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State of Georgia
Flag of Georgia State seal of Georgia
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): Peach State;
Empire State of the South
Motto(s): Wisdom, Justice, Moderation
before statehood, known as
the Province of Georgia
Map of the United States with Georgia highlighted
Official language(s) English
Demonym Georgian
Capital Atlanta
Largest city Atlanta
Largest metro area Atlanta metro area
Area  Ranked 24th in the US
 - Total 59,425 sq mi
(153,909 km2)
 - Width 230 miles (370 km)
 - Length 298 miles (480 km)
 - % water 2.6
 - Latitude 30.356 - 34.985° N
 - Longitude 80.840 - 85.605° W
Population  Ranked 9th in the US
 - Total 9,829,211 (2009 est.)[1]
8,186,453 (2000)
 - Density 141.4/sq mi  (54.59/km2)
Ranked 18th in the US
 - Median income  $43,217 (28th)
Elevation  
 - Highest point Brasstown Bald[2]
4,784 ft  (1,458 m)
 - Mean 591 ft  (180 m)
 - Lowest point Atlantic Ocean[2]
0 ft  (0 m)
Admission to Union  January 2, 1788 (4th)
Governor Sonny Perdue (R)
Lieutenant Governor Casey Cagle (R)
U.S. Senators Saxby Chambliss (R)
Johnny Isakson (R)
U.S. House delegation 7 Republicans, 6 Democrats (list)
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Abbreviations GA US-GA
Website http://www.georgia.gov

Georgia (Listeni /ˈɔrə/) is a state in the southeastern United States. One of the original Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution, it had been the last of the Thirteen Colonies to be established, in 1733. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. It declared its secession from the Union on January 21, 1861 and was one of the original seven Confederate states. It was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. With an estimated 9,829,211 residents as of July 1, 2009, Georgia is the ninth most populous state.[1] From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas.[3] Georgia is known as the Peach State and the Empire State of the South. Atlanta is the capital and the most populous city.

Georgia is bordered on the south by Florida; on the east by the Atlantic Ocean and South Carolina; on the west by Alabama and by Florida in the extreme southwest; and on the north by Tennessee and North Carolina. The northern part of the state is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, a mountain range in the vast Appalachian Mountains system. The central piedmont extends from the foothills to the fall line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the continental coastal plain of the southern part of the state. The highest point in Georgia is Brasstown Bald, 4,784 feet (1,458 m); the lowest point is sea level.

With an area of 59,425 square miles (153,909 km2), Georgia is ranked 24th in size among the 50 U.S. states. Georgia is the largest state east of the Mississippi River in terms of land area, although it is the fourth largest (after Michigan, Florida, and Wisconsin) in total area, a term which includes expanses of water which are part of state territory.[4]

Contents

Boundaries

Beginning from the Atlantic Ocean, the state's eastern border with South Carolina runs up the Savannah River, northwest to its origin at the confluence of the Tugaloo and Seneca Rivers. It then continues up the Tugaloo (originally Tugalo) and into the Chattanooga River, its most significant tributary. These bounds were decided in the 1797 Treaty of Beaufort, and tested in the U.S. Supreme Court in the two Georgia v. South Carolina cases in 1923 and 1989.

The border then takes a sharp turn around the tip of Rabun County, at latitude 35°N, though from this point it diverges slightly south (due to inaccuracies in the original survey). This originally was the Georgia and North Carolina border all the way back to the Mississippi River, until Tennessee was divided from North Carolina, and Alabama and Mississippi (the Yazoo lands) were taken from Georgia.

The state's western border then departs in another straight line south-southeastward, at a point southwest of Chattanooga, to meet the westernmost point of the Chattahoochee River near West Point, Georgia. It continues down to the point where it ends at the Flint River (the confluence of the two forming Florida's Apalachicola River), and goes almost due east and very slightly south, in a straight line to the origin of the St. Mary's River, which then forms the remainder of the boundary back to the ocean.

It should be noted that the water boundaries are still set to be the original thalweg of the rivers. Since then, several have been inundated by lakes created by dams, including the Apalachicola/Chattahoochee/Flint point now under Lake Seminole.

Georgia state legislators have claimed that the state's border with Tennessee has been erroneously placed one mile (1.6 km) further south than intended in an 1818 survey, and proposed that the border should be corrected. This would allow Georgia, in the midst of a significant drought, to access water from the Tennessee River.[5]

Geology and terrain

Map of elevations in Georgia

Each region has its own distinctive characteristics. For instance, the Ridge and Valley, which lies in the northwest corner of the state, includes limestone, sandstone, shale and other sedimentary rocks, which have yielded construction-grade limestone, barite, ocher and small amounts of coal.

Flora and fauna

Georgia has a diverse mix of flora and fauna. The State of Georgia has approximately 250 tree species and 58 protected plants. Georgia's native trees include red cedar, a variety of pines, oaks, maples, cypress, sweetgum and scaly-bark and white hickories, as well as many others. Palmettos and other subtropical flora are found in the southern and coastal regions. Yellow jasmine, and mountain laurel make up just a few of the flowering shrubs in the state.

Regarding fauna, white-tailed (Virginia) deer can be found in nearly all counties. The mockingbird and Brown Thrasher are just two of the 160 bird species that can be found in the state. Here can be found the eastern diamondback, copperhead, and cottonmouth as well as salamanders, frogs, alligators and toads. They are among 79 species of reptile and 63 amphibians here. The most popular freshwater game fish are trout, bream, bass, and catfish, all but the last of which are produced in state hatcheries for restocking. Popular saltwater game fish include red drum, spotted seatrout, flounder, and tarpon, among many others. Porpoises, whales, shrimp, oysters, and blue crabs are found inshore and offshore of the Georgia coast.[6]

Climate

Map of Georgia

The majority of Georgia is primarily a humid subtropical climate tempered somewhat by occasional polar air masses in the winter. Hot and humid summers are typical, except at the highest elevations. The entire state, including the north Georgia mountains, receives moderate to heavy precipitation, which varies from 45 inches (1143 mm) in central Georgia[7] to approximately 75 inches (1905 mm) around the Northeast part of the state.[8] The degree to which the weather of a certain region of Georgia is subtropical depends not just on the latitude, but also on how close it is to the Atlantic Ocean or Gulf of Mexico and the elevation. This is especially true in the mountainous areas in the northern part of the state, which are further away from the ocean and can be up to 4500 feet (1350 m) or higher above sea level.

Georgia has occasional extreme weather. The highest temperature ever recorded is 112 °F (44.4 °C),[9] while the lowest ever recorded is -17 °F (-27.2 °C).[10] Georgia is one of the leading states in occurrences of tornadoes, though they rarely are stronger than F0 and F1. A tornado hit downtown Atlanta on Friday, 14 March 2008 causing moderate to severe damage due to all the broken glass on the skyscrapers. The SEC basketball tournament and a few conventions were ongoing at the time of impact and some injuries occurred due to the amount of people downtown. As it is on the Atlantic coast, Georgia is also vulnerable to hurricanes, although direct hurricane strikes were rare during the 20th century. However, historical evidence suggests that direct strikes are more common than realized. Georgia often is affected by hurricanes which strike the Florida panhandle, weaken over land, and bring strong tropical storm winds and heavy rain to the Georgia interior, as well as hurricanes that come close to the Georgia coastline, brushing the coast on their recurvature on the way up to hit The Carolinas.

In 2006 and 2007, however, Georgia had severe droughts. Temperatures over 100 °F (38 °C) have been recorded.[citation needed]

Monthly average daily high and low temperatures for major Georgia cities
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Athens 51/11
33/1
56/13
35/2
65/18
42/6
73/23
49/9
80/27
58/14
87/31
65/18
90/32
69/21
88/31
68/20
82/28
63/17
73/23
51/11
63/17
42/6
54/12
35/2
Atlanta 52/11
34/1
57/14
36/2
65/18
44/7
73/23
50/10
80/27
60/16
86/30
67/19
89/32
71/22
88/31
70/21
82/28
64/18
73/23
53/12
63/17
44/7
55/13
36/2
Augusta 56/13
33/1
61/16
36/4
69/21
42/6
77/25
48/9
84/29
57/14
90/32
65/18
92/33
70/21
90/32
68/20
85/29
62/17
76/24
50/10
68/20
41/5
59/15
35/2
Columbus 57/14
37/3
62/17
39/4
69/21
46/8
76/24
52/11
83/28
61/16
90/32
69/21
92/33
72/22
91/32
72/22
86/30
66/19
77/25
54/12
68/20
46/8
59/15
39/4
Macon 57/14
34/1
61/16
37/3
68/20
44/7
76/24
50/10
83/28
59/15
90/32
67/19
92/33
70/21
90/32
70/21
85/29
64/18
77/25
51/11
68/20
42/6
59/15
36/2
Savannah 60/16
38/3
64/18
41/5
71/22
48/9
78/26
53/12
84/29
61/16
90/32
68/20
92/33
72/22
90/32
71/22
86/30
67/19
78/26
56/13
70/21
47/8
63/17
40/4
Temperatures are given in °F/°C format, with highs on top of lows.[11]

Protected lands

There are 63 parks in Georgia, 48 of which are state parks and 15 that are historic sites, and numerous state wildlife preserves, under the supervision of the Georgia Department of Natural Resources.[12] Other historic sites and parks are supervised by the National Park Service and include the Andersonville National Historic Site in Andersonville; Appalachian National Scenic Trail; Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area near Atlanta; Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park at Fort Oglethorpe; Cumberland Island National Seashore near St. Marys; Fort Frederica National Monument on St. Simons Island; Fort Pulaski National Monument in Savannah; Jimmy Carter National Historic Site near Plains; Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park near Kennesaw; Martin Luther King, Jr., National Historic Site in Atlanta; Ocmulgee National Monument at Macon; Trail of Tears National Historic Trail.Okefeenokee SwampWaycross, Georgia[13]

History

Early history

Yamacraw Creek Native Americans meet with the Trustee of the colony of Georgia in England, July 1734, Notice the Native American boy (in a blue coat) and woman (in a red dress) in European clothing.

The local moundbuilder culture, described by Hernando de Soto in 1540, completely disappeared by 1560. Early on, in the course of European exploration of the area, a number of Spanish explorers visited the inland region of Georgia.

The conflict between Spain and England over control of Georgia began in earnest in about 1670, when the English founded the Carolina colony in present-day South Carolina. Nearly a century earlier, the Spanish of Spanish Florida had established the missionary provinces of Guale and Mocama on the coast and Sea Islands of present-day Georgia. After decades of fighting, the Carolinians and allied Indians permanently destroyed the Spanish mission system during the invasions of 1702 and 1704. After 1704, Spanish control was limited to St. Augustine and Pensacola, both in present-day Florida. The Florida peninsula was subjected to raids as far as the Florida Keys. The coast of Georgia was occupied by now British-allied Indians such as the Yamasee until the Yamasee War of 1715-1717, after which the region was depopulated, opening up the possibility of a new British colony. In 1724, it was first suggested the British colony there be called Province of Georgia in honor of King George II.

British interest in establishing a colony below South Carolina came from varied sources. Spanish Florida was a threat to South Carolina and a haven for runaway slaves. The French in the 1720s established a fort near present-day Montgomery, Alabama, also a threat to British interests in the region. Traders from Charleston, South Carolina, had established trading posts as far west as the Ocmulgee River, near present-day Macon, Georgia. The British trading network kept the Creek Indians allied with them; the French move threatened to wrest these Indians' trade away from the British. These strategic interests made the British government interested in establishing a new colony that would reinforce the British influence in the border country that had been open to Spanish and French penetration.

Meanwhile, many members of the British Parliament had become concerned about the plight of Britain's debtors. A parliamentary committee investigated and reported on conditions in Britain's debtor prisons. A group of philanthropists organized themselves to establish a colony where the "worthy poor" of Britain could reestablish themselves as productive citizens. This goal was seen as both philanthropic, helping these distressed people, and patriotic, simultaneously relieving Britain of the burden of the imprisoned debtors and augmenting Britain's vital mercantile empire by planting new, industrious subjects to strengthen her trade. This goal went unfulfilled as Georgia was ultimately not settled by debtors or convicts.[citation needed]

In 1732, a group of these philanthropists were granted a royal charter as the Trustees of the Province of Georgia. They carefully selected the first group of colonists to send to the new colony. On 12 February 1733, 113 settlers aboard the Anne landed at what was to become the city of Savannah. This day is now known as Georgia Day, which is not a public holiday but is observed in schools and by some local civic groups. James Oglethorpe, one of the trustees of the colony, traveled with the first group of colonists, laid out the design of the town of Savannah, and acted as governor of the colony, although technically under the trustees there was no "governor." Oglethorpe acted as the only trustee present in the colony. When he returned to Britain, a series of disputes ended his tenure governing the colony; Georgia was then led by a series of presidents named by the trustees.

At the time Georgia was founded in 1732, the number of non-English immigrants to the colonies was at an all time high. Although religious toleration was not valued in itself, the pragmatic need to attract settlers led to broad religious freedoms. South Carolina wanted German Lutherans, Scottish Presbyterians, Moravians, French Huguenots and Jews, whom they valued as a counter to the French and Spanish Catholic and absolutist presence to the south. When the Moravians turned out to be pacifists who refused to serve in the colonial defense, they were expelled in 1738. Catholics were denied the right to own property. Jewish immigrants fleeing the Spanish Inquisition, which was being carried out by the Spanish colonies in the New World, were allowed in after some debate, owing to the leadership of James Oglethorpe. In 1733, over forty Jews fleeing persecution arrived in Savannah, the largest such group to enter an American colony up to that time. Among them was Dr. Samuel Nunez, who was the first doctor in Georgia. He immediately showed his value as a citizen by playing an invaluable role in curbing an epidemic that had already killed scores of settlers, and was credited with saving the colony by General Oglethorpe.[14]

In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king.[15] However, even after Georgia eventually became a royal colony (1752), there were so many dissenters (Protestants of minority denominations, that is, non-Anglican) that the establishment of the Church of England was successfully resisted until 1752. These dissenting churches were the mainstay of the Revolutionary movement, culminating in the War for Independence from Britain, through the patriotic and anti-authoritarian sermons of their ministers, and the use of the churches to organize rebellion. Whereas the Anglican Church tended to preach stability and loyalty to the Crown, other Protestant sects preached heavily from the Old Testament and emphasized freedom and equality of all men before God, as well as the moral responsibility to rebel against tyrants.[16]

Revolutionary War history

Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence, despite a large population of people loyal to the crown. Since Georgia was a relatively new colony at the time compared to the other twelve colonies, Georgia was not as active in the war. Also, the Georgian militia was not fully developed, which led to the capture of Savannah by British forces in December 1778. American forces under the command of General Benjamin Lincoln combined with French forces under the command of Charles Henri Comte d’Estaing to lay siege to Savannah in 1779. The attempt was incredibly unsuccessful, and Savannah remained in British hands until the end of the war. During the war, nearly one-third of the slaves, more than 5,000 enslaved African Americans, exercised their desire for independence by escaping and joining British forces, where they were promised freedom. Some went to Great Britain or the Caribbean; others were resettled in Canada provinces.[17] Other estimates show an even greater impact from the war, when slaves escaped during the disruption. "The sharp decline between 1770 and 1790 in the proportion of the population made up of blacks (almost all of whom were slaves) [went] from 45.2 percent to 36.1 percent in Georgia."[18]

Following the war, Georgia became the fourth state of the United States of America after ratifying the United States Constitution on 2 January 1788. Georgia established its first state constitution in 1777. The state established new constitutions in 1788, 1799, 1861, 1865, 1868, 1877, 1945, 1976, and 1983, for a total of 10 — more constitutions than any other state, except for Louisiana, which has had 11.

In 1829, gold was discovered in the north Georgia mountains, resulting in the Georgia Gold Rush, the first gold rush in U.S. history. A Federal mint was established in Dahlonega, Georgia and continued to operate until 1861. An influx of white settlers pressured the U.S. government to take the land away from the Cherokee Indians, who operated their own government with a written constitution, and did not recognize the authority of the state of Georgia.

The dispute culminated in the Indian Removal Act of 1830, under which all eastern tribes were sent west to Indian reservations in present-day Oklahoma. In Worcester v. Georgia, the Supreme Court in 1832 ruled that states were not permitted to redraw the boundaries of Indian lands, but President Andrew Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren dispatched federal troops to round up the Cherokee and deport them west of the Mississippi. This forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees.

Confederate history

On January 18, 1861, Georgia joined the Confederacy and became a major theater of the American Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, and Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. This event served as the historical background for the 1936 novel Gone with the Wind and the 1939 film of the same name. On July 15, 1870, following Reconstruction, Georgia became the last former Confederate state to be reseated in Congress and restored to the Union. On April 29, 2009, Governor Sonny Perdue signed into law a bill that will make April Confederate History and Heritage month in the state.[19]

Capitals

Georgia has had five official state capitals: colonial Savannah, which later alternated with Augusta; then for a decade at Louisville (pronounced Lewis-ville); and from 1806 through 1868, including during the American Civil War, at Milledgeville. In 1868, the capital was moved to the new city of Atlanta — one with a better access by railroad — and it became the fifth capital city of the state. It remains so to the present. The state legislature also met at some other temporary sites, including Macon, especially during the turmoil of the War.

Cities

Largest cities, 2008

On July 1, 2009, the US Census Bureau released 2008 estimates for Georgia's twelve cities with populations above 50,000.

Largest metro areas, 2008

On July 1, 2009, the US Census Bureau also released 2008 estimates for Georgia's twenty Metropolitan Statistical Areas and Micropolitan Statistical Areas with populations above 50,000. In descending order, they are:

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1790 82,548
1800 162,686 97.1%
1810 251,407 54.5%
1820 340,989 35.6%
1830 516,823 51.6%
1840 691,392 33.8%
1850 906,185 31.1%
1860 1,057,286 16.7%
1870 1,184,109 12.0%
1880 1,542,181 30.2%
1890 1,837,353 19.1%
1900 2,216,331 20.6%
1910 2,609,121 17.7%
1920 2,895,832 11.0%
1930 2,908,506 0.4%
1940 3,123,723 7.4%
1950 3,444,578 10.3%
1960 3,943,116 14.5%
1970 4,589,575 16.4%
1980 5,463,105 19.0%
1990 6,478,216 18.6%
2000 8,186,453 26.4%
Est. 2009[1] 9,829,211 20.1%

In 2007, Georgia had an estimated population of 9,544,750 which was an increase of 180,809 from the previous year, and an increase of 1,177,125 since 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 438,939 people (that is 849,414 births minus 410,475 deaths) and an increase from net migration of 606,673 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 228,415 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 378,258 people.

The state stood sixth in the country for illegal immigrants. There were 35,000 in 1990; the count more than doubled from January 2000 to January 2009, at 480,000.[21]

There were 743,000 veterans in 2009.[22]

Georgia population density map.

Race, language, and age

Demographics of Georgia (csv)
By race White Black AIAN* Asian NHPI*
2000 (total population) 68.34% 29.38% 0.66% 2.46% 0.12%
2000 (Hispanic only) 4.82% 0.39% 0.10% 0.05% 0.03%
2005 (total population) 67.00% 30.29% 0.67% 3.01% 0.14%
2005 (Hispanic only) 6.57% 0.43% 0.12% 0.07% 0.04%
Growth 2000–05 (total population) 8.65% 14.23% 11.72% 36.02% 25.41%
Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) 5.43% 14.12% 7.43% 35.82% 21.99%
Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) 50.99% 22.30% 36.34% 45.53% 36.55%
* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

According to the U.S. census, Georgia's population is as follows: 65% White, 30% Black, 2.8% Asian American, 1.2% multiracial, 0.7% American Indian or Alaskan Native, and 0.1% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander.[23] Additionally, 7% are of Hispanic or Latino descent (of any race).[24]

As of 2005, 90% of Georgia residents age 5 and older speak only English at home and 5.6% speak Spanish. French is the third most spoken language at 0.9%, followed by German at 0.8% and Vietnamese at 0.6%. As of 2004, 7.7% of its population was reported as under 5 years of age, 26.4% under 18, and 9.6% were 65 or older. Also as of 2004, females made up approximately 50.6% of the population and African Americans made up approximately 29.6%.

Historically, about half of Georgia's population was composed of African Americans who, prior to the Civil War, were almost exclusively enslaved. The Great Migration of hundreds of thousands of blacks from the rural South to the industrial North from 1914-1970 reduced the African American population. This population has since increased, with some African Americans returning to the state for new job opportunities.[25] Today, African Americans remain the most populous race in many rural counties in middle, east-central, southwestern, and Low Country Georgia, as well as in the city of Atlanta and its southern suburbs. According to census estimates, Georgia ranks third among the states in terms of the percent of the total population that is African American (after Mississippi and Louisiana) and third in numerical Black population after New York and Florida. Georgia was the state with the largest numerical increase in the black population from 2006 to 2007 with 84,000.[26]

Georgia is the state with the third-lowest percentage of older people (65 or older), at 9.9 percent.[27]

The colonial settlement of large numbers of Scotch-Irish Americans in the mountains and piedmont, and coastal settlement by English Americans and African Americans, have strongly influenced the state's culture in food, language and music.

The concentration of Africans imported to coastal areas in the 18th century repeatedly from rice growing regions of West Africa led to the development of Gullah-Geechee language and culture in the Low Country among African Americans. They share a unique heritage in which African traditions of food, religion and culture were continued more than in some other areas. In the creolization of Southern culture, their foodways became an integral part of all Southern cooking in the Low Country.[28]

Georgia had the second fastest growing Asian population growth in the U.S. from 1990 to 2000, more than doubling in size during the ten-year period. [4]

Religion

Like most other Southern states, Georgia is largely Protestant Christian. The religious affiliations of the people of Georgia are as follows:[29]

Georgia shares its Protestant heritage with much of the Southeastern United States.

The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2000 were the Southern Baptist Convention with 1,719,484; the United Methodist Church with 570,674; and the Catholic Church with 374,185.[30]

Economy

A Georgia U.S. quarter
Savannah's River Street is a popular destination among tourists visiting coastal Georgia.
Map showing land use in Georgia

Georgia's 2007 total gross state product was $396 billion.[31] Its Per Capita personal income for 2007 puts it 37th in the nation at $33,499. If Georgia were a stand-alone country, it would be the 28th largest economy in the world.[32]

There are 15 Fortune 500 companies and 26 Fortune 1000 companies with headquarters in Georgia, including such names as Home Depot, UPS, Coca Cola, Delta Air Lines, AFLAC, Southern Company, and SunTrust Banks. Georgia has over 1,700 internationally headquartered facilities representing 43 countries, employing more than 112,000 Georgians with an estimated capital investment of $22.7 billion.

Agriculture and industry

Georgia's agricultural outputs are poultry and eggs, pecans, peaches, peanuts, rye, cattle, hogs, dairy products, turfgrass, tobacco, and vegetables. Its industrial outputs are textiles and apparel, transportation equipment, cigarettes, food processing, paper products, chemical products, electric equipment. Tourism also makes an important contribution to the economy. (Elberton) is the Granite Capital of the World.[citation needed] Atlanta has been the site of enormous growth in real estate, service, and communications industries.

Atlanta has a very large effect on the state of Georgia and the Southeastern United States. The city is an ever growing addition to communications, industry, transportation, tourism, and government.

Food is also a major industry in Georgia, with widespread farms producing peanuts, corn, and soybeans across middle and south Georgia. The state is the number one producer of pecans in the world, with the region around Albany in southwest Georgia being the center of Georgia's pecan production. Gainesville in northeast Georgia touts itself as the Poultry Capital of the World.

Industry in Georgia is quite diverse. Major products in the mineral and timber industry include a variety of pines, clays, stones, and sands. The clay palygorskite, known as attapulgite, was named because of its abundance near the Decatur County town of Attapulgus in the deep southwest corner of the state. Attapulgite has numerous medical, cosmetic, and industrial uses. Textile industry is located around the cities of Rome, Columbus, Augusta, Macon and along the I-75 corridor between Atlanta and Chattanooga, Tennessee to include the towns of Cartersville, Calhoun, Ringgold, and Dalton (the Carpet Capital of the World).

With its great population base and location along major transportation routes, Atlanta is a leading center of tourism, transportation, communications, government, and industry. Some industries there include automobile and aircraft manufacturing, food and chemical processing, printing, publishing, and large corporations. Some of the corporations headquartered in the metropolitan Atlanta area are: Arby's, Chick-fil-A, The Coca-Cola Company, Georgia-Pacific, Hooters, ING Americas, Cox Enterprises, Delta Air Lines, The Home Depot, Newell Rubbermaid, Primerica Financial Services, United Parcel Service, Waffle House, and NCR Corporation. Major corporations in other parts of the state include: Aflac, CareSouth, Gulfstream Aerospace, Mohawk Industries, and Zaxby's.

Georgia has one of the strongest military presence in the country. Several United States military installations are located in the state including Fort Stewart, Hunter Army Airfield, Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Fort Benning, Moody Air Force Base, Robins Air Force Base, Naval Air Station Atlanta, Fort McPherson, Fort Gillem, Fort Gordon, Marine Corps Logistics Base Albany Dobbins Air Reserve Base, Coast Guard Air Station Savannah and Coast Guard Station Brunswick. However, due to the latest round of BRAC cuts, Forts Gillem and McPherson will be closing and NAS Atlanta will be transferred to the Georgia National Guard.

Energy use and production

Georgia's electricity generation and consumption are among the highest in the United States, with coal being the primary electrical generation of fuel. However, the state also has two nuclear power plants which contribute less than one fourth of Georgia's electricity generation. The statistics are 75% coal, 16% nuclear, 7% oil and natural gas, and 1% hydroelectric/other. The leading area of energy consumption is the industrial sector because Georgia "is a leader in the energy-intensive wood and paper products industry".[33]

State taxes

Georgia's personal income tax ranges from 1% to 6% within six tax brackets. There is a 4% state sales tax,[34] which is not applied to prescription drugs, certain medical devices, and groceries. Each county may add up to a 2% SPLOST. Counties participating in MARTA have another 1%. The city of Atlanta (in two counties, roughly 90% in Fulton and 10% in Dekalb) has the only city sales tax (1%, total 8%) for fixing its aging sewers. Local taxes are almost always charged on groceries but never prescriptions. Up to 1% of a SPLOST can go to homestead exemptions (the HOST). All taxes are collected by the Georgia Department of Revenue and then properly distributed according to any agreements that each county has with its cities.

Culture

Fine and performing arts

Georgia's major fine art museums include the High Museum of Art, the Michael C. Carlos Museum, and the Telfair Museum of Art, the Morris Museum of Art.[35] The Atlanta Opera is a full time company that brings opera to Georgia stages.[36] The Atlanta Symphony Orchestra is the most widely recognized orchestra and largest arts organization in the southeastern United States.[37] Moreover, almost all of the universities, colleges, and junior colleges in Atlanta provide some musical instruction.[38] There are several other performance venues including the Eyedrum Gallery in Atlanta.

Literature

Georgia literature is distinct among the literature of other places in the world in its historical and geographical context and the values it imparts. Dramas such as the play (on which a successful movie was also based) Driving Miss Daisy are one example of Georgia's literary culture. The most popular and famous novel has probably been Margaret Mitchell's Gone with the Wind, also the basis of a wildly successful movie. Other authors who challenged popular ideas were Carson McCullers and Flannery O'Connor. Contemporary authors such as Alice Walker have also used Georgia's complex past as subjects for fiction, as in her The Color Purple.

Georgia's poets, such as James Dickey and Sidney Lanier, and nonfiction writers like humorist Lewis Grizzard also have a place in the state's literary life.[39]

Entertainment

Music

The Georgia Music Hall of Fame, located in Macon, is the state's museum of music.[citation needed]

Notable bands from Athens include R.E.M.,[40], The B-52's, Widespread Panic, Drive-By Truckers, as well as bands from The Elephant 6 Recording Company including Neutral Milk Hotel.

Rock bands such as Sevendust, Norma Jean, Dead Confederate, The Chariot, The Black Crowes, Collective Soul, September Hase, With Blood Comes Cleansing, Dååth, Kylesa, Zoroaster, Withered, Cartel, Family Force 5, Drivin N Cryin, Mastodon, were from Georgia.

Rhythm and Blues performers of note include: Ray Charles was born in Albany, Georgia. Augusta native James Brown and Macon native Little Richard, two figures in R&B history, started performing in Georgia clubs on the chitlin' circuit, fused gospel music with blues and boogie-woogie performing R&B and soul music. In the 1960s, Atlanta native Gladys Knight recorded for Motown, while Otis Redding, born in Dawson defined Southern soul sound of Memphis-based Stax Records.[41] Opera singer Jessye Norman is native to Augusta.[42]. Elton John also lives in Atlanta.

Hip hop artists include: OutKast. Ludacris, T.I., Pastor Troy, Gucci Mane, Keri Hilson, and Young Jeezy and producers Bubba Sparxxx, Jermaine Dupri and Jazze Pha. There are multiple R&B and neo soul artists including India.Arie, Yung Joc, Dem Franchize Boyz, Ying Yang Twins, Ciara, Bow Wow, Soulja Boy Tell 'Em, Kanye West, Goodie Mob, Cunninlynguists, Akon, The Eastside Boys, Lil Jon, Bobby Brown, Monica, or Usher. T-Pain and other rappers also live in Atlanta. Country music producers such as Alan Jackson, Trisha Yearwood, and Travis Tritt are natives of Georgia. Other notable country music acts from Georgia include Billy Currington, Cyndi Thomson, Jennifer Nettles of Sugarland, Daryle Singletary, Doug Stone, John Berry, Zac Brown Band, Rhett Akins, Mark Wills, Jason Aldean, and Luke Bryan.

Film

Hundreds of feature films have been located in Georgia. By 2007 more than $4 billion had been generated for the state's economy by the film and television industry since the 1970s.[43] Such films include Deliverance; Smokey and the Bandit; Diary of a Mad Black Woman; Forrest Gump; Driving Miss Daisy and Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil, with settings ranging from Appalachia to the manicured squares of Savannah.[43] Due to the success of Deliverance, as governor Jimmy Carter established a state film commission in 1973 to market Georgia as a shooting location for future projects. The commission had recruited more than 550 major projects to the state by 2007.[43] The first African American owned and operated film studio was opened in Atlanta on October 4, 2008 by Tyler Perry.[citation needed] The Vampire Diaries is partly filmed Georgia as well.[citation needed] The film The Last Song was filmed mostly in Tybee Island.[citation needed].Julia Roberts,Eric Roberts,Jane Fonda,Spike Lee,Chris Tucker,Robert Patrick,Dakota Fanning and many other famous actors are also from Georgia.

Popular culture

Stereotypical Georgian traits include manners known as "Southern hospitality", a strong sense of community and shared culture, and a distinctive Southern dialect. Georgia's Southern heritage makes turkey and dressing a traditional holiday dish during both Thanksgiving and Christmas. Movies like Gone with the Wind and the book If I Ever Get Back to Georgia, I'm Gonna Nail My Feet to the Ground by Lewis Grizzard highlight Georgia culture, speech and mannerisms.

Girl Scouting in the United States of America began on March 12, 1912 when Juliette "Daisy" Gordon Low organized the first Girl Scout troop meeting of 18 girls in Savannah, Georgia.

Health care and education

Health care

Georgians can find medical and dental care "via 151 general hospitals, more than 15,000 doctors and nearly 6,000 dentists."[44] The state is ranked forty-first in the percentage of residents who engage in regular exercise.[45]

Education

Georgia high schools (grades nine through twelve) are required to administer a standardized, multiple choice End of Course Test, or EOCT, in each of eight core subjects including Algebra I, Geometry, U.S. History, Economics, Biology, Physical Science, Ninth Grade Literature and Composition, and American Literature and Composition. The official purpose of the tests is to assess "specific content knowledge and skills." Although a minimum test score is not required for the student to receive credit in the course, completion of the test is mandatory. The EOCT score comprises 15% of a student's grade in the course.[46]

High school students must also receive passing scores on four Georgia High School Graduation Tests (GHSGT) and the Georgia High School Writing Assessment in order to receive a diploma. Subjects assessed include Mathematics, Science, Language Arts, and Social Studies. These tests are initially offered during students' eleventh-grade year, allowing for multiple opportunities to pass the tests before graduation at the end of twelfth grade.[47]

Georgia has almost 70 public colleges, universities, and technical colleges in addition to over 45 private institutes of higher learning.

The HOPE Scholarship, funded by the state lottery, is available to all Georgia residents who have graduated from high school with a 3.0 or higher grade point average and who attend a public college or university in the state. The scholarship covers the cost of tuition and provides a stipend for books for up to 120 credit hours. If the student does not maintain a 3.0 average while in college they may lose the scholarship in which case they will have the chance to get it back by bringing their grade point average above a 3.0 within a period of 30 credit hours. This scholarship has had a significant impact on the state university system, increasing competition for admission and increasing the quality of education.

Transportation

Georgia state welcome sign.

Transportation in Georgia is overseen by the Georgia Department of Transportation, a part of the executive branch of the state government. Georgia's major Interstate Highways are I-75 and I-85. On March 18, 1998, the Georgia House of Representatives passed a resolution naming the portion of Interstate Highway 75, which runs from the Chattahoochee River northward to the Tennessee state line the Larry McDonald Memorial Highway. Larry McDonald, a Democratic member of the House of Representatives, had been on Korean Air Lines Flight 007 when it was shot down by the Soviets on September 1, 1983.

Other important interstate highways are I-95, I-20, I-16, I-59 and I-24. I-285 is Atlanta, Georgia's perimeter route and I-575 connects with counties in north Georgia on I-75.[48] Major freight railroads in Georgia include CSX and Norfolk Southern Railway. Passenger service in Georgia is available on two Amtrak routes: the Crescent, which runs from New York to Washington, D.C., through north Georgia and Atlanta to New Orléans and the other runs from New York to the Georgia coast and from there to Florida.[49]

Interstate highways

United States highways

North-south routes

East-west routes

Airports

Georgia's principal airport is Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport (ATL), the world's busiest passenger airport.[50] Georgia has 107 public-use airports, 9 of which are commercial-aviation airports and 98 which are general-aviation airports. Two of the state's important airports are Savannah/Hilton Head International Airport, which serves over 1,700,000 passengers each year and DeKalb-Peachtree Airport in Chamblee, Georgia.[51]

Law and Government

State government

The Georgia State Capitol Building in Atlanta with the distinctive gold dome.

The capital of Georgia is Atlanta. As with all other U.S. states and the federal government, Georgia's government is based on the separation of legislative, executive and judicial power.[52] Executive authority in the state rests with the governor, currently Sonny Perdue (until 2011) (Republican). Perdue is the first Republican governor since Reconstruction.[53] (See List of Governors of Georgia). Both the governor and lieutenant governor are elected on separate ballots to four-year terms of office. Unlike the federal government, but like many other U.S. States, most of the executive officials who comprise the governor's cabinet are elected by the citizens of Georgia rather than appointed by the governor.

Legislative authority resides in the General Assembly, composed of the Senate and House of Representatives. The Lieutenant Governor presides over the Senate, while the House of Representatives selects their own Speaker. The Georgia Constitution mandates a maximum of 56 senators, elected from single-member districts, and a minimum of 180 representatives, apportioned among representative districts (which sometimes results in more than one representative per district); there are currently 56 senators and 180 representatives. The term of office for senators and representatives is two years.[54]

State judicial authority rests with the state Supreme Court and Court of Appeals, which have statewide authority.[55] In addition, there are smaller courts which have more limited geographical jurisdiction, including State Courts, Superior Courts, Magistrate Courts and Probate Courts. Justices of the Supreme Court and judges of the Court of Appeals are elected statewide by the citizens in non-partisan elections to six-year terms. Judges for the smaller courts are elected by the state's citizens who live within that court's jurisdiction to four-year terms.

Local government

Georgia has 159 counties, the most of any state except Texas (with 254).[56] Before 1932, there were 161, with Milton and Campbell being merged into Fulton at the end of 1931. Counties have been named for prominent figures in both American and Georgian history, but many bear names with Native American origin. Counties in Georgia have their own elected legislative branch, usually called the Board of Commissioners, which usually also has executive authority in the county.[57] Several counties have a Sole Commissioner government, with legislative and executive authority vested in a single person. Georgia is the only state with Sole Commissioner counties. Georgia's Constitution provides all counties and cities with "home rule" authority, and so the county commissions have considerable power to pass legislation within their county as a municipality would.

Besides the counties, Georgia only defines cities as local units of government. Every incorporated town, no matter how small, is legally a city. Georgia does not provide for townships or independent cities (though there is a movement in the Legislature to provide for townships) but does allow consolidated city-county governments by local referendum. So far, only Columbus, Augusta, Athens, and Cusseta have done this. Conyers is studying possibly becoming consolidated with Rockdale County. Recently, Savannah has consolidated its police department with the county police department and is currently studying possible consolidation with Chatham County.

There is no true metropolitan government in Georgia, though the Atlanta Regional Commission and Georgia Regional Transportation Authority do provide some services, and the ARC must approve all major land development projects in the Atlanta metropolitan area.

Politics

Presidential elections results
Year Republican Democratic
2008 52.20% 2,048,744 47.00% 1,844,137
2004 57.97% 1,914,254 41.37% 1,366,149
2000 54.67% 1,419,720 42.98% 1,116,230
1996 47.01% 1,080,843 45.84% 1,053,849
1992 42.88% 995,252 43.47% 1,008,966
1988 59.75% 1,081,331 39.50% 714,792
1984 60.17% 1,068,722 39.79% 706,628
1980 40.95% 654,168 55.76% 890,733
1976 32.96% 483,743 66.74% 979,409
1972 75.04% 881,496 24.65% 289,529
1968* 30.40% 380,111 26.75% 334,440
1964 54.12% 616,584 41.15% 522,557
1960 37.43% 274,472 62.54% 458,638
*State won by George Wallace
of the American Independent Party,
at 42.83%, or 535,550 votes

Until recently, Georgia's state government had the longest unbroken record of single-party dominance, by the Democratic Party, of any state in the Union. This record was established partly by disfranchisement of most blacks and many poor whites in the early 20th century, lasting into the 1960s.

After Reconstruction, white Democrats regained power, especially by legal disfranchisement of most African Americans and many poor whites through erection of barriers to voter registration. In 1900, shortly before Georgia adopted a disfranchising constitutional amendment in 1908, blacks comprised 47% of the state's population.[58] A "clean" franchise was linked by Progressives to electoral reform.[59] White, one-party rule was solidified. To escape the oppression, tens of thousands of black Georgians left the state, going north in the Great Migration for jobs, better education for their children and the chance to vote[citation needed].

For over 130 years, from 1872 to 2003, Georgians only elected white Democratic governors, and white Democrats held the majority of seats in the General Assembly. Most of the Democrats elected throughout these years were Southern Democrats or Dixiecrats, who were very conservative by national standards. This continued after the segregationist period, which ended legally in the 1960s. According to the 1960 census, the proportion of Georgia's population that was African American had decreased to 28%.[60] After a Democratic-controlled Congress passed civil rights legislation to secure voting and civil rights in the mid-1960s, most African Americans in the South joined the Democratic Party.

During the 1960s and 1970s, Georgia made significant changes in civil rights, governance, and economic growth focused on Atlanta. It was a bedrock of the emerging "New South." This characterization was solidified with the election of former Georgia Governor Jimmy Carter in 1976 to the U.S. Presidency.

The political dominance of Democrats ended in 2003, when then-Governor Roy Barnes was defeated by Republican Sonny Perdue, a state legislator and former Democrat himself. It was regarded as a stunning upset. While Democrats retained control of the State House, they lost their majority in the Senate when four Democrats switched parties. They lost the House in the 2004 election. Republicans now control all three partisan elements of the state government.

In recent years, many conservative Democrats, including former U.S. Senator and governor Zell Miller, have decided to support Republicans. The state's socially conservative bent results in wide support for such measures as restrictions on abortion. Its voters passed a ban on same-sex marriage with 76% voting yes.[61] Even before 2003, the state had become increasingly supportive of Republicans in Presidential elections. It has supported a Democrat for president only three times since 1960. In 1976 and 1980, native son Jimmy Carter carried the state; in 1992, the former Arkansas governor Bill Clinton narrowly won the state. Generally, Republicans are strongest in the predominantly white suburban (especially the Atlanta suburbs) and rural portions of the state.[62] Many of these areas were represented by conservative Democrats in the state legislature well into the 21st century. One of the most conservative of these was Larry McDonald, former head of the John Birch Society who was killed when KAL 007 was shot down near Sakhalin Island on Sept. 1, 1983. Democratic candidates have tended to win a higher percentage of the vote in the areas where black voters are most numerous,[62] mostly in the cities (especially Atlanta) and the rural Black Belt region that travels through the central and southwestern portion of the state.

As of the 2001 reapportionment, the state has 13 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives, which are currently held by 7 Republicans and 6 Democrats.

In recent events, Democrat Jim Martin ran against incumbent Republican Senator Saxby Chambliss. Chambliss failed to acquire the necessary 50 percent of votes, a Libertarian Party candidate receiving the remainder of votes. In the runoff election held on December 2, 2008, Chambliss became only the second Georgia Republican to be reelected to the U.S. Senate.

On April 1, 2009, Senate Resolution 632 passed by a vote of 43-1.[63] It reads in part[64]:

Any Act by the Congress of the United States, Executive Order of the President of the United States of America or Judicial Order by the Judicatories of the United States of America which assumes a power not delegated to the government of the United States of America by the Constitution for the United States of America and which serves to diminish the liberty of the any of the several States or their citizens shall constitute a nullification of the Constitution for the United States of America by the government of the United States of America.

On April 16, Jay Bookman of The Atlanta Journal-Constitution wrote "It wasn’t quite the firing on Fort Sumter that launched the Civil War. But on April 1, your Georgia Senate did threaten by a vote of 43-1 to secede from and even disband the United States."[65]

Notable Georgia legislators (past and present)

  • Alexander Stephens, Democratic Representative from 1843–1859 and Governor of Georgia from 1882–1883, but most notable as Vice President of the Confederacy from 1861–1865. A vigorous proponent of slavery and white supremacy famous for his inaugural "Cornerstone Speech" which declared that the CSA was the first government in the world based "upon the great truth that the Negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery subordination to the superior race is his natural and normal condition."[66]
  • Larry McDonald. Democratic Representative from 7th district, the only sitting member of Congress killed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War, when Korean Air Lines Flight 007 was shot down on September 1, 1983.[67]
  • Newt Gingrich. Republican Representative from the 6th district from 1979 through 1999. Served as the 58th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1995 to 1999.
  • Carl Vinson. Democratic Representative from 1914 through 1965, the first person to serve more than 50 years in the United States House of Representatives.
  • John Lewis. Democratic Representative from the 5th district since 1987, and prominent civil rights leader.
  • Andrew Young. Democratic Representative from the 5th district from 1973 through 1977. Prominent civil rights leader, with friend and confidant Martin Luther King, Jr. when King was assassinated. United States Ambassador to the United Nations from 1977 to 1979, and Mayor of Atlanta from 1982 to 1990.

Media

Television

Ted Turner lives here. Turner founded TBS, TNT, TCM, Cartoon Network, CNN and Headline News, among others. The CNN Center, which houses the news channel's world headquarters, is located in downtown Atlanta, facing Marietta Street, while the home offices of the Turner Entertainment networks are located in midtown, near the Georgia Tech campus, on Techwood Drive. A third Turner building is on Williams Street, directly across Interstate 75 and Interstate 85 from the Techwood Drive campus and contains Adult Swim and Williams Street Studios.

The Weather Channel's headquarters are located in the Smyrna area of metropolitan Atlanta in Cobb County.

WSB-TV was the state's first television station, and the southeastern United States' second. WSB-TV signed on Channel 8 in 1948, and moved to its present day location on Channel 2 in 1952.

Georgia Public Broadcasting (GPB) operates nine major educational television stations across the state as Georgia Public Broadcasting Television.[68]

Sportsouth and Fox Sports South are the leaders in sporting television in the southeast. The studio and offices are located in Atlanta, Georgia on Peachtree St.

Movies

Tyler Perry lives here. Tyler Perry has produced several films including Diary of a Mad Black Woman, Madea's Family Reunion, Why Did I Get Married?, Meet the Browns"The Family That Preys" "This Christmas" and "ATL (film)" "Daddy's Girls".

Atlanta is often referred to as "Black Hollywood" because of the number of films with African American cast marketed to African Americans produced in the city.[citation needed]

Radio

WSB-AM in Atlanta was the first licensed radio station in the southeastern United States, signing on in 1922. The station currently broadcasts a news/talk format. WMAZ (Watch Mercer Attain Zenith) in Macon first broadcast commencement exercises of Mercer University in June 1921 but was unlicensed and had a power of only 10 watts. It was licensed in Feb 1923 and today has a power of 50,000 watts daytime and uses the call sign WMAC AM 940.See http://www.antiqueradio.com/wmaz_03-98.html WSB-FM signed on in 1948 on 104.5 FM, and moved to 98.5 FM in 1952. The station broadcasts today, still with the WSB-FM callsign, but is known as "B98.5FM".

Georgia Public Radio has been in service since 1984 and, with the exception of Atlanta, it broadcasts daily on several FM (and one AM) stations across the state. 1984.[69][70] Georgia Public Radio reaches nearly all of Georgia (with the exception of the Atlanta area, which is served by WABE), as well as portions of Alabama, Florida, South Carolina, and Tennessee.

Newspapers and periodicals

There are several notable newspapers in Georgia. Among them are The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, The Augusta Chronicle, the Columbus Ledger-Enquirer, and the Savannah Morning News. African-American entertainment and lifestyle magazine Southern Voice is published here.

Sports and recreation

Sports in Georgia include professional teams in all major sports, Olympic Games contenders and medalists, collegiate teams in major and small-school conferences and associations, and active amateur teams and individual sports. The State of Georgia has a team in eight major professional leagues (MLB, NFL, NBA, NHL, ABA, AFL, IL, and ECHL). Georgia has an abundance of outdoor recreational activities. Outdoor activities include, but are not limited to, hiking along the Appalachian Trail; Civil War Heritage Trails; rock climbing and whitewater paddling.[71][72][73][74] Other outdoor activities include hunting and fishing. Less rustic activities are trips to Callaway Gardens; and Zoo Atlanta.[75][76][77][78]. NBA superstars Dwight Howard, Josh Smith,and Javaris Crittenton, Heavyweight champion boxer Evander Holyfield and wrestling superstar Hulk Hogan are also from Atlanta.

State facts and symbols

Georgia State Symbols
Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg
The Flag of Georgia.

Animate insignia
Amphibian American Green Tree Frog
Bird(s) Brown Thrasher
Butterfly Eastern Tiger Swallowtail
Fish Largemouth bass
Flower(s) Cherokee Rose
Insect European honey bee
Mammal(s) Right whale
Reptile Gopher tortoise
Tree Live oak

Inanimate insignia
Dance Square dance
Food Grits, Peach, Vidalia Sweet Onion
Fossil Shark Tooth
Gemstone Quartz
Mineral Staurolite
Rock granite
Shell Knobbed Whelk
Soil Tifton
Song(s) Georgia on My Mind
Tartan Georgia state tartan

Route marker(s)
Georgia Route Marker

State Quarter
Quarter of Georgia
Released in 1999

Lists of United States state insignia

Georgia's nicknames include Peach State and Empire State of the South. The state song, "Georgia on My Mind" by Hoagy Carmichael, was originally written about a woman of that name, but after Georgia native Ray Charles sang it, the state legislature voted it the state song on 24 April 1979. Ray Charles sang it on the legislative floor when the bill was passed. This act was significant in that it symbolized to many the move away from segregation and racism. The state commemorative quarter was released on 19 July 1999.[79] The first houses in Georgia to be designated historic state landmarks are the Owens Thomas House and the Sorrel Weed House, in the Savannah historic district. The state 'possum is Pogo Possum.[80]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/popest/states/tables/NST-EST2009-01.csv. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  2. ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. 29 April 2005. http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest. Retrieved November 3, 2006. 
  3. ^ http://www.times-herald.com/Local/Coweta-is-the-41st-fastest-growing-county-in-United-States-690912
  4. ^ States Ranked for Total Area, Land Area, and Water Area - NETSTATE.com, accessed December 26, 2006
  5. ^ Drought-stricken Georgia eyes Tennessee's border – and river water Los Angeles Times.
  6. ^ Georgia - Flora and fauna - city-data.com, accessed February 3, 2007
  7. ^ Monthly Averages for Macon, GA The Weather Channel.
  8. ^ Monthly Averages for Clayton, GA The Weather Channel.
  9. ^ Each state's high temperature record USA Today, last updated August 2004.
  10. ^ Each state's low temperature record USA Today, last updated August 2006
  11. ^ Weather By Day Georgia
  12. ^ Georgia Department of Natural Resources gadnr.org, accessed May 13, 2007
  13. ^ National Park Service nps.gov, accessed May 13, 2007
  14. ^ Patricia U. Bonomi, "Under the Cope of Heaven. Religion, Society and Politics in Colonial America", Oxford University Press, 1986, p 32-33
  15. ^ Trustee Georgia, 1732-1752
  16. ^ Patricia U. Bonomi, "Under the Cope of Heaven. Religion, Society and Politics in Colonial America", Oxford University Press, Chapter 7 'Religion and the American Revolution'
  17. ^ Digital History
  18. ^ Peter Kolchin, American Slavery: 1619-1877, New York: Hill and Wang, 1994, p. 73
  19. ^ http://www.canadafreepress.com/index.php/article/10742
  20. ^ [1] Accessed February 1, 2008.
  21. ^ "Illegals on rise in Southeast". Melbourne, Florida: Florida Today. 24 February 2010. pp. 6A. http://www.star-telegram.com/2010/02/23/1991912/illegal-immigrant-numbers-rise.html. 
  22. ^ Kanell, Michael E. (16 November 2009). "Number of veterans, October". Atlanta, Georgia: Atlanta Constitution-Journal. pp. A6. http://www.ajc.com/business/vets-jobs-challenges-in-199084.html.  quoting the Bureau of Labor Statistics
  23. ^ "B02001. RACE - Universe: TOTAL POPULATION". 2007 American Community Survey. U.S. Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-ds_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_&-CONTEXT=dt&-mt_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G2000_B02001&-redoLog=true&-geo_id=04000US13&-format=&-_lang=en&-SubjectID=15233315. Retrieved 2008-09-26. 
  24. ^ http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/13000.html
  25. ^ William H. Frey, "The New Great Migration: Black Americans' Return to the South, 1965-2000", The Brookings Institution, May 2004, accessed 19 May 2008
  26. ^ U.S. Census Press Release
  27. ^ [2]
  28. ^ Early Mountain Life, Who are Americans
  29. ^ Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life
  30. ^ http://www.thearda.com/mapsReports/reports/state/13_2000.asp
  31. ^ http://www.bea.gov/regional/gsp/
  32. ^ BEA statistics for 2005 GSP - October 26, 2006, Accessed May 9, 2008
  33. ^ Energy Information Administration, Accessed December 30, 2007
  34. ^ Georgia Public Policy Foundation.
  35. ^ Willamette, Accessed December 8, 2007
  36. ^ Atlanta Opera, Accessed December 8, 2007
  37. ^ Atlanta Symphony Orchestra, Accessed December 8, 2007
  38. ^ Classical Music in Atlanta, Accessed December 8, 2007
  39. ^ Literature: Overview, Accessed December 5, 2007
  40. ^ R.E.MAccessed December 7, 2007
  41. ^ Rhythm and Blues Music: Overview, Accessed December 7, 2007
  42. ^ Jessye Norman, Accessed December 7, 2007
  43. ^ a b c Film industry in GeorgiaAccessed December 8, 2007
  44. ^ Georgia.org, Accessed May 16, 2007
  45. ^ Statemaster.com, Accessed May 16, 2007
  46. ^ GA DOE - Testing - EOCT Accessed 24 April 2008.
  47. ^ GA DOE - Testing - GHSGT Accessed 24 April 2008.
  48. ^ Interstate Highway SystemAccessed June 17, 2008
  49. ^ Railroads, Accessed June 17, 2008
  50. ^ Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, Accessed June 18, 2008
  51. ^ Public-Use Airports, Accessed June 18, 2008
  52. ^ Senate Kids, Accessed December 30, 2007
  53. ^ Sonny Perdue, Accessed December 30, 2007
  54. ^ Constitution of Georgia Article III Section II, Accessed December 30, 2007
  55. ^ Supreme Court Brochure, Accessed December 30, 2007
  56. ^ A Brief History of Georgia Counties, Accessed December 30, 2007
  57. ^ Georgia's County Governments, Accessed December 31, 2007
  58. ^ Historical Census Browser, 1900 US Census, University of Virginia, accessed 15 March 2008
  59. ^ Charles Crowe, "Racial Violence and Social Reform - Origins of the Atlanta Riot of 1906", The Journal of Negro History: Vol.53, No.3, July 1968, accessed 23 March 2008
  60. ^ Historical Census Browser, 1960 US Census, University of Virginia, accessed 13 March 2008
  61. ^ http://ballotpedia.org/wiki/index.php/Georgia_Constitutional_Amendment_1_%282004%29
  62. ^ a b CNN.com: Election 2004
  63. ^ http://blogs.ajc.com/jay-bookman-blog/2009/04/16/georgia-senate-threatens-dismantling-of-usa/
  64. ^ http://www.legis.ga.gov/legis/2009_10/fulltext/sr632.htm
  65. ^ http://www.ajc.com/services/content/printedition/2009/04/16/bookmaned0416.html
  66. ^ Cornerstone Speech by Alexander Stephens
  67. ^ KAL 007 Flight Remembered [3] For McDonald connection to KAL 007
  68. ^ Georgia Public Broadcasting Accessed, May 19, 2007
  69. ^ Georgia Public Radio Accessed, May 19, 2007
  70. ^ Georgia Public Radio Accessed, May 19, 2007
  71. ^ Appalachian Trail, Accessed December 8, 2007
  72. ^ Civil War Heritage Trails, Accessed December 8, 2007
  73. ^ Rock climbing, Accessed December 8, 2007
  74. ^ Whitewater paddling, Accessed December 8, 2007
  75. ^ Callaway Gardens, Accessed December 8, 2007
  76. ^ Circues, Accessed December 8, 2007
  77. ^ Rattlesnake Roundups, Accessed December 8, 2007
  78. ^ Zoo Atlanta, Accessed December 8, 2007
  79. ^ State symbols and emblems
  80. ^ "Georgia Secretary of State - State 'Possum". Georgia Secretary of State. http://sos.georgia.gov/state_symbols/state_possum.html. Retrieved 2008-01-15. 
  • Walker, V. (2005). "Organized resistance and black educators' quest for school equality", 1878-1938. Teachers College Record, 107, 355-388.

Further reading

  • New Georgia Encyclopedia (2005).
  • Bartley, Numan V. The Creation of Modern Georgia (1990). Covers 1865-1990 period. ISBN 0-8203-1183-9.
  • Coleman, Kenneth. ed. A History of Georgia (1991). ISBN 0-8203-1269-X.
  • London, Bonnie Bullard. (2005) Georgia and the American Experience Atlanta, Georgia: Clairmont Press ISBN 1-56733-100-9. A middle school textbook.
  • Peirce, Neal R. The Deep South States of America: People, Politics, and Power in the Seven Deep South States (1974). Information on politics and economics 1960-72. ISBN 0-393-05496-9.

Coordinates: 33°00′N 83°30′W / 33°N 83.5°W / 33; -83.5

External links

Preceded by
New Jersey
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Ratified Constitution on January 2, 1788 (4th)
Succeeded by
Connecticut

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Georgia is a state located in the southern United States. Georgia was one of the w:Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the w:American Revolution. It was the last of the Thirteen Colonies to be established as a colony. It was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788.

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  • I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood... I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. I have a dream today...
  • I am the only person in the history of Moreland, Georgia to ever be on the New York Times' Best Seller list. I'm the only person in the history of Moreland, Georgia who ever heard of the New York Times' Best Seller list.
    • Lewis Grizzard
  • If you live on the south side of Atlanta (read: "Et-lanna"), get on I-75 and go south. If you live of the north side of Atlanta get on I-75 and go north. If you are a Yankee get on 285.
    • Lewis Grizzard's advice to Atlantans in case of nuclear war:(For those not familiar with Atlanta highways, I-285 is a loop around the city)

Lyrics

  • Other arms reach out to me
    Other eyes smile tenderly
    Still in peaceful dreams I see
    The road leads back to you.
    Georgia, oh Georgia, no peace I find...
    Just an old sweet song
    Keeps Georgia on my mind.

External links

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Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

State of Georgia
Flag of Georgia State seal of Georgia
Flag of Georgia Seal of Georgia
Nickname(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: Peach State, Empire State of the South
Motto(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: Wisdom, Justice, and Moderation
Map of the United States with Georgia highlighted
Official language(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif English
CapitalImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Atlanta
Largest cityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Atlanta
Largest metro areaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Atlanta metro area
AreaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 24thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total 59,411 sq miImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
(154,077 km²Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Width 230 miles (370 kmImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Length 298 miles (480 km)
 - % water 2.6
 - Latitude 30° 21′ N to 35° N
 - Longitude 80° 50′ W to 85° 36′ W
PopulationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 9thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total (2000Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif) 8,186,453
 - DensityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif 141.4/sq mi 
54.59/km² (18th)
 - Median incomeImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  $43,217 (28th)
ElevationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  
 - Highest point Brasstown Bald[1]
4,784 ft  (1,458 m)
 - Mean 591 ft  (180 m)
 - Lowest point Atlantic Ocean[1]
0 ft  (0 m)
Admission to UnionImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  January 2, 1788 (4th)
GovernorImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Sonny Perdue (R)
U.S. SenatorsImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Saxby Chambliss (R)
Johnny Isakson (R)
Congressional DelegationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif ListImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Time zoneImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Abbreviations GAImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif US-GAImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Web site www.georgia.gov

Georgia (IPA: /ˈdʒɔrdʒə/) is a state in the Southeastern United States and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution. It was the last of the Thirteen Colonies to be established as a colony, in 1733. It was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. It seceded from the Union on January 21, 1861 and was one of the original seven Confederate states. It was the last state readmitted to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is one of the fastest-growing states in the United States, with its population increasing from 8,186,453 in 2000 to an estimated 9,072,576 people in 2005.[2] Georgia is also known as the Peach State and the Empire State of the South. The largest city, and capital, is Atlanta.

Georgia is bordered on the south by Florida; on the east by the Atlantic Ocean and South Carolina; on the west by Alabama and by Florida in the extreme southwest; and on the north by Tennessee and North Carolina. The northern part of the state is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, a mountain range in the vast mountain system of the Appalachians. The central piedmont extends from the foothills to the fall line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the continental coastal plain of the southern part of the state. The highest point in Georgia is Brasstown Bald, 4,784 feet (1,458 m); the lowest point is sea level.

With an area of 59,441 square miles (153,951 km²), Georgia is ranked 24th in size among the 50 U.S. states. Georgia is the largest state east of the Mississippi River in terms of land area, although it is the fourth largest (after Michigan, Florida, and Wisconsin) in total area, a term which includes expanses of water claimed as state territory.[3]

Contents

Geography

Main article: Geography of Georgia (U.S. state)

Boundaries

Beginning from the Atlantic Ocean, the state's eastern border with South Carolina runs up the Savannah River, northwest to its origin at the confluence of the Tugaloo and Seneca rivers. It then continues up the Tugaloo (originally Tugalo) and into the Chattooga River, its most significant tributary. These bounds were decided in the 1787 Treaty of Beaufort, and tested in the U.S. Supreme Court in the two Georgia v. South Carolina cases in 1922 and 1989.

The border then takes a sharp turn around the tip of Rabun County, at latitude 35°N, though from this point it diverges slightly south (possibly due to later resurveying with better accuracy). This originally was the Georgia and North Carolina border all the way back to the Mississippi River, until Tennessee was divided from North Carolina, and Alabama and Mississippi (the Yazoo Lands) were taken from Georgia.

The state's western border then departs in another straight line south-southeastward, at a point southwest of Chattanooga, to meet the westernmost point of the Chattahoochee River near West Point. It continues down to the point where it ends at the Flint River (the confluence of the two forming Florida's Apalachicola River), and goes almost due east and very slightly south, in a straight line to the origin of the Saint Mary's River, which then forms the remainder of the boundary back to the ocean.

It should be noted that the water boundaries are still set to be the original thalweg of the rivers. Since then, several have been inundated by man made lakes, including the Apalachicola/Chattahoochee/Flint point now under Lake Seminole.

Geology and terrain

Map of elevations in Georgia
Main article: Geology of Georgia (U.S. state)

Georgia is divided into five geologic regions. These include the Ridge and Valley, the Blue Ridge, the Piedmont, the Coastal Plain, and the Appalachian Plateau. Each region has its own distinctive characteristics. For instance the Ridge and Valley, which lies in the northwest corner of the state, includes limestone, sandstone, shale and other sedimentary rocks, which have yielded construction-grade limestone, barite, ochre and small amounts of coal. The Blue Ridge Mountains of northeast Georgia are made up of metamorphic rock as well as granite and diabase. The geology of the Piedmont includes schist, amphibolite, gneiss, migmatite, and granite while the primary resource of the Coastal Plain is kaolin.[4]

Flora and fauna

Georgia has a diverse mix of flora and fauna. The State of Georgia has approximately 250 tree species and 58 protected plants. Georgia's native trees include red cedar, a variety of pines, oaks, maples, sweetgum and scaly-bark and white hickories, as well as many others. Yellow jasmine, flowering quince, and mountain laurel make up just a few of the flowering shrubs in the state.

Regarding fauna, white-tailed (Virginia) deer can be found in approximately 50 counties. The mockingbird and brown thrasher are just two of the 160 bird species that can be found in the state. The eastern diamondback, copperhead, and cottonmouth as well as salamanders, frogs, and toads are among 79 species of reptile and 63 amphibians that make Georgia their home. The most popular freshwater game fish are trout, bream, bass, and catfish, all but the last of which are produced in state hatcheries for restocking. Dolphins, porpoises, shrimp, oysters, and blue crabs are found off the Georgia coast.[5]

Climate

Map of Georgia

The majority of Georgia is primarily a humid subtropical climate tempered somewhat by occasional polar air masses in the winter. Hot and humid summers are typical, except at the highest elevations. The entire state, including the north Georgia mountains, receives moderate to heavy precipitation, which varies from 45 inches (1143 mm) in central Georgia[6] to approximately 75 inches (1905 mm) around the Northeast part of the state[7]. The degree to which the weather of a certain area of Georgia is subtropical depends not just on the latitude, but also on how close it is to the Atlantic Ocean or Gulf of Mexico and the altitude. This is especially true in the mountainous areas in the northern part of the state, which are further away from ocean waters and can be up to 4500 feet (1350 m) or higher above sea level.

The areas near the Florida/Georgia border, extending from the entire Georgia coastline west to the Florida panhandle, experiences the most subtropical weather, similar to that of Florida: hot, humid summers with frequent afternoon thunderstorms and mild, somewhat drier winters. These areas experience snow much less frequently than other parts of Georgia. The Georgia Piedmont area is somewhat cooler in winter than the coastal areas. The Southern areas of the Piedmont may receive snow every other year, while areas close to the foothills get snow several times a year. This part of Georgia is especially vulnerable to ice storms. The mountains of Georgia have the coolest climate and most frequent snowfall in the state, although snowfall is less than any other part of the Appalachian Mountains.

In spite of having moderate weather compared to many other states, Georgia has occasional extreme weather. The highest temperature ever recorded is 112 °F (44.4 °C)[8], while the lowest ever recorded is -17 °F (-27.2 °C).[9] Georgia is one of the leading states in incidents of tornadoes. The areas closest to the Florida border get the same small F0 and F1 tornadoes associated with summer afternoon thunderstorms. However, it is very uncommon for tornadoes to become severe (over F3). As it is on the Atlantic coast, Georgia is also vulnerable to hurricanes, although the Georgia coastline only rarely experiences a direct hurricane strike. More common are hurricanes which strike the Florida panhandle, weaken over land, and bring strong tropical storm winds and heavy rain to the Georgia interior, as well as hurricanes that come close to the Georgia coastline, brushing the coast on their recurvature on the way up to hit the Carolinas.

In 2006 and 2007, however, Georgia has had severe droughts, especially in 2007. Temperatures over 100 degrees have been recorded.

Monthly average daily high and low temperatures for major Georgia cities
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Athens 51/11
33/1
56/13
35/2
65/18
42/6
73/23
49/9
80/27
58/14
87/31
65/18
90/32
69/21
88/31
68/20
82/28
63/17
73/23
51/11
63/17
42/6
54/12
35/2
Atlanta 52/11
34/1
57/14
36/2
65/18
44/7
73/23
50/10
80/27
60/16
86/30
67/19
89/32
71/22
88/31
70/21
82/28
64/18
73/23
53/12
63/17
44/7
55/13
36/2
Augusta 56/13
33/1
61/16
36/4
69/21
42/6
77/25
48/9
84/29
57/14
90/32
65/18
92/33
70/21
90/32
68/20
85/29
62/17
76/24
50/10
68/20
41/5
59/15
35/2
Columbus 57/14
37/3
62/17
39/4
69/21
46/8
76/24
52/11
83/28
61/16
90/32
69/21
92/33
72/22
91/32
72/22
86/30
66/19
77/25
54/12
68/20
46/8
59/15
39/4
Macon 57/14
34/1
61/16
37/3
68/20
44/7
76/24
50/10
83/28
59/15
90/32
67/19
92/33
70/21
90/32
70/21
85/29
64/18
77/25
51/11
68/20
42/6
59/15
36/2
Savannah 60/16
38/3
64/18
41/5
71/22
48/9
78/26
53/12
84/29
61/16
90/32
68/20
92/33
72/22
90/32
71/22
86/30
67/19
78/26
56/13
70/21
47/8
63/17
40/4
Temperatures are given in °F/°C format, with highs on top of lows. [3]

Protected lands

Georgia is home to 63 parks, 48 of which are state parks and 15 that are historic sites, and numerous state wildlife preserves, under the supervision of the Georgia Department of Natural Resources.[10] Other historic sites and parks are supervised by the National Park Service and include the Andersonville National Historic Site in Andersonville; Appalachian National Scenic Trail; Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area near Atlanta; Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park at Fort Oglethorpe; Cumberland Island National Seashore near Saint Marys; Fort Frederica National Monument on St. Simons Island; Fort Pulaski National Monument in Savannah; Jimmy Carter National Historic Site near Plains; Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park near Kennesaw; Martin Luther King Jr National Historic Site in Atlanta; Ocmulgee National Monument at Macon; Trail of Tears National Historic Trail.[11]

History

The local moundbuilder culture, described by Hernando de Soto in 1540, completely disappeared by 1560. Early on, in the course of European exploration of the area, a number of Spanish explorers visited the inland region of Georgia.

The conflict between Spain and England over control of Georgia began in earnest in about 1670, when the English founded the Carolina colony in present-day South Carolina. Nearly a century earlier, the Spanish of Spanish Florida had established the missionary provinces of Guale and Mocama on the coast and Sea Islands of present-day Georgia. After decades of fighting, the Carolinians and allied Indians permanently destroyed the Spanish mission system during the invasions of 1702 and 1704. After 1704, Spanish control was limited to St. Augustine and Pensacola. The Florida peninsula was subjected to raids as far as the Florida Keys. The coast of Georgia was occupied by now British-allied Indians such as the Yamasee until the Yamasee War of 1715-1717, after which the region was depopulated, opening up the possibility of a new British colony. In 1724, it was first suggested the British colony there be called Province of Georgia in honor of King George II.

British interest in establishing a colony below South Carolina came from varied sources. Spanish Florida was a threat to South Carolina and a haven for runaway slaves. The French in the 1720s established a [fort] near present-day Montgomery, also a threat to British interests in the region. Traders from Charleston, had established trading posts as far west as the Ocmulgee River, near present-day Macon. The British trading network kept the Creek Indians allied with them; the French move threatened to wrest these Indians' trade away from the British. These strategic interests made the British government interested in establishing a new colony that would reinforce the British influence in the border country that had been open to Spanish and French penetration.

Meanwhile, many members of the British Parliament had become concerned about the plight of England's debtors. A parliamentary committee investigated and reported on conditions in Britain's debtor prisons. A group of philanthropists organized themselves to establish a colony where the "worthy poor" of England could reestablish themselves as productive citizens. This goal was seen as both philanthropic, helping these distressed people, and patriotic, simultaneously relieving Britain of the burden of the imprisoned debtors and augmenting Britain's vital mercantile empire by planting new, industrious subjects to strengthen her trade. This goal went unfulfilled as Georgia was ultimately not settled by debtors or convicts.

In 1732, a group of these philanthropists were granted a royal charter as the Trustees of the Province of Georgia. They carefully selected the first group of colonists to send to the new colony. On 12 February 1733, 113 settlers landed in the HMS Anne at what was to become the city of Savannah. This day is now known as Georgia Day, which is not a public holiday but is mainly observed in schools and by some local civic groups. James Edward Oglethorpe, one of the trustees of the colony, traveled with the first group of colonists, laid out the design of the town of Savannah, and acted as governor of the colony, although technically under the trustees there was no "governor." Oglethorpe acted as the only trustee present in the colony. When he returned to Britain, a series of disputes ended his tenure governing the colony; Georgia was then led by a series of presidents named by the trustees. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the British king.[12]

Georgia was one of the thirteen colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence, despite a large population of people loyal to the crown. During the war, nearly one-third of the slaves, more than 5,000 enslaved African Americans, exercised their desire for independence by escaping and joining British forces, where they were promised freedom. Some went to Great Britain or the Caribbean; others were resettled in Canada provinces.[13]

Following the war, Georgia became the fourth state of the United States of America after ratifying the United States Constitution on 2 January 1788. Georgia established its first state constitution in 1777. The state established new constitutions in 1788, 1799, 1861, 1865, 1868, 1877, 1945, 1976, and 1983, for a total of 10 — more constitutions than any other state, except for Louisiana, which has had 11.

Confederate history

Main article: Georgia (U.S. state) in the American Civil War

On January 18, 1861, Georgia joined the Confederacy and became a major theater of the American Civil War.

In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. This event served as the historical background for the 1936 novel Gone with the Wind and the 1939 film of the same name.

On July 15, 1870, following Reconstruction, Georgia became the last former Confederate state to be readmitted to the Union.

Part of the history of Georgia after the Civil War revolves around the struggle for school equality. Black educators played a pivotal role in this struggle with their organized resistance often being overlooked. Their story is detailed below.

Early Resistance-1878-1894: Association Building and Interracial Collaboration ---This period is marked by organization building, cooperation between Whites and Blacks relative to education and inter-state information networks that spurred change. 1878 marks the beginning of the Black Teachers' Association in Georgia which eventually became known as the Georgia Teachers and Education Association. In addition, the Georgia Equal Rights Association was formed to supervise and aid Black schools by constructing buildings and raising educational opportunities for Black students. Its first convention was in 1866 and was responsible for the birth of local chapters being formed throughout the state of Georgia. During this time, former slaves and White Republicans worked together to find and certify teachers and discuss ideas relative to education. During this time period, superintendents supported Black teachers by giving them the freedom to gather at annual meetings and to become visible leaders within their organizations. Education for Black students during this period was not equal. Many advocates for African American education were not in favor of equal educational opportunity. In fact, gains made during reconstruction began slipping away during this time.

Responding to Shifting Attitudes-1894-1916: Activity and National Collaborations---At the turn of the century, organized educational activities for African American educators decreased. This shift mirrored attitudes on the part of White citizens as seen in social and political legislation intended to allow Whites to recreate segregated, unequal communities. Throughout the south, restrictive laws were passed to separate White and Black citizens. Whites resisted any efforts to equitably fund education for African Americans, both teacher salary and per pupil expenditure, citing the impracticality of the idea. In fact, many of the high schools for African Americans were closed during this time period. Attendance at annual conventions for African American educators declined during this period due to growing hostility and retribution from Whites. Some African Americans affilitated with national organizations, like the NAACP, rather than become active in state organizations. This was a period when African American educators were threathened physically and politically. There was little visible positive change for educating African American children during this time.

New Beginning - 1917-1921: Shields and Direct Petition---The great migration of African Americans from the south to the north brought forward a new educational effort aimed at African American educators and students. This new effort was fueled by Whites who understood the economic threat that massive migration would bring to the south. World War I also brought more attention to the plight of African Americns in the United States. African Americans were sent to fight to protect democracy in other countries when they did not enjoy democratic privileges in their own country. During this period, organizational power began to be used effectively by African American educators. Single teachers were not seen as producing change relative to the need of African American students. Membership in organizations devoted to positive changes for African Americans brought both strength and protection...a shield. Organizations petitioned state leaders for equitable funding, better salaries, buildings and equipment, normal school training, and funding for summer school. Membership in various organizations devoted to such purposes increased. African American educational leaders such as Booker T. Washington rose to prominence and the NAACP formed chapters within southern cities between 1917 and 1921 largely because African Americans capitalized on timing related to sentiments associated with the great migration and WWI.

Educational Leadership -1921-1938: Direct Appeal---By 1921, several African American teacher's organizations in Georgia merged into one organization, the Georgia Teachers and Education Association (GTEA), in an effort to strengthen its work throughout Georgia. Their efforts were coordinated and sustained throughout the period but yielded small results because many forms of repression still existed in the south and White people had to be placated even as African Americans were putting forth pressure for needed changes. The GTEA wanted "better schoolhouses, better teachers, better school appropriations, and a better correlation of all the forces looking forward to an equal division of educational funds (Walker, 2005,p. 374)." The GTEA relied on three strategies to achieve this goal. The first strategy was a "numerically strong professional association (Walker, 2005, p. 375)." Careful communication was the second strategy and making use of all financial aid was the third strategy. Additionally, the GTEA encouraged African Americans to join and become active advocates through the Black state Parent Teacher Association. Longer school terms and more textbooks were successes that GTEA could claim by the end of this period. The Depression coupled with racist beliefs and values held by the majority of Whites continued to work against effective equal education for all citizens.

Capitals

Georgia has had five official state capitals: colonial Savannah, which later alternated with Augusta; then for a decade at Louisville (pronounced Lewis-ville), and from 1806 through the American Civil War, at Milledgeville. In 1868, Atlanta became the fifth capital of the state. The state's legislature also met at other temporary sites, including Macon, especially during the Civil War.

Cities

Atlanta is located in north-central Georgia, atop a ridge southeast of the Chattahoochee River. It has been Georgia's capital city since 1868.

The Atlanta metropolitan area has a population of 5,138,223 (2006 census estimate), and the city is the central city of the Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Gainesville, Ga.-Ala. combined statistical area.[14]

The state of Georgia has twenty metropolitan and micropolitan areas with populations above fifty-thousand. In descending order, they are Atlanta, Augusta, Savannah, Columbus, Macon, Athens, Gainesville, Albany, Dalton, Warner Robins, Valdosta, Brunswick, Rome, Hinesville, LaGrange, Statesboro, Dublin, Milledgeville, Waycross and Calhoun and Tifton.[15]

Five Largest Cities

Demographics

In 2006, Georgia had an estimated population of 9,363,941 which was an increase of 231,388 from the previous year, and an increase of 1,177,125 since 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 438,939 people (that is 849,414 births minus 410,475 deaths) and an increase from net migration of 606,673 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 228,415 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 378,258 people.

As of 2006, Georgia is the 9th most populous state. Its population has grown 44.5% (2,885,725) since 1990, making it one of the fastest-growing states in the country. More than half of the state's population lives in the Atlanta metro area. Nineteen Georgia counties were among the 100 fastest growing counties from 2004 to 2005.[16] The center of population of Georgia is located in Butts County, in the city of Jackson [17]. {{US DemogTable|Georgia|03-13.csv|= | 68.34| 29.38| 0.66| 2.46| 0.12|= | 4.82| 0.39| 0.10| 0.05| 0.03|= | 67.00| 30.29| 0.67| 3.01| 0.14|= | 6.57| 0.43| 0.12| 0.07| 0.04|= | 8.65| 14.23| 11.72| 36.02| 25.41|= | 5.43| 14.12| 7.43| 35.82| 21.99|= | 50.99| 22.30| 36.34| 45.53| 36.55}}

Race, Language, and Age

The state's five largest ancestries are reported as African, American, English, German, and Irish . As of 2000, 90.1% of Georgia residents age 5 and older speak only English at home and 5.6% speak Spanish. French is the third most spoken language at 0.9%, followed by German at 0.8% and Vietnamese at 0.6%. As of 2004, 7.7% of its population was reported as under 5 years of age, 26.4% under 18, and 9.6% were 65 or older.[2] Also as of 2004, females made up approximately 50.6% of the population and African-Americans made up approximately 29.6%.[2]

Historically, about half of Georgia's population was composed of African-Americans who, prior to the Civil War, were almost exclusively enslaved. The Great Migration of hundreds of thousands of blacks from the rural South to the industrial North from 1914-1970 reduced the population. It has since increased again, with some African Americans returning to the state for new job opportunities. Today, African-Americans remain the most populous race in many rural counties in middle, east-central, southwestern, and Low Country Georgia, as well as in the city of Atlanta and its core southern suburbs.

Recent immigration from Asian nations have added to the population flair. Laotian Americans and Thai Americans are leading the increase of Asians, with Chinese, Vietnamese and Indians following close behind. As of 2004, approximately 2.6% of were Asian American.[2]

White Georgians, like other Southerners, usually describe their ancestry on the census questionnaire as "American", "United States", or simply "Southern". The colonial settlement of large numbers of Scots-Irish Americans in the mountains and piedmont, and coastal settlement by English Americans and African Americans, have strongly influenced the state's culture. The concentration of Africans imported to coastal areas in the 18th century repeatedly from rice growing regions of West Africa led to the development of Gullah-Geechee language and culture in the Low Country among African Americans. They share a unique heritage in which African traditions of food, religion and culture were continued more than in some other areas. Their foodways had a strong influence on all Southern cooking in the Low Country. [18]

With the huge influx of new residents from the North, the term "Georgia cracker" is sometimes used informally as a proud or jocular self-description by some white residents of Georgia to indicate that their family has lived there for many generations. However, the term "white cracker" is not always used self-referentially and remains a disparaging term to many in the region.[19]

Religion

Georgia Population Density Map

Like most other Southern states, Georgia is largely Protestant Christian. The religious affiliations of the people of Georgia are as follows:

Georgia shares its Protestant heritage with much of the Southeastern United States. However, the number of Roman Catholics is growing in the state because of the influx of Northeasterners resettling in the Atlanta metro area and also because of large Hispanic immigration into the state.

Georgia's Jewish community dates to the settlement of 42 mostly Sephardic Portuguese Jews in Savannah in 1733. Atlanta also has a large, old, and established Jewish community.

Economy

Savannah's River Street is a popular destination among tourists visiting coastal Georgia.
Map showing land use in Georgia

Georgia's 2005 total gross state product was $364 billion.[20] Its per capita personal income for 2005 put it 10th in the nation at $40,155. If Georgia were a stand-alone country, it would be the 18th largest economy in the world.

Agriculture and industry

Georgia's agricultural outputs are poultry and eggs, pecans, peaches, peanuts, rye, cattle, hogs, dairy products, turfgrass, and vegetables. Its industrial outputs are textiles and apparel, transportation equipment, food processing, paper products, chemical products, electric equipment. Tourism also makes an important contribution to the economy. Georgia is home to the Granite Capital of the World (Elberton). Atlanta has been the site of enormous growth in real estate, service, and communications industries.

Atlanta has a very large effect on the state of Georgia and the Southeastern United States. The city is an ever growing addition to communications, industry, transportation, tourism, and government.

Industry in Georgia is now quite diverse. Major products in the mineral and timber industry include a variety of pines, clays, stones, and sands. Textile industry is located around the cities of Rome, Columbus, Augusta, and Macon. Atlanta is a leading center of tourism, transportation, communications, government, and industry. Some industries there include automobile and aircraft manufacturing, food and chemical processing, printing, publishing, and large corporations. Some of the corporations headquartered in Atlanta are: Arby's, Chick-fil-A, The Coca-Cola Company, Georgia Pacific, ING Americas, Cox, and Delta Air Lines. Major corporations in other parts of the state include: Aflac, Home Depot, Newell Rubbermaid, Primerica Financial Services, United Parcel Service and Zaxby's.

Several United States military installations are located in Georgia including Fort Stewart, Hunter Army Airfield, Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Fort Benning, Moody Air Force Base, Robins Air Force Base, Naval Air Station Atlanta, Fort McPherson, Fort Gillem, Fort Gordon, Marine Corps Logistics Base Albany and Dobbins Air Reserve Base. However, due to the latest round of BRAC cuts, Forts Gillem and McPherson will be closing and NAS Atlanta will be transferred to the Georgia National Guard.

State taxes

Georgia's personal income tax ranges from 1% to 6% within six tax brackets. There is a 7% state sales tax, which is not applied to prescription drugs, certain medical devices, and groceries. Each county may add up to a 2% SPLOST. Counties participating in MARTA have another 1%; MARTA is the only major metropolitan rapid transit authority in the U.S. not to receive state funding. The city of Atlanta (in two counties, roughly 90% in Fulton and 10% in Dekalb) has the only city sales tax (1%, total 8%) for fixing its aging sewers. Local taxes are almost always charged on groceries but never prescriptions. Up to 1% of a SPLOST can go to homestead exemptions (the HOST). All taxes are collected by the Georgia Department of Revenue and then properly distributed according to any agreements that each county has with its cities.

Health care and education

Health care

See also: List of hospitals in Georgia (U.S. state)

Georgians can find medical and dental care "via 151 general hospitals, more than 15,000 doctors and nearly 6,000 dentists."[21] The state is ranked forty-first in the percentage of residents who engage in regular exercise.[22]

Education

The Emory University Candler Library
Anderson Hall at Savannah College of Art and Design

The HOPE scholarship, funded by the Georgia Lottery, is available to all Georgia residents who have graduated from high school with a 3.0 or higher grade point average and who attend a public college or university in the state. The scholarship covers the cost of tuition and provides a stipend for books for up to 120 credit hours. If the student does not maintain a 3.0 average while in college they may lose the scholarship in which case they will have the chance to get it back by bringing their grade point average above a 3.0 with in a period of 30 credit hours. This scholarship has had a significant impact on the state university system, increasing competition for admission and increasing the quality of education.

See also: List of colleges and universities in Georgia (U.S. state), List of high schools in Georgia, and List of school districts in Georgia

Colleges and universities




Private schools

† denotes schools affiliated with religious organizations (incomplete)


University System of Georgia

Transportation

Atlanta is still a major railroad hub for CSX and Norfolk Southern, in addition to being a major airport hub now as well; Atlanta's Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport is the principal hub for AirTran Airways and Delta Air Lines. Several highways and short line railroads also traverse the state.

    References

    1. ^ a b Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S Geological Survey (29 April 2005). Retrieved on November 3, 2006.
    2. ^ a b c d US Census Bureau Quick Facts, accessed [[2006-11-30|]]
    3. ^ States Ranked for Total Area, Land Area, and Water Area - NETSTATE.com, accessed December 26, 2006
    4. ^ For an overview of Georgia's geology, see "Geologic Regions of Georgia: Overview" in The New Georgia Encyclopedia. Retrieved September 9, 2007.
    5. ^ Georgia - Flora and fauna - city-data.com, accessed February 3, 2007
    6. ^ Monthly Averages for Macon, GA The Weather Channel.
    7. ^ Monthly Averages for Clayton, GA The Weather Channel.
    8. ^ Each state's high temperature record USA Today, last updated August 2006.
    9. ^ Each state's low temperature record USA Today, last updated August 2006
    10. ^ Georgia Department of Natural Resources gadnr.org, accessed May 13, 2007
    11. ^ National Park Service nps.gov, accessed May 13, 2007
    12. ^ Trustee Georgia, 1732-1752
    13. ^ http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/hyperhistorian.cfm
    14. ^ [1] Accessed May 15, 2007
    15. ^ [2] Accessed May 15, 2007
    16. ^ 100 fastest growing counties, accessed November 30, 2006
    17. ^ Population Centers by State
    18. ^ Early Mountain Life, Who are Americans
    19. ^ Project 21 press release
    20. ^ Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, 2005
    21. ^ Georgia.org, Accessed May 16, 2007
    22. ^ Statemaster.com, Accessed May 16, 2007
    23. ^ Georgia Public Broadcasting Accessed, May 19, 2007
    24. ^ Georgia Public Radio Accessed, May 19, 2007
    25. ^ Georgia Public Radio Accessed, May 19, 2007
    26. ^ Mondotimes.com, Accessed, May 19, 2007
    27. ^ State symbols and emblems

    Walker, V. (2005). Organized resistnace and black educators' quest for school equality, 1878-1938. Teachers College Record, 107, 355-388.

    Further reading

    • New Georgia Encyclopedia (2005).
    • Bartley, Numan V. The Creation of Modern Georgia (1990). Covers 1865-1990 period. ISBN 0-8203-1183-9.
    • Coleman, Kenneth. ed. A History of Georgia (1991). ISBN 0-8203-1269-X.
    • London, Bonnie Bullard. (2005) Georgia and the American Experience Atlanta, Georgia: Clairmont Press ISBN 1-56733-100-9. A middle school textbook.
    • Peirce, Neal R. The Deep South States of America: People, Politics, and Power in the Seven Deep South States (1974). Information on politics and economics 1960-72. ISBN 0-393-05496-9.

    External links

    All wikimedia projects
    Articles on this topic in other Wikimedia projects can be found at: Georgia (U.S. state)


    Preceded by
    New Jersey
    List of U.S. states by date of statehood
    Ratified Constitution on January 2, 1788 (4th)
    Succeeded by
    Connecticut

    CoordinatesImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: 33° N 83.5° W


    This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Georgia (U.S. state). The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
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    Simple English

    State of Georgia
    File:Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg [[File:|100px|State seal of Georgia]]
    Flag of Georgia Seal of Georgia
    Also called: Peach State, Empire State of the South
    Saying(s): Wisdom, Justice, and Moderation
    [[File:|center|Map of the United States with Georgia highlighted]]
    Official language(s) English
    Capital Atlanta
    Largest city Atlanta
    Area  Ranked 24th
     - Total 59,411 sq mi
    (154,077 km²)
     - Width 230 miles (370 km)
     - Length 298 miles (480 km)
     - % water 2.6
     - Latitude 30°31'N to 35°N
     - Longitude 81°W to 85°53'W
    Number of people  Ranked 9th
     - Total (2010) 9,687,653[1]
     - Density 168.4/sq mi 
    62.8/km² (20th)
     - Average income  $43,217 (28th)
    Height above sea level  
     - Highest point Brasstown Bald[2]
    4,784 ft  (1,458 m)
     - Average 591 ft  (180 m)
     - Lowest point Atlantic Ocean[2]
    0 ft  (0 m)
    Became part of the U.S.  January 2, 1788 (4th)
    Governor Sonny Perdue (R)
    U.S. Senators Saxby Chambliss (R)
    Johnny Isakson (R)
    Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4
    Abbreviations GA US-GA
    Web site www.georgia.gov
    This article is about the American state called Georgia. See Georgia (country) for the article about the country.

    Georgia is a state in the southeastern part of the United States. It is bordered by Florida to the south, Alabama to the west, Tennessee and North Carolina to the north, and South Carolina to the east. All of Georgia's coastline is on the Atlantic Ocean. The ocean borders Georgia to the southeast.

    Georgia became a state in 1788. Georgia was one of the original 13 colonies of Britain that rebelled in 1776. (See American Revolution)

    The 5 Regions of Georgia

    There are 5 regional habitats of Georgia. They are the Georgia mountains, Okeefenokee marsh/swamp area, the Georgia coastal region, the Georgia Piedmont, and Atlantic Coastal region .

    Cities in Georgia

    The capital and largest city in Georgia is Atlanta. The 1996 Olympic Games took place there, and the book and movie Gone With the Wind was set in and around Atlanta in the 1860s. Other big cities in the state include Augusta, Columbus, Savannah, and Macon. Georgia has a total of 159 counties.

    References

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