Every post is honorable in which a man can serve his country.
  • George Washington - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Lafayette, who was in Virginia, sent word to Washington that the British troops had landed at Yorktown (instead of going to New York), and that Cornwallis was strongly fortified there.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.It seems to have been generally understood that, in case of war, Virginia would expect him to act as her commander-in-chief, and it was noticed that, in the second Congress, he was the only member who habitually appeared in uniform.^ Washington's loss of Philadelphia, prompting some members of Congress to discuss removing Washington from command.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Here Mrs. Washington helped him entertain officers and members of Congress.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ They offered a large bribe to General Joseph Reed, a member of Congress.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

History, however, was to settle the matter on broader lines. The two most powerful colonies were Virginia and Massachusetts. .The war began in Massachusetts, troops from New England flocking to the neighbourhood of Boston almost spontaneously; but the resistance, if it was to be effective, must have the support of the colonies to the southward, and the Virginia colonel who was serving on all the military committees of Congress, and whose experience in the Braddock campaign had made his name favourably known in England, was the obvious as well as the politic choice.^ It was then that it was intimated to Washington, in a letter from his friend Colonel Louis Nicola, that the state of the country and the impotence of Congress made it desirable that he should seize the government, and, supported by the army, turn all the confusion into order,--which probably would have been easy for him to do, and which would have been justified by most historical writers.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thanks to this experience, his military bearing, his dramatic charisma, and his political base in Virginia (the largest colony), Congress chose him as commander in chief of the American forces during the Revolutionary War.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was seen, moreover, that both France and England would take every possible advantage of the new republic, and would seek to retain a foothold in the unexplored territories of the Northwest, as well as to gain all they could in commercial transactions.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

.When Congress, after the fights at Lexington and Concord, resolved that the colonies ought to be put in a position of defence, the first practical step was the unanimous selection (June I 5), on motion of John Adams of Massachusetts, of Washington as commander-in-chief of the armed forces of the United Colonies.^ But he was chosen Commander−in−Chief by the unanimous (all agreeing) vote of Congress.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But it is not to the commander in chief of the American forces, nor to the president of the United States, that I have ought to address.
  • Papers of George Washington 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC gwpapers.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources, 1745-1799; Prepared under the direction of the United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission and published by authority of Congress ; John C. Fitzpatrick, editor.
  • WASHINGTON, George (1732-1799) Bibliography 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: News]

.Refusing any salary and asking only the reimbursement of his expenses, he accepted the position, asking "every gentleman in the room," however, to remember his declaration that he did not believe himself to be equal to the command, and that he accepted it only as a duty made imperative by the unanimity of the call.^ Letter to Mrs. George William Fairfax (12 September 1758) But lest some unlucky event should happen unfavorable to my reputation, I beg it may be remembered by every gentleman in the room that I this day declare with the umost sincerity, I do not think myself equal to the command I am honored with.
  • George Washington - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But lest some unlucky event should happen unfavorable to my reputation, I beg it may be remembered by every gentleman in the room that I this day declare with the utmost sincerity, I do not think myself equal to the command I am honored with.
  • George Washington - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I know that Gouvemeur Morris, who pretended to be in his secrets & believed himself to be so, has often told me that General Washington believed no more of that system than he himself did.
  • George Washington - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

.He reiterated this belief in private letters even to his wife; and there seems to be no doubt that, to the day of his death, he was the most determined sceptic as to his fitness for the positions to which he was successively called.^ To her very last she seemed to have no thought of herself but careful for every other person especially her children, was the fitting epitaph entered in his memoir.
  • Descendants of George Washington Jackson 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.eg.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For Washington, as for most of the other founders, when the fate of the new republic was balanced against his own essentially conservative opposition to slavery, there was really no contest.
  • Papers of George Washington 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC gwpapers.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Caesars of the world are few, and most of them have been unfaithful to their trust, but no one doubted the integrity and patriotism of Washington.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

.He was commissioned on the 17th of June 1775, set out at once for Cambridge, Mass., and on the 3rd of July took command of the levies there assembled for action against the British garrison in Boston.^ He took his revenge by sending Benedict Arnold, who was now a British officer, to his native State, Connecticut, to plunder and lay waste the country and murder the garrisons.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ So soon as the designs of the British government were known, it became the aim and duty of the commander-in-chief to guard against them.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When he assumed command of the army at Cambridge in June 1775, Washington for the first time faced the necessity of creating some kind of public policy regarding slaves, free blacks, and the recruiting policies of the Continental army.
  • Papers of George Washington 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC gwpapers.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

the battle of .Bunker Hill had already taken place, news of it reaching him on the way north.^ They stopped and heard from him the news of the Battle of Bunker Hill, which had just been fought (June 17, 1775).
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This news made him more anxious to reach the scene of action and he traveled on as fast as he could.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ [Illustration: The Charge at Bunker Hill] On July second, he reached his headquarters in Cambridge, where he was received with cheers and the thunder of cannon.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.Until the following March, Washington's work was to bring about some semblance of military organization and discipline, to collect ammunition and military stores, to correspond with Congress and the colonial authorities, to guide military operations in widely separate parts of the country, to create a military system for a people entirely unaccustomed to such a thing and impatient and suspicious under it, and to bend the course of events steadily towards driving the British out of Boston.^ Military stores were collected.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Who can doubt, that, in the course of time and things, the fruits of such a plan would richly repay any temporary advantages, which might be lost by a steady adherence to it?
  • George Washington - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources, 1745-1799; Prepared under the direction of the United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission and published by authority of Congress ; John C. Fitzpatrick, editor.
  • WASHINGTON, George (1732-1799) Bibliography 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: News]

.He planned the expeditions against Canada under Richard Montgomery and Benedict Arnold, and sent out privateers to harass British commerce.^ He took his revenge by sending Benedict Arnold, who was now a British officer, to his native State, Connecticut, to plunder and lay waste the country and murder the garrisons.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ [Illustration: The Liberty Bell] While Washington was building up the army and besieging Boston, an expedition against Montreal and Quebec was planned.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Privateers, sent out by him upon the sea, secured valuable supplies.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is not easy to see how Washington survived the year 1775; the colonial poverty, the exasperating annoyances, the outspoken criticism of those who demanded active operations, the personal and party dissensions in Congress, the selfishness or stupidity which cropped out again and again among some of the most patriotic of his coadjutors were enough to have broken down most men.^ With a peace policy only would commerce thrive and industries be developed, Both Washington and Jefferson were broad-minded enough to see the future greatness of the country, and embraced the most liberal views.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington wrote out a copy of the 110 Rules in his school book when he was about sixteen-years old...
  • George Washington - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The First U.S. Congress voted to pay Washington a salary of $25,000 a year—a significant sum in 1789.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

They completed his training. The change in this one winter is very evident. .If he was not a great man when he went to Cambridge, he was both a general and a statesman in the fullest sense when he drove the British out of Boston in March 1 0 776. From that time until his death he was admittedly the foremost man of the continent.^ Joseph E. Ellis [ citation needed ] He was, indeed, in every sense of the words, a wise, a good, and a great man.
  • George Washington - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His wife, Agra (after the town of Agra, India) continued living in the mansion up until the time of her death in 1968.
  • Descendants of George Washington Jackson 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.eg.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was, indeed, in every sense of the words, a wise, a good, and a great man.
  • George Washington - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

.The military operations of the remainder of the War of Independence are described elsewhere (see American War Of Independence).^ Washington made no effort to prevent the embarkation of the British troops, since it freed New England, not again to be the theatre of military operations during the war.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the focus of the war had shifted elsewhere, Washington spent the next several years guarding the Virginia frontier against American Indian raids.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Washington's retreat through New Jersey; the manner in which he turned and struck his pursuers at Trenton and Princeton, and then established himself at Morristown, so as to make the way to Philadelphia impassable; the vigour with which he handled his army at the Brandywine and Germantown; the persistence with which he held the strategic position of Valley Forge through the dreadful winter of 1777-1778, in spite of the misery of his men, the clamours of the people and the impotence and meddling of the fugitive Congress - all went to show that the fibre of his public character had been hardened to its permanent quality.^ At Valley Forge the trials of Washington culminated.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To encourage the people of Philadelphia, Washington decided to parade the army through the city.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Near Monmouth, New Jersey, Washington decided to make an attack.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

."These are the times that try men's souls," wrote Thomas Paine at the beginning of 1776, and the words had added meaning in each year that followed; but Washington had no need to fear the test.^ So these problems weren’t made in a month or a year, and they are going to take a substantial time to solve.
  • George Washington « naked capitalism 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.nakedcapitalism.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Washington wrote out a copy of the 110 Rules in his school book when he was about sixteen-years old...
  • George Washington - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Throughout his unusually trying season in the White House, Lincoln was compared again with Washington, as both men had taken the nation through difficult times.
  • Prints of George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.philaprintshop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The spirit which culminated in the treason of Benedict Arnold was a serious addition to his burdens; for what Arnold did others were almost ready to do.^ Anthony Wayne—Washington at Morristown—Surrender of Charleston, S. C., to the British—Treason of Benedict Arnold.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ George Washington, and Benedict Arnold’s Treason,” M. A. Thesis, University of Chicago, 1943.
  • WASHINGTON, George (1732-1799) Bibliography 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: News]

.Many of the American officers, too, had taken offence at the close personal friendship which had sprung up between the marquis de La Fayette and Washington, and at the diplomatic deference which the commander-in-chief felt compelled to show to other foreign officers.^ This courtesy was very fine in Gates, but he failed in his duty to his Commander−in−Chief, and in many ways was unreliable.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington then sent all the troops he could spare to Virginia, under La Fayette.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A week later, two strong British redoubts (forts) were stormed and taken, one by an American company under Colonel Hamilton and the other by the French.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

Some of the foreign volunteers were eventually dismissed politely by Congress, on the ground that suitable employment could not be found for them. .The name of one of them, Thomas Conway, an Irish soldier of fortune from the French service, is attached to what is called "Conway's Cabal," a scheme for superseding Washington by General Horatio Gates, who in October 1777 succeeded in forcing Burgoyne to capitulate at Saratoga, and who had been persistent in his depreciation of the commander-in-chief and in intrigues with members of Congress.^ He named one of his sons George Washington.

^ This episode"later known as the " Conway Cabal ""failed after Washington's supporters rallied behind him.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To oppose this movement Benedict Arnold--"the bravest of the brave," as he was called, like Marshal Ney--was selected, assisted by General Schuyler, a high-minded gentleman and patriot, but as a soldier more respectable than able, and Horatio Gates, a soldier of fortune, who was jealous of Washington, and who, like Lee, made great pretensions,--both Englishmen by birth.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

.A number of officers, as well as of men in civil life, were mixed up in the plot, while the methods employed were the lowest forms of anonymous slander; but at the first breath of exposure every one concerned hurried to cover up his part in it, leaving Conway to shoulder both the responsibility and the disgrace.^ The men had enlisted for only a short time and numbers returned home after this term of enlistment expired; so it was hard to keep the army up to fighting strength.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He took up his new work with methodical patience, and 30 George Washington was most fortunate in having the help of great men.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ One young officer and fifty men could not hold out against so many.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.The treaty of alliance of 1778 with France, following the surrender of Burgoyne, put an end to all such plans.^ In January, 1778, France acknowledged the independence of the United States of America and entered into treaty with them.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And all this at the period of the French alliance, which it was thought would soon end the war.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The King of France made a treaty of alliance with him, which Congress signed May 4th, 1778.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.It was absurd to expect foreign nations to deal with a second-rate man as commander-in-chief while Washington was in the field, and he seems to have had no further trouble of this kind.^ He did not report the victory to Washington, as was his duty, and paid no attention to his commands.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It is true that Washington had recommended the encouragement of domestic manufactures, the dependence of country on foreigners for nearly all supplies having been one of the chief difficulties of the war, but the great idea of "protection" had not become a mooted point in national legislation.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lord Fairfax knew no one who could do this so well as George Washington, for he was strong and fair enough to deal wisely with the rough settlers.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.The prompt and vigorous pursuit of Sir Henry Clinton across New Jersey towards New York, and the battle of Monmouth, in which the plan of battle was thwarted by Charles Lee, another foreign recruit of popular reputation, closed the military record of Washington, so far as active campaigning was concerned, until the end of the war.^ After the Battle of Monmouth, Clinton took up his quarters in New York and Washington remained in New Jersey.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Near Monmouth, New Jersey, Washington decided to make an attack.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington's reaction to the news of Admiral De Grasse's fleet arriving for the Battle of Yorktown .
  • George Washington - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

.The British confined their operations to other parts of the continent, and Washington, alive as ever to the importance of keeping up connexion with New England, devoted himself to watching the British in and about New York City.^ Washington held New York, and the British fleet were masters of the Bay.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The British evacuated Boston and Washington moved his army to New York City .
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The British fleet, however, had not gone to New York, but up to Halifax.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.It was in every way fitting, however, that he who had been the mainspring of the war from the beginning, and had borne far more than his share of its burdens and discouragements, should end it with the campaign of Yorktown, conceived by himself, and the surrender of Cornwallis (October 1781).^ The surrender at Yorktown on October 17 , 1781 prompted the British to negotiate an end to the war.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The surrender of Cornwallis virtually closed the war.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Every corner of this land knows firearms, and more than 99 99/100 percent of them by their silence indicate they are in safe and sane hands.
  • George Washington - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

.Although peace was not concluded until September 1783, there was no more important fighting.^ In England it broke up the ministry of Lord North, and made the English nation eager for peace, although it was a year or two before hostilities ceased, and it was not until September 3, 1783, that the treaty was signed which Franklin, Adams, and Jay had so adroitly negotiated.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first articles of peace were signed in France, November 30, 1782, but it was not until September 3, 1783, that the final treaty of peace with England was signed at Paris.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There was no fighting, but Washington's forceful action proved the new government could protect itself.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Washington retained his commission until the 23rd of December 1783, when, in a memorable scene, he returned it to Congress, then in session at Annapolis, Md., and retired to Mount Vernon.^ Address to Congress resigning his commission (23 December 1783) A people...
  • George Washington - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The general army was disbanded November 3; on November 25 the British evacuated New York and the American authorities took possession; on December 4 Washington bade farewell to his assembled officers, and on the 23d he resigned his commission to Congress,--a patriotic and memorable scene.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The many cares and hardships Washington had suffered had made him ill and he returned to Mount Vernon, hoping that his military life was over.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.His expenses during the war, including secret service money, aggregated about $64,000; in addition he expended a considerable amount from his private fortune, for which he made no claim to reimbursement.^ He frequently purchased additional acreage in his own name, and was granted land in what is now West Virginia as a bounty for his service in the French and Indian War.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He asked for no pay other than reimbursement of his expenses.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He had no interest in nepotism or cronyism, rejecting, for example, a military promotion during the war for his deserving cousin William Washington lest it be regarded as favoritism.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.By this time the popular canonization of Washington had fairly begun.^ A popular belief is that Washington wore a wig, as was the fashion among some at the time.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.He occupied a position in American public life and in the American political system which no man could possibly hold again.^ Washington's Farewell Address (Issued as a public letter) was one of the most influential statements of American political values.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He seized all the boats on the river and when Lord Cornwallis marched into Trenton, there were no boats for his troops and they could not cross the river to attack the Americans.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It was no new access of official pomposity, but the man's natural bearing, that maintained a lofty reserve at these public receptions.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

.He may be said to have become a political element quite apart from the Union, or the states, or the people of either.^ "The security the Southern States want," Butler said, "is that their negroes may not be taken from them, which some gentlemen within or without doors have a very good mind to do."
  • Papers of George Washington 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC gwpapers.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As one participant in this formerly-secret program stated: "You had to attack civilians, people, women, children, innocent people, unknown people far removed from any political game.

^ [T]he unlimited power of the sword is not in the hands of either the federal or the state governments, but where I trust in God it will ever remain, in the hands of the People.

.In a country in which newspapers had at best only a local circulation, and where communication was still slow and difficult, the knowledge that Washington favoured anything superseded, with very many men, both argument and the necessity of information.^ With a peace policy only would commerce thrive and industries be developed, Both Washington and Jefferson were broad-minded enough to see the future greatness of the country, and embraced the most liberal views.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So Colonel Washington hurried the road building as much as possible, but at best he could make only slow progress in such mountainous country.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington quietly heard each side and did his best to keep the two men at peace, for the country needed both.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

His constant correspondence with the governors of the states gave him a quasi-paternal attitude towards government in general. .On relinquishing his command, for example, he was able to do what no other man could have done with either propriety or safety: he addressed a circular letter to the governors, pointing out changes in the existing form of government which he believed to be necessary, and urging "an indissoluble union of the states under one federal head," "a regard to public justice," the adoption of a suitable military establishment for a time of peace, and the making of "those mutual concessions which are requisite to the general prosperity."^ For example, Scahill points out that: .

^ For example, I pointed out last month: .
  • George Washington « naked capitalism 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.nakedcapitalism.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He went, he said, "to the chair of government, with "feelings not unlike those of a culprit who is going to the place of his execution, so unwilling am I, in the evening of a life nearly consumed in public cares, to quit a peaceful abode for an Ocean of difficulties."
  • Papers of George Washington 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC gwpapers.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

.His refusal to accept a salary, either as commander-in-chief or as president, might have been taken as affectation or impertinence in any one else; it seemed natural and proper enough in the case of Washington, but it was his peculiar privilege.^ One of Washington's most important contributions as commander-in-chief was to establish the precedent that civilian elected officials, rather than military officers, possessed ultimate authority over the military .
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lord Fairfax knew no one who could do this so well as George Washington, for he was strong and fair enough to deal wisely with the rough settlers.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Life of George Washington, Commander in Chief of the Armies of the United States in the war which established their independence; and first President of the United States .
  • WASHINGTON, George (1732-1799) Bibliography 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: News]

It is even possible that he might have had a crown, had he been willing to accept it. The army, at the end of the war, was justly dissatisfied with its treatment. The officers were called to meet at Newburgh, and it was the avowed purpose of the leaders of the movement to march the army westward, appropriate vacant public lands as part compensation for arrears of pay, leave Congress to negotiate for peace without an army, and "mock at their calamity and laugh when their fear cometh." Less publicly avowed was the purpose to make their commanderin-chief king, if he could be persuaded to aid in establishing a monarchy. Washington put a summary stop to the whole proceeding. .A letter written to him by Colonel Lewis Nicola, on behalf of this coterie, detailed the weakness of a republican form of government as they had experienced it, their desire for "mixed government," with him at its head, and their belief that "the title of king" would be objectionable to but few and of material advantage to the country.^ As president in 1790, he published a letter written to Jewish leaders in which he envisioned a country "which gives to bigotry no sanction, to persecution no assistance .
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was then that it was intimated to Washington, in a letter from his friend Colonel Louis Nicola, that the state of the country and the impotence of Congress made it desirable that he should seize the government, and, supported by the army, turn all the confusion into order,--which probably would have been easy for him to do, and which would have been justified by most historical writers.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington had no authority over troops from any other colony, nor would officers commissioned by the King take orders from him.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

His reply was peremptory and indignant. .In plain terms he stated his abhorrence of the proposal; he was at a loss to conceive what part of his conduct could have encouraged their address; they could not have found "a person to whom their schemes were more disagreeable"; and he charged them, "if you have any regard for yourself or posterity, or respect for me, to banish these thoughts from your mind, and never communicate, as from yourself or any one else, a sentiment of the like nature."^ (Also, where do you get your information that "no engineer in the country" thought that they would collapse?

^ They could not reconcile themselves to the greatness of their loss.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A lieutenant firefighter said "I never thought the whole thing would come down" A firefighter stated "I never expected that a tower might collapse" A lieutenant Investigator with the Bureau of Investigations and Trials said "no one ever expected it to collapse like that" (page 18) The firefighters killed in the towers clearly never expected that they would collapse And no engineer in the country, including the designers of the world trade centers, thought they would collapse.

His influence, and his alone, secured the quiet disbanding of the discontented army. .That influence was as powerful after he had retired to Mount Vernon as before the resignation of his command.^ The quiet life of Mount Vernon was broken before long.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington's retirement to Mount Vernon was short-lived.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After retiring from the presidency in March 1797, Washington returned to Mount Vernon with a profound sense of relief.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Society of the Cincinnati, an organization composed of officers of the late war, chose him as its first president; but he insisted that the Society should abandon its plan of hereditary membership, and change other features of the organization against which there had been public clamour.^ For Washington, as for most of the other founders, when the fate of the new republic was balanced against his own essentially conservative opposition to slavery, there was really no contest.
  • Papers of George Washington 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC gwpapers.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Life of George Washington, Commander in Chief of the Armies of the United States in the war which established their independence; and first President of the United States .
  • WASHINGTON, George (1732-1799) Bibliography 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: News]

^ Print Email RSS Share That's the author trapped in there somewhere, channeling the first president .
  • What Would George Washington Do? The Guinea Pig Diaries Book Excerpt - Esquire 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.esquire.com [Source type: Original source]

.When the legislature of Virginia gave him 150 shares of stock in companies formed for the improvement of the Potomac and James rivers, and he was unable to refuse them lest his action should be misinterpreted, he extricated himself by giving them to educational institutions.^ In Virginia, Lafayette and “Mad Anthony” Wayne kept annoying Cornwallis as he marched to Portsmouth on the James River.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He was born in 1732, in Westmoreland County, Virginia, where the Potomac River flowed past his father's farm.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He graduated at the Fairmont State Normal School, one of the leading educational institutions of West Virginia, and was afterwards employed as a teacher in that school.
  • Descendants of George Washington Jackson 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.eg.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

His voluminous correspondence shows his continued concern for a standing army and the immediate possession of the western military posts, and his interest in the development of the western territory. .From public men in all parts of the country he received such a store of suggestions as came to no other man, digested it, and was enabled by means of it to speak with what seemed infallible wisdom.^ No alliances, however strict, between the parts can be an adequate substitute; they must inevitably experience the infractions and interruptions, which all alliances in all times have experienced.
  • George Washington - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, in all these other countries, people have long regarded the American judicial system as being totally corrupt.

^ To her very last she seemed to have no thought of herself but careful for every other person especially her children, was the fitting epitaph entered in his memoir.
  • Descendants of George Washington Jackson 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.eg.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the midst of a burden of letterwriting, the minute details in his diaries of tree-planting and rotation of crops, and his increasing reading on the political side of history, he found time to entertain a stream of visitors from all parts of the United States and from abroad.^ No alliances, however strict, between the parts can be an adequate substitute; they must inevitably experience the infractions and interruptions, which all alliances in all times have experienced.
  • George Washington - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was hardly the polite, respectful missive that the president of the United States normally received.
  • Papers of George Washington 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC gwpapers.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The government of the United States is not, in any sense, founded on the Christian religion.
  • George Washington - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

.Among these, in March 1785, were the commissioners from Virginia and Maryland, who met at Alexandria to form a commercial code for Chesapeake Bay and the Potomac, and made an opportunity to visit Mount Vernon.^ He organized an army, but, fortunately, peace was made without bloodshed, and he was glad to go back to Mount Vernon.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Asbury and Thomas Coke were at Mount Vernon in a vain attempt to persuade GW to support the antislavery petition pending in the Virginia House of Burgesses.
  • Papers of George Washington 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC gwpapers.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The American and French armies marched on from Philadelphia, Washington taking time on the way to visit Mount Vernon, which he had not seen for six years.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

From that moment the current of events, leading into the Annapolis Convention (see Annapolis, Md.) of .1786 and the Federal Convention of the following year, shows Washington's close supervision at every point.^ During the pre-Revolutionary years Washington's views toward slavery were conventional, reflecting those of a typical Virginia planter of his time.
  • Papers of George Washington 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC gwpapers.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The site of the city of Washington was selected for the Federal Capital in 1790, and ten years later, the seat of government was moved from Philadelphia to Washington.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ (George Washington's biographers always point out a couple of gags he made during his life, just to show he's human.
  • What Would George Washington Do? The Guinea Pig Diaries Book Excerpt - Esquire 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.esquire.com [Source type: Original source]

.When the Federal Convention met at Philadelphia in May 1787 to frame the present constitution, Washington was present as a delegate from Virginia, though much against his will; and a unanimous vote at once made him the presiding officer.^ He was persuaded to attend the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in the summer of 1787, and he was unanimously elected president of the Convention.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ AM WOW! Washington was a bonafied bad ass, once in the Presidential mansion in Philadelphia while it was being renovated a painter made a lewd comment to one of the Presidents house maids, Washington hearing the comment stopped in the middle of his shave and kicked the guy down a flight of stairs, face still covered in shaving foam.
  • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

^ Alarmed at the weaknesses of the new nation under the Articles of Confederation , he presided over the Constitutional Convention that drafted the replacement United States Constitution in 1787 and, in 1789, was the unanimous choice to become the first President of the United States under the new form of government.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

Naturally, therefore, he did not participate in debate; and he seems to have spoken but once, and then to favour an amendment reducing from 40,000 to 30,000 the minimum population required as a basis of representation in the House. The mere suggestion, coming from him, was sufficient, and the change was at once agreed to. He approved the constitution which was decided upon, believing, as he said, "that it was the best constitution which could be obtained at that epoch, and that this or a dissolution awaits our choice, and is the only alternative." As president of the convention he signed the constitution, and kept the papers of the convention until the adoption of the new government, when they were deposited in the Department of State. All his vast influence was given to secure the ratification of the new instrument, and his influence was probably decisive. .When enough states had ratified to assure the success of the new government, and the time came to elect a president, there was no hesitation.^ Columbus sailed the ocean blue in 1492, there were 13 colonies at the time of the Revolution and George Washington was our nation's first president.

^ Was the new layer-laden intelligence bureaucracy unable to get its act together in time to give this customary support to the President?

^ The chairman (Tom Keane) and chief counsel (John Farmer) of the the 9/11 Commission wrote an op-ed in the New York Times Tuesday stating: .

.The office of president had been "cut to fit the measure of George Washington," and no one thought of any other person in connexion with it.^ No one else was thought of, and he was unanimously elected.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Between 1776 and 1789 (when George Washington assumed the post of President) the United States was formed, fought a war of independence and had a central government.

^ Jockeys President's Day Craft Idea: George Washington Pencil Topper Learn how students can make a George Washington pencil topper from clay.

.The unanimous vote of the electors made him the first president of the United States; their unanimous vote elected him for a second time in 17921 793 and even after he had positively refused to serve for a third term, two electors voted for him in 1796-1797. The public events of his presidency are given elsewhere (see United States, § History). While the success of the new government was the work of many men and many causes, one cannot resist the conviction that the factor of chief importance was the existence, at the head of the executive department, of such a character as Washington.^ George Washington ,1st President of the United States .
  • George Pres. WASHINGTON 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.gencircles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nothing could induce Washington to serve beyond his second term.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The only state named for a president is the state of Washington .
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

It was he who gave to official intercourse formal dignity and distinction. .It was he who secured for the president the power of removal from office without the intervention of the Senate.^ Washington, who had consented in 1794 to serve a second term as president, now began to weary of the cares of office.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

.His support of Hamilton's financial plans not only insured a speedy restoration of public credit, but also, and even more important, gave the new government constitutional ground on which to stand; while his firmness in dealing with the "Whisky Insurrection" taught a much-needed and wholesome lesson of respect for the Federal power.^ In the infancy of the republic the foreign relations of the government were deemed more important and excited more interest than internal affairs, and in the management of foreign affairs Jefferson displayed great abilities, which Washington appreciated as much as he did the financial genius of Hamilton.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The still youthful Alexander Hamilton was appointed Secretary of the Treasury; the country owes much to him for its success and prosperity, for he was the one who made the financial plans, without which the government could not exist.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But even that gives the private sector too much credit.

.His official visits to New England in 1789, to Rhode Island in 1790 and to the South in 1791 enabled him to test public opinion at the same time that they increased popular interest in the national government.^ North Carolina – November 21 , 1789 by ratification of the Constitution * Rhode Island – May 29 , 1790 by ratification of the Constitution * Vermont – May 4 , 1791 * Kentucky – June 1 , 1792 * Tennessee – June 1 , 1796 .
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Alarmed at the weaknesses of the new nation under the Articles of Confederation , he presided over the Constitutional Convention that drafted the replacement United States Constitution in 1787 and, in 1789, was the unanimous choice to become the first President of the United States under the new form of government.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was his first aim to expel the enemy from Boston, where they were practically surrounded by the hastily collected militia of New England, full of enthusiasm and confidence in the triumph of their cause.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

.Himself not a political partisan, he held the two natural parties apart, and prevented party contest, until the government had become too firmly established to be shaken by them.^ About this time, two political parties began to form in the United States.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.Perhaps the final result would not in any case have failed, even had "blood and iron" been necessary to bring it about; but the quiet attainment of the result was due to the personality of Washington, as well as to the political sense of the American people.^ Fortunately for America, the conspiracy against Washington failed and the only result was to make his name and fame brighter and more widespread.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington's Farewell Address (Issued as a public letter) was one of the most influential statements of American political values.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Washington Monument , one of the most well-known American landmarks, was built in his honor.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.It would be a great mistake to suppose, however, that the influence of the president was fairly appreciated during his term of office, or that he himself was uniformly respected.^ His decision to relinquish the presidency, after serving two terms in office, became an extra-Constitutional standard that was incorporated formally into the Constitution in 1951.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Leonard D. White, The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History (1948) Washington only reluctantly agreed to serve a second term of office as president.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

Washington seems never to have understood fully either the nature, the significance, or the inevitable necessity of party government in a republic. .Instead, he attempted to balance party against party, selected representatives of opposing political views to serve in his first cabinet, and sought in that way to neutralize the effects of parties.^ He moved with his family to Zanesville where he soon again was in politics, serving before his death in 1831 in both the House of Representatives and the Senate of Ohio.
  • Descendants of George Washington Jackson 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.eg.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The consequence was that the two leading members of the cabinet, Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson, exponents for the most part of diametrically opposite political doctrines, soon occupied the position, to use the words of one of them, of "two game-cocks in a pit." The unconscious drift of Washington's mind was toward the Federalist party; his letters to La Fayette and to Patrick Henry, in December 1798 and January 1799, make that evident even without the record of his earlier career as president. .It is inconceivable that, to a man with his type of mind and his extraordinary experience, the practical sagacity, farsightedness and aggressive courage of the Federalists should not have seemed to embody the best political wisdom, however little he may have been disposed to ally himself with any party group or subscribe to any comprehensive creed.^ His closest advisors, however, became divided into two factions, setting the framework for political parties.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With all this knowledge and experience, with his clear mind and high courage, Washington was the most dangerous foe the British could have.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ George soon showed that he had a practical mind, caring little for poetry and literature.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.Accordingly, when the DemocraticRepublican party came to be formed, about 1793, it was not to be expected that its leaders would long submit with patience to the continual interposition of Washington's name and influence between themselves and their opponents; but they maintained a calm exterior.^ Washington was not a member of any political party, and hoped that they would not be formed.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Between 1776 and 1789 (when George Washington assumed the post of President) the United States was formed, fought a war of independence and had a central government.

^ Through Washington's influence, in December, 1780, Greene was appointed to succeed him; had the chief's advice been followed earlier he would have been sent originally instead of Gates.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

Some of their followers were less discreet. .The president's proclamation of neutrality, in the war between England and France, excited them to anger; his support of Jay's treaty with Great Britain roused them to fury.^ Between 1776 and 1789 (when George Washington assumed the post of President) the United States was formed, fought a war of independence and had a central government.

^ The new President got into such trouble with France that the country was threatened with war.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He attempted to turn popular sentiment towards American involvement in the war against Great Britain .
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

His firmness in thwarting the activities of Edmond Charles Edouard Genet, minister from France, alienated the partisans of France; his suppression of the "Whisky Insurrection" aroused in some the fear of a military despotism. Forged letters, purporting to show his desire to abandon the revolutionary struggle, were published; he was accused of drawing more than his salary; his manners were ridiculed as "aping monarchy"; hints of the propriety of a guillotine for his benefit began to appear; he was spoken of as the "stepfather of his country." The brutal attacks, exceeding in virulence anything that would be tolerated to-day, embittered his presidency, especially during his second term: in 1793 he is reported to have declared, in a cabinet meeting, that "he would rather be in his grave than in his present situation," and that "he had never repented but once the having slipped the moment of resigning his office, and that was every moment since." The most unpleasant portions of Jefferson's Anas are those in which, with an air of psychological dissection, he details the storms of passion into which the president was driven by the newspaper attacks upon him. .There is no reason to believe, however, that these attacks represented the feeling of any save a small minority of the politicians; the people never wavered in their devotion to the president, and his election would have been unanimous in 1796, as in 1792 and 1789, had he been willing to serve.^ But past downturns had very different causes, and there’s no good reason to regard them as good precedents .

^ The fleet sailed away, however, without making an attack and the summer passed in marching troops here and there—calling them out and sending them home again.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet at no time, even when Washington with his small army was flying before Cornwallis across New Jersey, were there grounds of despair.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

.He retired from the presidency in 1797, 1 and returned to Mount Vernon, his journey thither being marked by popular demonstrations of affection and esteem.^ The many cares and hardships Washington had suffered had made him ill and he returned to Mount Vernon, hoping that his military life was over.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He wanted to retire, as he feared that, after another term, he would not be able to carry out his plans for Mount Vernon; but he finally consented.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He's quite busy, working at both Valley Forge and Mount Vernon, the latter gig coming to him after another Washington interpreter retired.
  • What Would George Washington Do? The Guinea Pig Diaries Book Excerpt - Esquire 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.esquire.com [Source type: Original source]

.At Mount Vernon, which had suffered from neglect during his absence, he resumed the plantation life which he loved, the society of his family, and the care of his slaves.^ When hiring workmen for Mount Vernon, he wrote to his agent that he cared not if the workers were Mohammedans, Jews, Christians of any sect, or Atheists, as long as they were good workers.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The many cares and hardships Washington had suffered had made him ill and he returned to Mount Vernon, hoping that his military life was over.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ While minute guns were fired from a warship in the river below, the procession wound along the lovely paths of Mount Vernon to the family tomb on the hillside.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.He had resolved some time before never to obtain another slave, and "wished from his soul" that Virginia could be persuaded to abolish slavery; "it might prevent much future mischief"; but the unprecedented profitableness of the cotton industry, under the impetus of the recently invented cotton gin, had already begun to change public sentiment regarding slavery, and Washington was too old to attempt further innovations.^ Visitors recorded contradictory impressions of slave life at Mount Vernon: one visitor in 1798 wrote that Washington treated his slaves "with more severity" than his neighbors, while another around the same time stated that "Washington treats his slaves far more humanely than do his fellow citizens of Virginia."
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A few months before this, Congress had made some changes in the quartermaster (the officer who attends to supplies) and in the commissary (food) departments, although Washington had opposed the changes.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Before I try to spend a few weeks behaving like George Washington, I figure I'll consult a man whose full-time job is to behave like Washington.
  • What Would George Washington Do? The Guinea Pig Diaries Book Excerpt - Esquire 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.esquire.com [Source type: Original source]

Visitors continued to flock to him, and his correspondence, as always, took a wide range. .In 1798 he was made commanderin-chief of the provisional army raised in anticipation of war with 1 He had previously, under date of the 17th of September 1796, issued a notable "Farewell Address" to the American people.^ Well, actually - as I have previously documented , things would actually change very quickly if enough people started raising a ruckus.

^ Meanwhile, General Lincoln was still held a prisoner of war and the people were very glad when they heard that General Gates, the hero of Saratoga, had been sent to take command of the Southern forces of the American army.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington's Farewell Address (Issued as a public letter) was one of the most influential statements of American political values.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

France, and was fretted almost beyond endurance by the quarrels of Federalist politicians over the distribution of commissions. In the midst of these military preparations he was struck down by sudden illness, which lasted but for a day, and died at Mount. .Vernon on the 14th of December 1799. His disorder was an oedematous affection of the wind-pipe, contracted by exposure during a long ride in a snowstorm, and aggravated by neglect and by such contemporary remedies as bleeding, gargles of "molasses, vinegar and butter" and "vinegar and sage tea," which "almost suffocated him," and a blister of cantharides.^ Washington contracted smallpox during the trip, which left his face slightly scarred, but gave him immunity to the dreaded disease in the future.
  • George Washington at AllExperts 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

on the throat. He died as simply as he had lived; his last words were only business directions, affectionate remembrances to relatives, and repeated apologies to the physicians and attendants. for the trouble he was giving them. Just before he died, says his secretary, Tobias Lear, he felt his own pulse; his countenance changed; the attending physician placed his hands over the eyes of the dying man, "and he expired without a struggle or a sigh." The third of the series of resolutions introduced in the House of Representatives five days after his death, by John Marshall of Virginia, later chief-justice of the Supreme Court, states exactly, if somewhat rhetorically, the position of Washingtion in American history: "first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen." 2 His will contained a provision freeing his slaves, and a request that no oration be pronounced at his funeral. .His remains rest in the family vault at Mount Vernon (q.v.^ While minute guns were fired from a warship in the river below, the procession wound along the lovely paths of Mount Vernon to the family tomb on the hillside.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When “Wakefield” was destroyed, the family lived for a time in a home, later called Mount Vernon, in Fairfax County.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

), which since 1860 has been held by an association, practically as national property.
All contemporary accounts agree that Washington was of imposing presence. He measured just 6 ft. when prepared for burial; but his height in his prime, as given in his orders for clothes from London, was 3 in. more. La Fayette says that his hands were "the largest he ever saw on a man." Custis says that his complexion was "fair, but considerably florid." His weight was about 220 lb. .Evidently it was his extraordinary dignity and poise, forbidding even the suggestion of familiarity, quite as much as his stature, that impressed those who knew him.^ Some suggest he even knew it was over at the time...
  • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

^ Those who were with him constantly say that he never spoke of himself and never referred to any of his battles.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He wrote to Congress, giving a full account of how he had been annoyed and hindered by those who should have helped him.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

The various and widely-differing portraits of him find exhaustive treatment in the seventh volume of Justin Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of America. Winsor thinks that "the favourite profile has been unquestionably Houdon's, with Gilbert Stuart's canvas for the full face, and probably John Trumbull's for the figure." Stuart's face, however, with its calm and benign expression, has fixed the popular notion of Washington.
.Washington was childless: the people of his time said he was the father only of his country.^ What country can preserve its liberties if their rulers are not warned from time to time that their people preserve the spirit of resistance.

^ The people followed him to his door, where, with tears in his eyes, the “Father of his Country” waved farewell to them and to all beloved citizens of the nation.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington said they had God's help in “laying the foundation for tranquillity and happiness.” The people accepted the Constitution and turned to Washington for their first President.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

Collateral branches of the family have given the Lees, the Custises, and other families a. claim to an infusion of the blood.

Bibliography

A complete bibliography of books relating to Washington would be very voluminous. .The best edition of his Writings is that of W. C. Ford (14 vols., New York, 1889-1893).^ At best, Washington's army was too small to strongly fortify any one place about New York.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It's the first day of my experiment, and I'm doing my best to walk around New York like George Washington.
  • What Would George Washington Do? The Guinea Pig Diaries Book Excerpt - Esquire 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.esquire.com [Source type: Original source]

Sparks's edition (12 vols., Boston, 1837) has in the main been superseded, though it contains some papers not included by Ford, and the Life, which comprises vol. i., still has value. J. D. Richardson's Messages and Papers of the Presidents (vol. i., Washington, 1896) collects the presidential messages and proclamations, with a few omissions. A descriptive list of biographies and biographical sketches is given in W. S. Baker's Bibliotheca Washingtoniana (Philadelphia, 1889). The most important lives are those of John Marshall (Philadelphia, 1804-1807), David Ramsay (New York, 2807), Washington Irving (New York, 1855-1859), E. E. Hale (New York, 1888), H. C. Lodge (Boston, 1889; rev. ed., 1898), B. T. Thayer (New York, 1894) and Woodrow Wilson (New York, 1897). .Valuable for their presentation of differing aspects of Washington's career are: W. S. Baker's Itinerary of Washington (Philadelphia, 1892), H. B. Carrington's Washington the Soldier (New York, 1899), G. W. P. Custis's Recollections and Private Memoirs of Washington (New York, 1860), P. L. Ford's True George Washington (Philadelphia, 1896) and R. Rush's Washington in Domestic Life (Philadelphia 1857).^ Through all his life, George Washington was a true gentleman.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Lafayette, who was in Virginia, sent word to Washington that the British troops had landed at Yorktown (instead of going to New York), and that Cornwallis was strongly fortified there.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After the Battle of Monmouth, Clinton took up his quarters in New York and Washington remained in New Jersey.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.The larger comprehensive histories of the United States by Bancroft, Hildreth, Winsor, McMaster, Von Holst, Schouler and Avery, the biographies in the "American Statesmen" series, and Hart's "American Natioh" series, are indispensable.^ I'm guessing by "American" you meant "the United States of America" in which case your title becomes redundant.
  • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

^ But the example that comes closest to the situation facing the United States today is that of Japan after its late-80s bubble burst, leaving serious debt problems behind.

^ After four months of careful consideration and labor, they offered to the American people the glorious Constitution, upon which has been built up the great Republic of the United States.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.There is an interesting attempt to make a composite portrait of Washington in Science (December 1885).^ Washington, who always admired courageous deeds, allowed him to make the attempt.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

(W.MAcD.
This characterization originated with Henry Lee.


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010
(Redirected to George Washington (1732-1799) article)

From Familypedia

George Washington 
Birth February 22, 1732 in Westmoreland County, Virginia
Death: December 14, 1799 in Virginia
Father: Augustine Washington (c1694-1743)
Mother: Mary Ball (1708-1789)
Skill(s): Farmer (Plantation),General
Wife: Martha Dandridge (1731-1802)
Wedding: 1759
Sex:
AFN # 8MRB-0B
Signature:
Edit facts
George Washington
George married Martha Dandridge 6 January 1759 at St. Peter's Church in New Kent County.
.First President of the United States, Commander in Chief in the American Revolution.^ Social Studies concepts: The Revolutionary War; beginning of the United States; George Washington as the first President.
  • President's Day: George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC www.everythingesl.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ George Washington was a large slaveholder in Virginia (as well as the first president of the United States).
  • LEARN NC: Search results 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.learnnc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ George Washington was great because he was the first president of the United States.
  • George Washington 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

Siblings

Offspring

No offspring.

Ancestors

Four Generation Pedigree
Self
Parents
Grandparents
Great-grandparents
George Washignton Augustine Washington Lawrence Washington John Washington
Anne Pope (1635-1668)
Mildred Warner Augustine Warner II
Mildred Read)
Mary Ball Joseph Ball
Mary Johnson

Gallery

Biography

.For a detailed biography, see the Biography tab.^ II, pp.452-3] And it is possible to look into the details of Washington's biography and see what might have been made of him for a modern America.
  • George Washington 11 January 2010 4:51 UTC etymonline.com [Source type: Original source]

References

References

  1. Charlemagne´s Descendants. http://www.geocities.com/Heartland/Cottage/3610/Charlemagne/Charlemagne.htm.
  2. RootsWeb search
Facts about George Washington (1732-1799)RDF feed
Age at death 67  +
Age father at birth 38  +
Birth blurb
 in  Westmoreland County, Virginia
, and
<span >February 22, 1732</span>
Birth county Westmoreland County  +
Birth date 22 February 1732  +
Birth day 22  +
Birth month 2  +
Birth nation-subdiv1 Virginia  +
Birth place
 in  Westmoreland County, Virginia
Birth year 1732  +
Death blurb
 in   Virginia
, and
<span >December 14, 1799</span>
Death date 14 December 1799  +
Death day 14  +
Death month 12  +
Death nation-subdiv1 Virginia  +
Death place
 in   Virginia
Death year 1799  +
Description
'''George Washington''' (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799) Before becoming one of the major founding fathers of the nation, as well as president, Washington led the Continental Army to victory over the Kingdom of Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783).
Familysearch afn 8MRB-0B  +
Father Augustine Washington (c1694-1743)  +
Full name George Washington  +
Given name George  +
Ifmarried-g1 true  +
Image George-Washington.jpg  +
Joined with Martha Dandridge (1731-1802)  +
Joined with-g1 Martha Dandridge (1731-1802)  +, and Martha Dandridge (1731-1802)  +
Mother Mary Ball (1708-1789)  +
Number of descendants 0  +
Sex M  +
Short name George Washington  +
Signature George Washington Signature.png  +
Skills Farmer (Plantation)  +, and General  +
Sources
*Wikipedia article: George Washington
Surname Washington  +
Wedding1 date 1759  +
Wedding1 year 1759  +

This article uses material from the "George Washington (1732-1799)" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

George Washington

In office
April 30, 1789 – March 3, 1797
Vice President John Adams
Succeeded by John Adams

Born February 22 1732
Westmoreland County, Virginia, British America
Died December 14, 1799 (aged 67)
Mount Vernon, Virginia, USA
Nationality American
Political party None (1789-93) none (1793-1797)
Spouse Martha Custis Washington
Religion Episcopalian
Height 6 ft 2 in (188 cm)

George Washington (February 22, 1732[1][2][3]December 14, 1799) was the first President of the United States from 1789 to 1797. He was also the commander in chief of all American forces during the American Revolutionary War.[4] For his central role in the beginning of the United States, he is often called the father of his country.[5][6] Other revolutionaries around the world have modeled themselves after what he was.

Contents

Early years

His mother was Mary Ball and his father was Augustine Washington. They were teachers at the local university. They lived in Virginia. As a child, Washington did not attend school for very long.

There is a nice but untrue story that Washington cut down his father's cherry tree. When asked, he did not lie and said that he did cut down the tree. This story is supposed to show that Washington was honest. The funny thing is that the story is not honest because it was made up by Parson Weemes in the first biography written about Washington.[7]

Before the Revolutionary War

Washington was a farmer like his father. His large farm, or plantation, was called Mount Vernon. He also worked as a surveyor, someone who measures land.

Washington began his army career during the French and Indian War. He first was a messenger for Virginia. He later led troops against the French. The British did not think soldiers from the colonies were as good as they were, so Washington went home and started to farm again.

In 1759, Washington married Martha Custis Washington. They did not have any children.

The Revolution

See also: American Revolutionary War

Washington was a delegate to the First Continental Congress, which was created by the Thirteen Colonies to respond to various laws passed by the British government. Washington was chosen by the Second Continental Congress to be the commanding general of the Continental Army. Washington led the army from 1775 until the end of the war in 1783.

Washington is noted for leading troops across the Delaware River on Christmas Day, 1777, in a surprise attack on German mercenaries at Trenton, New Jersey. The British had more troops and more supplies than Washington. However, Washington kept his troops together.

Overall, Washington did not win many battles, but he never let the British destroy his army. With the help of the French navy, Washington made a British army surrender at Yorktown, Virginia in 1781. The war officially ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1783.

After the war

When the Revolutionary war ended, Washington was a national hero. He was offered what would basically be a dictatorship over the colonies. In a move that surprised everyone, however, Washington said no and went home to Mount Vernon. He wanted the colonies to have a strong government, but was tired of leading.

A few years later, Washington was called over to host the discussions for the new government. He was voted president of the Constitutional Convention in 1785. Washington wanted the states to ratify the Constitution of the United States and they did.
File:Washington (3).jpg
Lansdowne portrait of President George Washington

Presidency

In 1789, Washington was elected president without any competition. Washington was the first President of the United States. Washington helped the government get started. While Washington did not belong to any political party and stayed neutral, he agreed with Federalist policies such as the country having a standing army and a national bank. He was re-elected to a second term. In his farewell address, he warned the country not to divide into political parties and to not get involved in European wars.

File:Washington
George Washington overseeing slaves during harvest time on his plantation

Retirement

Washington went back home to Mount Vernon after his second term ended in 1797. He died on December 14, 1799, in Mount Vernon at the age of 67. He was the only leader of the early United States who decided in his will that his slaves were to be freed once he himself and his wife had died. Washington, D.C. and the state of Washington are named after him. He is on the one dollar bill and the quarter coin.

Wooden teeth?

Many people think George Washington had wooden teeth, but this is not true. He tried many different ways to replace his teeth, though: for instance, he tried having teeth carved from elk's teeth or ivory.[8][9] George Washington's teeth started falling out when he was about 22, and he had only one tooth left by the time he became president.[8][9] It was hard to talk and hard to eat. At one time, he had fake teeth with a special hole so that the one tooth he still had could poke through;[8][9] he tried to keep them smelling clean by soaking them in wine, but instead they just became mushy and black.[8][9] In 1796, a dentist had to pull out George Washington's last tooth, and he kept his tooth in a gold locket attached to his watch chain.[8] When the time came for the president to have his portrait painted, cotton was pushed under his lips to make him look as if he had teeth.[8][9] But the cotton made his mouth puff out too far, as is seen on the picture on the dollar bill.[9]

References

  1. Engber, Daniel (2006).What's Benjamin Franklin's Birthday?. (Both Franklin's and Washington's confusing birth dates are clearly explained.) Retrieved on June 17, 2009.
  2. The birth and death of George Washington are given using the Gregorian calendar. However, he was born when Britain and her colonies still used the Julian calendar, so contemporary records record his birth as February 11, 1731. The provisions of the Calendar (New Style) Act 1750, implemented in 1752, altered the official British dating method to the Gregorian calendar with the start of the year on January 1.
  3. "Image of page from family Bible". Papers of George Washington. http://gwpapers.virginia.edu/project/faq/bible.html. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  4. Under the Articles of Confederation Congress called its presiding officer "President of the United States in Congress Assembled". He had no executive powers, but the similarity of titles has confused people into thinking there were other presidents before Washington. Merrill Jensen, The Articles of Confederation (1959), 178–9
  5. "George Washington". Library of Congress. http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/aa/wash. Retrieved June 27, 2009. 
  6. "Rediscovering George Washington". Public Broadcasting Service. http://www.pbs.org/georgewashington/father/index.html. Retrieved June 27, 2009. 
  7. Mitnick, Barbara J.; Ayres, William S. (1999). George Washington: American symbol. Hudson Hills. p. 72. ISBN 9781555951481. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=eLxsfeV43-wC&pg=RA1-PA72&dq=%22Parson+Weems%22+washington&lr=&cd=17#v=onepage&q=cherry%20washington&f=false. Retrieved 31 January 2010. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Felton, Bruce. One of a Kind. New York: William Morrow and Co., 1992
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 Gray, Ralph, ed. Small Inventions That Make a Big Difference. Washington, D.C.: The National Geographic Society, 1984
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Up to date as of December 09, 2010

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